Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 26/08/2019

Chủ nhật - 25/08/2019 22:44
C??c ch??nh tr??? gia ???? t??? h???p t???i khu ngh??? m??t Biarritz b??n b??? bi???n c???a Ph??p cho cu???c h???p n??m nay c???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o th??? gi???i thu???c nh??m G7. C??c b???t ?????ng ???? xu???t hi???n. M??? v?? Ph??p ??ang tranh c??i v??? thu??? d???ch v??? k??? thu???t s??? m???i c???a Ph??p. Trong khi ????, Anh
Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 26/08/2019

Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 26/08/2019

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Ngu???n: The Economist | Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy

C??c ch??nh tr??? gia ???? t??? h???p t???i khu ngh??? m??t Biarritz b??n b??? bi???n c???a Ph??p cho cu???c h???p n??m nay c???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o th??? gi???i thu???c nh??m G7. C??c b???t ?????ng ???? xu???t hi???n. M??? v?? Ph??p ??ang tranh c??i v??? thu??? d???ch v??? k??? thu???t s??? m???i c???a Ph??p. Trong khi ????, Anh ??ang ??e d???a s??? r??t l???i ph???n l???n kho???n thanh to??n t??i ch??nh tr??? gi?? 39 t??? b???ng Anh (47 t??? USD) m?? h??? ???? ?????ng ?? tr??? cho EU khi r???i ??i n???u kh??ng ?????t ???????c th???a thu???n m???i tr?????c ng??y 31/10.

S??u ti???u bang Brazil ??? khu v???c Amazon ???? y??u c???u h??? tr??? t??? c??c l???c l?????ng v?? trang nh???m d???p t???t c??c ????m ch??y ??ang t??n ph?? r???ng nhi???t ?????i Amazon. Sau m???t h???i do d???, T???ng th???ng Jair Bolsonaro cam k???t s??? tri???n khai qu??n ?????i ????? d???p c??c v??? ch??y. Ph??p v?? Ireland ???? ??e d???a s??? ch???n th???a thu???n th????ng m???i t??? do gi???a EU v?? c??c qu???c gia Nam M??? n???u c??c n?????c n??y kh??ng h??nh ?????ng nhi???u h??n nh???m d???p t???t c??c v??? ch??y.

C??c cu???c bi???u t??nh ???ng h??? d??n ch??? ??? H???ng K??ng v???n ti???p di???n, ?????n nay ???? l?? tu???n th??? m?????i hai. Cu???i tu???n qua, c???nh s??t H???ng K??ng ???? b???n ?????n h??i cay v?? d??ng v??i r???ng ?????i ph?? v???i nh???ng ng?????i bi???u t??nh ???ng h??? d??n ch???. H???u h???t ?????u tu???n h??nh trong h??a b??nh, ??i t??? m???t s??n v???n ?????ng th??? thao trong c???ng container r???ng l???n Kwai Chung ?????n Tsuen Wan g???n ????. Song ???? c?? m???t s??? v??? ?????ng ????? d??? d???i, trong ???? c???nh s??t b??? n??m g???ch v?? c??c v???t th??? kh??c.

Tri???u Ti??n ???? ph??ng th??m hai t??n l???a ?????n ?????o t???m ng???n v??o Bi???n Nh???t B???n, ngo??i kh??i b??? bi???n ph??a ????ng c???a h???, tr??? th??nh lo???t ph??ng m???i nh???t trong nh???ng tu???n g???n ????y. C??c cu???c ????m ph??n phi h???t nh??n h??a ???? r??i v??o b??? t???c b???t ch???p l???i h???a s??? h???i sinh ch??ng c???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o M??? v?? Tri???u Ti??n h???i th??ng 6. C??c v??? ph??ng th??? g???n ????y c??ng l??m cho tri???n v???ng m???t cu???c ????m ph??n m???i th??m m??? m???t.

