Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 30/08/2019

Thứ sáu - 30/08/2019 00:18
Iv??n M??rquez, m???t c???u ch??? huy c???a FARC, l???c l?????ng du k??ch ???? tr??? th??nh m???t ?????ng ch??nh tr??? ??? Colombia, k??u g???i nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? ??ng b???t ?????u m???t giai ??o???n m???i c???a ???cu???c ?????u tranh v?? trang???. L???i k??u g???i c???m v?? kh?? tr??? l???i di???n ra ch??a ?????y ba n??m sau khi l???c l?????
Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 30/08/2019

Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 30/08/2019

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Ngu???n: The Economist | Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy

 Iv??n M??rquez, m???t c???u ch??? huy c???a FARC, l???c l?????ng du k??ch ???? tr??? th??nh m???t ?????ng ch??nh tr??? ??? Colombia, k??u g???i nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? ??ng b???t ?????u m???t giai ??o???n m???i c???a ???cu???c ?????u tranh v?? trang???. L???i k??u g???i c???m v?? kh?? tr??? l???i di???n ra ch??a ?????y ba n??m sau khi l???c l?????ng phi???n qu??n n??y k?? th???a thu???n h??a b??nh v???i ch??nh ph??? Colombia.

Ch??nh ph??? H??n Qu???c ???? ti???t l??? m???t g??i k??ch c???u kh???ng l??? trong ng??n s??ch c???a h???. Chi ti??u s??? t??ng 8% so v???i n??m ngo??i l??n 513,5 ngh??n t??? won (424 t??? ???? la). N???n kinh t??? ?????nh h?????ng xu???t kh???u c???a n?????c n??y ??ang b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i th????ng m???i to??n c???u suy gi???m v?? c??c tranh ch???p g??y nhi???u thi???t h???i v???i Nh???t B???n. Ti???n s??? ???????c chi cho t???o c??ng ??n vi???c l??m m???i, ph??c l???i x?? h???i v?? c??c doanh nghi???p nh???, c??ng c??c l??nh v???c kh??c.

?????ng B???o Th??? c???a ??ng Boris Johnson, th??? t?????ng Anh, ???? ph???i ?????i m???t v???i h??ng lo???t v??? t??? ch???c sau khi Th??? t?????ng ????? ngh??? N??? ho??ng k??o d??i th???i gian ????nh ch??? qu???c h???i nh???m d???n ???????ng cho Brexit kh??ng th???a thu???n. Ruth Davidson, l??nh ?????o ?????ng B???o th??? ??? Scotland, ng?????i ???? l??m h???i sinh ???v???n may??? c???a ?????ng n??y ??? Scotland, ???? t??? ch???c, c??ng nh?? George Young, l??nh ?????o ?????ng B???o th??? ??? Th?????ng vi???n.

Ch??nh quy???n Trump cho bi???t h??? ??ang l??n k??? ho???ch h???y b??? c??c gi???i h???n ?????i v???i c??c c??ng ty d???u kh?? v??? vi???c ph??t th???i methane, m???t trong nh???ng ch???t g??y ?? nhi???m ch??nh li??n quan ?????n bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u. Vi???c gi???m b???t c??c quy ?????nh ?????t ra d?????i th???i Obama s??? gi??p c??c c??ng ty n??ng l?????ng ti???t ki???m t???i 123 tri???u ???? la v??o n??m 2025, C?? quan B???o v??? M??i tr?????ng ?????c t??nh. C??c nh??m ho???t ?????ng v?? m??i tr?????ng cho bi???t h??? s??? ch???ng l???i ?????ng th??i n??y t???i t??a ??n.

M???t ng???n n??i l???a ??? Stromboli, h??n ?????o c???a Italy n???m ngo??i kh??i Sicily, ???? phun tr??o l???n th??? hai trong v??ng ch??a ?????y hai th??ng. N?? ???? phun tr??o tr?????c ???? v??o th??ng 7 v???i m???t v??? n??? m???nh, gi???t ch???t m???t ng?????i v?? bao tr??m h??n ?????o trong tro n??i l???a. R???t may l???n n??y kh??ng c?? th????ng vong.

