Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 28/08/2019

Thứ tư - 28/08/2019 00:39
T???ng th???ng Iran Hassan Rouhani ???? b??c b??? kh??? n??ng ????m ph??n v???i T???ng th???ng Donald Trump cho ?????n khi n??o M??? ?????ng ?? d??? b??? t???t c??? c??c l???nh tr???ng ph???t ?????i v???i n?????c n??y. T???ng th???ng Ph??p Emmanuel Macron ???? n??i t???i h???i ngh??? G7 r???ng ??ng c?? th??? s???p x???p m???t cu???c g???p gi???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Iran v?? M???.
Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 28/08/2019

Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 28/08/2019

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Ngu???n: The Economist | Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy

T???ng th???ng Iran Hassan Rouhani ???? b??c b??? kh??? n??ng ????m ph??n v???i T???ng th???ng Donald Trump cho ?????n khi n??o M??? ?????ng ?? d??? b??? t???t c??? c??c l???nh tr???ng ph???t ?????i v???i n?????c n??y. T???ng th???ng Ph??p Emmanuel Macron ???? n??i t???i h???i ngh??? G7 r???ng ??ng c?? th??? s???p x???p m???t cu???c g???p gi???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Iran v?? M???. ??ng Trump n??i r???ng ??ng s??? ?????ng ?? ti???n h??nh m???t cu???c h???p ???n???u ho??n c???nh ph?? h???p???.

C??c ?????ng ?????i l???p c???a V????ng qu???c Anh ???? th???ng nh???t chi???n thu???t c???a h??? nh???m ng??n ch???n ch??nh ph??? ?????ng B???o th??? theo ??u???i Brexit kh??ng th???a thu???n. T???i m???t cu???c g???p ???????c t???p h???p b???i nh?? l??nh ?????o C??ng ?????ng Jeremy Corbyn, c??c ngh??? s?? t??? s??u ?????ng ???? ?????ng ?? s??? d???ng c??c quy tr??nh ph??p l?? c???a qu???c h???i ????? ng??n c???n ch??nh ph???, thay v?? ti???n h??nh m???t cu???c b??? phi???u b???t t??n nhi???m. Ph???n l???n c??c ngh??? s??, bao g???m nhi???u ?????ng vi??n ?????ng B???o th???, mu???n ng??n ch???n Brexit kh??ng th???a thu???n.

T???ng th???ng Brazil Jair Bolsonaro cho bi???t Brazil c?? th??? ???chi???u c?????? nh???n kho???n vi???n tr??? nh???m gi??p d???p t???t c??c ????m ch??y r???ng Amazon t??? n?????c ngo??i tr??? gi?? 22 tri???u ???? la ??? nh??ng ch??? v???i ??i???u ki???n T???ng th???ng Ph??p ph???i xin l???i v?? ???? x??c ph???m ??ng. ??ng Emmanual Macron ???? g???i ??ng l?? ???k??? d???i tr?????. T???ng th???ng Brazil ???? b??c b??? l???i ????? ngh??? h??? tr??? c???a G7, cho r???ng n?? th??? hi???n ???n??o tr???ng th???c d??n???. Trong khi ???? th?? r???ng v???n ch??y.

Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng ???n ????? (RBI) s??? chuy???n m???t kho???n 1,76 ng??n t??? rupee (24,4 t??? ???? la M???) ???d?? th???a??? sang kho b???c c???a ch??nh ph???, trong m???t ?????ng th??i l??m d???y l??n ho??i nghi v??? s??? ?????c l???p c???a ng??n h??ng n??y. N??m ngo??i, ??p l???c b??n giao ti???n ???? khi???n th???ng ?????c RBI Urjit Patel ph???i t??? ch???c. S??? ti???n n??y s??? gi??p b?? ?????p v??o doanh thu thu??? ??ang ??? m???c th???p c???a ???n ?????.

M???t t??a ??n ??? Oklahoma ???? tuy??n r???ng c??ng ty d?????c ph???mJohnson & Johnson ph???i tr??? cho bang n??y 572 tri???u ???? la v?? nh???ng thi???t h???i g??y ra b???i lo???i thu???c gi???m ??au k?? ????n trong th???m h???a opioid. M???c d?? kho???n b???i th?????ng ???? gi???m r???t nhi???u so v???i m???c 17 t??? ???? la m?? bang n??y mu???n, song ph??n quy???t s??? khuy???n kh??ch c??c bang v?? th??nh ph??? kh??c theo ??u???i c??c v??? ki???n t????ng t??? ?????i v???i c??c c??ng ty d?????c ph???m l???n.

Philip Morris cho bi???t h??? ??ang ????m ph??n ????? h???p nh???t v???i Altria. C??c ?????i gia thu???c l?? n??y t???ng t??ch ra v??o n??m 2008 (Altria b??n thu???c l?? Marlboro ??? M???, Philip Morris b??n ??? th??? tr?????ng kh??c). Hai c??ng ty c?? t???ng v???n h??a th??? tr?????ng kho???ng 210 t??? ???? la. C??c c??ng ty thu???c l?? ??ang ph???i th??ch nghi v???i m??i tr?????ng kinh doanh thay ?????i, v???i kh??? n??ng b??? ki???n gi???m xu???ng trong khi c??c c??ng ngh??? m???i nh?? thu???c l?? ??i???n t??? t??i ?????nh h??nh th??? tr?????ng.

M???t th???m ph??n li??n bang ??? Missouri ???? ch???n m???t ?????o lu???t c???m ph??? n??? ph?? thai sau t??m tu???n mang thai. ?????o lu???t n??y, kh??ng mi???n tr??? cho c??c tr?????ng h???p lo???n lu??n ho???c hi???p d??m, d??? ki???n s??? c?? hi???u l???c trong tu???n n??y. Song c??ng gi???ng nh?? c??c l???nh c???m ph?? thai s???m kh??c ???????c th??ng qua ??? M??? trong nh???ng th??ng g???n ????y, lu???t n??y ???? c??ng khai kh??ng t??n tr???ng ph??n quy???t v???  Roe v Wade, m???t ph??n quy???t c???a T??a ??n T???i cao h???i n??m 1973 cho r???ng ph?? thai l?? m???t quy???n hi???n ?????nh.

TI??U ??I???M

Quan h??? Nh???t-H??n l???i th??m c??ng th???ng

M???i b???t h??a gi???a hai n?????c v??? v???n ????? l???ch s??? l???i gia t??ng h??m nay khi Nh???t B???n ??p ?????t c??c h???n ch??? ?????i v???i h??ng xu???t kh???u c???a h??? sang H??n Qu???c. Nh???t quy???t ?????nh lo???i ng?????i h??ng x??m c???a m??nh kh???i danh s??ch c??c ?????i t??c th????ng m???i ????ng tin c???y, c?? ngh??a l?? r???t nhi???u c??c l?? h??ng s??? ph???i ???????c ch??nh ph??? ph?? duy???t. ????y l?? b?????c leo thang c???a Nh???t t??? sau ?????ng th??i h???n ch??? xu???t kh???u v??o th??ng tr?????c ?????i v???i c??c v???t li???u c??ng ngh??? cao c???a Nh???t B???n, h??nh ?????ng khi???n Seoul ph???n n???.

Tu???n tr?????c, H??n Qu???c ???? r??t kh???i hi???p ?????c ba b??n v???i M??? v??? chia s??? th??ng tin t??nh b??o qu??n s??? v???i Nh???t, trong m???t ?????ng th??i ???????c coi l?? s??? tr??? ????a. Nh???ng c??ng th???ng g???n ????y b??ng l??n t??? th??ng 10 n??m ngo??i khi T??a ??n t???i cao H??n Qu???c y??u c???u c??c c??ng ty Nh???t ph???i b???i th?????ng cho nh???ng ng?????i lao ?????ng H??n Qu???c b??? c?????ng b???c l??m vi???c cho h??? trong Th??? chi???n II. Nh???t B???n ph??? nh???n m???t c??ch ????ng ng??? r???ng c??c bi???n ph??p ki???m so??t xu???t kh???u kh??ng ph???i l?? ????n ?????n mi???ng tr??? mi???ng???. D???u ???? ???????c ????? th??m v??o ng???n l???a ngo???i giao v??o cu???i tu???n qua khi H??n Qu???c t??? ch???c c??c di???n t???p chi???n tranh v???i b???i c???nh l?? qu???n ?????o Dokdo/Takeshima, c??c ?????o ???? n???m gi???a hai n?????c m?? c??? hai b??n ?????u tuy??n b??? ch??? quy???n.