Israel x??c nh???n h??? ???? kh??ng k??ch c??c l???c l?????ng Iran ??? Syria nh???m ng??n ch???n c??i m?? Th??? t?????ng Benjamin Netanyahu tuy??n b??? ???? c?? th??? tr??? th??nh ???m???t cu???c t???n c??ng ch???ng l???i Israel???. Ngay sau ????, hai m??y bay kh??ng ng?????i l??i c???a Israel r??i ??? Beirut, th??? ???? c???a n?????c l??ng gi???ng Lebanon. M???t trong hai chi???c ph??t n??? g???n m???t v??n ph??ng c???a Hezbollah, m???t ?????ng ch??nh tr??? v?? qu??n s??? c???a Lebanon.

Theo m???t b???n  tin c???a Sky News, nh?? cung c???p kh??ng gian l??m vi???c chung c???a Anh IWG ??ang c?? k??? ho???ch ni??m y???t chi nh??nh t???i M??? tr??n S??n giao d???ch ch???ng kho??n New York v???i gi?? tr??? 3 t??? b???ng Anh (3,7 t??? ???? la). We Company, c??ng ty m??? c???a WeWork, ?????i th??? c???nh tranh c???a IWG, c??ng ??ang l??n k??? ho???ch ni??m y???t t???i New York v???i m???c ?????nh gi?? 47 t??? ???? la. Song kh??ng gi???ng nh?? WeWork, IWG c?? l???i nhu???n.

Jens Weidmann, ch??? t???ch Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng ?????c v?? l?? m???t trong nh???ng ng?????i quy???t ?????nh l??i su???t cho Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng Ch??u ??u, n??i v???i t??? Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung r???ng n???n kinh t??? ?????c ch??a ?????n l??c c???n c??c kinh th??ch kinh t??? l???n t??? ch??nh ph??? hay ng??n h??ng trung ????ng. Kinh t??? ?????c, v???n b??? ???nh h?????ng n???ng n??? b???i th????ng chi???n Trung-M??? v?? doanh s??? b??n xe gi???m, ???? suy gi???m 0.1% trong Qu?? II.

TI??U ??I???M

C??ng th???ng th????ng m???i Ph??p-M???

M???t cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i n???a c?? li??n quan t???i M??? ??ang trong qu?? tr??nh h??nh th??nh. Song l???n n??y T???ng th???ng Donald Trump c?? th??? ph??? nh???n r???ng ??ng ???? kh???i ?????u n??. M???t th??ng tr?????c, Ph??p ??p thu??? 3% ?????i v???i doanh thu ???????c t???o ra t??? ng?????i d??ng Ph??p tr??n c??c n???n t???ng tr???c tuy???n v?? qu???ng c??o k??? thu???t s???. Ph??p hy v???ng r???ng kho???n thu??? n??y s??? bu???c c??c n?????c kh??c ph???i ?????ng ?? v??? c??ch gi???i quy???t s??? m??u thu???n gi???a n??i m?? c??c c??ng ty tr???c tuy???n t???o ra l???i nhu???n v?? n??i m?? h??? th???c s??? ????ng thu???.

Song ?????ng th??i ????n ph????ng c???a Ph??p ???? th??c ?????y M??? c??ng h??nh ?????ng ????n ph????ng. H??m th??? S??u, ??ng Trump nh???c l???i ??e d???a s??? ??p thu??? nh???p kh???u ?????i v???i r?????u vang Ph??p. ??ng cho r???ng Ph??p nh???m v??o c??c c??ng ty c??ng ngh??? l???n c???a M???. Kho???n thu??? s??? ch??? ????nh v??o c??c c??ng ty c?? ??t nh???t 750 tri???u euro doanh thu to??n c???u t??? c??c d???ch v??? k??? thu???t s??? v?? ??t nh???t 25 tri???u euro thu ???????c t??? ng?????i d??ng Ph??p. C??c ng?????ng n??y kh??ng bi???t v?? t??nh hay h???u ?? ???? lo???i tr??? h???u h???t c??c c??ng ty Ph??p. C?? l??? manh m???i n???m trong bi???t danh ti???ng Ph??p c???a kho???n thu??? n??y, ???thu??? GAFA??? ??? Google, Apple, Facebook v?? Amazon.