Brazil c??ng b??? c??c d??? li???u t???t h??n d??? ??o??n cho th???y n?????c n??y ???? th??nh c??ng trong vi???c tr??nh r??i v??o suy tho??i trong Qu?? II. N???n kinh t??? l???n nh???t Nam M??? t??ng tr?????ng 0,4% trong Qu?? II, sau khi ???? gi???m 0,2% trong qu?? ?????u ti??n. Tin n??y s??? l?? m???t c???u c??nh cho T???ng th???ng Jair Bolsonaro, ng?????i v???a ???????c b???u v??o n??m ngo??i v???i l???i h???a s??? l??m h???i sinh n???n kinh t???.

C??c chu???i si??u th??? b??n l??? gi?? c???c r??? ??? M??? b??o c??o k???t qu??? kinh doanh ???n t?????ng. Doanh s??? h???p nh???t t??ng 2,4% t???i Dollar Tree trong ba th??ng t??? th??ng 6 ?????n th??ng 8 v?? t??ng 4% t???i Dollar General. Thu??? quan cao h??n ?????i v???i h??ng nh???p kh???u t??? ch??u ?? v?? s??? gia t??ng mua s???m tr???c tuy???n ???? t??c ?????ng m???nh ?????n c??c nh?? b??n l??? M???. Song c??c chu???i b??n h??ng si??u r??? xem ra v???n ??ang l??m r???t t???t.

TI??U ??I???M

Quy???n c??ng d??n c???a ng?????i thi???u s??? H???i gi??o ??? bang Assam c???a ???n ?????

Nh???ng ng?????i s???ng d???c theo ???x????ng s???ng??? c???a v??ng ????ng b???c ???n ????? (?????ng b???ng song H???ng) ???? ph???i g???ng m??nh trong nhi???u th???p ni??n qua tr?????c th???c tr???ng ng?????i nh???p c?? ????? v??o c??c ?????ng b???ng t????i t???t c???a h???. Ch??nh ph??? d??n t???c ch??? ngh??a Hindu c???a Narendra Modi ???? gi??nh ???????c s??? ???ng h??? c???a bang n??y sau khi ch??nh ph??? h???a s??? tr???c xu???t 20 tri???u ng?????i nh???p c?? m?? h??? tuy??n b??? ???? v??o ???n ????? t??? n?????c Bangladesh theo H???i gi??o, k??? t??? khi n?????c n??y gi??nh ???????c ?????c l???p t??? Pakistan v??o n??m 1971.

Nh??ng d?????ng nh?? c??? nh???ng ng?????i di???u h??u ??? Assam v?? theo Hindu gi??o ?????u kh??ng s???n s??ng tr?????c th???i h???n do T??a ??n t???i cao quy ?????nh. Ng??y mai, m???t b???n Danh s??ch ????ng k?? C??ng d??n Qu???c gia v???n b??? tr?? ho??n b???y l??u nay ph???i ???????c c??ng b???; ch??? nh???ng ng?????i ???????c n??u t??n m???i ???????c t??nh l?? ng?????i ???n ????? h???p ph??p. Kho???ng 30 tri???u ng?????i s??? ???????c th??? ph??o nh??? nh??m, trong khi ??t nh???t 4 tri???u ng?????i b??? lo???i tr??? s??? ph???i ho???ng s???. Con ???????ng ph??a tr?????c c???a h??? r???t ??m u, nh??ng ch???c ch???n s??? c?? c??c v??? ki???n t???ng, c??c t??a ??n t???m th???i, c??c tr???i t???m giam v?? c?? th??? b??? tr???c xu???t (Bangladesh ch???c ch???n kh??ng mong ?????i ??i???u n??y). B??? N???i v??? c???a ??ng Modi ???? n??i r???ng ng?????i ???n gi??o v?? ng?????i thi???u s??? kh??ng theo ?????o H???i, b???ng c??ch n??o ????, s??? ???????c gi??p ?????.

C??c ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng v?? n???i lo gi???m ph??t

Nh??n chung l???m ph??t trong khu v???c ?????ng euro l?? y???u theo m???c ti??u m?? Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng Ch??u ??u ?????nh ra l?? n???m s??t d?????i m???c 2% trong m???t th???i gian nh???t ?????nh. D??? li???u gi?? ti??u d??ng c??ng b??? h??m nay kh??ng c?? kh??? n??ng thay ?????i t??nh h??nh. L???m ph??t c?? b???n, s??? li???u kh??ng bao g???m gi?? n??ng l?????ng v?? gi?? th???c ph???m v???n d??? thay ?????i, c??ng gi???m, m???c d?? th??? tr?????ng lao ?????ng th???t ch???t. V???n ????? n??y c??n lan sang b??n kia b??? ?????i T??y D????ng. S??? li???u l???m ph??t c?? b???n ??? M??? ch??a ?????t t???i m???c ti??u m?? C???c D??? tr??? Li??n bang ????? ra m???c d?? t??? l??? th???t nghi???p ??? m???c th???p nh???t trong g???n 50 n??m.

