Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 22/08/2019

Thứ tư - 21/08/2019 23:21
C??c bi??n b???n l??m vi???c ???????c c??ng b??? h??m nay cho th???y C???c D??? tr??? Li??n bang (Fed) ???? b??? chia r??? quanh vi???c c?? n??n c???t gi???m l??i su???t v??o cu???i th??ng 7 v???a qua hay kh??ng, v?? n???u c?? th?? bao nhi??u. Vi???c Fed r???t cu???c gi???m l??i su???t 0,25% l?? l???n ?????u ti??n M??? l??m nh?? v???y trong h??n m???t th???p ni??n qua. M???t s??? ng?????i tham gia cu???c h???p mu???n m???c gi???m l???n h??n n???a,
Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 22/08/2019

Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 22/08/2019

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Ngu???n: The Economist | Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy

TIN V???N 

C??c bi??n b???n l??m vi???c ???????c c??ng b??? h??m nay cho th???y C???c D??? tr??? Li??n bang (Fed) ???? b??? chia r??? quanh vi???c c?? n??n c???t gi???m l??i su???t v??o cu???i th??ng 7 v???a qua hay kh??ng, v?? n???u c?? th?? bao nhi??u. Vi???c Fed r???t cu???c gi???m l??i su???t 0,25% l?? l???n ?????u ti??n M??? l??m nh?? v???y trong h??n m???t th???p ni??n qua. M???t s??? ng?????i tham gia cu???c h???p mu???n m???c gi???m l???n h??n n???a, v???i l?? do lo ng???i v??? l???m ph??t th???p v?? s??? b???t ?????nh g??y ra b???i cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i M???-Trung.

T???ng th???ng Donald Trump ???? h???y chuy???n ??i g???p Mette Frederiksen, th??? t?????ng ??an M???ch, v?? b?? t??? ch???i th????ng l?????ng b??n Greenland cho M???. Greenland, h??n ?????o l???n nh???t th??? gi???i, l?? m???t l??nh th??? t??? tr??? c???a ??an M???ch. ????y l?? n??i c?? m???t c??n c??? qu??n s??? c???a M??? v?? c??c ngu???n kho??ng s???n v???n ch??a ???????c khai th??c. ??ng Trump ???? ????? xu???t ???th???a thu???n b???t ?????ng s???n l???n??? n??y v??o tu???n tr?????c; trong khi b?? Frederiksen g???i ?? t?????ng ???y l?? k??? kh??i.

Trung Qu???c x??c nh???n r???ng c???nh s??t c???a h??? ???? b???t gi??? m???t nh??n vi??n th????ng v??? c???a L??nh s??? qu??n Anh ??? H???ng K??ng v?? vi ph???m lu???t an ninh c??ng c???ng. Simon Cheng Man-kit ???? b??? b???t gi??? v??o ng??y 8 th??ng 8 trong m???t chuy???n ??i trong ng??y qua bi??n gi???i ?????n Th??m Quy???n. N?????c Anh cho bi???t ???h??? c???c k??? quan ng???i???. H???ng K??ng ???? b??? ch??m trong c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh ch???ng ch??nh ph??? su???t 11 tu???n.

M???t t??a ??n Australia ???? b??c b??? ????n kh??ng ??n c???a H???ng YGeorge Pell v??? vi???c xin b??c b??? b???n ??n l???m d???ng t??nh d???c ?????i v???i ??ng. H???ng Y Pell, t???ng l?? ng?????i ?????ng th??? ba c???a Vatican, ???? b??? b??? t?? s??u n??m t??? h???i th??ng 3 v?? ???? l???m d???ng t??nh d???c hai b?? trai h???i nh???ng n??m 1990. M???t trong hai n???n nh??n ???? ch???t do d??ng ma t??y qu?? li???u v??o n??m 2014. M???t b???n kh??ng ??n cu???i c??ng g???i l??n T??a ??n T???i cao Australia ??ang ???????c xem x??t.

M???t m???t tr???n m???i trong cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i c?? th??? s???p ???????c m??? ra sau khi Trung Qu???c ??e d???a s??? ??p ?????t c??c bi???n ph??p tr???ng ph???t ?????i v???i c??c c??ng ty M??? li??n quan ?????n vi???c b??n m??y bay chi???n ?????u F-16 cho ????i Loan. B??? Ngo???i giao M??? ???? ph?? duy???t vi???c b??n 66 chi???c m??y bay n??y, tr??? gi?? 8 t??? ???? la v?? ???????c s???n xu???t b???i Lockheed Martin, m???t ng?????i kh???ng l??? qu???c ph??ng M???. Trung Qu???c tuy??n b??? h??n ?????o n??y thu???c s??? h???u c???a h???.

Thu nh???p r??ng c???a Rosneft, c??ng ty d???u m??? ???????c s??? h???u ph???n l???n b???i nh?? n?????c Nga, ???? t??ng l??n 325 t??? r??p (4,9 t??? ???? la) trong n???a ?????u n??m 2019, t??ng 9% so v???i c??ng k??? n??m ngo??i. K???t qu??? n??y ???????c th??c ?????y b???i gi?? d???u cao h??n. Tuy nhi??n, thu nh???p g???n ????y h??n c???a Rosneft ???? b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i vi???c ????ng c???a ???????ng ???ng d???n d???u Druzhba ph???c v??? ch??u ??u v?? c??c h???n ch??? s???n l?????ng ???? ???????c th???a thu???n v???i OPEC, m???t c??c-ten d???u kh??.