Ch??nh tr?????ng Italia r???i lo???n

C??c ch??nh tr??? gia Italia s??? khi???n c??c th??? tr?????ng chao ?????o th??m l???n n???a v??o tu???n n??y. Sau s??? s???p ????? li??n minh do Giuseppe Conte l??nh ?????o gi???a Phong tr??o d??n t??y n??m sao (M5S) v?? Li??n ??o??n Ph????ng B???c c???c h???u, T???ng th???ng Sergio Mattarella ???? ch???n th??? Ba l?? h???n ch??t ????? th??nh l???p m???t ch??nh ph??? m???i. M5S v?? ?????ng D??n ch??? trung t??? ??ang ????m ph??n ????? bu???c Li??n ??o??n Ph????ng B???c v?? l??nh ?????o c???a h??? Matteo Salvini ph???i ra kh???i ch??nh ph???.

Song hai ?????ng n??y l???i nghi ng??? l???n nhau. C??c nh?? l???p ph??p c???a M5S nghi ng??? nh?? l??nh ?????o m???i c???a ?????ng D??n ch??? mu???n t??? ch???c b???u c??? s???m ????? ??ng c?? th??? lo???i b??? c??c ngh??? s?? trung th??nh v???i c???u th??? t?????ng Matteo Renzi. C??c quan ch???c ?????ng D??n ch??? th?? lo l???ng r???ng th??? l??nh c???a M5S, Luigi Di Maio, mu???n t??i h???p v???i Li??n ??o??n Ph????ng B???c: ??ng Salvini ???? kh??n kh??o m???i ??ng Di Maio l??m th??? t?????ng n???u ?????ng ?? thi???t l???p m???t li??n minh m???i. Ngo??i ra c??n c?? s??? kh??c bi???t ????ng k??? trong ch??nh s??ch c???a ?????ng D??n ch??? v?? c???a M5S. N???u h??? l??m ?????ng minh, ch??nh ph??? c???a h??? c??ng s??? mong manh nh?? ch??nh ph??? tr?????c.

Johnson & Johnson b??? ki???n v??? opioid

H??m nay, m???t phi??n t??a d??n s??? ?????u ti??n d??? ki???n s??? ????a ra ph??n quy???t nh???m bu???c m???t nh?? s???n xu???t thu???c t??y ch???u tr??ch nhi???m v??? cu???c kh???ng ho???ng opioid ??? M???. M???t th???m ph??n ??? Oklahoma d??? ki???n ??????s??? quy???t ?????nh li???u Johnson & Johnson, m???t c??ng ty d?????c ph???m, c?? ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m v??? nh???ng r???c r???i ??? bang n??y do t??nh tr???ng nghi???n opioid hay kh??ng. C??o bu???c cho r???ng Janssen, c??ng ty con c???a Johnson & Johnson, ???? qu???ng c??o r???m r??? tr??n th??? tr?????ng c??c lo???i thu???c gi???m ??au ch???a opioid cho c??c b??c s??, trong khi l??m gi???m nh??? nguy c?? nghi???n thu???c.

C??ch b??n h??ng n??y, theo l???p lu???n c???a t???ng ch?????ng l?? ti???u bang, d???n ?????n t??nh tr???ng nghi???n gia t??ng v?? bu???c ti???u bang ph???i chi t???i 17 t??? ???? la ????? x??? l??. C??ng ty n??y ph??? nh???n h??nh vi sai tr??i, n??i r???ng c??ch ti???p th??? c???a h??? l?? ph?? h???p v?? c?? tr??ch nhi???m, v?? bang ???? kh??ng tr???n ??p n???n k?? ????n thu???c cho c??c m???c ????ch phi y t???. M???t ph??n quy???t ch???ng l???i Johnson & Johnson c?? th??? d???n ?????n nhi???u ph??n quy???t t????ng t??? tr??n to??n n?????c M???. Cho ?????n nay, hai c??ng ty Purdue Pharma v?? Teva Pharmaceutical ???? l???a ch???n c??ng gi???i quy???t v???i Oklahoma. T??nh trung b??nh, m???i ng??y c?? 130 ng?????i M??? ch???t do qu?? li???u opioid.

