Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 29/08/2019

Thứ tư - 28/08/2019 23:23
??ng Boris Johnson, th??? t?????ng V????ng qu???c Anh, ???? ????? ngh??? N??? ho??ng ????nh ch??? Qu???c h???i cho ?????n gi???a th??ng 10, g??y ra ph???n n??? trong c??c ngh??? s??. ?????ng th??i n??y khi???n h??? ??t c?? c?? h???i th??ng qua lu???t nh???m ng??n ch???n m???t Brexit kh??ng th???a thu???n tr?????c ng??y 31 th??ng 10.
Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 29/08/2019

Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 29/08/2019

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Ngu???n: The Economist | Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy

??ng Boris Johnson, th??? t?????ng V????ng qu???c Anh, ???? ????? ngh??? N??? ho??ng ????nh ch??? Qu???c h???i cho ?????n gi???a th??ng 10, g??y ra ph???n n??? trong c??c ngh??? s??. ?????ng th??i n??y khi???n h??? ??t c?? c?? h???i th??ng qua lu???t nh???m ng??n ch???n m???t Brexit kh??ng th???a thu???n tr?????c ng??y 31 th??ng 10. Ch??? t???ch ?????ng B???o th??? cho bi???t ch??nh ph??? ch??? ????n thu???n l?? ???n ?????nh ng??y b???t ?????u phi??n h???p Qu???c h???i, v???n d?? l?? ?????c quy???n c???a ch??nh ph???.

Phong tr??o 5 Sao c???p ti???n c???a Italia v?? ?????ng D??n ch??? trung t??? ???? ?????ng ?? li??n minh th??nh l???p m???t ch??nh ph??? m???i. Ch??nh ph??? n??y s??? ???????c l??nh ?????o b???i Giuseppe Conte, th??? t?????ng hi???n t???i. Quy???t ?????nh n??y ???? c???u Italy kh???i c??c cu???c b???u c??? s???m m?? Matteo Salvini, l??nh ?????o Li??n ??o??n Ph????ng B???c c???c h???u, k??u g???i sau khi ??ng r??t kh???i li??n minh kh??ng m???y h??a thu???n v???i Phong tr??o N??m sao h???i ?????u th??ng n??y. C??c con s??? cho th???y th??? tr?????ng ???ng h??? ch??nh ph??? m???i.

Phong tr??o d??n ch??? Sudan v?? ch??nh ph??? qu??n s??? c???m quy???n ???? th???ng nh???t v??? qu?? tr??nh qu?? ????? sang d??n ch??? d??i 39 th??ng. M???t ???h???i ?????ng ch??? quy???n??? g???m m?????i th??nh vi??n s??? l?? c?? quan ra quy???t ?????nh cao nh???t, v???i th??nh vi??n th??? 11 l?? v??? ch??? t???ch theo th??? t??? tr?????c ti??n s??? l?? m???t t?????ng l??nh v?? sau ???? l?? m???t ?????i di???n d??n s???. D?????i h??? l?? m???t ch??nh ph??? k??? tr??? v?? c?? quan l???p ph??p t???m th???i. Omar al-Bashir, nh?? ?????c t??i l??u n??m c???a ?????t n?????c, ???? b??? l???t ????? h???i th??ng T??.

Gi??o h???i C??ng gi??o ???? s???c phong Gi??m m???c ?????u ti??n ??? Trung Qu???c nh???n ???????c s??? ???ng h??? t??? c??? Gi??o ho??ng v?? nh?? n?????c Trung Qu???c, theo m???t th???a thu???n g??y tranh c??i m???i ????y. Kho???ng 12 tri???u ng?????i C??ng gi??o ho???c h??n ??? Trung Qu???c trong nhi???u th???p ni??n ???? b??? chia r??? gi???a m???t b??n l?? gi??o h???i th??n ch??nh quy???n, v???i c??c gi??o s?? ???????c ?????ng C???ng s???n l???a ch???n, v?? m???t b??n l?? gi??o h???i ???ng???m??? trung th??nh v???i Vatican.

Purdue Pharma ???????c ????a tin l?? ??ang ????m ph??n ????? gi???i quy???t c??c khi???u n???i t??? h??n 2.000 v??? ki???n li??n quan ?????n th???m h???a opioid c???a M???. Trong th???a thu???n ???????c ????? xu???t, c??ng ty s???n xu???t s???n ph???m OxyContin, m???t lo???i thu???c g??p ph???n t???o n??n cu???c kh???ng ho???ng, s??? ph???i tr??? t???i 12 t??? ???? la. Th???a thu???n n??y s??? x??a s???ch to??n b??? c??? ph???n c?? nh??n c???a gia ????nh Sackler, nh???ng ng?????i ??ang s??? h???u Purdue.

Thomas Cook, c??ng ty du l???ch l??u ?????i nh???t th??? gi???i c???a Anh, ???? th???ng nh???t m???t g??i c???u tr??? v???i Fosun, m???t t???p ??o??n c???a Trung Qu???c. Theo c??c ??i???u kho???n c???a th???a thu???n, Fosun Tourism s??? ti???p qu???n c??c ho???t ?????ng ??i???u h??nh tour, trong khi c??c ng??n h??ng cho vay v?? c??c tr??i ch??? c???a Thomas s??? mua l???i c??ng ty h??ng kh??ng c???a h??ng du l???ch Anh n??y. C??ng ty n??y ??ang c???n ti???n m???t sau m???t m??a h?? n??ng b???t th?????ng v??o n??m ngo??i khi???n cho l?????ng ?????t tour c???a h??? gi???m v??o ph??t ch??t.