C?? l???, nh?? Ch??? t???ch Fed  khu v???c San Fracisco ???? n??i v??o ng??y 29 th??ng 8, th??? tr?????ng lao ?????ng th???m ch?? c??n c?? nhi???u d?? ?????a ????? th???t ch???t h??n. Tuy nhi??n, ??i???u ????ng lo ng???i l?? c??c nh?? ?????u t?? d?????ng nh?? nghi ng??? kh??? n??ng c???a c??c nh?? qu???n l?? ng??n h??ng trung ????ng trong vi???c ?????t ???????c m???c ti??u l???m ph??t. D??? b??o l???m ph??t trong th??? tr?????ng ho??n ?????i ???? gi???m trong n??m nay, ????ng ch?? ?? nh???t l?? trong khu v???c ?????ng euro. C??? ECB v?? Fed d??? ki???n s??? gi???m l??i su???t v??o th??ng Ch??n. Li???u ??i???u ???? c?? ????? ????? xua tan n???i s??? gi???m ph??t hay kh??ng s??? c??n l?? ???n s???.

T??? l??? l???m ph??t ??? khu v???c ?????ng euro.

C??c c??ng ty c??? v???n t??i ch??nh ???o

Nhi???u ng?????i M??? mu???n ti???t ki???m ???? b???t ?????u qu???n l?? ti???n c???a h??? c??ng v???i c??c ???c??? v???n ???o???, n??i cung c???p t?? v???n v?? qu???n l?? ?????u t?? v???i chi ph?? th???p, do m??y t??nh th???c hi???n. ??i???u n??y ???? th??c ?????y c??c h??ng t?? v???n t??i ch??nh truy???n th???ng cung c???p c??c d???ch v??? nh?? v???y c???a ri??ng h??? nh???m b???t k???p v???i c??c c??ng ty kh???i nghi???p th??nh c??ng nh?? Betterment v?? Wealthfront. Tuy nhi??n, kh??ng ph???i t???t c??? c??c d???ch v??? m???i ?????u th??nh c??ng. Pacific Life, m???t c??ng ty b???o hi???m nh??n th??? c???a M???, h??m nay s??? ????ng c???a Swell Investing, c??ng ty con ?????u t?? v??o ???c??? v???n ???o??? c???a h???. Sau hai n??m ho???t ?????ng, h??? ch??? c??n qu???n l?? 33 tri???u ???? la.

C??c ???c??? v???n ???o??? ch??u ??u c??ng thua xa nh???ng ng?????i ??i ?????u ??? M???, t??nh t???t c??? ch??? qu???n l?? h??n 15 t??? ???? la v??o cu???i n??m 2018 (trong khi ch??? ri??ng Betterment tuy??n b??? ???? qu???n l?? h??n 16 t??? ???? la). M???t l?? do l?? v?? ng?????i ch??u ??u d?????ng nh?? c???nh gi??c h??n ng?????i M??? trong vi???c ???y th??c c??c kho???n ?????u t?? c???a h??? cho c??c thu???t to??n m??y t??nh. Nh??ng m???c d?? n???i ti???ng ??? M???, ngay c??? ??? ????, h??? c??ng ph???i v???t l???n ????? t???o ra nhi???u l???i nhu???n do m???c ph?? c???c th???p. Betterment ch??? l??i 40 tri???u ???? la v??o n??m ngo??i.

Ch??nh ph??? m???i c???a Italy

T???ng th???ng Italy Sergio Mattarella ???? ????? ngh??? v??? th??? t?????ng k??? tr??? Giuseppe Conte th??nh l???p m???t li??n minh th??? hai, ???t??c h???p??? Phong tr??o N??m sao c???p ti???n (M5S) v???i ?????ng D??n ch??? (PD) trung t???. ??ng Conte ???? d??nh 14 th??ng qua ????? l??nh ?????o m???t ch??nh ph??? d??n t??y to??n di???n, v???i li??n minh gi???a M5S v?? Li??n ??o??n Ph????ng B???c (NL) c???c h???u. L??nh ?????o NL, Matteo Salvini, ???? r???i li??n minh v??o ?????u th??ng n??y, ngh?? r???ng ??i???u n??y s??? l???t ????? ??ng Conte, song cu???i c??ng ??i???u ???? l???i l??m h???i ch??nh ??ng.