K??? ni???m 100 n??m th??nh l???p British Airways

H??m qua, h??ng h??ng kh??ng Anh ???? t??? ch???c sinh nh???t l???n th??? 100. V??o ng??y 25 th??ng 8 n??m 1919, c??ng ty Aircraft Transport & Travel Limited ??? ti???n th??n l??u ?????i nh???t c???a British Airways (BA), ???? ra m???t tuy???n bay qu???c t??? h??ng ng??y theo l???ch tr??nh ?????nh s???n ?????u ti??n tr??n th??? gi???i. Bay t??? London ?????n Paris, chi???c m??y bay ???????c chuy???n ?????i t??? phi c?? n??m bom trong Th??? chi???n I mang theo kem Devonshire, c?? m?? v?? m???t h??nh kh??ch (m???t nh?? b??o). H??ng h??ng kh??ng n??y ph??t tri???n k??? t??? ???? v?? ?????n nay v???n chuy???n h??n 120.000 h??nh kh??ch m???i ng??y.

Nh??n chung, BA tr??ng nh?? th??? ??ang ???bay cao???: h???i n??m ngo??i, IAG, ch??? s??? h???u hi???n t???i c???a BA, ???? ki???m ???????c l???i nhu???n k??? l???c. Song c??c nh?? ?????u t?? ??ang lo l???ng v??? t????ng lai. C??c ti??u chu???n d???ch v??? ??ang gi???m, d???ch v??? IT c???a h??ng li??n t???c th???t b???i ??? th??ng tr?????c h??? ???? b??? ph???t 183 tri???u b???ng (229 tri???u ???? la) v?? ????? 500.000 chi ti???t th??? t??n d???ng c???a kh??ch h??ng b??? ????nh c???p ??? v?? v??o th??ng t???i, h??? s??? ?????i m???t cu???c ????nh c??ng ba ng??y c???a c??c phi c??ng xung quanh v???n ????? l????ng b???ng . V?? m???i th??? c?? th??? tr??? n??n t???i t??? h??n. C?? quan qu???n l?? c???nh tranh c???a V????ng qu???c Anh ???? ????? xu???t b??n ?????u gi?? c??c su???t c???t c??nh v?? h??? c??nh gi?? tr??? t???i s??n bay Heathrow sau Brexit; hi???n t???i h??n m???t n???a ???????c t???ng mi???n ph?? cho IAG.

Chi ph?? th???c ph???m ??? M??? v?? ch??u ??u

Ai c??ng bi???t internet b??ng th??ng r???ng, truy???n h??nh c??p, h???p ?????ng ??i???n tho???i, gi?? v?? m??y bay v?? bia ngon ??? M???  ?????t h??n ??? ch??u ??u. C??n th???c ph???m th?? ??? M??? l???i r??? h??n. Song d??? li???u ???????c thu th???p b???i The Economist t???i Pret a Manger, m???t chu???i c???a h??ng c?? ph??, cho th???y ng?????i Boston ph???i tr??? nhi???u ti???n h??n ng?????i London cho nh???ng b???a tr??a gi???ng h???t nhau. Ch???ng h???n, m???t chi???c b??nh sandwich tr???ng c?? gi?? 1,79 b???ng Anh (2,15 ???? la) ??? Anh v?? 4,99 ???? la ??? M???, m???c d?? c?? th??nh ph???n v?? chi ph?? lao ?????ng t????ng t???.

Ph???n l???n ph??? thu???c v??o vi???c ?????nh gi?? m???t th???c ????n, nh??ng quan tr???ng nh???t l?? ng?????i ta mong mu???n tr??? bao nhi??u. Ng?????i Boston, v???n quen v???i nh???ng chi???c k???o jawbreakers gi?? 12 ???? la t???i c???a h??ng ?????c s???n ?????a ph????ng c?? th??? coi chi???c sandwich tr???ng 4,99 ???? la t???i Pret l?? m???t m??n h???i. C??n nh???ng ng?????i London, v???n quen v???i c??c b???a ??n ??3 bao g???m b??nh sandwich, khoai t??y chi??n v?? ????? u???ng, s??? coi m???t chi???c b??nh sandwich gi?? 4,99 b???ng l?? qu?? ?????t ?????. Gi???ng nh?? h???u h???t c??c ng??nh c??ng nghi???p kh??c, ng?????i b??n l?? b??n h?????ng l???i l???n nh???t.
 

T???i sao ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y t??n l???i ??? ch??u M??? Latinh?