Petrofac, m???t c??ng ty d???ch v??? m??? d???u, tuy??n b??? h??? ???? ki???m ???????c 139 tri???u ???? la trong s??u th??ng ?????u n??m, so v???i kho???n l??? trong c??ng k??? n??m ngo??i. Tuy nhi??n, gi?? c??? phi???u c???a h??ng l???i gi???m 5% ngay sau khi c??ng ty n??y cho bi???t h??? d??? ??o??n doanh thu v?? bi??n l???i nhu???n s??? gi???m do gi?? d???u th???p h??n v?? m???t cu???c ??i???u tra gian l???n ?????i v???i c??c ho???t ?????ng c???a h??? khi???n cho kh??ch h??ng e ng???i h???p t??c.

TI??U ??I???M

Anh ????nh ch??? Qu???c h???i trong t??m b??o Brexit

??ng Boris Johnson b??? ph???n ?????i n???ng n??? ngay sau khi c??ng b??? k??? ho???ch ????nh ch??? qu???c h???i t??? gi???a th??ng 9 ?????n gi???a th??ng 10, trong m???t n??? l???c nh???m ng??n c???n c??c ngh??? s?? tr?? ho??n vi???c Anh r???i kh???i Li??n minh ch??u ??u. C??c ngh??? s?? cao c???p v?? th???m ch?? l?? Ch??? t???ch H??? vi???n ???? g???i bi???n ph??p n??y l?? s??? ???vi ph???m tr???ng tr???n hi???n ph??p???. B???t ch???p t???t c??? nh???ng ??i???u n??y, c??c ngh??? s?? v???n c?? trong tay c??c l???a ch???n m?? h??? c?? tr?????c ????y. H??? c?? th??? b??? phi???u ????? h??? b??? ch??nh ph??? ho???c bu???c Ch??nh ph??? k??o d??i th???i h???n Brexit, mi???n l?? h??? c?? th??? t???p h???p ????? s??? phi???u. Kh??ng c?? l???a ch???n n??o l?? d??? d??ng v??? c??? m???t ch??nh tr??? l???n th??? t???c, nh??ng t???t c??? ?????u c??n ????? ng???.

??i???u ???? thay ?????i ch??nh l?? vi???c Ph??? Downing gi??? ????y s???n s??ng ???t???n c??ng??? c??c ngh??? s?? c??? g???ng ch???n ???????ng h???, ngay c??? khi vi???c n??y k??ch ho???t m???t cu???c tranh c??i v??? hi???n ph??p. C??c ?? t?????ng kh??c, ch???ng h???n nh?? t??ng th??m s??? ng??y l??? ho???c ban th??m t?????c v??? cho nhi???u ng?????i ????? l??m tr??n ng???p Th?????ng vi???n v???i nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? Brexit (Th?????ng vi???n bao g???m c??c qu?? t???c kh??ng qua b???u c???), ???? ???????c n??u l??n. H??nh ?????ng c???a ??ng Johnson c?? th??? ch??? l?? nh???ng ph??t s??ng ?????u ti??n trong m???t cu???c chi???n tranh du k??ch v??? th??? t???c ph??p l??.

D???ch s???i quay l???i ch??u ??u

H??m nay, T??? ch???c Y t??? Th??? gi???i s??? c??ng b??? danh s??ch c??c qu???c gia Ch??u ??u ???? lo???i b??? ho???c duy tr?? ???????c s??? lo???i b??? b???nh s???i trong n??m 2018. Tr???ng th??i n??y ???????c ghi nh???n cho c??c qu???c gia ???? ng??n ch???n b???nh s???i b???n ?????a b??ng ph??t th??nh c??ng c??ng nh?? ch???n d???ch truy???n t??? n?????c ngo??i v??o trong v??ng m???t n??m. K??? t??? n??m 2012, khi WHO b???t ?????u theo d??i t??nh tr???ng lo???i tr??? b???nh s???i ??? ch??u ??u, r???t may l?? kh??ng c?? qu???c gia n??o ?????t ???????c tr???ng th??i n??y m?? sau ???? l???i ????nh m???t n??.

C??ng b??? h??m nay c?? th??? thay ?????i ??i???u ????. Ki???m so??t d???ch ???? tr??? n??n kh?? kh??n h??n khi nhi???u ng?????i kh??ng ???????c ti??m ph??ng, d?? l?? do s??? m???t l??ng tin v??o khoa h???c hay vi???c thi???u v???c-xin. C??c tr?????ng h???p m???c b???nh s???i ??? Ch??u ??u n??m 2018 ???? v?????t qu?? s??? li???u c???a c??? ba n??m tr?????c ????. V?? 90.000 tr?????ng h???p ???????c ghi nh???n trong n???a ?????u n??m nay c??n cao h??n c??? con s??? c???a n??m 2018. M???, n?????c ???? lo???i b??? d???ch s???i v??o n??m 2000, c??ng ??ang ch???y ??ua v???i th???i gian ????? gi??? danh hi???u ????. T??? gi??? ?????n th??ng 10 h??? ph???i ng??n ch???n ???????c d???ch b??ng ph??t ??? New York.

T??nh h??nh kinh t??? ???m ?????m c???a Brazil

C?? quan th???ng k?? qu???c gia Brazil s??? c??ng b??? s??? li???u t??ng tr?????ng GDP Qu?? II v??o h??m nay. C??c ch??? d???u ban ?????u ???? l??m d???y l??n lo ng???i v??? m???t qu?? th??? hai li??n ti???p kinh t??? suy gi???m, ??i???u s??? khi???n Brazil r??i v??o m???t cu???c suy tho??i tr??n l?? thuy???t. G???n ????y, ch??nh ph??? v?? h???u h???t c??c nh?? kinh t??? ?????u cho r???ng nhi???u kh??? n??ng s??? c?? m???t s??? ph???c h???i nh???.