Target, nh?? b??n l??? l???n th??? t??m c???a M???, ???? c??ng b??? k???t qu??? t???t h??n mong ?????i. Doanh s??? b??n h??ng c???a c??ng m???t c???a h??ng t??ng 3,4% so v???i c??ng k??? n??m tr?????c trong qu?? k???t th??c v??o ng??y 3 th??ng 8, ???????c th??c ?????y b???i t??ng tr?????ng 34% c???a doanh s??? b??n h??ng tr???c tuy???n. M???c d?? c??c chu???i b??n h??ng gi?? b??nh d??n nh?? Target v?? Walmart ??ang c?? k???t qu??? kinh doanh t???t, c??c trung t??m b??ch h??a ???? g???p nhi???u kh?? kh??n. Nh???ng k???t qu??? g???n ????y c???a Macy???s, Kohl???s, J.C. Penney v?? Nordstrom ???? khi???n cho c??c nh?? ?????u t?? th???t v???ng.

TI??U ??I???M H??M NAY

Ng?????i Rohingya t??? ch???i h???i h????ng

Bangladesh d??? ki???n s??? ????a 3,450 ng?????i t??? n???n Rohingya tr??? l???i bang Rakhine ??? Myanmar b???t ?????u t??? h??m nay. Song ngo???i tr??? m???t s??? r???t ??t, ??a ph???n ng?????i t??? n???n ?????u t??? ch???i quay v???. ??i???u ki???n cho m???t cu???c h???i h????ng kh??ng t???n t???i: Myanmar ???? ph?? h???y nhi???u c??n nh?? trong s??? 740.000 c??n nh?? c???a nh???ng ng?????i b??? h??? tr???c xu???t v??o n??m 2017 trong m???t chi???n d???ch b???o l???c, m?? Li??n H???p Qu???c n??i l?? ???????c th???c hi???n v???i ???m???c ????ch di???t ch???ng???; m???t cu???c chi???n ??? Rakhine gi???a qu??n ?????i Myanmar v?? Qu??n ?????i Arakan, m???t nh??m qu??n s???, ???? bu???c 60.000 ng?????i ph???i r???i ??i; v?? Myanmar ??ang gi??? 125.000 ng?????i Rohingya trong c??c tr???i t??? n???n t???m t???i t??n ??? bang n??y.

M???c d?? v???y, c??c qu???c gia l??ng gi???ng v???n gi??? v??? r???ng ??ang c?? ti???n b???. C??c quan ch???c Bangladesh cho bi???t vi???c h???i h????ng ??ang ???????c ti???n h??nh v?? Trung Qu???c, ng?????i ???ng h??? ch??nh c???a Myanmar, ??ang g??y ??p l???c. Nh??ng Myanmar kh??ng trao qu???c t???ch cho ng?????i Rohingya, m???t y??u c???u quan tr???ng c???a nh???ng ng?????i t??? n???n, v?? c??ng kh??ng h???a h???n m???t s??? ?????m b???o ????ng tin c???y n??o r???ng vi???c quay tr??? l???i c??c c??nh ?????ng ch???t l?? an to??n.

T???ng th???ng Nam Phi b??? Qu???c h???i ch???t v???n

Khi Cyril Ramaphosa ?????n d??? h???p qu???c h???i h??m nay, s??? c?? r???t nhi???u ngh??? s?? ?????t c??u  cho h???i v??? t???ng th???ng. Sau khi k??? nhi???m ??ng Jacob Zuma h???i th??ng 2 n??m 2018, ??ng ???? cam k???t ch???m d???t n???n tham nh??ng tr??n lan d?????i th???i ng?????i ti???n nhi???m v?? mang l???i s??? trong s???ch cho c??c ch??nh s??ch kinh t???. Cho ?????n nay ??ng ???? g??y th???t v???ng. Trong Qu?? I, GDP gi???m 3,2% so v???i c??ng k??? n??m ngo??i, m???t ph???n do m???t ??i???n t???i Eskom, m???t nh?? m??y ??i???n ??ang ng???p trong n??? n???n m?? ??ng b??? m???c kh??ng c???i t??? l???i.

C??ng l??c, ??ng Ramaphosa c??ng ??ang b??? c??ng k??ch b???i c??c ?????i th??? trong ?????ng ?????i h???i D??n t???c Phi (ANC) c???m quy???n c???a m??nh v?? phe ?????i l???p c???c t??? c???a h???, ?????ng C??c Chi???n binh T??? do Kinh t???. H??? cho r???ng t???ng th???ng l?? m???t k??? ph???c v??? l???i ??ch c???a c??c doanh nghi???p l???n, ch??? ra nh???ng ti???t l??? g???n ????y v??? danh t??nh c???a c??c nh?? t??i tr??? gi??u c?? cho chi???n d???ch gi??nh gh??? l??nh ?????o ANC c???a ??ng. Nhi???u ng?????i Nam Phi mu???n ??ng Ramaphosa ph???i m???t ?????i m???t v???i c??c ?????i th??? c???a m??nh v?? sa th???i nh???ng k??? ph?? ho???i ch????ng tr??nh ngh??? s??? c???a ??ng. Th???t kh??ng may, ??ng d?????ng nh?? quan t??m ?????n s??? th???ng nh???t c???a ?????ng m??nh h??n l?? t??nh tr???ng c???a ?????t n?????c.