Qu???n ?????o Dokdo/Takeshima m?? Nh???t v?? H??n Qu???c ??ang tranh ch???p.

T???ng th???ng Philippines th??m Trung Qu???c

T???ng th???ng Philippines Rodrigo Duterte h??m nay t???i B???c Kinh, n??i ??ng v?? Ch??? t???ch T???p C???n B??nh s??? c?? cu???c g???p th??? t??m. C??ng th???ng gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? Philippines b???i c??c y??u s??ch ch???ng ch??o ??? Bi???n ????ng c?? nguy c?? g??y ra xung ?????t l???n v?? li??n l???y ?????n M???, m???t ?????ng minh c???a Philippines. M???c d?? v???y, hai nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c v?? Philippines g???n ????y ???? gi???i quy???t m???t c??ch kh??n kh??o. ??ng T???p ki???m ch??? s??? quy???t li???t c???a Trung Qu???c trong v??ng bi???n tranh ch???p trong khi ??ng Duterte gi??? im l???ng v??? ph??n quy???t c???a t??a tr???ng t??i qu???c t??? r???ng ch??? c?? c??c y??u s??ch c???a Philippines l?? h???p ph??p.

Tuy nhi??n, gi??? ????y, ng?????i Trung Qu???c l???i d????ng oai di???u v?? m???t l???n n???a, khi???n ??ng Duterte t??? ra y???u ??u???i trong m???t c??? tri Philippines. V?? v???y, ??ng n??i r???ng ??ng s???  c??o bu???c Trung Qu???c vi ph???m lu???t ph??p qu???c t??? khi g???p ??ng T???p. ??ng T???p s??? ch???ng quan t??m. Trung Qu???c b??c b??? ph??n quy???t c???a t??a tr???ng t??i. Nh??ng ??ng Duterte c?? th??? c???nh b??o v???i ??ng T???p r???ng ??ng s??? l???p l???i c??o bu???c ???? tr??n to??n th??? gi???i ??? l??m b??? m???t m???t Trung Qu???c ??ang tuy???t v???ng ch???ng minh s??? trung th???c qu???c t??? c???a m??nh.

IMF v?? n??? c???a Argentina

M???t nh??m chuy??n gia cao c???p c???a IMF t??? Argentina s??? tr??? l???i Washington v??o ng??y h??m nay, lo l???ng sau khi c?? c??i nh??n c???n c???nh v??? cu???c b???u c??? ??? ?????t n?????c Nam M??? n??y. Nh??m nghi??n c???u ???? g???p Alberto Fern??ndez, ???ng c??? vi??n phe ?????i l???p, ng?????i ??ang t??? ra v?????t tr???i so v???i T???ng th???ng Maurico Macri trong cu???c b??? phi???u v??o th??ng 10. ??ng Fern??ndez ???? h?? h??o r???ng c??? ch??nh ph??? Macri v?? IMF ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m v??? kho???n vay k??? l???c tr??? gi?? 57 t??? ???? la ???????c trao cho Argentina v??o n??m ngo??i. Ch??? ra l???m ph??t tr??n 50%, t??? l??? th???t nghi???p v?? ngh??o ????i gia t??ng, ??ng Fern??ndez tuy??n b??? r???ng IMF ph???i ????????ng ch???u tr??ch nhi???m??? v???i ch??nh ph??? v??? ???th???m h???a x?? h???i ??ang ng??y c??ng g??y ???nh h?????ng l??n nhi???u th??nh ph???n c???a x?? h???i Argentina???.

??ng Fern??ndez ?????m b???o r???ng n???u ???????c b???u ??ng s??? kh??ng t??n tr???ng c??c ngh??a v??? n??? c???a ?????t n?????c m?? t??m c??ch th????ng l?????ng l???i ch??ng. Nh??m IMF ???? ?????n Argentina ????? xem x??t li???u c?? n??n ????? xu???t gi???i ng??n ?????t ti???p theo tr??? gi?? 5,4 t??? ???? la theo l???ch tr??nh d??? ki???n gi???a th??ng 9 hay kh??ng. ??i???u ???? v???n c?? th??? x???y ra, song nh???ng g?? m?? nh??m IMF ???? ?????i di???n ??? Buenos Aires xem ra s??? l??m cho quy???t ?????nh n??y kh??ng h??? d??? d??ng.

John Bolton ?????n th??m Belarus

Tu???n n??y John Bolton, c??? v???n an ninh qu???c gia c???a Donald Trump, s??? g???p nh?? l??nh ?????o chuy??n ch??? c???a Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko, tr??? th??nh quan ch???c cao c???p nh???t c???a M??? ?????n th??m Minsk k??? t??? n??m 2001. T??? l??u, Belarus ???? ???th??n thi???t??? v???i Vladimir Putin, ng?????i t??m ki???m m???t li??n minh ch???t ch??? h??n v???i n?????c c???ng h??a thu???c Li??n X?? c?? n??y. Song, lo ng???i tr?????c cu???c x??m l?????c c???a Nga ??? mi???n ????ng Ukraine v?? s??p nh???p Crimea h???i n??m 2014, ??ng Lukashenko ???? quay sang ph??a t??y ????? ???l??ch??? ra kh???i v??ng tay c???a ng?????i h??ng x??m kh???ng l???.

??ng ???? th??? c??c t?? nh??n ch??nh tr??? v??o n??m 2015, n???i l???ng c??c y??u c???u th??? th???c cho m???t s??? qu???c gia thu???c Li??n minh ch??u ??u t??? n??m 2017 v?? d??? b??? h???n m???c s??? l?????ng c??c nh?? ngo???i giao M??? ???????c ph??p l??u l???i ??? n?????c n??y t??? ?????u n??m nay. Sau m???t cu???c tranh c??i v??? d???u m??? v???i Nga, h???i tu???n tr?????c Belarus ???? y??u c???u M??? ch???m d???t c??c l???nh tr???ng ph???t v??? d???u m??? ????? h??? c?? th??? ??a d???ng h??a ngu???n cung. Cu???c g???p th??? hi???n n??? l???c c???a M??? nh???m t??i ch?? ?? t???i khu v???c n??y, v???i vi???c ??ng Bolton th??m t???ng th???ng m???i c???a Ukraine ng??y h??m qua, v?? d??? ki???n ??????s??? th??p t??ng ??ng Trump th??m Ba Lan v??o cu???i tu???n n??y.

C??ng ty trang s???c Tiffany t??m ki???m kh??ch h??ng m???i

T??n c???a h??ng trang s???c n???i ti???ng nh???t New York l?? m???t t??? l??ng th??? hi???n s??? sang tr???ng n??? t??nh. Li???u Tiffany c??ng c?? th??? d??? d??? ????n ??ng? ????n ??ng mua n??? trang cho v??? v?? ng?????i y??u, nh??ng h??ng n??y c??n mong mu???n h??? m??? v?? cho ch??nh m??nh. M???t d??ng trang s???c t???p trung v??o nam gi???i ???????c c??ng b??? trong th??ng n??y c?? nhi???m v??? c???i thi???n doanh thu, sau khi nhu c???u t??? Trung Qu???c s???t gi???m. Trong c??c qu?? g???n ????y, Tiffany ???? b??o c??o doanh s??? s???t gi???m t??? c??c kh??ch du l???ch Trung Qu???c, bu???c c??ng ty ph???i c???t gi???m l???i nhu???n d??? ki???n cho n??m 2019 trong hai b??o c??o thu nh???p g???n ????y nh???t.