Brazil v???n ??ang ph???c h???i t??? sau cu???c suy tho??i t???i t??? nh???t k??o d??i t??? n??m 2014 ?????n 2016. Th???t nghi???p kho???ng 12%, trong khi ?????u t??, d???ch v??? v?? s???n xu???t v???n c??n y???u. H??m th??? Ba, l???n ?????u ti??n ng??n h??ng trung ????ng Brazil ???? b??n s??? ???? la d??? tr??? c???a h??? k??? t??? n??m 2009. ????y l?? m???t n??? l???c nh???m n??ng gi?? ?????ng real t??? m???c th???p nh???t 11 th??ng l?? 4,19 real ?????i m???t ???? la, kh??ng qu?? xa so v???i m???c th???p k??? l???c 4,25 h???i n??m 2015. D??? b??o t??ng tr?????ng kinh t??? c???a ng??n h??ng cho n??m 2019 ???? gi???m xu???ng ch??? c??n 0,8%. Ch??nh ph??? hy v???ng r???ng c??c c???i c??ch kinh t???, bao g???m d??? lu???t c???i c??ch l????ng h??u (d??? ki???n ???????c ????a ra qu???c h???i trong th??ng 10), s??? l??m t??ng cao l??ng tin, th??c ?????y t??ng tr?????ng v?? mang l???i nh???ng con s??? t???t h??n v??o n??m t???i.

T??ng tr?????ng GDP theo qu?? c???a Brazil.

H???i ngh??? Tr?? tu??? Nh??n t???o Th??? gi???i khai m???c

H???i ngh??? Tr?? tu??? Nh??n t???o Th??? gi???i s??? khai m???c h??m nay t???i Th?????ng H???i, v???i s??? tham d??? c???a nhi???u gi??m ?????c ??i???u h??nh n???i ti???ng, m???t d???u hi???u cho th???y ch??? ????? n??y ???? tr??? n??n n??ng b???ng nh?? th??? n??o. H???i ngh??? s??? k??o d??i ba ng??y, di???n ra trong b???i c???nh cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i khi???n cho s??? ph??t tri???n c???a AI tr??? th??nh m???t v???n ????? quan tr???ng ??? Trung Qu???c, n??i n??ng l???c k??? thu???t ???????c coi l?? con ???????ng d???n ?????n s??? ?????c l???p kh???i m???t n?????c M??? hi???u chi???n.

Tu???n tr?????c, Megvii, m???t trong s??? ??t c??c c??ng ty Trung Qu???c t???p trung v??o ph??t tri???n v?? tri???n khai AI, ???? n???p h??? s?? ni??m y???t l??n s??n ch???ng kho??n H???ng K??ng, c??ng ty AI l???n ?????u ti??n c???a Trung Qu???c l??m nh?? v???y. H??ng n??y t???o ra ph???n l???n doanh thu c???a m??nh b???ng c??ch h???p t??c v???i c??c ch??nh quy???n th??nh ph??? ????? c??i ?????t c??c h??? th???ng b???o m???t th??ng minh, s??? d???ng AI trong gi??m s??t l??u l?????ng giao th??ng ho???c th???c hi???n nh???n di???n khu??n m???t. M???t s??? c??c c??ng ty Trung Qu???c, trong ???? bao g???m Megvii, ??ang x??y d???ng c??c ph???n m???m t????ng t??? nh???m t??? ?????ng h??a c??c quy tr??nh s???n xu???t nh???m l??m cho ch??ng hi???u qu??? v???i chi ph?? lao ?????ng th???p h??n, trong b???i c???nh chi ph?? ti???n l????ng ??ang t??ng nhanh ??? Trung Qu???c.

C??c c??ng ty b??n l??? gi?? c???c r??? c???a M??? ?????i m???t th????ng chi???n

Dollar General v?? Dollar Tree ??? c??ng v???i nh???ng ng?????i mua s???m c???c-k???-nh???y-c???m-v???-gi?? c???a h??? ??? ???? tr??? th??nh m???t n???n nh??n kh??c c???a th????ng chi???n M???-Trung. H??ng h??a nh???p kh???u gi?? r??? t??? kh???p Th??i B??nh D????ng gi??p hai nh?? b??n l??? c?? l??i ngay c??? khi ?????nh gi?? c??c s???n ph???m c???a h??? ch??? d???ng l???i ??? m???t con s???. Tuy nhi??n, sau khi ch??nh quy???n Trump ????nh thu??? 200 t??? ???? la h??ng nh???p kh???u c???a Trung Qu???c v??o th??ng 5, Dollar General cho bi???t h??? d??? ki???n s??? ph???i t??ng gi??, v?? Dollar Tree th?? c??ng b??? v??o v??o m??a h?? n??y r???ng h??? s??? b???t ?????u th??? nghi???m ph?? v??? m???c gi?? ?????c tr??ng 1 ???? la c???a h???.

C??c nh?? ?????u t?? s??? r???t mu???n bi???t c??ch kh??ch h??ng ph???n ???ng v???i vi???c t??ng gi?? th??? hi???n qua hai b??o c??o thu nh???p Qu?? II s??? ???????c c??ng b??? v??o h??m nay. Tuy nhi??n, c?? nh???ng l?? do ????? kh??ng tuy???t v???ng. Cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i cu???i c??ng c?? th??? mang l???i l???i ??ch cho hai h??ng n??y n???u n?? d???n ?????n suy tho??i kinh t???: ng?????i mua s???m t???ng ????? x?? ?????n hai chu???i c???a h??ng n??y m???t th???p ni??n tr?????c khi cu???c ?????i suy thoai bu???c h??? ph???i th???t ch???t ng??n s??ch gia ????nh.