V???n ????? t??ng tr?????ng c???a Salesforce

C??c nh?? ph??n t??ch s??? xem x??t k??? h??n b??nh th?????ng k???t qu??? ???????c c??ng b??? h??m nay b???i Salesforce, m???t nh?? cung c???p l???n c??c ph???n m???m d???ch v??? (SaaS) v?? c??c ???ng d???ng d??nh cho kinh doanh tr??n n???n t???ng web. C??c con s??? r???t c?? th??? s??? kh??ng l???n: trong khi doanh thu d??? ki???n ?????t 3,95 t??? ???? la, t??ng 20% so v???i c??ng k??? n??m tr?????c, th?? thu nh???p tr??n m???i c??? phi???u ???????c ?????c t??nh s??? gi???m kho???ng m???t ph???n ba so v???i Qu??  2/2018 v???n c?? k???t qu??? kinh doanh t???t.

M???i lo ng???i l???n h??n l?? c??ng ty s??? x??? l?? c??c th????ng v??? mua l???i g???n ????y nh?? th??? n??o: ClickSoftware v???i gi?? 1,4 t??? ???? la v?? Tableau v???i gi?? 15,7 t??? ???? la. So v???i c??c c??ng ty SaaS tr??? h??n, nh?? Slack v?? Zoom, Salesforce t??ng tr?????ng ch???m h??n. Nh??ng n???u vi???c ti???p qu???n th??nh c??ng, Salesforce c?? th??? ph??t tri???n h??n n???a. ??i???u n??y c?? th??? gi???i quy???t v???n ????? t??ng tr?????ng c???a h??? c??ng nh?? gi??p c???ng c??? ng??nh c??ng nghi???p SaaS ??? gi???ng nh?? c??ch m?? ?????i th??? c???a h??? l?? Oracle ???? l??m v???i c??c th??? h??? c??c c??ng ty l??m ph???n m???m kinh doanh tr?????c ????y.

T??nh h??nh gi?? c??? phi???u Salesforce.

C??c cu???c ????nh c??ng c???a Ryanair

Ryanair, h??ng h??ng kh??ng gi?? r??? l???n nh???t ch??u ??u, ???????c bi???t ?????n v???i ba ??i???u: gi?? v?? th???p, c??ch th???c qu???ng c??o gi?? v?? g??y s???c c???a CEO Michael O???Leary, v?? k??? l???c bay ????ng gi??? c???a h???. Song k??? l???c n??y ???? ph???i thay ?????i k??? t??? m??a thu n??m 2017, khi h??? bu???c ph???i h???y h??n 20.000 chuy???n bay do thi???u phi c??ng.

Nh???n th???y Ryanair d??? b??? t???n th????ng tr?????c c??c ????i h???i m???c l????ng cao h??n, c??c c??ng ??o??n c???a h??? ???? tr??? n??n quy???t li???t h??n. H??m qua, phi h??nh ??o??n c???a Ryanair ??? B??? ????o Nha ???? ????nh c??ng; m???t s??? phi c??ng c???a h??? ??? Anh c??ng ????nh c??ng ng??y h??m nay. ?????i v???i nh???ng ng?????i hy v???ng gi??? ???????c vi???c l??m, ????nh c??ng kh??ng ph???i l?? kh??ng c?? r???i ro. Ryanair kh??ng c??n thi???u nh??n l???c n???a. Th??ng tr?????c, ??ng O???Leary cho bi???t Ryanair hi???n c?? kho???ng 500 phi c??ng v?? 400 ti???p vi??n nhi???u h??n so v???i nhu c???u. ??ng d??? ki???n s??? ti???n h??nh hai ?????t c???t gi???m bi??n ch??? v??o m??a thu v?? trong n??m t???i.

T??nh h??nh gi?? c??? phi???u Ryanair.

C??c h???t nh???a si??u nh??? trong n?????c u???ng

M???t b??o c??o c???a T??? ch???c Y t??? Th??? gi???i h??m nay s??? c??ng b??? ???nh h?????ng ?????n s???c kh???e c???a c??c h???t nh???a si??u nh??? trong n?????c u???ng. Microplastic, t??n c???a c??c h???t n??y, l?? m???t m???i quan t??m ng??y c??ng t??ng v??? s???c kh???e. Ch??ng h??nh th??nh khi r??c nh???a ph??n r?? th??nh c??c m???nh nh??? v?? khi ch??ng t??ch kh???i h???p ?????ng th???c ??n v?? ????? u???ng b???ng nh???a. C??c nghi??n c???u ??? m???t s??? qu???c gia trong nh???ng n??m g???n ????y ???? t??m th???y microplastic trong n?????c b??? m???t, n?????c m??y v?? n?????c ????ng chai.

