Trung Qu???c t???ng d??ng th??? m??? gi??p x??m l??ng Vi???t Nam

Chủ nhật - 01/09/2019 19:27
Vi???c Trung Qu???c s??? d???ng c??ng nh??n t???i c??c h???m m??? nh?? l?? ?????o qu??n mai ph???c s???n t???i n?????c ta, kh??ng ch??? l?? s??? ti??n li???u c???a c??c nh?? qu??n s??? c???n th???n lo xa. Th???c s??? ??i???u n??y ???? x???y ra d?????i th???i nh?? Thanh, b???ng c??? c?? th??? d???n ra t??? ch??nh s??? Trung Qu???c Thanh Th???c L???c.[1]
Trung Qu???c t???ng d??ng th??? m??? gi??p x??m l??ng Vi???t Nam

Trung Qu???c t???ng d??ng th??? m??? gi??p x??m l??ng Vi???t Nam

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T??c gi???: H??? B???ch Th???o 

Vi???c Trung Qu???c s??? d???ng c??ng nh??n t???i c??c h???m m??? nh?? l?? ?????o qu??n mai ph???c s???n t???i n?????c ta, kh??ng ch??? l?? s??? ti??n li???u c???a c??c nh?? qu??n s??? c???n th???n lo xa. Th???c s??? ??i???u n??y ???? x???y ra d?????i th???i nh?? Thanh, b???ng c??? c?? th??? d???n ra t??? ch??nh s??? Trung Qu???c Thanh Th???c L???c.[1]

M??a thu n??m 1788, khi T???ng ?????c L?????ng Qu???ng T??n S?? Ngh??? nh???n l???nh t??? vua C??n Long, truy???n h???ch chu???n b??? x??m l??ng n?????c ta; th?? Phan Kh???i ?????c, vi??n tr???n th??? L???ng S??n c???a nh?? T??y S??n ?????u h??ng gi???c; ????m c??ng nh??n ng?????i Hoa l??m vi???c t???i c??c x?????ng m??? thu???c v??ng th?????ng du B???c Vi???t m?? s??? Trung Qu???c g???i l?? ??? x?????ng d??n ??? ??? ??? c??ng n???i l??n, s???n s??ng l??m ?????o qu??n ti??n phong:

Ng??y 28 Th??ng 8 N??m C??n Long Th??? 53 [26/9/1788]

L???i du : L?? Duy K??? [L?? Chi??u Th???ng] ?????n S??n Nam chi??u t???p ngh??a binh nh??ng b??? gi???c b???c b??ch , ch??? c??n m???t v??i ng?????i t??y t??ng, c??ng ch???y v??o n??i tr???n tr??nh. Xem ra y l?? ng?????i kh??ng c?? kh??? n??ng, kh?? tr??ng c???y c?? th??? ch???n t??c kh??i ph???c ???????c. Hi???n t???i Nguy???n Nh???c, Nguy???n Hu??? th???y T??n S?? Ngh??? ph??t h???ch v??n, n??n s??? s???t tr???n tr??nh. Phan Kh???i ?????c[2] v???n l?? t??m ph??c c???a Nguy???n Hu???, nh???n ???????c h???ch v??n c??ng bi???t b??? ngh???ch theo thu???n. T??n n???y ???? ???????c l???nh c???a T??n S?? Ngh??? cho thu th???p binh m?? c???a 7 ch??u, c??ng x?????ng d??n  l???p t???c ti???n ph??t, ch???c s??? ?????n th??nh nh?? L?? kh??ng ?????n n???i kh?? kh??n. Vi??n T??? t??n [ L?? Chi??u Th???ng] hi???n ??? t???i ?????a ph????ng ph??a ????ng, T??n S?? Ngh??? ???? m??? d??n b???n x??? ??i tr?????c ????? th??m th??nh, khi c??c Tr???n M???c ph??a ????ng nh???n ???????c m???t tr??t c???a T??n S?? Ngh??? s??? h??? t???ng T???  t??n tr??? v??? ???(Cao T??ng Th???c L???c quy???n 1311 , trang 689- 690).[3]