02/01/1963: Chi???n th???ng ???p B???c

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Ngu???n: Viet Cong are successful at Ap Bac, History.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1963, t???i ???p B???c, m???t ng??i l??ng ??? ?????ng b???ng s??ng C???u Long, c??ch S??i G??n 50 d???m v??? ph??a t??y nam, Vi???t C???ng ???? g??y th????ng vong n???ng n??? cho m???t l???c l?????ng Nam Vi???t Nam v???n d?? l???n h??n nhi???u.

Kho???ng 2.500 binh s?? thu???c S?? ??o??n 7 c???a qu??n ?????i mi???n Nam ??? d?? ???????c trang b??? v?? kh?? t??? ?????ng, xe b???c th??p, th???m ch?? c??n ???????c m??y bay n??m bom v?? tr???c th??ng h??? tr??? ??? nh??ng v???n kh??ng th??? ????nh b???i m???t nh??m 300 qu??n du k??ch, nh???ng ng?????i ???? mau ch??ng tr???n tho??t sau khi g??y thi???t h???i n???ng n??? cho l???c l?????ng Nam Vi???t Nam.

T??nh ?????n khi tr???n chi???n k???t th??c, c?? 80 l??nh mi???n Nam thi???t m???ng v?? h??n 100 ng?????i kh??c b??? th????ng. Tr???n ???p B???c sau ???????c xem l?? minh ch???ng cho kh??? n??ng chi???n ?????u k??m c???a qu??n ?????i mi???n Nam, r???ng h??? kh??ng ch??? thua v??? chi???n l?????c, m?? c??n kh??ng c?? tinh th???n chi???n ?????u nh?? qu??n Vi???t C???ng. Ngay c??? khi c?? s??? l?????ng ??p ?????o v?? ???????c ng?????i M??? h??? tr??? v??? c??ng ngh??? v?? k??? ho???ch t??c chi???n, qu??n ?????i mi???n Nam v???n kh??ng th??? ????nh b???i Vi???t C???ng.

Gi???i ch???c S??i G??n ???? r???t gi???n d??? khi c??c c??? v???n ng?????i M??? nh???n x??t th???ng th???n v??? tr???n ???p B???c, v???n ch??? tr??ch m???nh m??? qu??n ?????i mi???n Nam v?? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a h???. ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam (?????ng c???m quy???n) t???i H?? N???i ???? g???i tr???n ???p B???c l?? m???t chi???n th???ng ???cho th???y s??? xu???t hi???n c???a m???t l???c l?????ng v?? trang c??ch m???ng m???i ??? mi???n Nam.???

13/11/1982: M??? kh??nh th??nh ????i t?????ng ni???m Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam

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vietnam-war-memorial

Ngu???n: ???Vietnam Veterans Memorial dedicated,??? History.com (truy c???p ng??y 12/11/2015).

Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1982, g???n cu???i tu???n l??? t?????ng ni???m nh???ng l??nh M??? ???? ph???c v??? trong Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam, ????i t?????ng ni???m Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam ???? ???????c kh??nh th??nh t???i Washington sau m???t cu???c di???u h??nh c???a h??ng ng??n c???u chi???n binh t???i khu t?????ng ni???m. ????i t?????ng ni???m ???????c mong ?????i t??? l??u n??y l?? m???t b???c t?????ng ???? granite ??en h??nh ch??? V c?? kh???c t??n c???a 58.300 ng?????i M??? (t??nh ?????n th??ng 5 n??m 2014) t??? tr???n trong cu???c xung ?????t, ???????c s???p x???p theo th??? t??? ng??y th??ng hy sinh, thay v?? th??? t??? c???p b???c, nh?? ph??? bi???n ??? c??c ????i t?????ng ni???m kh??c.

Ng?????i thi???t k??? ????i t?????ng ni???m l?? Maya Lin, sinh vi??n ki???n tr??c t???i Vi???n ?????i h???c Yale, ng?????i th???ng cu???c trong m???t cu???c thi thi???t k??? to??n qu???c. Lin sinh n??m 1959 t???i Ohio, l?? con g??i c???a m???t gia ????nh nh???p c?? ng?????i Trung Qu???c. Nhi???u nh??m c???u chi???n binh ???? ph???n ?????i thi???t k??? th???ng gi???i c???a Lin, do n?? thi???u nh???ng b???c t?????ng anh h??ng c???a m???t t?????ng ????i ti??u chu???n (sau n??y b???c t?????ng Ba ng?????i l??nh [The Three Soldiers] ???? ???????c d???ng l??n ????? duy tr?? truy???n th???ng c??, v?? c??n c?? t?????ng c???a ba ph??? n??? ch??m s??c m???t binh s?? b??? th????ng ????? t?????ng ni???m nh???ng ph??? n??? M??? ???? ph???c v??? trong Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam) v?? nh???ng t??? ng??? g??y x??c ?????ng.

Tuy nhi??n, ?? ki???n d?? lu???n ???? thay ?????i ????ng k??? trong nh???ng th??ng sau khi ????i t?????ng ni???m ???????c kh??nh th??nh. Nh???ng c???u chi???n binh v?? th??n nh??n c???a nh???ng ng?????i ???? m???t trong Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam b?????c d???c theo b???c t?????ng ??en b??ng, t??m t??n c???a nh???ng ng?????i th??n y??u c???a h??? ???? b??? l???i sinh m???ng trong cu???c xung ?????t. Khi ???? t??m th???y, kh??ch tham quan th?????ng ????? l???i m???t d???u kh???c hay v???t ri??ng t?? n??o ????, t??? nh???ng l???i nh???n nh??? v?? hoa ?????n th??? b??i qu??n nh??n v?? nh???ng lon bia.