Ch??ng c??ng hi???n di???n r???ng r??i trong h???i s???n v?? m??i tr?????ng. M???t nghi??n c???u g???n ????y ?????c t??nh r???ng ng?????i M??? trung b??nh c?? th??? ??n kho???ng 50.000 h???t nh?? v???y m???i n??m v?? h??t v??o m???t l?????ng t????ng t???. Tuy nhi??n, nh???ng ???nh h?????ng v??? s???c kh???e c???a vi???c ??n microplastic v???n ch??a ???????c bi???t ?????n v?? c?? r???t ??t nghi??n c???u v??? v???n ????? n??y ??? v?? ph???n l???n ch??? th???c hi???n tr??n ?????ng v???t. M???t c??u h???i l???n l?? li???u c??c h???t nh???a c?? ti???t ra c??c h??a ch???t khi ch??ng ??i qua ru???t hay kh??ng, hay s??? kh??ng ????? l???i d???u v???t n??o. ???Ph??n quy???t??? c???a b??o c??o ng??y h??m nay r???t ????ng ???????c mong ch???.
 

09/09/1976: Mao Tr???ch ????ng qua ?????i

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Ngu???n: ???Mao Zedong dies???, History.com, truy c???p ng??y 08/09/2015.

Bi??n d???ch v?? Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Ng???c T?????ng Ng??n

B??i li??n quan: Mao Tr???ch ????ng trong m???t ng?????i TQ hi???n nay

Mao Tr???ch ????ng ??? ng?????i ???? l??nh ?????o nh??n d??n Trung Qu???c tr???i qua m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng k??o d??i v?? sau ???? l??nh ?????o ch??nh ph??? c???ng s???n c???a qu???c gia n??y t??? khi th??nh l???p v??o n??m 1949 ??? ???? qua ?????i. C??ng v???i V.I. Lenin v?? Joseph Stalin, Mao l?? m???t trong nh???ng nh?? c???ng s???n quan tr???ng nh???t c???a Chi???n tranh L???nh.

Mao ch??o ?????i v??o n??m 1893. Trong nh???ng n??m 1910, ??ng tham gia phong tr??o d??n t???c ch??? ngh??a ch???ng l???i tri???u ????nh suy ?????i v?? k??m hi???u qu??? c???a Trung Qu???c c??ng nh?? nh???ng k??? ngo???i bang l???i d???ng tri???u ????nh ????? b??c l???t Trung Qu???c. Tuy nhi??n, ?????n nh???ng n??m 1920, Mao b???t ?????u m???t ni???m tin v??o c??c l??nh ?????o c???a phong tr??o d??n t???c ch??? ngh??a. ??ng d???n tin r???ng ch??? c?? m???t s??? thay ?????i mang t??nh c??ch m???ng trong x?? h???i Trung Qu???c m???i c?? th??? ????a Trung Qu???c tho??t kh???i ??ch th???ng tr??? v?? s??? n?? d???ch c???a ph????ng T??y.

N??m 1921, ??ng tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng th??nh vi??n s??ng l???p c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c (??CSTQ). Nh???ng n??m ?????u trong s??? nghi???p c???ng s???n c???a Mao kh??ng h??? d??? d??ng. ??ng th?????ng xuy??n c?? nguy c?? b??? b???t v?? x??? t??? b???i c??c l???c l?????ng ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c. Quan tr???ng h??n, ??ng th?????ng c?? m??u thu???n v???i c??c ?????ng ch?? c???ng s???n c???a m??nh, nhi???u ng?????i ???ng h??? vi???c sao ch??p m???t c??ch m?? qu??ng cu???c C??ch m???ng Bolshevik v???n ??em ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n l??n n???m quy???n ??? Nga. Mao nh???n m???nh r???ng cu???c c??ch m???ng ??? Trung Qu???c s??? ?????n t??? nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n ch??? kh??ng ph???i c??ng nh??n ???? th???.

N??m 1935, Mao n???m quy???n ki???m so??t ?????ng C???ng s???n. Khi ??ang b??n b??? v???c th???t b???i tr?????c l???c l?????ng Qu???c D??n ?????ng, ??CSTQ ???? b??? Mao ch??? tr??ch gay g???t v?? thi???u nhi???t t??nh c??ch m???ng v?? kh??ng c?? m???t chi???n l?????c qu??n s??? hi???u qu???. Tr?????c c???nh tuy???t v???ng, ??a s??? c??c th??nh vi??n ??CSTQ ???? ch???p nh???n quy???n l???c c???a Mao. Trong su???t nh???ng n??m 1930 cho t???i th???i k??? Th??? chi???n II, c??c l???c l?????ng c???a Mao ti???p t???c c??c cu???c t???n c??ng v??o ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c. H??? cu???i c??ng ???? chi???n th???ng v??o n??m 1949, v?? n?????c C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa theo ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ???? ra ?????i n??m ????.