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Ngu???n: ???Why populism is in retreat across Latin America???, The Economist, 20/11/2016

Bi??n d???ch: L?? Th??? H???ng Loan | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Khi ch??u M??? Latinh nh??n v??o Donald Trump, nhi???u ng?????i ngh?? r???ng h??? ???? nh??n th???y ??i???u t????ng t??? tr?????c ????y. Ch??? m???t v??i n??m tr?????c, c??c nh?? ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c ??? d??n t??y ???? n???m quy???n ki???m so??t li??n t???c ?????i v???i ch??nh tr??? khu v???c, t??? Hugo Ch??vez c???a Venezuela (???nh) ?????n Cristina Fern??ndez ??? Argentina v?? Rafael Correa ??? Ecuador. B??y gi??? Ch??vez ???? ch???t, Venezuela ??ang trong cu???c kh???ng ho???ng; B?? Fern??ndez ???? m???t quy???n v?? ph???i ?????i m???t v???i c??c c??o bu???c tham nh??ng v???n c?? th??? khi???n b?? ph???i ch???u ??n t??; ??ng Correa ???? quy???t ?????nh kh??ng tranh c??? nhi???m k??? th??? t?? trong n??m t???i. Evo Morales c???a Bolivia, ng?????i c?? khuynh h?????ng d??n t??y, ???? b??? ????nh b???i trong m???t cu???c tr??ng c???u d??n ?? trong n??m nay, m???t cu???c tr??ng c???u m?? c?? th??? ???? cho ph??p ??ng ti???p t???c n???m quy???n cho t???i n??m 2025. Ngay c??? khi ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y ??ang gia t??ng ??? ch??u ??u v?? Hoa K???, n?? l???i c?? b?????c th???t l??i ??? ch??u M??? Latinh. T???i sao l???i nh?? v???y?

C??c nh?? c???m quy???n theo ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c ??? d??n t??y ???? lu??n l?? m???t ?????c tr??ng ch??nh tr??? c???a khu v???c k??? t??? khi Juan Domingo Per??n l???n ?????u ti??n l??n n???m quy???n ??? Argentina v??o n??m 1940. V??? danh ngh??a th?? m???t s??? ng?????i thu???c c??nh t???, m???t s??? kh??c thu???c c??nh h???u. T???t c??? ?????u t??? ra m??nh l?? v??? c???u tinh c???a ???nh??n d??n??? v?? ch???ng l???i ki???u ???ch??nh tr??? ?????u s?????? ho???c ???ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c???, theo c??ch t????ng t??? nh?? c??c cu???c n???i d???y ch??nh tr??? c???a Trump v?? Nigel Farage c???a ?????ng ?????c l???p Anh qu???c ch???ng l???i ???gi???i ch??nh th???ng???. H??? c?? xu h?????ng b??? qua s??? c??n b???ng v?? ?????i tr???ng ?????i v???i quy???n l???c c???a h???, v?? l??m lu m??? s??? kh??c bi???t gi???a nh?? l??nh ?????o, ?????ng, ch??nh ph??? v?? nh?? n?????c.

S??? xu???t hi???n c???a h??? ch??? y???u l?? nh??? v??o s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng l???n ??? ch??u M??? Latin v??? thu nh???p v?? t??i s???n, c??ng gi???ng nh?? ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y trong c??c n???n d??n ch??? gi??u c?? ???? ???????c k??ch th??ch b???i s??? gia t??ng b???t b??nh ?????ng thu nh???p. T???i m???t khu v???c n??i c??c c??ng ??o??n lao ?????ng l?? t????ng ?????i y???u, ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y n???i l??n nh?? l?? m???t con ???????ng m?? theo ???? qu???n ch??ng ???? th??? ng??y c??ng ????ng ????c ???? ???????c ????a ?????n v???i ch??nh tr???. ????? duy tr?? m???i li??n k???t v???i ???nh??n d??n???, c??c nh?? d??n t??y th?????ng t??? ra hoang ph??. Khi l???m ph??t ??n m??n m???c gia t??ng c???a ti???n l????ng, h??? ???? l??m r???t ??t ho???c kh??ng l??m g?? ????? gi???m s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng thu nh???p trong d??i h???n.