H??? c?? th??? ph???i l??m nh?? v???y m???t l???n n???a khi c??ng b??? thu nh???p n???a ?????u n??m v??o h??m nay. Cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i gi???a M??? v?? Trung Qu???c, ???????c ti???n h??nh b???i T???ng th???ng M??? Donald Trump, ???? g??y ra m???t s??? s???t gi???m l???n l?????ng du kh??ch Trung Qu???c. ??i???u n??y l??m t???n th????ng m???i c???a h??ng n??i m?? c??c v??? kh??ch n??y c?? th??? ???? ti??u ti???n, v?? th???m ch?? c??n g??y nhi???u t???n th????ng h??n n???a cho m???t th????ng hi???u mang t??nh bi???u t?????ng c???a n?????c M???. ??i???u n??y ?????c bi???t ????ng v???i m???t c???a h??ng ch??nh c???a h??ng ??? Manhattan, n???m c???nh t??a th??p Trump.

Con ???????ng l??n n???m quy???n c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m, 1945-54 (P3)

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Ngu???n: Edward Miller ???Vision, Power and Agency: The Ascent of Ng?? ????nh Di???m, 1945???54???, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 35 (3), October 2004, pp 433???458.

Bi??n d???ch: Ho??i Phi & Vy Huy???n

Chi???n d???ch tranh c??? th??? t?????ng c???a ??ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m, 1953-1954

Quy???t ?????nh r???i Hoa K??? ?????n ch??u ??u th??ng 5 n??m 1953 c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m l?? m???t b?????c kh???i ?????u trong v??n c??? ch??nh tr??? m???i. M???c d?? cu???c chi???n ??? ????ng D????ng v???n ??? th??? b??? t???c, ??ng v?? nh???ng ?????ng minh c???a ??ng nh???n th???y c?? s??? thay ?????i ch??nh tr??? m?? h??? hy v???ng r???ng s??? c?? l???i cho ??ng. Nh??? v??? tr?? thu???n l???i c???a m??nh ??? S??i G??n, Ng?? ????nh Nhu nh???n th???y r???ng nh???ng nh?? qu???c gia kh??ng c???ng s???n ??ang m???t h???t ki??n nh???n v???i B???o ?????i v?? chi???n l?????c gi??nh ?????c l???p trong Li??n hi???p Ph??p c???a B???o ?????i. B???n n??m k??? t??? ng??y k?? k???t Ho?? ?????c Elys??e, Ph??p r???t ??t khi nh?????ng b??? ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c t???i Vi???t Nam, v?? v???i Paris, Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam nhi???u nh???t l?? ?????c l???p tr??n danh ngh??a. ??a s??? ng?????i qu???c gia th???t v???ng v???i Th??? t?????ng Nh?? n?????c Vi???t Nam Nguy???n V??n T??m, m???t ng?????i c?? ti???ng l?? th??n Ph??p v?? chuy??n quy???n. Cu???i c??ng, nh???ng ng?????i qu???c gia ???? n???i gi???n v?? quy???t ?????nh ????n ph????ng c???a Paris trong vi???c ph?? gi?? ?????ng b???c ????ng D????ng v??o ?????u th??ng 5 n??m 1953, m???t h??nh ?????ng vi ph???m nh???ng tho??? thu???n tr?????c ???? v???i c??c Qu???c gia Li??n hi???p, ?????ng th???i l??m gia t??ng l???m ph??t v?? kh?? kh??n ??? ????ng D????ng. [1] Khi nh???ng b???t m??n v???i Ph??p v?? B???o ?????i t??ng cao, anh em h??? Ng?? ?? th???c ???????c r???ng th???i gian ???? ch??n mu???i ????? c?? th??? ????a ra v??n c?????c quy???n l???c m???i.

Khi l???p k??? ho???ch, Ng?? ????nh Di???m v?? Ng?? ????nh Nhu ?????u bi???t r???ng ph???i ??i nh???ng n?????c th???n tr???ng. H??? c???n ph???i l??m cho B???o ?????i v?? chi???n l?????c t??m ?????c l???p qua nh?????ng b??? t???ng ph???n c???a ??ng ta b??? m???t uy t??n; tuy nhi??n, h??? c??ng ph???i tr??nh ph?? ph??n tr???c ti???p c???u ho??ng, n???u kh??ng, e r???ng B???o ?????i khi qu?? t???c gi???n s??? t??? ch???i vi???c ???ng c??? c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m ngay t??? ban ?????u. May m???n cho anh em h???, c??c s??? ki???n v??o m??a h?? 1953 ??em l???i ch??nh nh???ng c?? h???i m?? h??? c???n. ?????u th??ng B???y, ch??nh ph??? Ph??p ????? ngh??? m???t v??ng th???o lu???n m???i v???i c??c Qu???c gia Li??n hi???p nh???m ???ho??n thi???n??? n???n ?????c l???p c???a h??? trong Li??n hi???p Ph??p. N???u nh?? ng?????i Ph??p ????a ra ????? ngh??? n??y v??o n??m 1949 hay 1950, n?? c?? th??? ???????c coi l?? s??? c??ng nh???n t???ng b?????c l???p tr?????ng c???a B???o ?????i; tuy nhi??n, v??o th???i ??i???m n??m 1953, c??c ????? ngh??? th????ng th???o th??m d?????ng nh?? ch??? ????? th??m d???u v??o n???i ??u lo c???a nh???ng ng?????i qu???c gia v??? ?? ?????nh ch??n th??nh c???a ng?????i Ph??p.

Trong h??ng lo???t nh???ng bu???i h???p v???i nh???ng l??nh ?????o phe qu???c gia v??o th??ng B???y v?? th??ng T??m, Ng?? ????nh Nhu kh??o l??o kh??i g???i nh???ng m???i lo ??u c???a h???. L??m vi???c v???i Nguy???n T??n Ho??n c???a ?????i Vi???t ??? ng?????i, nh?? ???? n??i ??? tr??n, ???? c???ng t??c v???i Ng?? ????nh Di???m m???t th???i gian ng???n trong n??m 1947-1948 tr?????c khi Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam th??nh l???p ??? Ng?? ????nh Nhu ???? ??p m??? ?? t?????ng tri???u t??p ?????i h???i ??o??n k???t kh??ng ch??nh th???c t???i S??i G??n v??o ?????u th??ng Ch??n, sau khi B???o ?????i r???i Vi???t Nam ??i Ph??p. ?? t?????ng v??? ?????i h???i nhanh ch??ng ???????c nhi???u ng?????i qu???c gia, tr?????c ????y n???i ti???ng theo phe B???o ?????i, ???ng h???; ngo??i ??ng Nguy???n T??n Ho??n c???a ?????i Vi???t, nh???ng ng?????i n??y g???m c?? l??nh ?????o Cao ????i Ph???m C??ng T???c, t?????ng Tr???n V??n So??i c???a Ho?? H???o, T?????ng L?? V??n Vi???n c???a S??i G??n (B???y Vi???n B??nh Xuy??n) v?? m???t s??? nh??n v???t C??ng gi??o quan tr???ng. B??n c???nh ????, m???t s??? nh??m tr?????c ???? ???? ng???ng ???ng h??? B???o ?????i v?? Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam (ch???ng h???n ?????ng minh H???i v?? Vi???t Nam Qu???c d??n ?????ng thu???c phe qu???c gia, v?? m???t s??? t??? ch???c Ph???t gi??o) c??ng ?????ng ?? tham d??? ?????i h???i. T?????ng Vi???n b???ng l??ng ????? s??? ki???n n??y t??? ch???c ??? B??nh Xuy??n, S??i G??n. [2]