????i t?????ng ni???m Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam nhanh ch??ng tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng ????i t?????ng ni???m ???????c vi???ng th??m nhi???u nh???t ??? th??? ???? n?????c M???. M???t v??? gi??m ?????c c???a Vi???n Smithsonian (t??? h???p vi???n nghi??n c???u v?? b???o t??ng c???a ch??nh ph???) ???? g???i n?? l?? ???m???t c???ng ?????ng c???a nh???ng c???m x??c, g???n nh?? l?? m???t khu v???c linh thi??ng,??? v?? m???t c???u chi???n binh ???? tuy??n b??? r???ng ??????? l?? m???t cu???c di???u h??nh m?? ch??ng t??i ch??a bao gi??? c??.??? ???B???c t?????ng??? l?? n??i quy t??? c??? nh???ng ng?????i ???? chi???n ?????u trong cu???c chi???n l???n nh???ng ng?????i ph???n chi???n, v?? th??c ?????y s??? h??n g???n v???t th????ng qu???c gia m???t th???p ni??n sau khi cu???c xung ?????t g??y chia r??? trong l??ng n?????c M??? ch???m d???t.
 

?????ng Nh??n d??n Campuchia gia t??ng chuy??n ch???

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Ngu???n: Kheang Un, ???Cambodia gets an autocratic upgrade in 2016???, East Asia Forum 20/12/2016.

Bi??n d???ch: ????o Duy T??ng | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

C??c ti???n tri???n v??? ch??nh tr???, kinh t??? v?? quan h??? ?????i ngo???i trong n??m 2016 cho th???y ?????ng Nh??n d??n Campuchia (CPP) ??ang t??ng c?????ng c???ng c??? quy???n l???c. ?????ng CPP ??ang theo ??u???i m???t chi???n l?????c ba m???t g???m l??m suy y???u phe ?????i l???p, th???c hi???n ch????ng tr??nh c???i c??ch c?? ?? ngh??a v?? ch???ng l???i s???c ??p c???a ph????ng T??y tr?????c th???m c??c cu???c b???u c??? ?????a ph????ng n??m 2017 v?? b???u c??? to??n qu???c n??m 2018. Th??nh t??ch c???a ?????ng CPP trong c??c cu???c b???u c??? n??y s??? l?? m???t b??i ki???m tra quan tr???ng mang t??nh quy???t ?????nh trong vi???c ????nh gi?? kh??? n??ng ti???p t???c c???m quy???n c???a ?????ng n??y ??? Campuchia.

K???t qu??? c???a cu???c b???u c??? n??m 2013, v?? nh???ng cu???c bi???u t??nh l???n c?? li??n quan ???????c t??? ch???c b???i ?????ng C???u qu???c Campuchia (CNRP) ?????i l???p ch???ng l???i gian l???n b???u c??? m?? h??? c??o bu???c, ???? ch???ng minh ti???m n??ng c???a ?????ng CNRP trong vi???c th??ch th???c s??? th???ng tr??? v??? l??u d??i c???a ?????ng CPP ??? Campuchia.

S???c m???nh c???a ?????ng CNRP ?????n t??? li??n minh gi???a Kem Sokha v?? Sam Rainsy, nh???ng ng?????i ???? c??ng nhau th???ng nh???t ng?????i Campuchia c??? b??n trong l???n b??n ngo??i qu???c gia n??y. Trong khi nh???ng ng?????i b??n trong ?????t n?????c ??ang mang l???i phi???u b???u cho ?????ng CNRP, th?? nh???ng ng?????i Campuchia h???i ngo???i cung c???p cho ?????ng n??y s??? h??? tr??? t??i ch??nh. N??? l???c c???a ?????ng CPP ????? thu n???p ?????ng CNRP th??ng qua ???v??n h??a ?????i tho???i??? (???culture of dialogue???) d???a tr??n nguy??n t???c kh??ng ch??? tr??ch l???n nhau ???? th???t b???i b???i ?????ng CNRP xem ??i???u ???? nh?? m???t chi???n l?????c tr??i bu???c ?????ng n??y v??o v??? th??? th???p h??n. ?????ng CNRP bi???t r?? r???ng ch???p nh???n v??? th??? th???p h??n nh?? th??? s??? l?? m???t s??? t??? s??t ch??nh tr??? ??? nh?? ???? t???ng x???y ra ?????i v???i ?????ng FUNCINPEC b???o ho??ng, ?????ng b??? suy y???u t??? m???t ?????ng ch??nh tr??? l???n trong nh???ng n??m 1990 th??nh m???t ?????ng ngo??i l???.

Quy???t t??m c???a ?????ng CNRP nh???m c???nh tranh v???i ?????ng CPP khi???n cho ?????ng c???m quy???n n??y ph???i l??m suy y???u ?????ng CNRP th??ng qua s??? ki???m so??t h??? th???ng t?? ph??p. N??m 2016, c??c t??a ??n c???a Campuchia ???? tuy??n ??n Sam Rainsy t???i ph??? bang, bu???c ??ng n??y ban ?????u kh??ng d??m v??? n?????c v?? sau ???? l?? l??u vong ch??nh tr??? theo sau m???t l???nh c???a ch??nh ph??? c???m ??ng v??? n?????c.