M5S c?? th??? t???o th??nh phe ??a s??? v???i s??? gi??p ????? c???a PD v?? m???t v??i nh?? l???p ph??p ?????c l???p. M???t ch??nh ph??? Conte th??? hai s??? l??m h??i l??ng c??c quan ch???c EU, nh???ng ng?????i e ng???i k??? ho???ch c???t gi???m thu??? m???nh m??? c???a ??ng Salvini trong b???i c???nh Italia ??ang c?? m???c n??? c??ng cao. Song hai ?????i t??c m???i n??y l???i r???t kh??c bi???t nhau. M???c d?? h???u h???t c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng M5S l?? thi??n t???, nh??ng h??? coi th?????ng PD nh?? m???t ph???n c???a gi???i tinh hoa t??? do. N???u hai b??n b???t h??a th?? ch??ng ta n??n tr??ng ?????i v??o c??c cu???c b???u c??? m???i.

B???u c??? ??? c??c ti???u bang mi???n ????ng n?????c ?????c

Ch??? nh???t tu???n n??y m???t cu???c b???u c??? s??? ???????c t??? ch???c t???i Sachsen v?? Brandenburg, hai bang mi???n ????ng c???a n?????c ?????c. K???t qu??? s??? r???t ???????c tr??ng ?????i tr??n c??? n?????c v?? hai l?? do. ?????u ti??n, ?????ng c???c h???u L???a ch???n kh??c cho n?????c ?????c (AfD) c?? th??? gi??nh chi???n th???ng ?????u ti??n trong m???t cu???c b???u c??? c???p bang ??? ?????c. B??? m???i gi???i ch??nh tr??? xa l??nh, AfD kh??ng c?? hy v???ng tham gia ch??nh ph??? ??? b???t c??? ????u. Nh??ng th??nh c??ng c???a h??? ??? hai bang n??y s??? bu???c c??c ?????ng kh??c ph???i tham gia v??o c??c li??n minh l???n, k??m linh ho???t, ?????ng th???i khuy???n kh??ch c??c th??nh vi??n c???a ?????ng D??n ch??? Thi??n ch??a gi??o (CDU) trung dung, nh???ng ng?????i mu???n gi??? c??nh c???a m??? cho AfD.

Th??? hai, k???t qu??? b???u c??? t???i t??? ?????i v???i CDU ho???c ?????ng D??n ch??? X?? h???i (SPD) c?? th??? ?????t ????????i li??n minh??? c???a c??c ?????ng n??y trong ch??nh ph??? li??n bang v??o v??ng nguy hi???m. ?????c bi???t, ?????ng SPD ??ang trong t??nh tr???ng kh?? kh??n, v?? c??ng bi quan trong c??c cu???c th??m d?? v?? b??? chia r??? b???i m???t cu???c ?????u tranh gi??nh quy???n l??nh ?????o ?????ng. V??o th??ng 12, h??? ph???i quy???t ?????nh xem c?? n??n ??? l???i li??n minh c???m quy???n hay kh??ng, v?? ??i???u n??y c?? th??? k??ch ho???t c??c cu???c b???u c??? s???m.

C??c n?????c B???c ??u: Si??u m?? h??nh s???p t???i

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Ngu???n: ???The Nordic countries: The next supermodel???, The Economist, 02/02/2013.

Bi??n d???ch: B??i Xu??n B??ch

C??c ch??nh kh??ch, d?? t??? hay h???u, ?????u c?? th??? h???c t??? c??c n?????c B???c ??u.

C??c n?????c t????ng ?????i nh??? th?????ng ??i ti??n phong khi c???n c???i c??ch ch??nh ph???. Trong nh???ng n??m 1980, n?????c Anh ???? d???n ?????u nh??? ??????????ng l???i Thatcher???[i] v?? t?? h???u h??a. N?????c Singapore b?? x??u c??ng ???? t??? l??u l?? m???t m?? h??nh cho nhi???u nh?? c???i c??ch. Gi??? ????y, c??c n?????c B???c ??u l???i c?? th??? c??ng ????ng m???t vai tr?? t????ng t???.

