Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 24/08/2019

Thứ bảy - 24/08/2019 03:19
Trung Qu???c v???a tuy??n b??? s??? ??p thu??? ?????i v???i 75 t??? ???? la h??ng nh???p kh???u M??? t??? th??ng 9. ????y l?? b?????c leo thang m???i nh???t trong cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i gi???a hai n?????c n??y. C??c kho???n thu??? s??? ???????c ??p d???ng cho c??c s???n ph???m nh?? th???t l???n ????ng l???nh. Trung Qu???c c??ng cho bi???t s??? t??i ??p thu??? ?????i v???i ?? t?? v?? ph??? t??ng ?? t?? c???a M??? t??? th??ng 12. T???ng th???ng Donald Trump ???? ??e d???a s??? ??p th??m thu??? ?????i v???i 300 t??? ???? la h??ng nh???p kh???u t??? Trung Qu???c v??o M???.
Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 24/08/2019

Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 24/08/2019

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Ngu???n: The Economist | Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy

Trung Qu???c v???a tuy??n b??? s??? ??p thu??? ?????i v???i 75 t??? ???? la h??ng nh???p kh???u M??? t??? th??ng 9. ????y l?? b?????c leo thang m???i nh???t trong cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i gi???a hai n?????c n??y. C??c kho???n thu??? s??? ???????c ??p d???ng cho c??c s???n ph???m nh?? th???t l???n ????ng l???nh. Trung Qu???c c??ng cho bi???t s??? t??i ??p thu??? ?????i v???i ?? t?? v?? ph??? t??ng ?? t?? c???a M??? t??? th??ng 12. T???ng th???ng Donald Trump ???? ??e d???a s??? ??p th??m thu??? ?????i v???i 300 t??? ???? la h??ng nh???p kh???u t??? Trung Qu???c v??o M???.

Trong m???t b??i ph??t bi???u t???i cu???c g???p th?????ng ni??n gi???a c??c nh?? qu???n l?? ng??n h??ng trung ????ng ??? Jackson Hole, Ch??? t???ch C???c D??? tr??? Li??n bang M??? Jerome Powell h???u nh?? kh??ng ????? c???p ?????n qu??? ?????o c???a l??i su???t trong t????ng lai, song h???a h???n ???s??? h??nh ?????ng ph?? h???p nh???m duy tr?? t??ng tr?????ng???. B??i ph??t bi???u ???? khi???n Donald Trump ph???i ????ng tr??n Twitter r???ng ??ng kh??ng bi???t Ch??? t???ch Fed hay Ch??? t???ch Trung Qu???c T???p C???n B??nh m???i l?? ???k??? th?? l???n nh???t??? c???a n?????c M???.

Meituan Dianping, nh?? cung c???p d???ch v??? tr???c tuy???n l???n nh???t Trung Qu???c, ???? thu ???????c l???i nhu???n r??ng 76 tri???u Nh??n d??n t??? (128 tri???u USD) trong qu?? v???a qua, l???n ?????u ti??n h??? c?? l???i nhu???n k??? t??? khi ni??m y???t h???i n??m ngo??i. ???????c h???u thu???n b???i g?? kh???ng l??? c??ng ngh??? Trung Qu???c Tencent, Meituan Dianping cho bi???t d???ch v??? giao ????? ??n c???a h???, v???n chi???m h??n m???t n???a doanh thu, ?????c bi???t s??i ?????ng.

Huawei, ng?????i kh???ng l??? c??ng ngh??? Trung Qu???c, tuy??n b??? r???ng c??c h???n ch??? m?? M??? ?????t ra cho h??? c?? th??? l??m gi???m 10 t??? ???? la doanh thu m???i n??m c???a b??? ph???n ??i???n tho???i th??ng minh. Tuy ??t h??n 20 t??? ???? la so v???i ?????c t??nh ban ?????u, song ????y v???n s??? l?? thi???t h???i l???n ?????i v???i doanh thu h??ng n??m 100 t??? ???? la c???a c??ng ty n??y. T???ng th???ng Donald Trump ???? ??e d???a s??? c???t ?????t quy???n ti???p c???n c???a Huawei ?????i v???i c??c linh ki???n v?? h??ng xu???t kh???u c??ng ngh??? thi???t y???u t??? M???.