?????i h???i ??o??n k???t ng??y 5, 6 th??ng 9, 1953 l?? m???t s??? ki???n h???n ?????n. 55 ?????i bi???u c?? m???t ???? tham gia k?? x??c nh???n b???n tuy??n b??? ph???n ?????i m???nh m??? ch??nh s??ch ?????c l???p t???ng ph???n c???a B???o ?????i. Tuy nhi??n, ngay sau khi b???n tuy??n b??? ???????c k??, nh???ng ng?????i tham d??? b???t ?????u tranh c??i v??? nh???ng ???n ?? c???a b???n tuy??n b??? n??y. T?????ng Vi???n e ng???i r???ng ?????i h???i s??? v?????t kh???i kh??? n??ng ki???m so??t, n??n ch??? sau hai ng??y, ???? quy???t ?????nh k???t th??c s??? ki???n n??y s???m b???ng vi???c ????ng h???i tr?????ng. Ph???m C??ng T???c c???a Cao ????i, ng?????i tr?????c ???? ???? ph?? ph??n n???ng n??? B???o ?????i trong nh???ng nh???n x??t c??ng b??? tr?????c cu???c h???p, gi??? ????y c??ng v???i nh???ng th??? l??nh c???a B??nh Xuy??n v?? Ho?? H???o g???i ??i???n t??n t???i c???u ho??ng ????? t??i kh???ng ?????nh s??? trung th??nh c???a ba nh??m n??y ?????i v???i Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam. Trong khi ????, Ng?? ????nh Nhu tuy??n b??? r???ng ?????i h???i ???? t???o ra m???t t??? ch???c ch??nh tr??? m???i v???i t??n g???i Phong tr??o ?????i ??o??n k???t v?? Ho?? b??nh; tuy nhi??n, ??ng c??ng th???n tr???ng tr??nh nh???ng l???i tuy??n b??? gay g???t ch???ng B???o ?????i v?? ph??? nh???n vi???c ?????i h???i ???? ch???n ???????c l???p tr?????ng ch??nh tr??? ch??nh th???c. [3]

V??? vi???c x??y d???ng li??n minh, ?????i h???i ??o??n k???t l?? m???t th???t b???i. Tuy nhi??n, v?? v???i Ng?? ????nh Nhu v?? Ng?? ????nh Di???m, s??? ki???n n??y ch??? y???u ch??? ????? chi???m l???y quy???n h??nh t??? tay B???o ?????i, n??n trong tr?????ng h???p n??y, ?????i h???i l?? m???t th??nh c??ng r???c r???. T??? Ph??p, B???o ?????i mu???n gi??nh l???i v??? th??? ch??nh tr??? n??n ???? tuy??n b??? r???ng m???t ???H???i ngh??? Qu???c gia??? ch??nh th???c s??? ???????c t??? ch???c ??? S??i G??n v??o th??ng M?????i n??m ????. Nh???ng l??nh ?????o c???p cao c???a Cao ????i, Ho?? H???o v?? B??nh Xuy??n ngay l???p t???c ?????ng ?? tham d???, c??ng v???i ?????i di???n c???a nh???ng nh??m qu???c gia kh??c. Tuy nhi??n, Ng?? ????nh Nhu v?? nh???ng ?????ng minh c???a ??ng c??? ?? v???ng m???t trong trong bu???i h???p ng??y 12 th??ng 10, 1953. Ban ?????u, H???i ngh??? c?? v??? nh???m ????a ra ph?? chu???n nh?? d??? ?????nh ???ng h??? B???o ?????i v?? ch??nh s??ch c???a ??ng. Tuy nhi??n, ng??y 16 th??ng 10, c??c ?????i bi???u b???t ng??? ph?? chu???n quy???t ?????nh b??c b??? s??? tham d??? v??o Li??n hi???p Ph??p v?? ???ng h??? vi???c ????????c l???p ho??n to??n???. D?? r???ng sau ???? c??c ???ng h??? vi??n trung th??nh B???o ?????i ?????t ???????c m???t tho??? thu???n b??? sung v??o nh???ng tuy??n b??? ch???ng ?????i tr?????c ????, r???ng m???t Vi???t Nam ?????c l???p s??? kh??ng thu???c Li??n hi???p ???nh?? trong h??nh th???c hi???n t???i???, nh??ng nh???ng t???n th???t ch??nh tr??? ???? x???y ra. M???c ????ch c???a H???i ngh??? Qu???c gia l?? ????? ch???ng t??? s??? ???ng h??? c???a phe qu???c gia d??nh cho B???o ?????i, nh??ng thay v??o ????, n?? l???i cho th???y m???c ????? b???t m??n c???a nh???ng ng?????i n??y ?????i v???i B???o ?????i v?? ch??nh s??ch c???a ??ng. [4]

Ng?? ????nh Di???m v?? Ng?? ????nh Nhu kh??ng tham gia H???i ngh??? th??ng M?????i, v?? hi???n nhi??n h??? s??? r???ng vi???c tham gia c???a h??? s??? k??o th??m s??? ???ng h??? cho B???o ?????i. [5] Tuy nhi??n, ngay sau ????, h??? kh??m ph?? r???ng, k???t qu??? b???t ng??? c???a h???i ngh??? bu???c B???o ?????i ph???i th??n thi???n h??n v???i Ng?? ????nh Di???m v?? c??n nh???c l???i kh??? n??ng b??? nhi???m ??ng v??o ch???c th??? t?????ng. ?????u th??ng 10, tr?????c khi H???i ngh??? Qu???c gia khai m???c, B???o ?????i c?? m???t cu???c g???p ri??ng v???i Ng?? ????nh Di???m ??? Paris; ???? l?? cu???c g???p m???t tr???c ti???p ?????u ti??n c???a h??? trong v??ng b???n n??m. [6] Sau khi H???i ngh??? tan r??, c???u ho??ng c??ng tr??? n??n ho?? ho??n h??n. Trong cu???c g???p m???t l???n th??? hai v???i Ng?? ????nh Di???m ??? Cannes ng??y 26 th??ng 10, B???o ?????i th??m d?? kh??? n??ng b??? nhi???m Ng?? ????nh Di???m v??o ch???c th??? t?????ng v???i vi???c th???m v???n ???gi??? ?????nh??? v??? thi???n ?? ph???ng s??? c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m. [7] C???u ho??ng ho??n l???i quy???t ?????nh v??? Ng?? ????nh Di???m v??i th??ng sau ????; tuy v???y, ?????n cu???i n??m 1953, v??n c??? c???a anh em h??? Ng?? r?? r??ng ???? gi??nh ph???n th???ng l???n. Uy t??n v?? v??? th??? c???a B???o ?????i v???i to??n d??n th???p ?????n m???c kinh kh???ng. Th??i ????? ch???ng Ph??p ki??n quy???t c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m, ng?????c l???i, c?? v??? r???t h???p v???i ph????ng h?????ng chung c???a ch??nh ki???n qu???c gia ??? S??i G??n, v?? v?? v???y n?? d?????ng nh?? b???ng nhi??n tr??? th??nh ??i???u m?? c???u ho??ng kh??ng th??? thi???u ???????c.

Nh???ng th??ng sau H???i ngh??? th??ng M?????i, ??p l???c v???i B???o ?????i ti???p t???c t??ng l??n, trong khi Ng?? ????nh Di???m v?? Ng?? ????nh Nhu ti???p t???c m??? r???ng l???i th??? c???a h???. Th??ng 12, 1953, B???o ?????i nh?????ng b??? nh???ng than phi???n c???a phe qu???c gia v?? c??ch ch???c Th??? t?????ng chuy??n quy???n T??m. B???ng vi???c thay th??? ch??nh ph??? c???a Nguy???n V??n T??m v???i n???i c??c l??m th???i d?????i quy???n c???a Ho??ng t??? B???o L???c, m???t th??nh vi??n c???a ho??ng t???c, B???o ?????i hy v???ng k??o d??i th???i gian ????? t??m c??ch gi??nh l???i s??? ???ng h??? c???a th???n d??n. Th???i c?? gi??? ????y l?? v??ng b???c, v?? anh em h??? Ng?? ???? kh??ng b??? l???. V??o ?????u th??ng 3, 1954, sau khi B???o ?????i ch???p thu???n tr??n nguy??n t???c vi???c th??nh l???p Qu???c h???i m???i, Nhu v?? nh???ng ?????ng minh c???a ??ng xu???t b???n m???t b??i vi???t ??? S??i G??n, trong ????, h??? tuy??n b??? chi???n th???ng v?? ?????ng th???i th??c ??p nh?????ng b??? th??m. N?????c c??? n??y kh??i m??o cho s??? ph??n chia gi???a phe ph??i nh???ng ng?????i qu???c gia; trong khi m???t s??? th??? l??nh theo B???o ?????i, m???t s??? nh??m trong n???i b??? c???a Cao ????i, Ho?? H???o v?? ?????i Vi???t l???i c??ng khai ???ng h??? Ng?? ????nh Nhu v?? nh???ng ????i h???i ???c??ch m???ng d??n t???c ch??? ngh??a??? c???a ??ng. [8]