Mao cho th???y quy???t t??m chi???n ?????u kh??ng ng???ng v???i ph????ng T??y khi v??o n??m 1950 ??ng ???? g???i h??ng tr??m ng??n binh s?? Trung Qu???c v??o B???c Tri???u Ti??n ????? chi???n ?????u v???i qu??n ?????i M??? trong Chi???n tranh Tri???u Ti??n. Cu???c chi???n k??o d??i trong g???n ba n??m, k???t th??c b???ng m???t l???nh ng???ng b???n v??o n??m 1953.

V??o cu???i nh???ng n??m 1950, Mao b???t ?????u r??t kh???i vai tr?? t??ch c???c trong ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c, nh??ng ??ng quay l???i m???nh m??? v??o gi???a nh???ng n??m 1960 khi d???n ?????u cu???c ???C??ch m???ng V??n h??a???, v???n ???????c thi???t k??? ????? ph???c h???i ??i???u m?? ??ng g???i l?? s??? suy gi???m tinh th???n c??ch m???ng c???a d??n t???c. Cu???c ???c??ch m???ng??? bao g???m c??c l???i k??u g???i ??i??n cu???ng t??? Mao v?? nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? ??ng ????i h???i m???t s??? c???ng hi???n l???n h??n d??nh cho nh???ng l?? t?????ng th???c s??? c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n c??ng nh?? nh???ng s??? ch??? tr??ch m???nh m??? ?????i v???i Li??n X?? (v?? c??c xu h?????ng ???x??t l???i???) v?? s??? ???x??m l?????c ????? qu???c ch??? ngh??a??? c???a Hoa K???. H??ng ng??n ng?????i Trung Qu???c ???? b??? gi???t ho???c b??? c???m t?? b???i nh???ng thanh ni??n ???ng h??? Mao, g???i l?? H???ng v??? binh.

V??? m???t qu???c t???, t??nh th??? ???? khi???n Mao ph???i t??m ki???m m???t m???i quan h??? g???n g??i h??n v???i Hoa K???. K??? t??? ?????u nh???ng n??m 1960, quan h??? gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? Li??n X?? ng??y c??ng x???u ??i, v?? ???? x???y ra va ch???m bi??n gi???i th?????ng xuy??n gi???a c??c l???c l?????ng v?? trang hai b??n. V??o cu???i nh???ng n??m 1960, Mao ???? xem Li??n X?? l?? m???i ??e d???a ?????i v???i Trung Qu???c nguy hi???m h??n c??? Hoa K???. V?? th???, Mao t??m c??ch c?? quan h??? g???n g??i h??n v???i ng?????i M???, hy v???ng s??? d???ng h??? l??m ?????ng minh trong cu???c ?????i ?????u v???i Li??n X??. Nh???ng n??? l???c c???a Mao d???n ?????n m???t s??? thay ?????i l???n trong quan h??? gi???a M??? v?? Trung Qu???c, m?? cao ??i???m l?? chuy???n th??m l???ch s??? c???a T???ng th???ng Richard Nixon t???i Trung Qu???c v??o n??m 1972.

Cu???c g???p v???i Nixon l?? m???t trong nh???ng th??nh c??ng l???n cu???i c??ng c???a Mao tr?????c c??ng ch??ng. G???n 80 tu???i, Mao b???t ?????u ??t xu???t hi???n h??n. ??ng c??ng b???t ?????u ch???u nh???ng ???nh h?????ng c???a b???nh Parkinson. Mao qua ?????i v??o n??m 1976 khi v???n c??n ??????ng ch???c Ch??? t???ch ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c.
 

T???i ??c ch???ng l???i l???ch s??? c???a Ba Lan

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Ngu???n: Shlomo Avineri, ???Poland???s Crime Against History???, Project Syndicate, 07/09/2016

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Cha m??? v?? t??i ?????n Tel Aviv m???t v??i th??ng tr?????c khi Th??? chi???n II b???t ?????u. Nh???ng th??nh vi??n c??n l???i trong ?????i gia ????nh c???a ch??ng t??i ??? g???m ba ng?????i ??ng v?? b?? c???a t??i, b???y anh ch??? em c???a m??? t??i, v?? n??m ng?????i anh em h??? c???a t??i ??? th?? v???n ??? Ba Lan. Sau ????, t???t c??? h??? ?????u b??? s??t h???i trong Th???m s??t Holocaust.

T??i v??? th??m l???i Ba Lan nhi???u l???n, nh??ng lu??n c???m th???y n??i n??y thi???u v???ng s??? hi???n di???n c???a ng?????i Do Th??i. Nh???ng cu???n s??ch v?? b??i vi???t c???a t??i ???????c d???ch sang ti???ng Ba Lan. B???n th??n t??i t???ng gi???ng b??i t???i ?????i h???c Warsaw v?? ?????i h???c Jagiellonian ??? Krakow. G???n ????y t??i c??n ???????c b???u l??m m???t th??nh vi??n n?????c ngo??i c???a Vi???n H??n l??m Khoa h???c v?? Ngh??? thu???t Ba Lan. M???c d?? ti???ng Ba Lan c???a t??i kh??ng ???????c t???t, l???ch s??? v?? v??n h??a c???a ?????t n?????c n??y v???n ch???ng h??? xa l??? v???i t??i.