S??? h???i sinh c???a ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y ??? ch??u M??? Latinh trong nh???ng n??m 2000 l?? nh??? r???t nhi???u v??o s??? tr?? tr??? kinh t??? v?? kh???ng ho???ng t??i ch??nh m?? khu v???c n??y ph???i ?????i m???t trong nh???ng n??m cu???i th???p ni??n 1990. Chavez v?? c??c ?????ng minh ???? v?? c??ng may m???n khi n???m quy???n v??o ngay giai ??o???n b??ng n??? gi?? h??ng h??a c?? b???n ???????c th??c ?????y b???i s??? c???t c??nh c???a n???n c??ng nghi???p Trung Qu???c. V???i r???t nhi???u c??c kho???n doanh thu c?? th??? ph??n ph???i, h??? ???? tr??? n??n ???????c y??u th??ch.

B??y gi??? ti???n b???c ???? c???n ki???t. Khi n???n kinh t??? Trung Qu???c ch???ng l???i v?? t??i c??n b???ng v??? ph??a ti??u d??ng trong n?????c, M??? Latinh ??ang ph???i g??nh ch???u suy gi???m kinh t??? n??m th??? s??u. B???i v?? s??? v?? tr??ch nhi???m v??? t??i ch??nh c???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o d??n t??y, Venezuela, Argentina v?? Ecuador ?????u ch??m trong suy tho??i kinh t???. T???i nhi???u qu???c gia, tham nh??ng ???? l??m gia t??ng th??m mong mu???n thay ?????i ch??nh tr???.

Sau m???t th???i gian d??i th???ng tr??? c???a c??nh t???, c??? ph??a d??n t??y v?? d??n ch??? x?? h???i, ??? Nam M???, con l???c ???? quay tr??? l???i ph??a trung h???u. Ch???ng h???n, c??c ch??nh ph??? m???i ??? Argentina, Brazil v?? Peru ??ang mong mu???n c?? nh???ng m???i quan h??? kinh t??? g???n g??i h??n v???i Hoa K???. ?????i v???i ch??u M??? Latinh, th???i ??i???m chi???n th???ng c???a Trump kh??ng th??? t???i t??? h??n ??? ??t nh???t l?? n???u ??ng ta th???c hi???n l???i h???a c???a m??nh l?? r??t lui kh???i c??c hi???p ?????nh th????ng m???i v?? ??p ?????t c??c h??nh th???c thu??? b???o h???.

Nh??ng ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y v???n ch??a bi???n m???t ho??n to??n kh???i M??? Latinh. C?? h???i c???a Andr??s Manuel L??pez Obrador, m???t nh?? d??n t??y l??u n??m, trong cu???c b???u c??? t???ng th???ng Mexico v??o n??m 2018 c?? th??? gia t??ng n???u Trump x?? b??? Hi???p ?????nh Th????ng m???i T??? do B???c M??? v?? x??y d???ng b???c t?????ng ???? h???a h???n c???a m??nh d???c theo bi??n gi???i. Nh??ng ??? nhi???u qu???c gia ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y ??ang l???i t??n d???n. C??c nh?? d??n ch??? t??? do c?? c?? h???i duy tr?? xu h?????ng ????, nh??ng ch??? khi h??? l??m vi???c ch??m ch??? ????? t??ng hi???u qu??? v?? kh??? n??ng c???nh tranh, ??i???u c???n thi???t ????? kh??i ph???c t??ng tr?????ng kinh t??? nhanh h??n v?? duy tr?? ti???n b??? x?? h???i.
 

04/03/1861: Lincoln nh???m ch???c T???ng th???ng

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Ngu???n: Lincoln inaugurated, History.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1861, Abraham Lincoln tr??? th??nh v??? T???ng th???ng th??? 16 c???a n?????c M???. Trong b??i di???n v??n nh???m ch???c c???a m??nh, Lincoln ???? b??y t??? thi???n ch?? v???i mi???n Nam, nh??ng c??ng n??i r?? ?? ?????nh th???c thi lu???t li??n bang ??? c??c ti???u bang ???? ly khai.