Khi nh???ng ?????u ???? ch??nh tr??? ??? S??i G??n t??ng cao, tin t??? mi???n B???c v??o gi???a th??ng Ba cho hay Vi???t Minh ???? v??y h??m c??n c??? c???a Ph??p ??? ??i???n Bi??n Ph???. Tin n??y, c??ng v???i vi???c ch??nh ph??? Ph??p ?????ng ?? ????m ph??n v??? v???n ????? ????ng D????ng t???i h???i ngh??? c??c C?????ng qu???c ??? Geneva, l???p t???c bi???n kh??? n??ng ng?????i Ph??p r??t kh???i Vi???t Nam th??nh ??i???u s???p x???y ra. T???i Paris, B???o ?????i c???m th???y r???ng ??ng ??ang h???t nh???ng l???a ch???n. Khi v??? th??? c???a ng?????i Ph??p ??? ??i???n Bi??n Ph??? tr??? n??n b???p b??nh, c???u ho??ng chuy???n l???i ?????n Ng?? ????nh Di???m qua ng?????i em ??t c???a ??ng l?? Ng?? ????nh Luy???n. ??i???n Bi??n Ph??? r??i v??o tay Vi???t Minh ng??y 7 th??ng 5, 1954; v??i ng??y sau ????, Ng?? ????nh Di???m ?????n Paris ????? g???p B???o ?????i l???n n???a. Theo nh???ng g?? ???????c bi???t sau n??y, Ng?? ????nh Di???m r???t e d??; ban ?????u, ??ng l??m nh?? kh??ng h??? quan t??m ?????n ch???c v??? th??? t?????ng. B???o ?????i bu???c ph???i ????? ngh??? Ng?? ????nh Di???m ?????n l???n th??? hai, kh???n n??i Di???m r???ng ???s??? b???o v??? c?? ????? Vi???t Nam tu??? thu???c v??o vi???c n??y???. [9]

Nh???ng s??? ki???n x???y ra ??? S??i G??n v?? Ph??p trong su???t th???i gian 1953-1954, v?? vai tr?? li??n quan c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m v?? Ng?? ????nh Nhu l?? nh???ng m???u x??ch quan tr???ng gi??p ch??ng ta hi???u con ???????ng ?????n quy???n l???c c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m v?? vi???c ng?????i M??? ???????c cho l?? ???? tham gia v??o vi???c ?????m b???o cho Ng?? ????nh Di???m ???????c b??? nhi???m. T??? l??u nay, m???i ng?????i qu??? quy???t r???ng nh???ng quan ch???c Hoa K??? ???? b?? m???t ??p l???c B???o ?????i ch???n Ng?? ????nh Di???m. [10] Tuy nhi??n, s??? gia David L. Anderson ch??? ra r???ng, v??o ?????u n??m 1954, nh???ng quan ch???c c???p cao c???a ch??nh quy???n Eisenhower ch??? ???bi???t m?? h?????? v??? Ng?? ????nh Di???m, v?? nh???ng t??i li???u ch??nh th???c c???a Hoa K??? kh??ng cung c???p b???ng ch???ng nh???ng c??o bu???c r???ng Hoa K??? t??? ch???c chi???n d???ch ???ng h??? Ng?? ????nh Di???m. Thay v??o ????, Anderson l???p lu???n r???ng quy???t ?????nh c???a B???o ?????i ???????c h??nh th??nh ch??? y???u b???i ni???m tin c???a ??ng r???ng Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam c???n c?? s??? ???ng h??? c???a Hoa K??? ????? ti???p t???c t???n t???i, v?? B???o ?????i cho r???ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m l?? m???t l??nh ?????o c?? kh??? n??ng nh???t ????? b???o ?????m ???????c s??? ???ng h??? n??y. [11] Nh???ng kh???ng ?????nh c???a Anderson ban ?????u c?? v??? ch??? c?? t???m quan tr???ng t????ng ?????i nh???, nh??ng n?? tr??? n??n l???n d???n trong nh???ng tranh lu???n sau ???? v??? ngu???n g???c v?? ti???n tri???n c???a vi???c can thi???p c???a Hoa K??? v??o Vi???t Nam trong th???p ni??n 1950.

Nh???ng b???ng ch???ng ??? ????y cho th???y r???ng gi???i th??ch c???a Anderson l?? ????ng nh??ng kh??ng tr???n v???n. Ngo??i nh???ng l?? do c???a t??nh h??nh th??? gi???i, quy???t ?????nh c???a B???o ?????i ch??? y???u ???????c h??nh th??nh b???i nh???ng ti???n tri???n ch??nh tr??? t???i Vi???t Nam. V??o m??a xu??n n??m 1954, nh???ng s??? ki???n x???y ra ???? h???p th???c ho?? quy???t ?????nh c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m trong vi???c gi??nh quy???n ?????c l???p ???????ng ngh??a??? t??? ng?????i Ph??p. Ngay c??? tr?????c khi ng?????i Ph??p b???i tr???n t???i ??i???n Bi??n Ph???, l???p tr?????ng c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m v??? v???n ????? ?????c l???p hi???n nhi??n ???????c ??a chu???ng h??n khi so s??nh v???i B???o ?????i. H??n n???a, Ng?? ????nh Nhu v?? nh???ng ?????ng minh c???a ??ng cho th???y m???t c??ch thuy???t ph???c r???ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m n???m gi??? m???t t??m ??i???m ch??nh tr??? t???i Vi???t Nam. Nh?? B???o ?????i sau n??y vi???t trong h???i k?? c???a m??nh, s??? k??nh m???n c???a nh???ng ng?????i qu???c gia d??nh cho anh em h??? l?? ph???n quan tr???ng trong b??n t??nh ch??nh tr??? c???a ??ng:

???T??? nh???ng g?? t??i bi???t v??? ??ng, t??i bi???t r???ng ??ng Di???m l?? m???t ng?????i kh?? t??nh. T??i c??ng bi???t v??? s??? cu???ng t??n v?? xu h?????ng thi??n v??? Thi??n Ch??a c???a ??ng. Nh??ng, trong ho??n c???nh hi???n t???i, kh??ng c?? m???t l???a ch???n n??o t???t h??n. ??ng ???????c ng?????i M??? bi???t ?????n, v?? h??? ????nh gi?? cao t??nh kh??ng khoan nh?????ng c???a ??ng. Trong m???t h???, ??ng l?? ng?????i x???ng ????ng v???i ch???c v??? ???? nh???t, v?? Washington s??? kh??ng d?? x???n trong vi???c ???ng h??? ??ng. B???i v?? qu?? kh??? [c???a ??ng Di???m] v?? b???i v?? s??? hi???n di???n c???a ng?????i em ??ng ??? v??? tr?? h??ng ?????u c???a ???Phong tr??o C??ng ??o??n Qu???c gia???, ??ng s??? c?? ???????c s??? c???ng t??c c???a nh???ng ng?????i qu???c gia th??? l???c nh???t, nh???ng ng?????i ???? h??? b??? ??ng T??m v?? ??ng B???u-L???c. Cu???i c??ng, c??ng v?? t??nh kh??ng khoan nh?????ng v?? s??? cu???ng t??n c???a m??nh, ??ng l?? ng?????i ta c?? th??? tr??ng c???y ???????c trong vi???c ch???ng l???i ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n. ????ng, ??ng ch??nh l?? ng?????i c???n thi???t cho ho??n c???nh nh?? v???y.??? [12]

?????n gi??? n??y, c??c s??? gia v???n ch??a t??m ra ???????c m???t t??i li???u b???ng ch???ng n??o cho vi???c Hoa K??? ???? b?? m???t ????a Ng?? ????nh Di???m v??o ch???c v??? th??? t?????ng v??o m??a xu??n 1954, nh??ng cho d?? c?? m???t ??m m??u nh?? v???y ???? ???????c ???p ??? v?? thi h??nh, n?? c??ng kh??ng ???nh h?????ng nhi???u ?????n quy???t ?????nh c???a B???o ?????i. V??o th??ng 5, 1954, B???o ?????i ???? b??? c??c s??? ki???n ??p ?????o v?? b??? Ng?? ????nh Di???m v?? Ng?? ????nh Nhu v?????t m???t v??? chi???n thu???t. ??ng h???u nh?? kh??ng c??n l???a ch???n n??o kh??c ngo??i vi???c giao cho Ng?? ????nh Di???m ch???c th??? t?????ng v???i nh???ng ??i???u ki???n m?? Ng?? ????nh Di???m ???? ????i h???i t??? l??u: Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam ph???i c?? ???to??n quy???n??? trong m???i kh??a c???nh c???a ch??nh ph???, qu??n s??? v?? kinh t???.