Theo L???ch Tri???u Hi???n Ch????ng c???a Phan Huy Ch??, m???c Qu???c D???ng Ch??,[4] th?? c??c x?????ng khai m??? t???i n?????c ta ph???n nhi???u thu???c 4 t???nh bi??n gi???i ph??a b???c: Tuy??n Quang [Tuy??n Quang, H?? Giang, Lao Cai], H??ng H??a [Lai Ch??u, ??i???n Bi??n, S??n La], Th??i Nguy??n, L???ng S??n:

  • Tuy??n Quang: X?????ng ?????ng T??? Long, x?????ng b???c Nam X????ng l?? Long Sinh.
  • H??ng H??a: X?????ng ?????ng Tr??nh L???n v?? Ng???c Uy???n.
  • Th??i Nguy??n: X?????ng ?????ng S??ng M???c, Y??n H??n, Li??m Tuy???n, T???ng Tinh v?? V???
  • N??ng, x?????ng v??ng Kim M?? v?? Tam L???ng, x?????ng ch?? C??n Minh.
  • L???ng S??n: X?????ng ?????ng Ho??i Vi???n.

X?????ng d??n ???? nhi???u l???n g??y s??? l??i th??i t???i c??c t???nh g???n bi??n gi???i, n??n v??o th???i L?? D??? T??ng n??m th??? 13[1717] tri???u ????nh qui ?????nh h???n ch??? m???i x?????ng m??? kh??ng qu?? 300 ng?????i:

Th??ng 12. ?????nh th??? l??? h???n ch??? s??? ng?????i l??m ??? tr?????ng khai m??? t???i c??c tr???n. L??c ???y, c??c m??? v??ng, b???c, ?????ng, thi???c ??? c??c tr???n ph???n nhi???u m??? ng?????i nh?? Thanh khai qu???t ????? l???y, phu m??? qu???n t??? m???i ng??y m???t nhi???u. Tri???u ????nh e r???ng s??? sinh s??? bi???n ?????ng, b??n ?????nh th??? l???: s??? phu m???i m???, nhi???u nh???t 300 ng?????i, th??? ?????n 200 ng?????i v?? ??t l?? 100 ng?????i, kh??ng m??? n??o ???????c d??ng qu?? s??? ???? ?????nh. T??? ?????y, s??? phu l??m ??? tr?????ng x?????ng khai m??? m???i c?? h???n ch???.[5]

Tuy nhi??n d?????i th???i L?? m???t, n???i b??? n?????c ta c?? s??? tranh ch???p gay go gi???a vua L??, ch??a Tr???nh, r???i ?????n nh?? T??y S??n; n??n kh??ng r???nh ????? ki???m so??t s??? l?????ng x?????ng d??n t???i c??c h???m m???, b???i v???y con s??? t??ng l??n nhi???u. Thanh Th???c L???c kh??ng cho bi???t ????ch x??c s??? l?????ng x?????ng d??n ???????c nh?? Thanh huy ?????ng ?????n x??m l??ng n?????c ta l?? bao nhi??u; tuy nhi??n trong v??n b???n d?????i ????y cho bi???t Tu???n v?? Qu???ng T??y T??n V??nh Thanh ?????nh c???p cho x?????ng d??n 3, 4 v???n th???ch g???o. H??y l??m ph??p t??nh v???i con s??? nh??? 3 v???n th???ch, 1 th???ch b???ng 100 l??t, 1 l??t g???o b???ng 0.8 kg; nh?? v???y t???ng s??? s??? b???ng 2.400.000 kg hay 2.400 t???n. ????y l?? m???t s??? l?????ng l???n, c???n ?????n d??m v???n ng?????i m???i khi??ng n???i:

Ng??y 13 Th??ng 10 N??m C??n Long Th??? 53 [10/11/1788]