Nh?? ch???c tr??ch M??? ???? bu???c t???i 80 ng?????i li??n quan ?????n m???t ho???t ?????ng l???a ?????o qua m???ng l???n. H???u h???t c??c b??? c??o s???ng ??? n?????c ngo??i, ph???n l???n ??? Nigeria. M?????i m???t ng?????i ???? b??? b???t t???i h???t Los Angeles. B???n c??o tr???ng cho bi???t nh???ng ng?????i n??y b??? c??o bu???c ??m m??u l???a g???t h??ng tri???u ???? la b???ng th??? ??o???n l???a b???p t??nh c???m v?? c??c h??nh vi l???a ?????o kh??c nh???m v??o ng?????i gi??.

M???t thi???u ni??n ng?????i Israel ???? b??? gi???t b???i m???t qu??? bom ???????c ?????t g???n khu ?????nh c?? c???a ng?????i Do Th??i ??? B??? T??y. Gia ????nh c?? g??i ??ang ??i b??? (hiking) khi qu??? bom ph??t n???. T???ng th???ng Israel, Benjamin Nethanyahu, ???? tri???u t???p h???i ?????ng an ninh. Khu v???c n??y ???? ph???i ch???ng ki???n c??c cu???c ?????ng ????? gi???a nh???ng ng?????i ?????nh c?? Do Th??i v?? ng?????i Palestine t??? n??m ngo??i.

David Koch, m???t t??? ph?? v?? nh?? c??ng nghi???p ng?????i M???, ???? qua ?????i ??? tu???i 79. Theo t???p ch?? Forbes, l??c c??n sinh th???i ??ng l?? ng?????i gi??u th??? 11 th??? gi???i. ??ng ???? d??nh h??n 1 t??? ???? la cho c??ng vi???c t??? thi???n trong su???t cu???c ?????i m??nh, song ??ng th?????ng ???????c bi???t ?????n nhi???u h??n v???i t?? c??ch l?? ???ng c??? vi??n t???ng th???ng M??? c???a ?????ng T??? Do trong cu???c b???u c??? n??m 1980 c??ng nh?? c??c kho???n chi l???n c???a ??ng nh???m h??? tr??? cho c??c nh??m b???o th??? ra tranh c???.

TI??U ??I???M

Ph???t gi??o Trung Hoa qua hi???n v???t tri???n l??m

N???m ???n trong s??? h??n 100 hi???n v???t c???a cu???c tri???n l??m s??? ???????c khai tr????ng ng??y h??m nay t???i Met ??? New York mang t??n ???M???t th??? gi???i hi???n h???u kh??c: Ngh??? thu???t Trung Hoa v?? Th???n th??nh??? l?? m???t cu???n l???a m??u t??m n???i b???t. C?? ni??n ?????i t??? th??? k??? th??? 12 ??? Trung Qu???c, h??nh minh h???a b???ng v??ng mi??u t??? m???t c?? s?? gi??nh chi???n th???ng trong m???t cu???c tranh lu???n v???i Manjushri, m???t tu s?? Ph???t gi??o. Cu???c tranh lu???n n??y ch???ng minh r???ng ng?????i ta c?? th??? n???m v???ng gi??o l?? Ph???t gi??o m?? kh??ng nh???t thi???t ph???i hy sinh cu???c s???ng gia ????nh ????? ??i tu.