Ng??y 16 th??ng 6, 1954 ??? ????ng n??m n??m k??? t??? ng??y c??ng b??? b???n tuy??n ng??n cho m???t h?????ng ??i kh??c ?????n ???c??ch m???ng x?? h???i??? ??? Ng?? ????nh Di???m ch??nh th???c ?????ng ?? th??nh l???p n???i c??c, v?? v?? v???y tr??? l???i v???i ch??nh tr?????ng l???n ?????u ti??n k??? t??? n??m 1933. V???i Ng?? ????nh Di???m, ng?????i ???? cam ch???u nhi???u th???t v???ng ch??nh tr??? qua g???n m???t th???p k???, ????y l?? th???i ??i???m ho??n to??n ch??nh ????ng cho s??? tr??? l???i. Ch???c ch???n r???ng, Ng?? ????nh Di???m qu?? kinh nghi???m v???i nh???ng th??ng tr???m c???a n???n ch??nh tr??? ????ng D????ng ????? c?? th??? tin r???ng chi???n th???ng c???a ??ng l?? tr???n v???n, hay ???????c b???o ?????m th??nh c??ng v??? m???t l??u d??i. Ng?????c l???i, ??ng bi???t r???ng vi???c ??ng ???????c b??? nhi???m kh??ng ??em l???i cho ??ng g?? h??n m???t c?? h???i ????? n???m l???y nh???ng nhi???m v??? to l???n v?? ?????y ??e do??? m?? ch??nh ph??? Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam ??ang ?????i m???t. D?? sao, Ng?? ????nh Di???m gi??? ????y ???? c?? nh???ng m??? ?????u ch??nh tr??? m?? ??ng quy???t t??m ki???m t??? l??u, v?? ??ng ph???n kh??ch v???i nh???ng g?? ?????t ???????c. ???Th???t th???, gi??? ph??t n??y l?? gi??? ph??t quy???t ?????nh???, ??ng ???? tuy??n b??? nh?? v???y ngay sau khi quy???t ?????nh b??? nhi???m ???????c th??ng b??o. [13] Nh?? nh???ng s??? ki???n cho th???y, nh???ng quy???t ?????nh trong hai n??m 1954-1955 qu??? th???t ???? c?? nh???ng h??? qu??? s??u s???c cho Vi???t Nam v?? cho t???t c??? nh???ng c?????ng qu???c mu???n g??y ???nh h?????ng ??? ?????t n?????c n??y. Do b???i t??nh ki??n tr??, nh???n n???i, l???p k??? ho???ch, tranh th??? c?? h???i v?? d??? ph???n kh??ng nh??? c???a may m???n, cu???i c??ng Di???m gi??nh ???????c c?? h???i ????? ?????nh h?????ng cho ??a s??? nh???ng quy???t ?????nh ????. ???? l?? vai tr?? c???a c??? m???t cu???c ?????i, v?? ??ng ???? ?????t c?????c ?????n c??ng.

K???t lu???n

Khi Ng?? ????nh Di???m v??? S??i G??n v??o ng??y 25 th??ng 6, 1954 v???i c????ng v??? Th??? t?????ng [???????c ch??? ?????nh] c???a Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam, nhi???u ng?????i ??? Vi???t Nam v?? kh???p n??i ngh?? r???ng nhi???m k??? c???a ??ng s??? s???m k???t th??c. Qu???c gia m?? ??ng ??ang n???m quy???n v???n c??n ho???t ?????ng ch??? y???u theo m???nh l???nh c???a nh???ng quan ch???c thu???c ?????a Ph??p, nh???ng ng?????i c?? th??i ????? t??? cam ch???u ch???p nh???n ?????n th?? ?????ch tr?????c vi???c ??ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m ???????c b??? nhi???m. Trong khi ????, nh???ng quan ch???c Hoa K??? l???i ph??n chia r?? r???t trong vi???c n??n hay kh??ng n??n ???ng h??? ??ng. N???u Ng?? ????nh Di???m kh??ng th??? d???a v??o ???ng h??? c???a b??n ngo??i ????? gi??? v???ng ch???c v???, ??ng c??ng kh??ng th??? tr??ng mong g??n gi??? vai tr?? l??nh ?????o ????n gi???n b???ng vi???c l??i k??o c??c l???c b???y c???a quy???n l???c qu???c gia. Qu??n ?????i Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam ???????c ch??? huy b???i nh???ng t?????ng l??nh th??n Ph??p, l?? nh???ng ng?????i r???t nghi ng??? Ng?? ????nh Di???m. Uy quy???n c???a Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam ??a s??? ch??? gi???i h???n ??? nh???ng th??nh th??? l???n c???a Vi???t Nam, v?? v??ng n??ng th??n l?? nh???ng m???ng ?????c l???p kh??ng ch??nh th???c c???a c??c th??? l??nh. Ngay c??? ??? S??i G??n, quy???n l???c c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m c??ng b??? h???n ch??? v?? l???c l?????ng c???nh s??t ?????a ph????ng ?????u thu???c quy???n ki???m so??t c???a B??nh Xuy??n. Ch??? v??i tu???n sau khi nh???n ch???c, ph???m vi quy???n l???c c???a ??ng l???i b??? thu h???p b???i tuy??n b??? r???ng ng?????i Ph??p v?? Vi???t Nam D??n ch??? C???ng h??a ???? ?????t ???????c tho??? thu???n ??? Geneva, chia ????i Vi???t Nam th??nh hai mi???n nam b???c tr?????c cu???c t???ng tuy???n c??? n??m 1956 ??? m???t cu???c tuy???n c??? ???????c nhi???u ng?????i d??? ??o??n l?? phe c???ng s???n s??? gi??nh ph???n th???ng.

B???t ch???p nh???ng vi???c x???y ra, v??? th??? c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m kh??ng v?? v???ng nh?? m???i ng?????i th???y. 18 th??ng ti???p theo ????, ??ng t???p h???p l???i qu??n ?????i, d???p tan nh???ng b?? ph??i k??nh ?????ch, tr???c xu???t B???o ?????i v?? tuy??n b??? s??? th??nh l???p m???t qu???c gia mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam m???i m?? ??ng gi??? ch???c T???ng th???ng. M???t th???o lu???n ?????y ????? v??? vi???c Ng?? ????nh Di???m ???? l??m th??? n??o ????? c?? th??? b???t ch???p nh???ng d??? t??nh (c???a c??c phe ph??i kh??c) v?? c???ng c??? uy quy???n c???a ??ng trong th???i gian 1954-1955 n???m ngo??i ph???m vi c???a b??i ti???u lu???n n??y; d?? v???y, nh???ng l???p lu???n ???????c ????a ra ??? ????y cho th???y nh???ng g?? m???i ng?????i bi???t v??? ??ng v?? nh???ng c??ch ????? ??ng gi??? v???ng ???????c quy???n l???c c???a m??nh sau n??m 1954 c???n ph???i ???????c xem x??t l???i. C?? ba ??i???m ?????c bi???t r?? r??ng.