??i???u ???? m???t ph???n c??ng b???i b???n n?????c B???c ??u ch??nh ??? Th???y ??i???n, ??an M???ch, Na Uy v?? Ph???n Lan ??? ???? ?????t th??nh t???u kh?? t???t ?????p. N???u ???????c t??i sinh l???n n???a trong th??? gi???i n??y, m???t ng?????i trung b??nh v??? t??i n??ng v?? thu nh???p s??? ch???n l??m ng?????i Viking. C???m c??c n?????c B???c ??u th?????ng ?????ng ?????u c??c b???ng th???ng k?? v??? m???i m???t, t??? kh??? n??ng c???nh tranh kinh t???, s??? l??nh m???nh c???a x?? h???i, t???i c??c ch??? s??? v??? h???nh ph??c.

H??? ???? tr??nh ???????c c??? hai: b???nh x?? c???ng kinh t??? c???a c??c n?????c Nam ??u v?? s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng c??ng c???c c???a n?????c M???, ?????n n???i c??c nh?? l?? thuy???t v??? ph??t tri???n ???? ph???i g???i s??? hi???n ?????i h??a th??nh c??ng l?? ???noi g????ng ??an M???ch???. M???t khu v???c c?? th???i v???n ?????ng ngh??a v???i ????? g??? t??? l???p[ii] v?? ban nh???c Abba, trong th???i gian qua ???? tr??? th??nh m???t v??ng ?????t v??n h??a, c??i n??i c???a lo???t phim b??? The Killing, ti???m ??n n???i ti???ng s??? 1 th??? gi???i Noma[iii] v?? tr?? ch??i ??i???n t??? Nh???ng con chim gi???n d???(???Angry Birds???).

Nh?? b???n t?????ng tr??nh ?????c bi???t c???a ch??ng t??i tu???n n??y gi???i th??ch, th??nh qu??? n??y c?? ???????c m???t ph???n l?? nh??? may m???n v??? th???i gian: c??c n?????c B???c ??u ???? gi???i quy???t t???t nh???ng cu???c kh???ng ho???ng n??? c???a h??? trong nh???ng n??m 1990. Nh??ng l?? do th??? hai, t???i sao m?? h??nh B???c ??u l???i ng??y c??ng ???????c ??a chu???ng, th?? c??n l?? th?? h??n. ?????i v???i c??c ch??nh kh??ch tr??n to??n th??? gi???i ??? ?????c bi???t l?? ??? nh???ng n?????c ph????ng T??y c??ng n??? ng???p c??? ??? c??c n?????c B???c ??u ???? cho h??? m???t s?? ????? l??m th??? n??o ????? c???i c??ch khu v???c c??ng, gi??p cho nh?? n?????c c?? hi???u qu??? h??n nhi???u v?? ????p ???ng ???????c nh???ng th??ch th???c m?? h??? ph???i ?????i m???t.

T??? ???C?? b?? Pippi t???t d??i??? t???i tr?????ng h???c t??

?? t?????ng v??? m???t ch??nh ph??? B???c ??u tinh gi???n s??? l?? m???t c?? s???c v???i c??? nh???ng ng?????i Ph??p t??? khuynh th?????ng m?? t???i m???t b??n ?????o Scandinavia x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a l???n nh???ng ng?????i M??? b???o th??? ??ang s??? Barack Obama ng??? theo chi???u h?????ng ???Th???y ??i???n h??a???. H??? ?????u l???i th???i c??? r???i. Trong nh???ng th???p ni??n 1970 v?? 1980, B???c ??u qu??? th???t l?? nh???ng n?????c ???????nh thu???-v??-chi ti??u???. Chi ti??u c??ng c???a Th???y ??i???n l??n t???i 67% T???ng s???n ph???m n???i ?????a (GDP) v??o n??m 1993. Astrid Lindgren, ng?????i s??ng t???o ra lo???t truy???n tr??? em C?? b?? Pippi t???t d??i, ???? b??? bu???c ph???i ????ng thu??? cao h??n 100% thu nh???p c???a b??. Song ch??nh s??ch ???????nh thu???-v??-chi ti??u??? kh??ng mang l???i k???t qu??? mong mu???n: Th???y ??i???n ??ang l?? n?????c gi??u c?? th??? t?? th??? gi???i v??o n??m 1970 ???? r???t xu???ng h??ng th??? 14 v??o n??m 1993.