V?? nh???ng l?? do n??y m?? t??i hi???u ???????c t???i sao ch??nh ph??? Ba Lan g???n ????y l???i ????a ra d??? lu???t xem x??t l???i c??c v???n ????? l???ch s???. Nh??ng t??i c??ng r???t t???c gi???n [v?? ??i???u ????].

C?? th??? hi???u ???????c t???i sao ng?????i Ba Lan xem m??nh l?? n???n nh??n ch??? y???u c???a ?????c Qu???c x??. B???i kh??ng c?? n?????c n??o b??? chi???m ????ng ??? ch??u ??u l???i ph???i ch???u ho??n c???nh t????ng t???. Ba Lan l?? qu???c gia duy nh???t, d?????i s??? chi???m ????ng c???a ?????c, ???? ph???i gi???i t??n ch??nh ph??? v?? qu??n ?????i, c??ng nh?? ????ng c???a c??c tr?????ng h???c v?? ?????i h???c. Th???m ch?? ?????n c??i t??n ???Ba Lan??? c??ng b??? x??a kh???i b???n ????? th??? gi???i. Gi???ng h???t nh?? khi Ba Lan b??? Nga v?? Ph??? chia nhau h???i th??? k??? 18, Hi???p ?????c Molotov-Ribbentrop(1939) ???? d???n ?????n vi???c Li??n X?? chi???m ????ng mi???n ????ng Ba Lan sau s??? x??m l?????c c???a qu??n ?????c. Ch???ng c??n m???t d???u v???t n??o c???a ch??nh quy???n Ba Lan.

Ch??nh ph??? Ba Lan v?? to??n b??? c??c th??? ch??? c???a n?? ???? b??? ph?? h???y ho??n to??n, bi???n n?????c n??y tr??? th??nh ?????a ??i???m l?? t?????ng cho c??c tr???i di???t ch???ng c???a ph??t x??t ?????c, n??i s??u tri???u c??ng d??n Ba Lan ??? ba tri???u ng?????i Do Th??i v?? ba tri???u ng?????i Ba Lan ??? ???? b??? s??t h???i. Trong khi ????, ??? nh???ng n?????c ch??u ??u kh??c m?? ?????c ki???m so??t, ?????c Qu???c x?? ???? ph???i ?????i ph??, ????i khi v???i nh???ng c??ch v?? c??ng ph???c t???p, v???i c??c ch??nh quy???n ?????a ph????ng, m???t ph???n v?? l?? do chi???n thu???t.

????y l?? l?? do t???i sao Ba Lan ???? ????ng khi nh???n m???nh r???ng ch??ng ta kh??ng n??n g???i c??c tr???i n??y l?? ???tr???i di???t ch???ng Ba Lan??? (ngay c??? T???ng th???ng M??? Barack Obama c??ng ???? t???ng nh???m l???n nh?? v???y.) V?? ch??ng l?? c??c tr???i di???t ch???ng c???a ?????c, ?????t t???i Ba Lan.

Nh??ng ch??nh ph??? Ba Lan ??????ng nhi???m l???i ??ang m???c ph???i m???t sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng khi c??? g???ng h??nh s??? h??a vi???c nh???c t???i kh??i ni???m ???tr???i di???t ch???ng Ba Lan.??? Ch??? c?? c??c ch??? ????? phi d??n ch??? m???i s??? d???ng ph????ng th???c ????, thay v?? d???a v??o c??ng lu???n, l??m s??ng t??? l???ch s???, qua c??c li??n l???c ngo???i giao, v?? gi??o d???c.

D??? lu???t c???a ch??nh ph??? th???m ch?? c??n ??i xa h??n: h??? coi b???t k??? vi???c ????? c???p n??o ?????n vai tr?? c???a ng?????i Ba Lan trong Th???m s??t Holocaust ?????u l?? t???i ph???m h??nh s???. D??? lu???t n??y c??ng ????? c???p ?????n nh???ng g?? g???i l?? ???s??? th???t l???ch s?????? li??n quan ?????n v??? th???m s??t ng?????i Do Th??i trong chi???n tranh t???i th??? tr???n Jedwabne do nh???ng l??ng gi???ng ng?????i Ba Lan c???a h??? g??y ra.

Khi s??? gia Jan Gross c??ng b??? nghi??n c???u c???a ??ng, ch???ng minh r???ng ng?????i Ba Lan ch??? kh??ng ph???i ng?????i ?????c, ???? thi??u s???ng h??ng tr??m ng?????i Do Th??i ??? Jedwabne, ?????t n?????c Ba Lan t??? nhi??n b??? m???t cu???c kh???ng ho???ng l????ng t??m nghi??m tr???ng. Hai v??? T???ng th???ng Ba Lan, Aleksander Kwasniewski v?? Bronis??aw Komorowski, ???? c??ng nh???n nh???ng ph??t hi???n n??y v?? c??ng khai xin c??c n???n nh??n tha th???. Komorowski ???? n??i, ???ngay c??? trong ?????t n?????c c???a c??c n???n nh??n, d?????ng nh?? v???n c?? nh???ng k??? gi???t ng?????i.??? Th??? nh??ng, gi??? ????y nh?? ch???c tr??ch Ba Lan l???i cho r???ng v???n ????? n??y ph???i ???????c xem x??t l???i, th???m ch?? h??? c??n k??u g???i khai qu???t c??c ng??i m??? t???p th???.