T??a ??n c??ng tuy??n Kem Sokha t???i kh??ng ch???u tr??nh di???n tr?????c t??a ????? l??m nh??n ch???ng v??? nh???ng c??o bu???c li??n quan ?????n t??nh ??i c???a ch??nh ??ng n??y v?? tuy??n ph???t ??ng s??u th??ng t?? giam. M???c d?? ch??nh ph??? ???? kh??ng b???t gi??? ??ng n??y nh??ng ph??n quy???t ???? ???? bu???c Kem Sokha ph???i tr???n trong tr??? s??? ?????ng c???a ??ng ta, c?? b???n ng??n ch???n ??ng ta t??? do di chuy???n trong v??i th??ng. V???i s??? ?????ng thu???n c???a Th??? t?????ng Hun Sen, Vua Norodom Sihamoni ???? ??n x?? cho Kem Sokha v??o ?????u th??ng 12. Nh??ng m???t v??i quan ch???c v?? nh?? ho???t ?????ng c???a ?????ng CNRP v???n ??? trong t??.

V???i vi???c m???t v??i l??nh ?????o quan tr???ng c???a m??nh b??? v?? hi???u h??a b???i t??a ??n, ?????ng CNRP ??ang ?????i m???t v???i nh???ng kh?? kh??n nghi??m tr???ng trong vi???c chu???n b??? cho c??c cu???c b???u c??? ?????a ph????ng n??m 2017 v?? cu???c b???u c??? to??n qu???c n??m 2018. M???c d?? ?????ng CNRP ???? x??y d???ng ???????c c?? c???u t??? ch???c r???ng kh???p c??? n?????c, vai tr?? c???a c??c l??nh ?????o ?????ng n??y trong vi???c v???n ?????ng s??? ???ng h??? c???a c??? tri v???n r???t quan tr???ng.

Nh?? ???? th??nh l??? k??? t??? c??c cu???c b???u c??? ???????c b???o tr??? b???i Li??n H???p Qu???c n??m 1993, c??c ?????ng ?????i l???p ???? ????? ngh??? c???ng ?????ng qu???c t??? can thi???p. Ngu???n v???n h??? tr??? ph??t tri???n ch??nh th???c (ODA) t??? n?????c ngo??i l?? m???t ph???n ????ng k??? trong ng??n s??ch c???a Ch??nh ph??? Campuchia, hi???n chi???m kho???ng 30 ??? 40%. Th??ng quan ODA, c??c ch??nh ph??? ph????ng T??y ???? c??? g??y ??p l???c l??n ch??nh ph??? Campuchia nh???m gi??? cho kh??ng gian ch??nh tr??? t???i n?????c n??y r???ng m??? cho c??c ho???t ?????ng ch??nh tr??? ?????i l???p. Nh??ng t??c ?????ng c???a ph????ng T??y l??n b???c tranh ch??nh tr??? t???i Campuchia ??ang suy gi???m trong b???i c???nh ?????ng CPP nh???n ???????c s??? h??? tr??? t??? Trung Qu???c.

K??? t??? n??m 1994, Trung Qu???c ???? cung c???p kho???ng 10 t??? ???? la d?????i d???ng c??c kho???n vay v?? vi???n tr??? kh??ng ho??n l???i cho Campuchia. Trong th???i gian chuy???n th??m c???a Ch??? t???ch T???p C???n B??nh t???i Campuchia h???i th??ng 10/2016, Trung Qu???c v?? Campuchia ???? k?? 31 th???a thu???n, bao g???m h???p t??c t??? th????ng m???i ?????n qu??n s???, th???t ch???t h??n n???a m???i quan h??? Trung Qu???c ??? Campuchia.

?????ng CPP d???a tr??n m???i quan h??? ?? d?? ch??nh tr??? ????? duy tr?? s??? c??? k???t c???a t???ng l???p tinh hoa v?? thu h??t s??? ???ng h??? c???a c??ng ch??ng. Nh??ng c??ch ho???t ?????ng nh?? th??? d???n ?????n n??ng l???c y???u k??m c???a nh?? n?????c, b???t b??nh ?????ng thu nh???p v?? s??? gh??t b??? c???a c???a c??ng ch??ng. Do ch??? d???a cho h??? th???ng ?? d?? ch??nh tr??? c???a Campuchia xoay quanh m???i quan h??? c???ng sinh gi???a nh?? n?????c/?????ng CPP v?? gi???i doanh nghi???p, c??c ho???t ?????ng t??m t?? (rent seeking) ???? gia t??ng ch??ng m???t. ??i???u n??y ?????n l?????t n?? l???i l??m m???t ??i c??c ngu???n thu c???a ch??nh ph??? d??nh cho c??c d???ch v??? c??ng.

Vi???c s??? d???ng nh???ng m??n qu?? nh??? ????? gi??nh s??? ???ng h??? trong b???u c??? v?? c??c n??? l???c nh???m ph??n lo???i c??? tri th??nh hai nh??m ?????i l???p ???ch??ng ta??? ?????u v???i ???h?????? ???? ph???n t??c d???ng. Trong khi danh s??ch ???ch??ng ta??? ch??nh th???c c???a ?????ng CPP r???t d??i, con s??? th???c t??? phi???u b???u ?????ng CPP nh???n ???????c l???i ??t ??i trong c??c cu???c b???u c??? n??m 2013 b???i v?? r???t nhi???u ng?????i b??n ngo??i th??? hi???n ???ng h??? ch??nh ph??? nh??ng l???i b?? m???t b???u cho ?????ng CNRP.