?????u ti??n, v??o th???i ??i???m ti???n ?????n ch???c v??? th??? t?????ng, Ng?? ????nh Di???m kh??ng h??? thi???u nh???ng ?????ng minh t???i Vi???t Nam nh?? m???i ng?????i l???m t?????ng. Ngo??i nh???ng ng?????i C??ng gi??o ???ng h??? ??ng, ??ng c??n c?? nh???ng ???ng h??? t??? nh???ng nh??m v?? nh???ng l??nh ?????o kh??ng C??ng gi??o quan tr???ng kh??c, ph???n l???n nh??? v??o nh???ng c??? g???ng c???a c??c anh em c???a ??ng trong giai ??o???n ??ng s???ng l??u vong. Nh???ng ho???t ?????ng c???a Ng?? ????nh Nhu trong su???t th???i gian ?????u nh???ng n??m 1950 (nh?? vi???c th??nh l???p ?????ng C???n Lao v?? vi???c thu nh???n nh???ng c??ng ??o??n lao ?????ng c???a Tr???n Qu???c B???u) ?????c bi???t quan tr???ng, b???i v?? ch??ng ??em ?????n nh???ng ph????ng ti???n ????? Ng?? ????nh Di???m c?? th??? v???n ?????ng s??? ???ng h??? trong su???t nh???ng th??ng ?????u ti??n ?????y x??o tr???n sau khi ??ng l??n n???m quy???n.

Th??? hai, trong n??m 1954, Ng?? ????nh Di???m kh??ng h??? ch?? ?? ?????n Hoa K??? hay c?? khuynh h?????ng ??i theo nh???ng l???i khuy??n c???a ng?????i M???. Kh??ng c?? b???ng c??? n??o ch???ng t??? r???ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m ???????c b??? nhi???m nh??? m???t chi???n d???ch g??y ??p l???c (v???i B???o ?????i) do nh???ng quan ch???c Hoa K??? kh???i x?????ng. Thay v??o ????, ??ng n???m ???????c ch???c th??? t?????ng l?? nh??? v??o chu???i t???p h???p nh???ng v???n may v?? vi???c ??ng c???n tr???ng k???t h???p t???t c??? nh???ng ho???t ?????ng c???a ??ng v???i ho???t ?????ng c???a nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? ??ng ??? ????ng D????ng. V?? Ng?? ????nh Di???m kh??ng l??? thu???c v??o s??? ???ng h??? c???a ng?????i M??? hay theo nh???ng ch??? ?????nh c???a ng?????i M??? tr?????c th??ng 6, 1954, kh??ng c?? l?? do g?? ????? cho r???ng ??ng l???p t???c d???a v??o c??c quan ch???c Hoa K??? sau ng??y ????. L??n n???m quy???n nh??? v??o nh???ng c??? g???ng c?? nh??n c???a ??ng v?? c???a c??c anh em ??ng, ??ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m kh??ng c?? khuynh h?????ng theo Hoa K??? v??? ch??nh s??ch v?? chi???n l?????c ch??nh tr???. Ng?????c l???i, tr??? l???i S??i G??n v???i quy???t t??m h??n bao gi??? ????? ??i theo quy???t ?????nh c???a m??nh v?? ????? ti???n h??nh nh???ng d??? ?????nh nh???m c???ng c??? v?? m??? r???ng quy???n l???c, ch??ng ta c???n l??u ?? ?????n xu h?????ng ch??? d??ng nh???ng quy???t ?????nh c???a ri??ng m??nh c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m khi ph??n t??ch nh???ng s??? ki???n x???y ra sau n??m 1954, v?? ?????c bi???t khi ????nh gi?? quan h??? c???a ??ng v???i c??c quan ch???c Hoa K???.

Cu???i c??ng, nh???ng l???i n??i v?? vi???c l??m c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m trong su???t giai ??o???n 1945-1954 cho th???y s??? b???t h???p l?? khi cho r???ng ??ng l?? nh??n v???t ???truy???n th???ng???, ng?????i kh??ng mu???n hi???n ?????i ho?? v?? ph??t tri???n. M???c d?? ??ng c?? thi??n h?????ng v???n ?????ng ng???m, Ng?? ????nh Di???m nh???n bi???t r???ng th??nh c??ng hay th???t b???i cu???i c??ng c???a th??? ch??? m???i c???a ??ng c???n xoay quanh nhi???u vi???c kh??c h??n l?? ch??? ?????t nh???ng k??? ho???ch v?? phi v??? b?? m???t. Trong b??i di???n v??n ?????u ti??n c???a m??nh sau khi tr??? v??? S??i G??n, Ng?? ????nh Di???m t??i kh???ng ?????nh r???ng m???c ti??u c???a ??ng l?? ????? x?????ng thay ?????i c??ch m???ng ??? Vi???t Nam.

???Tr?????c m???t th???i c?? kh???n c???p, t??i s??? h??nh ?????ng quy???t-li???t. T??i s??? c????ng-quy???t v???ch ra m???t ???????ng l???i c???u-qu???c. M???t cu???c c??ch-m???nh to??n di???n s??? ???????c th???c hi???n trong h???t m???i ng??nh t???-ch???c v?? sinh-ho???t qu???c-gia.??? [14]

Trong nh???ng tuy??n b??? tr?????c ???? v??? nh???ng ??i???u n??y, vi???n ki???n v??? cu???c c??ch m???ng m?? Ng?? ????nh Di???m ????a ra v??o th??ng 6 n??m 1954 v???n c??n ??ang ??? m???c ban ?????u v?? m?? h???. Nh??ng d?? sao, n?? v???n l?? m???t vi???n ki???n, v?? ??ng ???? ?????t c?????c th??nh c??ng c???a ch??nh th??? m???i v??o kh??? n??ng thi h??nh vi???n ki???n n??y c???a m??nh. V???i s??? gi??p ????? c???a Ng?? ????nh Nhu, h?????ng ??i c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m ng??y c??ng tr??? n??n chi ti???t v?? t??? m??? h??n v??o th???i gian sau ????. ?????n n??m 1957, ch??nh th??? ???? c??ng khai l???y ch??? ngh??a Nh??n v??? l??m t?? t?????ng ch??nh th???c v?? tuy??n b??? cu???c ???C??ch m???ng Nh??n v?????? l?? m???c ti??u t???i th?????ng c???a ch??nh s??ch qu???c gia. Nh?? c??ch ch???n s??? d???ng nh???ng t??? ng??? n??y cho th???y, quan ??i???m c???a Ng?? ????nh Nhu v??? nh??n v??? l?? nh???n th???c c?? b???n cho t?? t?????ng m???i n??y. Trong su???t th???i gian ???? cho ?????n n??m 1963, anh em h??? Ng?? ti???p t???c ho??n thi???n t?? t?????ng m???i n??y, v?? ch??ng c?? m???t c??? trong nh???ng ch??nh s??ch c???t tr??? c???a vi???c x??y d???ng qu???c gia ??? nh???ng l??nh v???c nh?? ph??t tri???n kinh t???, c???i c??ch ??i???n ?????a v?? an ninh qu???c gia.