Gia ????nh l?? trung t??m c???a t?? duy Nho gi??o. ????y l?? m???t v?? d??? v??? c??ch m?? Ph???t gi??o, ???????c du nh???p t??? ???n ????? v??o t??? th??? k??? th??? ba tr?????c C??ng nguy??n, ???? ???????c ??i???u ch???nh ????? ph?? h???p v???i tri???t h???c Trung Qu???c c??? ?????i. M???t chu???i c??c h??nh v??? Trung Qu???c tr??n l?? sung ???n ????? cho th???y c??ch m?? c??c ngh??? s?? ???? k???t n???i, v??? m???t v???t ch???t, c??c t??c ph???m c???a h??? v???i ???C??y Khai S??ng??? truy???n th???ng c???a Ph???t Gi??o. M???t s??? cu???n l???a kh??c m?? t??? r???ng ??? sinh v???t si??u nhi??n c???a ?????o gi??o v???n ???? tr??? th??nh bi???u t?????ng tr?? tu??? c???a Ph???t gi??o ??? bay ra t??? c??c hang ?????ng m?? s????ng. S??? linh ho???t nh?? v???y cho ph??p Ph???t gi??o ph??t tri???n m???nh ??? Trung Qu???c: ng??y nay m???t n???a trong s??? 500 tri???u t??n ????? Ph???t Gi??o tr??n th??? gi???i l?? ng?????i Trung Qu???c.

Taylor Swift ph??t h??nh album m???i

L?? m???t ngh??? s?? hi???m hoi kh??ng bao gi??? thay ?????i ngo???i h??nh hay ch???t gi???ng c???a m??nh, nh??ng Taylor Swift ???? ch???ng minh m??nh ??a d???ng h??n ai h???t. C?? tr??? n??n n???i ti???ng t??? n??m 2006 v???i t?? c??ch l?? m???t ca-nh???c s?? nh???c ?????ng qu??, v?? ??m nh???c c???a c?? gi??p mang l???i doanh thu k??? l???c, b??n c???nh c??c tour di???n h??ng tri???u ???? v?? b???y gi???i Grammy. N??m 2014, c?? thay ?????i chi???n thu???t v???i vi???c c??ng b??? ???1989???, m???t album nh???c pop thu???n t??y. V?? c?? gi??nh ???????c th??m ba gi???i Grammy n???a. K??? ????, v??o n??m 2017, sau c??c tranh c??i ???n ??o c??ng khai v???i rapper Kanye West, Swift tuy??n b??? b???n th??n c?? c???a m??nh ??????? ch???t??? v?? ph??t h??nh ???Reputation???, m???t album h??a l???n gi???a rock v?? nh???c ??i???n t???, v???i n???i dung xoay quanh b???n ch???t c???a ng?????i n???i ti???ng.

V?? gi??? ????y, v???i ???Lover???, c?? ????a ra nh???ng tuy??n b??? ch??nh tr??? m?? tr?????c ????y c?? t??? ch???i th??? hi???n. C?? c??ng ??i???u ch???nh chi???n l?????c kinh doanh b???ng c??ch ngay l???p t???c ????a album c???a m??nh l??n c??c d???ch v??? ph??t tr???c tuy???n, ??i???u m?? c?? th?????ng tr?? ho??n. Song, sau t???t c??? nh???ng thay ?????i n??y, m???t ??i???u v???n kh??ng h??? thay ?????i: s???c h???p d???n c???a Swift. Ngay c??? tr?????c khi ???Lover??? ch??nh th???c ph??t h??nh ng??y h??m qua, n?? ???? b??n ???????c g???n 1 tri???u b???n ?????t tr?????c.

L??? h???i h??a trang Notting Hill

V??o n??m 1966, kho???ng 1.000 ng?????i ???? ?????n tham d??? l???n t??? ch???c ?????u ti??n c???a s??? ki???n n??y, v???i m???t c??i t??n kh?? ???nghi??m t??c???: ???H???i ch??? v?? bu???i di???u h??nh Notting Hill???. Nhi???u ng?????i l?? ng?????i nh???p c?? T??y ???n (m???t qu???n ?????o ??? Caribbe). Kh??ng c?? g?? l?? ???nghi??m t??c??? t???i l??? h???i n??y ng??y nay, n??i v???n duy tr?? h????ng v??? Caribbe c???a n??. Tr???i d??i ba ng??y ??? qu???n t??y London, c??c nh?? t??? ch???c tuy??n b??? s??? ki???n n??y l?? b???a ti???c ???????ng ph??? l???n nh???t ch??u ??u. M???t tri???u ng?????i s??? c??ng h??a m??nh v??o nh???p dub, jungle v?? hip-hop c???a 38 h??? th???ng ??m thanh v?? nh???y c??ng v???i nh???ng chi???c xe di???u h??nh l???y c???m h???ng t??? ??m nh???c soca.