Theo l???i t??u: T??n V??nh Thanh ???? ban h???ch t???i T???m Ch??u, Ng?? Ch??u, Li???u Ch??u v??ng ph??? c???n ph??? Th??i B??nh; c??ng v???n chuy???n  3 v???n th???ch g???o ?????n c??c v??ng Ninh Minh, Th??i B??nh , Long Ch??u  ????? t???n tr???, ch??? ng??y ban c???p. L???i g???p T???ng ?????c T??n s?? Ngh???  b??n b???c th??m,  ?????nh th?????ng  ba, b???n v???n th???ch g???o cho x?????ng d??n trong tr???i, s??? n???y s??? ti???p t???c chuy???n ?????n??????. (Cao T??ng Th???c L???c , quy???n 1314 , trang 759)

Tuy nhi??n l???c l?????ng x?????ng d??n v???n t??? nhi???u x?????ng m??? h???p l???i, n??n kh??ng tr??nh kh???i t??nh tr???ng ?? h???p. T??n S?? Ngh??? hi???u ??i???u n??y, n??n ch???n m???t ng?????i c?? uy t??n trong ????m n??y t??n l?? L??m T??? Thanh, cho l??m Th???ng l??nh; c???p cho y m?? ?????nh ????i[6] v?? ban ph???m h??m Tri huy???n, n??n y t??? ra ?????c l???c. L???c l?????ng x?????ng d??n do L??m T??? Thanh ch??? huy, c??ng qu??n ?????u h??ng c???a Phan Kh???i ?????c ???????c ??i???u ??i tr?????c, h?????ng ?????n th??nh Th??ng Long:

Ng??y 12 th??ng 9 n??m C??n Long th??? 53 [10/10/1788]

L???i d???: B???n x?????ng d??n nh???n ???????c h???ch d??? c???a T??n S?? Ngh???, l???i nghe tin ???????c ban c???p l????ng th???c n??n h??n hoan t??nh nguy???n ??i tr?????c ????nh gi???c. Vi??n T???ng ?????c lo r???ng x?????ng d??n r???i r???c, kh??ng c?? ng?????i th???ng l??nh, c??n b???n Nguy???n Huy T??c th?? s??? s???t l?????ng l??? kh??ng d??m ra kh???i quan ???i; ch??ng ?????u thu???c lo???i thi???u kh??? n??ng, n???u ra l???nh ??i tr?????c c??ng kh??ng ???????c ??ch g??. H???i han ????m t??y t??ng th?? d?????i tr?????ng c?? t??n L??m T??? Thanh, ??? trong t??? ch???c x?????ng d??n c??? n??m, m???i ng?????i ?????u ph???c, giao ch???c th???ng l??nh di???t gi???c c?? th??? t???n t??m ph???c v???. L??m T??? Thanh nghe tin ???????c b??? nhi???m t??? vi??n Th??ng ph??n Tr???n T??ng n??n h???t s???c c??? g???ng; l???i ???????c vi??n T???ng ?????c c???p ???n t??n, th?????ng h??m Tri huy???n, n???u t????ng lai c??ng vi???c th??nh c??ng s??? ???????c b??? d???ng th???c th???. L??m T??? Thanh ch??? tr?? m???i vi???c trong t??? ch???c x?????ng d??n ???? l??u, nay l???i ???????c th?????ng h??m Tri huy???n; m???i ng?????i trong t??? ch???c n??y th???y Thi??n tri???u chi???u c??? th??m cho y, l???i gia ??n c???p m?? ?????nh ????i; n??n ai c??ng ph???c t??ng, h?? ???ng c??ng linh nghi???m, th??m ?????c l???c trong vi???c di???t gi???c. ?????n nay x?????ng d??n theo L??m T??? Thanh h??ng h??i kh???i h??nh, c??n Phan Kh???i ?????c ?????c su???t qu??n l??nh c???a 7 ch??u c??ng ???????c T??n S?? Ngh??? ra l???nh ti???n ph??t???.. (Cao T??ng Th???c L???c quy???n 1312 trang 710)