T??? ???? B???c ??u ???? thay ?????i l??? tr??nh ??? ch??? y???u l?? nghi??ng sang h???u. T???i Th???y ??i???n, ph???n chi ti??u c???a ch??nh ph??? trong GDP ???? b???t ??i kho???ng 18 ??i???m ph???n tr??m, hi???n th???p h??n c???a n?????c Ph??p, v?? ch???ng bao l??u n???a s??? th???p h??n n?????c Anh. Thu??? c??ng ???? c???t gi???m: thu??? su???t doanh nghi???p l?? 22%, th???p h??n c???a M??? r???t nhi???u. C??c n?????c B???c ??u t???p trung v??o vi???c qu??n b??nh ng??n s??ch. Trong khi Obama v?? Qu???c h???i Hoa k??? c??n ??ang run r???y v???i vi???c c???i c??ch ph??c l???i an sinh x?? h???i, Th???y ??i???n ???? c???i t???o h??? th???ng h??u b???ng c???a h???. Th??m h???t ng??n s??ch c???a h??? ch??? chi???m  0,3%GDP, n?????c M??? l?? 7%.

V??? nh???ng d???ch v??? c??ng c???ng, c??c n?????c B???c ??u ?????u th???c d???ng nh?? nhau. Ch???ng n??o nh???ng d???ch v??? c??ng ho???t ?????ng t???t, ng?????i ta kh??ng c???n ?????m x???a t???i vi???c ai cung c???p ch??ng. ??an M???ch v?? Na Uy cho ph??p c??c h??ng t?? ??i???u h??nh b???nh vi???n c??ng. Th???y ??i???n c?? m???t h??? th???ng ph??? qu??t v??? ???phi???u Gi??o d???c???[iv], v???i nh???ng tr?????ng t??-ki???u kinh doanh[v] ph???i c???nh tranh v???i tr?????ng c??ng. ??an M???ch c??ng c?? ???phi???u Gi??o d???c??? ??? nh??ng l?? lo???i phi???u m?? ng?????i d??n c?? th??? ????ng th??m ti???n ????? h?????ng d???ch v??? t???t h??n. N???u ph???i ch???n th?? Milton Friedman[vi] s??? th???y Stockholm th??n thu???c v???i m??nh h??n Washington, DC.

T???t c??? c??c ch??nh kh??ch ph????ng T??y ?????u ????? cao s??? minh b???ch v?? c??ng ngh???. B???c ??u c?? th??? l??m ????ng nh?? v???y, l???i c?? b???ng ch???ng r?? r??ng h??n c???. Th??nh t???u c???a t???t c??? c??c tr?????ng h???c v?? b???nh vi???n ?????u ???????c l?????ng ?????nh. Ch??nh ph??? b??? b???t bu???c l??m vi???c c??ng khai gi???a thanh thi??n b???ch nh???t: Th???y ??i???n cho ph??p t???t c??? m???i ng?????i c?? quy???n xem h??? s?? c???a ch??nh ph???. C??c ch??nh kh??ch b??? b??u di???u, n???u h??? nh???y kh???i y??n xe ?????p v?? chui v??o xe limousine c??ng. Qu?? h????ng c???a m???ng ??i???n tho???i internet Skype v?? h??ng cung c???p nh???c s??? Spotify c??ng ??ang d???n ?????u trong vi???c giao d???ch b???ng ??i???n t??? c???a ch??nh ph???: b???n c?? th??? tr??? thu??? qua d???ch v??? tin nh???n ng???n SMS.