C??ng s??? c?? c??c ti???ng c??i b??o ?????ng. H??n 12.000 c???nh s??t s??? tu???n tra s??? ki???n. M???t v??i trong s??? h??? s??? c??? g???ng h??a m??nh v??o l??? h???i  b???ng c??ch th??? hi???n c??c ?????ng t??c c???a ri??ng m??nh. Nh??ng c?? th??? c?? h??ng tr??m v??? b???t gi???, ch??? y???u l?? v?? c??c t???i danh li??n quan ?????n ma t??y. T??nh h??nh ??ang tr??? n??n c??ng th???ng ?????c bi???t trong n??m nay sau khi ch??nh ph??? m??? r???ng quy???n l???c g??y tranh c??i c???a c???nh s??t trong vi???c ng??n ch???n v?? l???c so??t nh???ng ng?????i tham gia. B?? Theresa May s??? vi???c n??y s??? l??m m???t l??ng c??c nh??m thi???u s???. Trong khi ng?????i k??? v??? c???a b?? l?? ??ng Boris Johnson th?? l???i ngh?? kh??c.

T??c d???ng c???a ch??? ????? nh???n ??n gi??n ??o???n

?????i v???i nh???ng ng?????i ??ang t??m ki???m th??? h??nh ?????p, c?? l??? kh??ng c?? g?? th??? th??ch ?? ch?? nh?? nh???n ??n gi??n ??o???n. Trong ch??? ????? ??n ki??ng n??y, nh???ng ng?????i ??p d???ng ch??? ??n trong m???t qu??ng th???i gian ng???n h??ng ng??y,  ho???c s??? nh???n ??n su???t c??? ng??y trong c??c ng??y c??n l???i trong tu???n. D?? ch??a c?? c??c b???ng ch???ng cho th???y n?? gi??p gi???m c??n, song nh???n ??n gi??n ??o???n ???? thu h??t ???????c nhi???u ng?????i trong gi???i tr??? ??? c??? nh???ng ng?????i t???p gym chuy??n nghi???p v?? c??c nh??n vi??n  ??? Thung l??ng Silicon.

Tuy nhi??n, m???t nghi??n c???u m???i t??? Tr?????ng Y khoa Mount Sinai c??ng b??? tr??n t???p ch?? khoa h???c Cell ch??? ra r???ng ch??? ????? ??n ki??ng n??y v???n h???u ??ch ngay c??? khi kh??ng gi??p l??m gi???m l?????ng m???. C??c nh?? nghi??n c???u th???y r???ng h???n ch??? calo gi??p c???i thi???n b???nh vi??m m??n t??nh. H??? cho c??c t??nh nguy???n vi??n kh???e m???nh nh???n ??n l??n ?????n 20 gi??? v?? th???y c??c t??? b??o b???ch c???u c?? t??nh ph?? ho???i (???????c g???i l?? b???ch c???u ????n nh??n) r??i v??o ???ch??? ????? ng??????, do ???? l??m gi???m t??nh tr???ng vi??m. Tr??n h???t, vi???c n??y kh??ng l??m suy y???u h??? th???ng mi???n d???ch. V?? vi??m m??n t??nh b??ng ph??t trong c??c b???nh nh?? ung th??, ti???u ???????ng v?? vi??m kh???p, ch??ng ta n??n nghi??n c???u s??u h??n v??? t??c d???ng c???a vi???c nh???n ??n. Ch??? ????? ??n ki??ng ?????c bi???t n??y xem ra c?? th??? gi??p ??ch.