?????c s???, ch??ng ta ?????u bi???t ?????i qu??n c???a T??n S?? Ngh??? ch??? ???????c ph??p l??m ???kh??ch ng??? tr?????? t???i th??nh Th??ng Long trong v??ng m???t th??ng tr???i, chi???n th???ng  m??a xu??n n??m K??? D???u [1789] c???a vua Quang Trung ???? tr???ng ph???t ch??ng; s??? ph???n c???a x?????ng d??n c??ng n???m chung v???i t???p th??? qu??n Thanh. Tuy nhi??n c?? m???t s??? x?????ng d??n s???ng s??t tr??? v???, c??n ti???c r??? th???i v??ng son l??m d??n khai m???, n??n xui d???c qu??n Thanh tr??? l???i ph???c th??. Ri??ng vua C??n Long, ng?????i n???m v???n m???nh n?????c l???n l??c b???y gi??? , c?? m???t c??i nh??n th???c t??? h??n v??? t??nh h??nh:

??????.X??? n??y th???y th??? ??c li???t kh??ng th??? ??? l??u, d??n t??nh l???i tr?? tr?? ph???n ph??c v?? th?????ng; ?????i tr?????c ???? chia ?????t n??y th??nh qu???n huy???n, r???i kh??ng bao l??u l???i x???y ra bi???n c???, l???y b??nh xe tr?????c ????? ????? l??m r??n, th???c kh?? gi??? ???????c v??i ch???c n??m m?? kh??ng g??y ra vi???c???.???[7]

N??n nh?? vua ???? quy???t li???t b??c b???  ?? ki???n c???a x?????ng d??n. Nh???m h??? uy th??? c???a b???n n??y, ????? kh??ng c??n c???n tr??? ?? ?????nh c???a nh?? vua s??? h??a ho??n v???i vua Quang Trung trong t????ng lai, vua C??n Long m???nh m??? h??i t???i x?????ng d??n r???ng b???n ch??ng v???n l?? nh???ng ng?????i c?? t???i b??? n?????c ra ??i v?? ???? kh??ng l???p ???????c th??nh t??ch n???i b???t trong th???i gian ????nh ph?? n?????c ta:

Ng??y 1 Th??ng 3 N??m C??n Long Th??? 54 [27/3/1789]

D??? c??c Qu??n C?? ?????i th???n: Tr?????c ????y ?????i binh xu???t quan , vi??n Th??? t?? ??i???n Ch??u S???m Nghi ?????ng mang l??nh Th??? ti???n ti???u, r???t g???ng s???c. ?????n l??c b??? gi???c bao v??y, c??n sai ng?????i mang ???n t??n tr??? v???, r???i x??ng pha ????nh gi???c b??? tr???n vong, th???c ????ng th????ng x??t. Vi??n n??y c?? con trai kh??ng, Ph??c Khang An ??i???u tra r?? r???i t??u l??n ????? ???????c ??u ??i th?????ng tu???t. Vi??n n??y mang binh ??i theo T??n S?? Ngh??? v??o th???i ??i???m n??o? Qu??n l??nh c???a y tr??? v??? quan ???i c?? ?????y ????? kh??ng? Ph??c Khang An ph???i ??i???u tra r?? r???i t??u l??n.

Vi??n Di quan Phan Kh???i ?????c kh??ng ch???u theo qu??n gi???c, t???ng l??m h?????ng ?????o cho ?????i binh, nay l???i mang c??? gia quy???n v??o quan ???i. B???n Nguy???n ????nh Ph??i 5 ng?????i, tuy c??ng s???c kh??ng th??? so s??nh v???i Phan Kh???i ?????c ???????c, nh??ng h??? c??ng kh??ng ch???u theo gi???c, t??nh nguy???n l??m d??n n???i ?????a, t??nh c??ng ????ng th????ng. Phan Kh???i ?????c ????ng ???????c th?????ng m?? ?????nh ????i v?? l???c d???ng. B???n Nguy???n ????nh Ph??i c???n ???????c c???p l????ng ??n , an s??p m???t c??ch ???n th???a, ????? kh???i b??? m???t n??i n????ng t???a. Nh???ng quan binh ch??a tr??? v???, n???u th???c s??? tr???n vong, Ph??c Khang An ph???i ??i???u tra minh b???ch, r???i g???i h??? s?? l??n b??? ????? ???????c c???p ti???n t??? tu???t.