K??? t??? khi Lincoln ?????c c??? v??o th??ng 11/1860, b???y ti???u bang ???? r???i kh???i Li??n minh. Lo l???ng r???ng vi???c ???ng vi??n c???a ?????ng C???ng h??a ???????c ch???n s??? ??e do??? c??c quy???n c???a h???, ?????c bi???t l?? v??? ch??? ????? n?? l???, c??c bang thu???c mi???n H??? Nam (lower South) ???? ly khai v?? th??nh l???p H???p bang mi???n Nam Hoa K??? (Confederate States of America). Trong qu?? tr??nh ????, m???t s??? bang ???? chi???m d???ng t??i s???n c???a li??n bang nh?? kho v?? kh?? v?? ph??o ????i.

?????n th???i ??i???m Lincoln ?????n Washington, D.C. ????? chu???n b??? cho l??? nh???m ch???c, m???i ??e d???a chi???n tranh ???? hi???n hi???n r?? r??ng. Lincoln l???a ch???n c??ch ti???p c???n th???n tr???ng trong b??i ph??t bi???u c???a m??nh, v?? ???? kh??ng ????a ra b???t k??? l???i ??e d???a c??? th??? n??o ch???ng l???i c??c bang mi???n Nam. Nh??? v???y, ??ng ???? ???? gi??? ???????c c??c ti???u bang mi???n Th?????ng Nam (upper South) ??? North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, v?? Delaware ??? ti???p t???c ??? l???i Li??n minh mi???n B???c.

C??ng trong b??i di???n v??n nh???m ch???c, Lincoln h???a s??? kh??ng can thi???p v??o c??c ch??? ????? n?? l??? ???? t???n t???i, v?? cam k???t ????nh ch??? c??c ho???t ?????ng c???a ch??nh ph??? li??n bang trong nh???ng khu v???c th?? ?????ch. Tuy nhi??n, ??ng v???n th??? hi???n l???p tr?????ng v???ng ch???c ch???ng l???i s??? ly khai v?? thu gi??? t??i s???n li??n bang. Lincoln kh???ng ?????nh, ch??nh ph??? c?? quy???n ???chi???m gi???, s??? d???ng, v?? s??? h???u??? c??c t??i s???n c???a m??nh v?? c?? quy???n thu thu???. ??ng k???t th??c b??i ph??t bi???u c???a m??nh b???ng m???t l???i nh???c nh??? h??ng h???n v??? di s???n chung c???a qu???c gia:

V???n ????? h??? tr???ng c???a cu???c n???i chi???n ??ang n???m trong tay c??c b???n, nh???ng ?????ng b??o c???a t??i, ch??? kh??ng ph???i trong tay t??i. Ch??nh ph??? s??? kh??ng t???n c??ng b???n. B???n c?? th??? tr??nh ???????c xung ?????t khi b???n ch???n kh??ng l??m k??? hi???u chi???n. B???n ch???ng c?? l???i th??? T???i cao n??o v??? vi???c ti??u di???t ch??nh ph???, trong khi t??i l???i c?? l???i th??? trang tr???ng nh???t ????? gi??? g??n, b???o v??? v?? chi???n ?????u v?? ch??nh ph??? ???y ??? Ch??ng ta kh??ng ph???i k??? th??, m?? l?? b???n b??. Ch??ng ta kh??ng n??n tr??? th??nh k??? th??. D?? t??nh h??nh c?? tr??? n??n c??ng th???ng, n?? c??ng kh??ng ???????c ph?? v??? m???i d??y li??n k???t c???a ch??ng ta. Nh???ng giai ??i???u k?? ???c xa x??a, tr???i d??i t??? m???i chi???n tr?????ng v?? t??? n???m m??? c???a nh???ng ng?????i y??u n?????c, ?????n m???i tr??i tim v?? t???ng vi??n ???? s?????i, tr??n kh???p v??ng ?????t r???ng l???n n??y, s??? l???i c???t l??n kh??c ca c???a Li??n minh, khi m???t l???n n???a ???????c ch???m ?????n, ch???c ch???n, b???i kh??a c???nh t???t ?????p trong b???n ch???t c???a ch??ng ta.

S??u tu???n sau, qu??n H???p bang t???n c??ng Ph??o ????i Sumter ??? Charleston, South Carolina, v?? N???i chi???n M??? ch??nh th???c b???t ?????u.


 

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