Ng?????i Nam M??? th???ng tr??? c??c gi???i ??ua xe ?????p Ch??u ??u

Vuelta a Espa??a l?? gi???i ??ua cu???i c??ng trong ba gi???i ??ua xe ?????p ???????ng tr?????ng nhi???u ch???ng uy t??n c???a ch??u ??u t??? ch???c m??a h?? h??ng n??m (c??ng v???i c??c gi???i Giro d???Italia v?? Tour de France). Gi???i n??m nay b???t ?????u h??m th??? b???y n??y t???i Alicante v?? s??? k???t th??c sau qu??ng ???????ng 3,272km t???i Madrid v??o ng??y 13 th??ng 9. Th??nh c??ng g???n ????y c???a c??c tay ??ua ng?????i Anh l?? m???t c??u chuy???n th??? thao kh?? x???y ra. Kh??ng c?? tay ??ua xe ?????p ng?????i Anh n??o t???ng gi??nh chi???n th???ng trong m???t gi???i n??o cho ?????n Chris Froome v??o n??m 2011 t???i gi???i Vuelta ??? m??? ?????u cho m???t chu???i 10 chi???n th???ng li??n t???c c???a ng?????i Anh trong 8 n??m. N??m 2018, ng?????i Anh gi??nh chi???n th???ng t???i t???t c??? ba gi???i, l?? l???n th??? ba m?? c??? ba danh hi???u ?????u thu???c v??? c??c tay ??ua ?????n t??? c??ng m???t qu???c gia.

Nh??ng n??m 2019 ???? kh??c. Ng?????i Nam M??? t??? l??u ???? r???t th??ch m??n xe ?????p. Gi??? ????y h??? c?? th??? ??ang tr??n ???????ng ?????n vinh quang, sau khi Richard Carapaz ng?????i Ecuador gi??nh chi???n th???ng ??? gi???i Giro d???Italia v?? Egan Bernal ng?????i Colombia gi??nh chi???n th???ng t???i Tour de France. M???t ng?????i Colombia kh??c, Miguel ??ngel L??pez, l??c n??y ????y l?? m???t trong nh???ng tay ??ua tri???n v???ng nh???t t???i gi???i Vuelta a Espa??a n??m nay.

L?? t?????ng phai nh???t trong c??c n???n d??n ch???

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SPAIN TERRORISM ARRESTS

Ngu???n: Richard K. Sherwin, ???Democracy???s Missing Meaning,??? Project Syndicate, 15/05/2015.

Bi??n d???ch: Ph???m V??n Ch??nh | Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

Quy???t ?????nh t??? b??? h??a b??nh v?? th???nh v?????ng t????ng ?????i ????? ?????i l???y chi???n tranh t??n b???o v?? s??? b???t ???n d?????ng nh?? l?? phi l??. Nh??ng nh???ng ng?????i tr???, ???????c sinh ra v?? l???n l??n trong nh???ng x?? h???i d??n ch???, ??ang c??ng ng??y h?????ng ???ng l???i k??u g???i c???a nh???ng t??? ch???c gi???t ch??c nh?? Nh?? n?????c H???i gi??o (IS), r???i b??? qu?? h????ng v?? gia ????nh c???a h??? ????? tham gia c??c cu???c th??nh chi???n ??? nh???ng n??i xa x??i. T???i sao n???n d??n ch??? l???i ????nh m???t l??ng trung th??nh c???a nh???ng t??m h???n n???i lo???n n??y, v?? l??m th??? n??o n?? c?? th??? gi??nh l???i ???????c tr??i tim v?? kh???i ??c c???a nh???ng ng?????i ???? ??i ch???ch h?????ng?