S??? gia t??ng ???nh h?????ng ch??nh tr??? c???a ?????ng CNRP bu???c ?????ng CPP ph???i ????nh gi?? l???i ch??nh s??ch v?? chi???n l?????c c???a m??nh, d???n t???i s??? gia t??ng t??nh chuy??n quy???n. M???c d?? h??? th???ng ?? d?? ch??nh tr??? v???n l?? trung t??m trong ho???t ?????ng c???a ?????ng CPP, ?????ng n??y ???? thay ?????i chi???n thu???t. Nh???m chu???n b??? cho c??c cu???c b???u c??? trong n??m 2017 v?? 2018, ?????ng CPP ???? m??? r???ng h??n n???a ch??nh s??ch ph??n ph???i c???a m??nh trong n??m nay. T???i c??c v??ng n??ng th??n, m???i gia ????nh trong di???n c???n s??? h??? tr??? trong tr?????ng h???p sinh con, c?? tang ho???c c?????i xin s??? ???????c nh???n qu?? t??? ?????ng CPP b???t ch???p vi???c h??? ???ng h??? ?????ng n??o.

V???i ???? t??ng tr?????ng kinh t??? n??m 2016 ???????c d??? ??o??n ?????t 7%, c??c l??nh v???c c??ng, nh?? y t??? v?? gi??o d???c, ???? ch???ng ki???n s??? gia t??ng ?????u t?? t??? ng??n s??ch qu???c gia. ?????ng CPP c??ng ti???p thu c??c v???n ????? trong chi???n d???ch tranh c??? c???a ?????ng CNRP, quan tr???ng nh???t l?? vi???c ???ng h??? t??ng l????ng cho c??c nh??n vi??n ch??nh ph??? v?? c??c th??nh vi??n c???a l???c l?????ng an ninh.

Trong t????ng lai, s??? th???ng tr??? c???a ?????ng CPP s??? ti???p t???c gi???i h???n kh??ng gian ch??nh tr??? k??? c??? khi ch??nh ph??? ?????i m???t v???i ??p l???c t??? ?????ng CNRP v?? c??c ch??nh ph??? ph????ng T??y. ????? canh ch???ng ?????ng ?????i l???p, ?????ng CPP s??? ti???p t???c khi???n ch??nh ph??? ph???n ???ng t??ch c???c h??n ?????i v???i nhu c???u c???a ng?????i d??n, trong khi s??? d???ng h??? th???ng t?? ph??p b??? ki???m so??t ch???t ch??? nh???m ng??n ch???n kh??? n??ng v???n ?????ng s??? ???ng h??? t??? d??n ch??ng c???a ?????i th???. ????? ch???ng l???i s???c ??p t??? ph????ng T??y, ch??nh ph??? c???a ?????ng CPP s??? ti???p t???c c?? quan h??? th???m ch?? g???n g??i h??n v???i Trung Qu???c, n?????c c???n Campuchia nh?? m???t ?????ng m??nh tin c???y ????? ng??n ch???n ASEAN c?? quan ??i???m th???ng nh???t li??n quan ?????n c??c tranh ch???p l??nh th??? tr??n bi???n ????ng.

Kheang Un l?? Ph?? Gi??o s?? Khoa h???c ch??nh tr??? t???i ?????i h???c B???c Illinois.
 

Trung Qu???c lo ng???i Nh???t ph??t tri???n v?? kh?? h???t nh??n

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Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

Th???i b??o Ho??n c???u ng??y 04/08/2018 ????ng b??i ???C???n c???nh gi??c tr?????c vi???c Nh???t t??ch tr??? m???t l?????ng l???n Plutonium??? c???a  D????ng Th???a Qu??n (Yang Cheng Jun), Nghi??n c???u vi??n c???p cao ???y ban An ninh qu???c gia Trung Qu???c. B??i b??o vi???t:

B??o ???Tin t???c Kinh t??? Nh???t ??? h??m qua ????a tin: Hi???n nay l?????ng d??? tr??? v???t li???u Plutonium c???a Nh???t l?? h??n 47 t???n, v?????t xa nhu c???u [s???n xu???t ??i???n] c???a c??c nh?? m??y ??i???n h???t nh??n. N???u d??ng s??? l?????ng Plutonium n??y ch??? t???o v?? kh?? h???t nh??n (VKHN) th?? c?? th??? l??m ???????c h??n 6000 tr??i bom nguy??n t???.

Nh???t t??ch tr??? m???t l?????ng Plutonium nhi???u nh?? v???y ph???i ch??ng c?? t???n t???i kh??? n??ng m???t ki???m so??t? Theo ?? ki???n t??c gi???, ??? ????y c???n ph??n t??ch xem li???u Nh???t c?? hay kh??ng c?? ?? ????? ch??? quan v?? h??nh ?????ng kh??ch quan nghi??n c???u tri???n khai VKHN.

T??c gi??? cho r???ng hi???n nay Nh???t ho??n to??n c?? ????? 4 ??i???u ki???n nghi??n c???u tri???n khai VKHN: N???m ???????c l?? thuy???t ph???n ???ng h???t nh??n v?? c??c ?????c t??nh l?? h??a c???a v???t li???u h???t nh??n; C?? c??c c??ng ngh??? v?? thi???t b??? ????? tinh luy???n v???t li???u h???t nh??n, ph??n r?? h???t nh??n; C?? n??ng l???c t??i ch??nh h??ng h???u ????? h??? tr??? vi???c l??m VKHN; C?? nhu c???u ????? nghi??n c???u ch??? t???o VKHN.