C??n nh?? b???n x?????ng d??n tr?????c kia tr???n ra kh???i n?????c kh??ng xin ph??p, v???n l?? ng?????i c?? t???i, nh??ng v?? t??nh nguy???n ??i ????nh gi???c n??n ???????c tha. Khi ?????i binh ??i ????nh, b???n x?????ng d??n ch??? ??i theo ????m ????ng, ch??a th???y ??o???t ???????c th??nh t??ch n??o n???i b???t. Nay c??ng vi???c t???i An Nam c?? n??n ????nh hay kh??ng do ta quy???t ?????nh, ch???ng v?? b???n x?????ng d??n t??nh nguy???n ????nh gi???c, r???i c??c ng????i c?? h??nh ?????ng thi???u suy ngh??. Tuy nhi??n b???n x?????ng d??n ???? t???ng theo quan binh ????nh tr???n, nay l???i kh??ng ch???u theo Nguy???n Hu???, kh??ng n??? ????? ch??ng b??? s??t h???i, v???y n??n li???u bi???n c??ch n??o cho ???n th???a.

C??c quan binh v???a m???i tr??? v??? quan ???i, b??? b???c b??ch b???i th??? gi???c qu?? ????ng, n??n ph???i l??m v??o ho??n c???nh b???t ?????c d??, trong ???? c?? nh???ng ng?????i ????nh tr???n b??? th????ng, n??n ?????c l?????ng ????? ban th?????ng. H??m qua nh??n b??n v??? nh???ng quan binh t??? th??nh nh?? L?? ch??a ???????c t???ng xu???t, s??? n??y theo H???a Th??? Hanh th??m nh???p, b??? gi???c l??u gi???; ???? gi??ng ch??? r???ng khi b???n n??y ???????c t???ng xu???t, cho tr??? v??? qu??n ng??, ???????c th?????ng c???p m???t th??ng l????ng. T??n S?? Ngh??? t??u, t???t c??? c??c quan binh tr??? v??? c?? ho???c kh??ng ???????c gia th?????ng? Ra l???nh Ph??c Khang An x??t t??nh h??nh ????? ph??n bi???t ?????i x???.

C??n T??n S?? Ngh??? sau khi kh???c ph???c th??nh nh?? L??, kh??ng tu??n theo chi???u ch??? cho c???p t???c tri???t binh, l???i s?? su???t trong vi???c ????? ph??ng, n??n bi???n c??? b???t ng??? x???y ra, s??? sai l???m n??y kh??ng b??o ch???a ???????c; ch??? n??n gia t??ng c??? g???ng, ph??? gi??p Ph??c Khang An li???u bi???n ???n th???a, ????? chu???c l???i l???m trong qu?? kh???. (Cao T??ng Th???c L???c quy???n 1324, trang 919-920).[8]

?????????????????????

[1] H??? B???ch Th???o, b???n d???ch Thanh Th???c L???c. H?? N???i: NXB H?? N???i, 2007.

[2] Phan Kh???i ?????c ng?????i x?? An ???p , huy???n H????ng S??n, nay thu???c t???nh H?? T??nh ; l?? Tr???n th??? ?????t L???ng S??n c???a nh?? T??y S??n , ???? ?????u h??ng nh?? Thanh.

[3] Thanh Th???c L???c, s??d, trang 18.

[4] D???n theo Kh??m ?????nh ?????nh Vi???t S??? Th??ng Gi??m C????ng M???c. H?? N???i: Nh?? xu???t b???n Gi??o d???c,1998, t???p 2, trang 410.

[5] Kh??m ?????nh Vi???t S??? Th??ng Gi??m C????ng m???c, s??d, trang 410.

[6] M?? ?????nh ????i: lo???i m?? thu???c ?????i nh?? Thanh, c?? tua tr??n ch??p, d??ng ????? ban cho ng?????i c?? c??ng.

[7] Thanh Th???c L???c, s??d, trang 108-109

[8] Thanh Th???c L???c, s??d, trang 93-95

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