Tri???t gia Friedrich Nietzsche t???ng vi???t r???ng con ng?????i th?? c?? l?? tr?? v???i h?? v?? c??n h??n l?? kh??ng c?? l?? tr?? (Xem Friedrich Nietzsche, ???Third Essay: What Do Ascetic Ideals Mean???? On the Genealogy of Morality, 1887). Nh???ng n???i th???t v???ng n???ng n??? v??? c??i ch???t, b???t l???c, v?? v?? v???ng ?????u ??t h???p d???n h??n nhi???u so v???i s??? m??nh li???t ??? ngay c??? khi s??? m??nh li???t ???? ???????c t??m th???y trong b???o l???c, ch???t ch??c, v?? s??? h???y di???t.

T??m l???i, v???n ????? ??? ????y l?? v??? ?? ngh??a, s??? hi???n di???n c???a nh???ng ??i???u th??c ?????y ch??ng ta, k???t n???i ch??ng ta v???i nh???ng ng?????i kh??c, v?? s???p ?????t cu???c s???ng c???a ch??ng ta. N???u thi???u ??i ?? ngh??a ??? ch???ng h???n nh?? n???u c??c l?? t?????ng v?? th??? ch??? d??n ch??? th???t b???i trong vi???c ????a ra m???t ?? ngh??a ????? r?? r??ng v??? c???ng ?????ng v?? m???c ????ch ??? con ng?????i s??? ??i t??m ?? ngh??a ??? nh???ng n??i kh??c, ????i khi ??i???u ???? ????a h??? ?????n nh???ng nguy??n nh??n ??c ?????c.

????y l?? s??? th??ch th???c v??n h??a m?? n???n d??n ch??? ng??y nay ??ang ph???i ?????i m???t, v?? nh???ng ng?????i mong mu???n duy tr?? s??? t??? do v?? l???i h???a c???a c??c x?? h???i d??n ch??? ??ang l??m ng?? th??ch th???c ????, ??i???u g??y nguy hi???m cho n???n d??n ch???. Ng?????i ta n??n nh???n ra th??ch th???c n??y, kh??ng ch??? do nh???ng ch??? tr??ch m?? n?? th??? hi???n v??? ??i???u ki???n s???ng trong c??c qu???c gia d??n ch??? ti???n b??? tr??n to??n th??? gi???i, m?? c??n v?? b???t c??? cu???c kh???ng ho???ng n??o c??ng l?? m???t c?? h???i ??? trong tr?????ng h???p n??y l?? ????? l???y l???i ?? ngh??a tr???ng t??m c???a n???n d??n ch???.

L???i k??u g???i c???a c??c t??? ch???c nh?? Nh?? n?????c H???i gi??o ?????i v???i nh???ng ng?????i tr??? l???n l??n t???i c??c qu???c gia d??n ch??? ???? n??u b???t s??? ch??nh l???ch trong nh???ng x?? h???i n??y v??? c?? h???i gi??o d???c v?? kinh t???, ??i???u ??ang l??m n???y sinh nh???ng ho??i nghi, t??? b???, v?? s??? gi???n d??? trong nh???ng con ng?????i v???n ??ang c???m th???y h??? b??? nh???t b??n ngo??i r??a gi???i tinh hoa x?? h???i. Nh???ng c???m gi??c v?? v???ng v?? tuy???t v???ng trong th??m t??m ???? k??ch ?????ng ch??? ngh??a c???c ??oan ??? b??n ngo??i.

Gi???i tinh hoa ??? c??c n???n d??n ch??? ti??n ti???n ??? nh?? nh???ng ng?????i thu???c top 1% d??n s??? c?? thu nh???p cao nh???t ??? kh?? c?? th??? c???m th???y tho???i m??i trong nh???ng ??i???u ki???n nh?? v???y. Ngay c??? nh???ng ng?????i ??i kh???p to??n c???u, t??? n???n v??n h??a hay th??? tr?????ng n??y t???i n???n v??n h??a hay th??? tr?????ng kh??c, c??ng ph???i c??n nh???c v??? nh???ng ?????a con c???a h???. Ch??ng s??? ti???p nh???n n???n v??n h??a n??o? Ch??ng s??? c?? ???????c hi v???ng cho t????ng lai t??? ????u?