K???t cu???c th?? cu???c C??ch m???ng Nh??n v??? ???? kh??ng ???????c th???c hi???n. Nh?? nh???ng ng?????i ch???ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m (v?? th???m ch?? c??? nhi???u ng?????i ng?????ng m??? ??ng) cho bi???t, h??? t?? t?????ng c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m v??? ch??? ngh??a Nh??n v??? kh??ng ch??? ph???c t???p m?? c??n h???t s???c tr???u t?????ng v?? th?????ng qu?? d??y ?????c ????? c?? th??? l??nh h???i ???????c. M???c d?? n?? cung c???p t??i li???u v?? h??nh th??nh ch??nh s??ch c???a ch??nh th???, n?? mang qu?? ??t ??ch l???i khi d??ng l??m ph????ng ti???n ????? t???o ra s??? ???ng h??? cho nh???ng ch??nh s??ch n??y. Tuy nhi??n, khi n??i r???ng h?????ng ??i c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m kh??ng th???c hi???n ???????c, kh??ng c?? ngh??a n?? kh??ng quan tr???ng, hay c???n g???t b??? n?? nh?? ????n thu???n ch??? l?? ???o t?????ng v?? v???ng c???a m???t b???o ch??a l???c h???u. Theo nhi???u ng?????i Vi???t Nam v?? kh?? nhi???u nh???ng ng?????i M??? ph??t hi???n th???y, Ng?? ????nh Di???m c?? t??i gh?? g???m trong vi???c truy???n c???m h???ng cho nh???ng ng?????i g???p g??? v?? l???ng nghe ??ng; vi???c ??ng c??ng c?? khi t??? nh???t, ?????c ??o??n v?? th???m ch?? t??n b???o c??ng kh??ng l??m lu m??? ??i kh??? n??ng n??y. Nh?? nhi???u nh?? l??nh ?????o kh??c, Ng?? ????nh Di???m k???t h???p nh???ng tham v???ng quy???n l???c v?? vi???n ki???n c???a m??nh b???ng nhi???u c??ch ph???c t???p v?? ????i khi m??u thu???n nhau. Th??o g??? nh???ng ph???c t???p v??? ch??nh tr??? v?? t?? t?????ng c???a ??ng, v?? v???y, l?? m???t b?????c quan tr???ng ????? ??i ?????n vi???c xem x??t l???i v?? hi???u r?? h??n vai tr?? c???a ??ng trong cu???c ?????u tranh l??u d??i v?? r???i r???m, ????? h??nh th??nh n??n s??? ph???n Vi???t Nam hi???n ?????i./.

Edward Miller l?? gi??o s?? khoa L???ch s???, tr?????ng ?????i h???c Dartmouth.

Ngu???n: B???n ti???ng Vi???t: ?? 2007 talawas

?????????????????????

[1]Xem Hammer, Struggle for Indochina, pp. 281???6, 300???1.

[2]V??? nh???ng chu???n b??? cho ?????i h???i th??ng 9, xem Guillernot, ???Revolution nationale???, 628-32

[3]Nh???ng t??i li???u chi ti???t v??? ?????i h???i ??o??n k???t ???????c n??i ?????n trong Telegram, Kidder g???i B??? ngo???i giao, 22 th??ng 9, 1953, USNA 2, 751G.00/9-2253. V??? nh???ng t??i li???u ???????c xu???t b???n, xemTi???ng D???i, 8 th??ng 9, 1953; Le Monde, 8 th??ng 9, 1953; v?? Donald Lancaster, The emancipation of French Indochina (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961), 275-7. B???o ?????i kh??ng h??? n??i ?????n H???i ngh??? th??ng 9 trong h???i k?? c???a ??ng, nh??ng ??ng th???a nh???n kh?????c t??? l???i ????? ngh??? t??? ch???c ?????i h???i c???a Ng?? ????nh Nhu v?? m???t s??? ng?????i kh??c v??o m??a h?? n??m 1953; B???o ?????i, Dragon d???Annam, 312-13. V??? nh???ng th??ng b??o c???a vi???c th??nh l???p Phong tr??o C??ng ??o??n v?? Ho?? B??nh Qu???c gia, xem Phong Thu???, ????? ngh??a v?? gi?? tr??? cu???c ?????i h???i ??o??n k???t ng??y 6-9-53???, XH, 15 th??ng 9, 1953, trang 2.

[4]Chi ti???t v??? nh???ng di???n ti???n c???a ?????i h???i Th??ng 10, xem Vietnam Presse, 31-36 (12-17 th??ng 10, 1953) v?? Le Monde, 17-20 th??ng 10, 1953.

[5]Xem th?? c???a Ng?? ????nh Di???m tr??n t??? Le Monde, 25-6 th??ng 10, 1953. Nh???ng c??? g???ng c???a Ng?? ????nh Nhu v?? nh???ng ?????ng minh c???a ??ng ????? t???o m???t v??? th??? ch??nh tr??? kh??c bi???t tr?????c H???i ngh??? th??ng 10 ???????c n??i chi ti???t trong ???Press conference held by protagonist of ???National Congress??? of early Semtempter 1953??? c???a Sturm g???i B??? ngo???i giao Hoa K???, 16 th??ng 10, 1953, USNA 2, 751G.00/10-1653

[6]Xem Telegram, Dillion g???i Dulles, 14 th??ng 10, 1953, USNA2, 751G.00/10-1453; cu???c g???p di???n ra ng??y 12 th??ng 10. ?????u th??ng 9, m???t ngu???n tin c???a Hoa K??? m?? t??? r???ng Di???m t??? tin r???ng ??ng v?? B???o ?????i ??ang s???p ho?? gi???i. (Smith to Saigon and Paris, 14 th??ng 9, 1953, USNA2, 751G.00/9-1453).

[7]Ho??n c???nh c???a cu???c g???p l???n th??? hai ???????c t?????ng thu???t l???i trong Vietnam Presse, 45 (27 th??ng 10, 1953); xem th??m Le Monde, 28 th??ng 10, 1953. Vi???c B???o ?????i ch???t v???n Di???m v??? t??nh s???n s??ng ph???c v??? ???????c m???t tu??? t??ng c???a c???u ho??ng t?????ng thu???t l???i cho c??c quan ch???c Hoa K???. (Telegram, Dillion to Dulles, 28 th??ng 10, 1953, USNA2, 751G.00/10-2853)

[8]Xem Guillernot, ???Revolution nationale???, 627-34.

[9]Xem B???o ?????i, Dragon d???Annam, trang 328. B???o ?????i h??m ?? r???ng nh???ng trao ?????i v???i Ng?? ????nh Di???m x???y ra v??o th??ng 6, 1954; tuy nhi??n, nh???ng ngu???n tin ??????ng th???i cho th???y r???ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m ???? ch???p thu???n ????? ngh??? c???a B???o ?????i trong cu???c h???p tr?????c ???? v??o gi???a th??ng 5 (Telegram, Dillion g???i ?????n B??? ngo???i giao Hoa K???, 24 th??ng 5, 1954, FRUS 1952-1954, vol. 13, trang 1608).

[10]Nh???ng tr??nh b??y c???a thuy???t n??y ???????c t??m th???y trong Chaffard, Indochine, 19-20, 26-9 v?? Robert Scheer v?? Warren Hinkle, ???The VietNam Lobby???, Ramparts, th??ng 7, 1965, 16-24. Trong h???i k?? c???a m??nh v??? Vi???t Nam, quan ch???c Hoa K??? Chester Cooper vi???t r???ng m???t s??? ng?????i M??? k???t lu???n r???ng CIA ???? ???ng h??? ??ng Di???m t??? m??a xu??n 1953; Chester Cooper, The lost crusade: America in Vietnam (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1970), trang 120. Nh???ng c??o bu???c v??? ???nh h?????ng Hoa K??? c??ng xu???t hi???n trong Townsend Hoopes, The devil and John FosterDulles (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), trang 251; Marilyn Young, The Vietnam wars, 1945???1990 (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), trang 44; Kahin, Intervention, trang 78; v?? Jacobs, ??????Sink or swim??????, pp. 100???16.

[11]Xem David Anderson, Trapped by success: The Eisenhower administration and Vietnam, 1953???1961 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), 41???64, v?? ?????c bi???t l?? 52???5.

[12]Xem B???o ?????i, Dragon d???Annam, trang 329. [Nguy??n b???n b???ng ti???ng Ph??p; ng?????i d???ch d???a tr??n b???n ti???ng Anh ??? ND].

[13]Xem Ng?? ????nh Di???m, ???Tuy??n b??? khi nh???n l???p Ch??nh ph??? (Ba-L??, 16-6-1954)???, trong Con ???????ng ch??nh ngh??a, t???p 1. trang 13.

[14]Xem Ng?? ????nh Di???m, ???Hi???u tri???u qu???c d??n khi v??? t???i Saigon, ng??y 25-6-1954???, nh?? tr??n, trang 16.

 
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