Chuy???n n??y nghe gi???ng nh?? ??????????ng l???i Thatcher??? ???????c t??ng c?????ng v?? b??? sung, nh??ng B???c ??u c??n d??nh cho nh???ng ng?????i t??? ph??i h??ng say m???t ??i???u kh??c n???a. ???? l?? h??? ???? ch???ng minh r???ng, c?? th??? k???t h???p ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n c???nh tranh v???i m???t gu???ng m??y nh?? n?????c l???n: h??? s??? d???ng 30% l???c l?????ng lao ?????ng c???a h??? trong khu v???c c??ng, so s??nh v???i m???c trung b??nh 15% c???a c??c n?????c trong T??? ch???c H???p t??c v?? Ph??t tri???n Kinh t??? (OECD). H??? l?? nh???ng ng?????i ch??? tr????ng ???m???u d???ch t??? do??? ki??n c?????ng, ???? c?????ng l???i s??? c??m d??? mu???n can thi???p, th???m ch?? v??o vi???c b???o h??? nh???ng c??ng ty bi???u t?????ng c???a m??nh: Th???y ??i???n ????? m???c cho c??ng ty ?? t?? Saab ph?? s???n, v?? Volvo th?? nay do c??ng ty Trung Qu???c Geely l??m ch???. Song h??? c??ng t???p trung ch?? ?? v??o d??i h???n ??? bi???u hi???n r?? r??ng nh???t l?? Qu??? ?????u t?? Nh?? n?????c 600 t??? ????la c???a Na Uy ??? h??? t??m nhi???u c??ch ????? h???n ch??? nh???ng hi???u ???ng kh???c nghi???t c???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n. Ch???ng h???n ??an M???ch c?? m???t h??? th???ng b???o ?????m c??ng ??n vi???c l??m linh ho???t khi???n cho gi???i ch??? d??? d??ng gi??n th??? khi c???n, nh??ng nh?? n?????c th?? tr??? c???p v?? hu???n ngh??? cho nh???ng ng?????i th???t nghi???p, v?? Ph???n Lan ??ang t??? ch???c nh???ng m???ng l?????i v???n m???o hi???m.

Ph???n kh??ng ngon c???a ???B??n ti???c Th???y ??i???n???

M?? h??nh m???i c???a c??c n?????c B???c ??u kh??ng ph???i l?? ho??n h???o. T??? l??? chi ti??u c??ng nh?? m???t th??nh ph???n c???a GDP t???i c??c n?????c ???? v???n c??n cao h??n t??? b??o n??y mong mu???n, ho???c qu??? th???t l?? cao h??n m???c c?? th??? duy tr??. M???c thu??? c???a h??? v???n khi???n cho nhi???u nh?? kinh doanh ch???y ra n?????c ngo??i: Lu??n ????n ?????y ???p nh???ng thanh ni??n Th???y ??i???n th??ng minh. C?? qu?? nhi???u ng?????i ??? ?????c bi???t l?? di d??n ??? s???ng nh??? v??o tr??? c???p. Nh???ng ??p l???c khi???n ch??nh ph??? c???a h??? ph???i c???t gi???m chi ti??u, ch???ng h???n nh?? s??? c???nh tranh to??n c???u ng??y c??ng m???nh h??n, s??? bu???c h??? ph???i thay ?????i nhi???u h??n n???a. [Chi ti??u c???a] c??c n?????c B???c ??u ???? ph??nh to ra so v???i Singapore v?? h??? c??ng ch??a t???p trung ch?? ?? ????? v??o vi???c th???m ?????nh t??nh h??nh t??i ch??nh c???a ng?????i xin h?????ng ph??c l???i.

D???u sao ch??ng n???a, ng??y c??ng th??m nhi???u qu???c gia c???n ph???i nh??n v??o c??c n?????c B???c ??u. C??c n?????c T??y ph????ng s??? ?????ng tr???n gi???i h???n c???a m???t ch??nh ph??? qu?? l???n, nh?? Th???y ??i???n ???? b???. Khi Th??? t?????ng ?????c Angela Merkel lo l???ng r???ng Li??n minh Ch??u ??u ch??? c?? 7% d??n s??? th??? gi???i nh??ng chi ti??u x?? h???i chi???m t???i m???t n???a th?? c??c n?????c B???c ??u l?? m???t ph???n c???a c??u tr??? l???i. H??? c??ng ch??? ra r???ng, c??c n?????c trong Li??n minh Ch??u ??u c?? th??? ?????t ???????c nh???ng th??nh c??ng th???c s??? v??? kinh t???. V?? trong khi c??ng ??ang c??? g???ng chuy???n d???n th??nh c??c qu???c gia c?? ph??c l???i x?? h???i cao, c??c n?????c Ch??u ?? c??ng s??? nh??n v??o t???m g????ng c??c n?????c B???c ??u: Na Uy ??ang l?? m???t t??m ??i???m ch?? ?? c???a ng?????i Trung Qu???c.