Nh???ng ng?????i b???o v??? n???n d??n ch??? hi???n nay kh??ng ch??? ph???i x??c ?????nh l??m th??? n??o ????? t???o ra vi???c l??m v?? ?????m b???o s??? th???nh v?????ng v??? v???t ch???t cho nh???ng ng?????i tr??? ng??y nay, m?? c??n ph???i x??c ?????nh l??m th??? n??o ????? nu??i d?????ng t??m h???n c???a h??? tr??n h??nh tr??nh cu???c ?????i. N???u h??? th???t b???i, nh?? ch??ng ta ???? th???y, nh???ng k??? kh??c s??? l???p ?????y kho???ng tr???ng (trong t??m h???n nh???ng ng?????i tr??? tu???i), nhi???u kh??? n??ng l?? b???ng ti???ng g???i b???o l???c nh??n danh t????ng lai c???a ch??a c???u th???.

????? gi??nh chi???n th???ng trong cu???c chi???n kh?? kh??n n??y, c??c x?? h???i d??n ch??? ph???i nh??n xa h??n nh???ng chi???n th???ng tr??n chi???n tr???n v?? t???p trung gi??nh ???????c tr??i tim v?? kh???i ??c (c???a nh???ng ng?????i tr??? tu???i) th??ng qua s???c m???nh c???a nh???ng ?? t?????ng v?? l???i h???a v??? ?? ngh??a s???ng ??? nh?? nh???ng g?? m?? Nh?? n?????c H???i gi??o ???? l??m. Quan ??i???m cho r???ng c??c n???n d??n ch??? c?? th??? ch???ng l???i nh???ng l???c l?????ng v???i nh???ng b??? m??y ?? th???c h??? c?? ngu???n l???c phong ph?? v?? ph????ng ti???n truy???n th??ng kh??n kh??o nh?? v???y ch??? b???ng nh???ng kh???u s??ng ch???c ch???n s??? th???t b???i. ????y l?? cu???c chi???n c???a nh???ng ?? ngh??a, v?? n?? ch??? c?? th??? chi???n th???ng b???ng nh???ng ?? t?????ng truy???n c???m h???ng cho hi v???ng, h??nh ?????ng, v?? s??? g???n k???t c???a b???n th??n v?? c???ng ?????ng.

N??? l???c n??y n??n b???t ?????u b???ng m???t nh??m c??ng khai ???????c ???y quy???n bao g???m nh???ng nh?? khoa h???c ch??nh tr???, nh??n ch???ng h???c, th???n h???c, tri???t h???c, v?? ngh??? s??, c??ng nh???ng ng?????i kh??c, ?????n t??? kh???p c??c phe ph??i ch??nh tr???, ???????c tri???u t???p t??? c??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c v?? c??c t??? ch???c t????ng t??? tr??n th??? gi???i. Trong m???t th???i gian nh???t ?????nh, h??? s??? c?? m???t b??o c??o r?? r??ng b???ng v??n b???n cho c??ng ch??ng.

B??o c??o ???? c???n ki??n tr?? v?? trung th???c gi???i quy???t nh???ng c??u h???i ch??? ch???t v??? s???c s???ng c???a n???n d??n ch??? hi???n nay. ??i???u g?? n???m ??? c???i ngu???n c???a ?????i s???ng d??n ch???? L??m th??? n??o ????? th??? hi???n, th???c hi???n, x??y d???ng, v?? gi??? g??n n?? m???t c??ch t???t nh???t? Th??ng ??i???p t???t nh???t c???a n???n d??n ch??? v??? hi v???ng, v?? nh???ng l???i h???a ????ng tin c???y v??? t????ng lai h??ng th???nh l?? g??? ??i???u g?? l?? c??c ngu???n g???c v??n h??a, tr?? tu???, v?? t??m linh s??u s???c cho s??? t??? do, khoan dung, v?? n??ng su???t?