M???y n??m qua GDP c???a Nh???t ?????u gi??? ??? m???c tr??n 5.000 t??? USD, t???ng l?????ng kinh t??? ?????ng th??? ba th??? gi???i, qu???c l???c t???ng h???p, thu nh???p b??nh qu??n ?????u ng?????i v?? n??ng l???c kinh t??? ?????u r???t l???n.

X??t v??? c??ng ngh??? n??ng l?????ng h???t nh??n, Nh???t hi???n nay s??? h???u c??ng ngh??? t???ng h???p h???t nh??n h??ng ?????u th??? gi???i. V?? d???, Nh???t ??ang s??? d???ng thi???t b??? th?? nghi???m t???ng h???p h???t nh??n ki???u xo??y ???c lo???i l???n duy nh???t tr??n th??? gi???i. Nh???t ???? ?????u t?? 6 t??? USD x??y d???ng xong l?? ph???n ???ng t??ng tr??? neutron ???V??n Th????? [Manjusri neutron breeder reactor]. ?????ng th???i Nh???t c??ng c?? n??ng l???c ch??? t???o ?????u ?????n h???t nh??n. C??ng ty Toray (????ng L???) c???a Nh???t ch??? t???o ???????c v???t li???u composites carbon/ carbon c?? c?????ng ????? ch???u x??m th???c nhi???t, ????? kh??ng c?????ng ch???n, v?? t??? tr???ng ch??? b???ng 1/10 h???p kim tungsten, ???? ???????c d??ng l??m ?????u ?????n h???t nh??n Minuteman III c???a M???.

B???i th???, Nh???t hi???n nay ho??n to??n c?? n??ng l???c ch??? t???o VKHN, m?? m???t khi ???? c?? VKHN th?? l???c t???n c??ng t???ng h???p s??? r???t l???n.

Vi???c s??? d???ng Plutonium nh?? th??? n??o s??? c?? li??n quan t???i xu h?????ng ho???t ?????ng h???t nh??n t??? nay v??? sau c???a Nh???t, nh??ng c??ng ngh??? ph??ng h??? h???t nh??n c???a Nh???t ch??a ti??n ti???n ??? ????y l?? m???t n???i lo ng???i l???n h??n. M???i ng?????i ?????u bi???t, n?????c Nh???t c?? nhi???u thi??n tai nh?? ?????ng ?????t v?? b??o. Ch??a ai qu??n tr???n ?????ng ?????t l???n n??m 2011 ??? mi???n ????ng n?????c n??y g??y ra v??? r?? r??? h???t nh??n t???i Nh?? m??y ??i???n h???t nh??n s??? 1 Fukushima Daiichi. S??? c??? r?? r??? h???t nh??n ???? ????nh m???t ????n n???ng n??? v??o l??ng tin c???a ng?????i Nh???t ?????i v???i c??ng ngh??? c???a h???. V?? v???y n???u sau n??y c??c thi??n tai nh?? ?????ng ?????t l???i g??y ra r?? r??? Plutonium th?? ???nh h?????ng s??? r???t n???ng n???.

????? x??? l?? v???n ????? Nh???t t???n tr??? l?????ng Plutonium v???i quy m?? l???n, t??c gi??? cho r???ng tr?????c h???t c???n v???n d???ng c??c ??i???u lu???t qu???c t??? li??n quan, d??ng nhi???u h??nh th???c kh??c nhau ti???n h??nh tuy??n truy???n c??c ??i???u lu???t qu???c t??? c?? li??n quan t???i h???t nh??n, t??? ???? kh??u g???i c???ng ?????ng qu???c t??? quan t??m t???i t??nh h??nh h???t nh??n ??? v??ng ????ng B???c ??.

Th??? hai, t??ng c?????ng ?? th???c lo ng???i v??? kh??? n??ng Nh???t nghi??n c???u tri???n khai VKHN, l??m cho d??n ch??ng tr??n th??? gi???i c?? nh???n th???c ?????y ????? v??? n??ng l???c h???t nh??n c???a Nh???t, ?????c bi???t l?? tr??n c??c l??nh v???c c??ng ngh??? th??m d??, thi???t b??? ?????ng l???c, xu???t kh???u ?????t hi???m??? t??? ???? th???y r?? v?? ng??n ch???n s??? ph??t tri???n n??ng l???c h???t nh??n c???a Nh???t.

Sau c??ng, [B???c Kinh c???n] c??n c??? v??o nhu c???u an ninh h???t nh??n c???a Trung Qu???c, ti???n h??nh lu???n ch???ng khoa h???c v??? quy m?? s??? l?????ng VKHN m?? Trung Qu???c c???n t??? ph??t tri???n, ??i???u ch???nh s??? b??? tr?? VKHN m???t c??ch t???i ??u, n??ng cao n??ng l???c c???nh b??o chi???n l?????c s???m v?? n??ng l???c ?????i ph?? v???i c??c s??? ki???n ?????t ph??t b???t ng???, l??m t???t c??ng t??c chu???n b??? ????? ph??ng v?? ph???n k??ch.

Tuy r???ng Ch??nh ph??? Nh???t ???? nhi???u l???n nh???n m???nh Plutonium d??ng ????? ph??t ??i???n d??n d???ng, nh??ng t??nh h??nh ph??a Nh???t s??? d???ng Plutonium nh?? th??? n??o, c?? th???t l?? ch??? ho??n to??n d??ng v??o vi???c ph??t ??i???n d??n d???ng hay kh??ng, ??i???u ???? ????ng ???????c Trung Qu???c theo d??i s??t sao.

Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh bi??n d???ch t??? ngu???n ti???ng Trung ?????????????????????????????????????????????

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