Quan ??i???m v?? t?? t?????ng c???a ch??nh ph??? l?? v???n ????? n???i b??? c???a Ba Lan. Nh??ng n???u h??? t??m c??ch che ?????y ho???c ph??? nh???n kh??a c???nh ???c?? v???n ???????? c???a l???ch s??? Ba Lan, th?? ngay c??? nh???ng ng?????i ?????ng c???m v???i n???i ??au c???a Ba Lan c??ng c?? th??? n??u l??n nh???ng c??u h???i m?? do s??? th???a nh???n nh???ng ??au kh??? kh???ng khi???p c???a ng?????i Ba Lan n??n ?????n gi??? v???n ??ang b??? b??? qua. Nh???ng c??u h???i n??y kh??ng ph???i l?? v???t v??nh hay ch??? h?????ng ?????n h??nh vi c?? nh??n. Ch??ng ??m ch??? ?????n nh???ng quy???t ?????nh c???a qu???c gia.

C??u h???i ?????u ti??n li??n quan ?????n th???i ??i???m x???y ra cu???c Kh???i ngh??a Warsaw v??o th??ng 8/1944. Ng?????i Ba Lan ???? ch??? ra m???t c??ch ch??nh x??c r???ng H???ng Qu??n Li??n X??, v???n d?? ???? ??p s??t s??ng Vistula, ???? kh??ng gi??p ????? qu??n Ba Lan v?? th???c s??? ???? ????? cho ng?????i ?????c ????n ??p cu???c n???i d???y m?? kh??ng g???p ph???i c???n tr??? n??o. ????y m???t trong nh???ng h??nh ?????ng ????ng x???u h??? nh???t c???a Stalin.

Nh??ng t???i sao qu??n ?????i ng???m c???a Ba Lan (Armia Krajowa ??? AK, hay Home Army), do ch??nh ph??? Ba Lan l??u vong t???i London ki???m so??t, l???i n???i d???y v??o th???i ??i???m ????, khi qu??n ?????c ???? r??t lui, mi???n ????ng Ba Lan ???? ???????c gi???i ph??ng, v?? H???ng Qu??n ??ang chu???n b??? ti???n v??o gi???i ph??ng Warsaw? L???i gi???i th??ch ch??nh th???c t??? ph??a Ba Lan n??i r???ng ????y l?? cu???c n???i d???y ch???ng l???i qu??n ?????c, nh??ng ?????ng th???i c??ng l?? m???t cu???c t???n c??ng ph??? ?????u ch???ng l???i Li??n X??, nh???m ?????m b???o r???ng qu??n ?????i Ba Lan ch??? kh??ng ph???i Li??n X?? s??? gi???i ph??ng Warsaw.

??i???u ???? c?? th??? gi???i th??ch (m???c d?? r?? r??ng l?? kh??ng c??ng b???ng l???m) v??? vi???c Li??n X?? t??? ch???i gi??p ????? ng?????i Ba Lan. Th??? nh??ng, m???t c??u h???i kh??c l???i n???i l??n: T???i sao AK l???i ch??? ?????i t???i h??n b???n n??m m???i ?????ng l??n ch???ng l???i s??? chi???m ????ng c???a ?????c? T???i sao h??? kh??ng ng??n c???n th???m h???a di???t ch???ng ba tri???u ng?????i Do Th??i v?? t???t c??? c??c c??ng d??n Ba Lan, hay l?? tham gia v??o cu???c kh???i ngh??a c???a ng?????i Do Th??i ??? Khu ??? chu???t Warsaw (Warsaw Ghetto, n??i ng?????i Do Th??i ???????c ????a v??o s???ng t???p trung ??? m???t s??? khu v???c c???a th??nh ph???) ??? v??o th??ng 4/1943?

Ch??ng ta ????i khi ???????c nghe nh???ng tranh lu???n v??? vi???c AK ???? g???i ??? ho???c kh??ng g???i ??? bao nhi??u s??ng ???ng cho qu??n n???i d???y ??? khu ??? chu???t n??y. Nh??ng ???? kh??ng ph???i l?? v???n ?????. Qu??n ?????c ???? m???t h??ng tu???n m???i c?? th??? d???p t???t ???????c Kh???i ngh??a Khu ??? chu???t Warsaw; trong khi ????, ??? b??n ngo??i khu ??? chu???t (???Aryan side???[1]), ng?????i Ba Lan ???? bi???t h???t m???i chuy???n, nh??ng h??? kh??ng l??m g?? c???.