B??i h???c ch??? ch???t r??t ra t??? c??c n?????c B???c ??u kh??ng ph???i l?? b??i h???c v??? t?? t?????ng m?? v??? th???c ti???n. Nh?? n?????c ???????c ??a chu???ng kh??ng ph???i v?? n?? l???n m?? v?? n?? ho???t ?????ng t???t. M???t ng?????i Th???y ??i???n s???n s??ng ????ng thu??? h??n m???t ng?????i California, v?? ???????c h?????ng b???o hi???m y t??? mi???n ph?? v?? nh???ng tr?????ng h???c th???c s??? t???t. Ng?????i B???c ??u ???? th???c hi???n ???????c nh???ng c???i c??ch s??u r???ng b???t ch???p s??? c???n tr??? c???a c??c nghi???p ??o??n v?? gi???i v???n ?????ng h??nh lang cho kinh doanh. B???ng ch???ng s??? s??? ra ????. C?? th??? ????a c?? c???u th??? tr?????ng v??o c??c n?????c thi??n v??? ph??c l???i ????? n?? ho???t ?????ng hi???u qu??? h??n. C?? th??? ?????t nh???ng ch????ng tr??nh c???i c??ch ph??c l???i an sinh x?? h???i tr??n n???n t???ng v???ng ch???c, ????? tr??nh cho c??c th??? h??? t????ng lai kh???i ph???i ??i ??n xin. Song c???n ph???i c?? quy???t t??m nh??? t???n r??? b???nh tham nh??ng v?? nh???ng quy???n l???i ???????c phong (l???i ??ch nh??m). V?? c???n ph???i s???n s??ng b??? r??i nh???ng gi??o ??i???u ???? c?? m??n c???a ph??i t??? ho???c h???u v?? h??y ch???u kh?? t??m ki???m nh???ng ?? t?????ng hay tr??n to??n b??? b??nh di???n ch??nh tr???. Th??? gi???i s??? c??n nghi??n c???u m?? h??nh B???c ??u trong nhi???u n??m s???p t???i.

Ngu???n: B???n ti???ng Vi???t 2013 ?? B??i Xu??n B??ch & pro&contra


[i] ??????????ng l???i Thatcher??? l?? t??n g???i th??ng d???ng ????? ch??? chung nh???ng ???????ng l???i, ch??nh s??ch x?? h???i v?? kinh t??? m?? b?? Margaret Thatcher ,Th??? t?????ng Anh t??? 1975 ?????n 1990, ???? thi h??nh. C??? th??? h??n, ???? l?? ?????y m???nh vi???c ch???ng l???m ph??t, ????? cao m???t nh?? n?????c g???n nh??? nh??ng hi???u qu???, v?? th??? tr?????ng t??? do, th??ng qua vi???c ki???m so??t ch???t ch??? ngu???n cung ti???n t???, t?? h???u h??a v?? ki???m ch??? phong tr??o nghi???p ??o??n.

[ii] Ng??? ?? s???n ph???m c???a Ikea

[iii] Ti???m ??n Noma ??? Copenhagen ???????c t???p ch?? Restaurant Magazineb??nh ch???n l?? ti???m ??n s??? 1 th??? gi???i li??n t???c trong ba n??m 2010, 2011, 2012. N??m nay, 2013, n?? nh?????ng v??? tr?? n??y cho ti???m El Celler de Can Roca, T??y Ban Nha.

[iv] Phi???u Gi??o d???c: ??? m???t s??? n?????c, n???u con anh h???c tr?????ng t??, ch??nh ph??? s??? c???p m???t gi???y ch???ng nh???n ????? n???p cho tr?????ng, trong ???? b???o ?????m s??? thanh kho???n m???t s??? ti???n t????ng ??????ng v???i chi ph?? ????o t???o m???t h???c sinh t???i tr?????ng c??ng. Ch???ng h???n, ??? M??? (t??y theo th??nh ph??? c?? ch??? ????? n??y hay kh??ng), n???u ????o t???o m???t h???c sinh trung h???c ??? tr?????ng c??ng h???t $5000 m???t n??m, th?? th??nh ph??? s??? thanh to??n s??? ti???n nh?? v???y cho tr?????ng t??, n??i con anh theo h???c.

[v] Tr?????ng t??-ki???u kinh doanh: (ti???ng Anh: private for-profit schools) ?????i l???p v???i tr?????ng t??-b???t v??? l???i (private non-profit schools).

[vi] Milton Friedman (1912-2006): Nh?? kinh t??? h???c ng?????i M??? ???????c Gi???i Nobel Kinh t??? n??m 1976. ??ng l?? h???c gi??? h??ng ?????u c???a tr?????ng ph??i kinh t??? Chicago (khoa kinh t??? ??? ?????i h???c Chicago), v?? c??? x??y th??? tr?????ng t??? do, gi???m b???t vai tr?? can thi???p c???a ch??nh ph???.

 

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