Ch??ng ta ??ang s???ng trong m???t th???i ?????i nguy hi???m. V???i nh???ng l?? t?????ng d??n ch??? ??ang b??? ??e d???a tr??n to??n th??? gi???i, ngay ??? c??? trong nh???ng qu???c gia d??n ch???, th?? nh???ng n???n t???ng v??n h??a v?? t?? t?????ng chung c???a ch??ng kh??ng th??? b??? coi nh???. Kh??ng th??? ????? ?? ngh??a v?? s??? t???n t???i c???a cu???c s???ng trong m???t n???n d??n ch??? phai m???.

Nh???ng th??ch th???c ph??a tr?????c ????i h???i m???t s??? ph???n ???ng c?? ph???i h???p t??? nh???ng nh?? t?? t?????ng s??u s???c nh???t v?? nh???ng ngh??? s?? s??ng t???o nh???t c???a ch??ng ta. ???? l?? m???c ????ch c???a ch??ng ta ng??y nay; ch??ng ta ph???i theo ??u???i n?? quy???t li???t nh?? c??ch m?? nh???ng k??? th?? c???a d??n ch??? ??ang theo ??u???i m???c ????ch c???a ch??ng.

Richard K. Sherwin l?? Gi??o s?? Lu???t t???i Tr?????ng Lu???t ?????i h???c New York, v?? l?? t??c gi??? c???a c??c cu???n s??ch Visualizing Law in the Age of the Digital Baroque: Arabesques & Entanglements v?? When Law Goes Pop: The Vanishing Line between Law and Popular CultureCh?? th??ch trong ngo???c ????n l?? c???a ng?????i hi???u ????nh.

???nh: L???c l?????ng B???o v??? D??n s??? T??y Ban Nha b???t gi??? m???t ph???n t??? th??nh chi???n trong m???t chi???n d???ch ch???ng kh???ng b??? t???i Barcelona. Ngu???n: EPA.

04/06/1961: Kennedy v?? Khrushchev nh???t tr?? L??o trung l???p

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Ngu???n: Kennedy and Khrushchev agree on neutrality for LaosHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1961, T???ng th???ng M??? John F. Kennedy c??ng L??nh ?????o Li??n X?? Nikita Khrushchev ???? h???p m???t t???i Vienna v?? ?????ng ?? ???ng h??? m???t n?????c L??o trung l???p v?? ?????c l???p.

Tr?????c ????, L??o ???? tr???i qua cu???c n???i d???y c???a phe c???ng s???n ??? nh??m du k??ch Pathet L??o. Th??ng 07/1959, B??? Ch??nh tr??? B???c Vi???t Nam ???? th??nh l???p Nh??m 959 ????? cung c???p v?? kh?? v?? v???t t?? cho Pathet L??o. Sang n??m 1960, Pathet L??o ???? ??e d???a s??? s???ng c??n c???a ch??nh ph??? Ho??ng gia. Ng??y 19/01/1961, khi T???ng th???ng Eisenhower s???p r???i nhi???m s???, ??ng n??i v???i Kennedy r???ng L??o ???l?? ch??a kh??a cho to??n b??? khu v???c ????ng Nam ??.??? Kennedy ???? xem x??t vi???c cho qu??n ?????i M??? can thi???p v??o L??o, nh??ng cu???i c??ng l???i quy???t ?????nh kh??ng l??m ??i???u ????.

Tuy nhi??n, T???ng th???ng M??? ???? kh??ng mu???n ????nh m???t L??o v??o tay c???ng s???n. Kennedy ???? chu???n b??? cho vi???c ch???p nh???n L??o trung l???p nh?? m???t gi???i ph??p. V?? cu???i c??ng, sau m???t h???i ngh??? v???i s??? c?? m???t c???a 14 qu???c gia ???????c tri???u t???p t???i Geneva v?? m???t hi???p ?????nh ???????c k?? v??o th??ng 07/1962, L??o ???? ???????c tuy??n b??? trung l???p. ??i???u n??y gi??p ?????m b???o cho t??nh h??nh ??? L??o trong th???i gian n??y, nh??ng c??? phe c???ng s???n l???n ph??a M??? ???? s???m ph???t l??? tuy??n b??? trung l???p ????.

 

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