Ch??ng ta kh??ng th??? bi???t k???t qu??? s??? nh?? th??? n??o n???u AK tham gia kh???i ngh??a c??ng ng?????i Do Th??i ??? kh??ng ch??? ??? ri??ng Warsaw m?? l?? tr??n to??n b??? ?????t n?????c Ba Lan ??ang b??? chi???m ????ng, n??i c?? h??ng ng??n th??nh vi??n qu??n ?????i ???? ???????c chu???n b??? s???n s??ng cho m???t cu???c n???i d???y. ??i???u ch???c ch???n l?? qu??n ph??t x??t s??? g???p kh?? kh??n h??n nhi???u khi ????n ??p c??c khu ??? chu???t. H??n n???a, vi???c tham gia v??o c??i ???????c coi l?? ???cu???c n???i d???y c???a ng?????i Do Th??i??? s??? l?? b???ng ch???ng m???nh m??? cho t??nh ??o??n k???t v???i nh???ng ng?????i Ba Lan g???c Do Th??i. ??i???m m???u ch???t ??? ????y l?? ng?????i ta c?? th??? ch???t v???n m???t c??ch h???p ph??p vi???c nh???n m???nh kh??a c???nh ?????o ?????c c???a quy???t ?????nh b???t ?????u m???t cu???c n???i d???y nh???m ng??n ch???n Li??n X?? gi???i ph??ng Warsaw, trong khi l??m ng?? kh??ng ng??n ch???n vi???c th???m s??t ba tri???u ng?????i Ba Lan g???c Do Th??i, c??ng nh?? kh??ng tham gia cu???c n???i d???y c???a c??c khu ??? chu???t.

??i???u n??y l???i l??m d???y l??n m???t c??u h???i kh??c m?? l??u nay v???n b??? qu??n l??ng. T??nh ?????n th??ng 3/1939, ch??nh ph??? Anh v?? Ph??p ???? hi???u r???ng vi???c nh??n nh?????ng Hitler ???? th???t b???i: sau khi ti??u di???t Ti???p Kh???c, ?????c Qu???c x?? ???? chuy???n sang nh???m v??o Ba Lan. Trong m??a xu??n ????, Anh v?? Ph??p ???? ph???i ????a ra m???t cam k???t b???o v??? Ba Lan tr?????c cu???c x??m l?????c c???a ?????c.

?????ng th???i, ph??a Li??n X?? c??ng ????? ngh??? v???i ng?????i Anh v?? ng?????i Ph??p l???p ra m???t m???t tr???n th???ng nh???t ng??n ch???n ?????c x??m l?????c Ba Lan ??? n??? l???c ?????u ti??n ????? ph??t tri???n m???t li??n minh gi???a Li??n X?? v?? ph????ng T??y nh???m ch???ng ph??t x??t. V??o th??ng 8/1939, m???t ph??i ??o??n qu??n s??? Anh-Ph??p ???? ?????n Moskva, n??i ng?????i ?????ng ?????u ph??i ??o??n Li??n X??, B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng Kliment Voroshilov, ???? h???i h??? m???t c??u ????n gi???n: Li???u ch??nh ph??? Ba Lan c?? ?????ng ?? cho qu??n ?????i X?? Vi???t ti???n v??o Ba Lan, v???n l?? ??i???u c???n thi???t ????? ?????y l??i m???t cu???c x??m l?????c c???a ?????c?

Sau nhi???u tu???n suy ngh??a, cu???i c??ng ph??a Ba Lan ???? t??? ch???i. Khi ???????c h???i, m???t b??? tr?????ng trong ch??nh ph??? Ba Lan ???? tr??? l???i: ???N???u qu??n ?????i Li??n X?? v??o Ba Lan, ai m?? bi???t l??c n??o h??? m???i ch???u r???i ??i???? Cu???c ????m ph??n Anh-Ph??p-X?? s???p ?????, v?? m???t v??i ng??y sau ????, Hi???p ?????c Molotov-Ribbentrop ???? ???????c k??.

Ng?????i ta c?? th??? hi???u ???????c t???i sao Ba Lan l???i h??nh ?????ng nh?? v???y: sau khi gi??nh ???????c ?????c l???p v??o n??m 1918, ng?????i Ba Lan ???? r??i v??o m???t cu???c chi???n tranh t??n b???o v???i H???ng Qu??n, v???n ???? s???n s??ng ????? chi???m Warsaw. Nh??? c?? s??? h??? tr??? c???a qu??n ?????i Ph??p m?? h??? m???i c?? th??? ?????y l??i ng?????i Nga v?? b???o v??? n???n ?????c l???p c???a m??nh. Th??? n??n v??o n??m 1939, c?? th??? hi???u r???ng Ba Lan s??? Li??n X?? c??n h??n s??? ?????c Qu???c x??.

Kh??ng m???t ai c?? th??? bi???t li???u r???ng Ba Lan c?? th??? tr??nh ???????c s??? chi???m ????ng c???a ?????c n???u h??? ?????ng ?? cho H???ng Qu??n ????? b??? v??o n?????c m??nh  hay kh??ng, c??ng nh?? ch???ng ai bi???t li???u r???ng Th??? chi???n II hay Holocaust c?? th??? ???????c ng??n ch???n n???u Ba Lan l??m ??i???u ????? Nh??ng c??ng h???p l?? khi cho r???ng ch??nh ph??? ???? th???c hi???n m???t l???a ch???n ?????nh m???nh v?? th???m kh???c nh???t trong l???ch s??? Ba Lan. B???ng c??ch n??y hay c??ch kh??c, l???p tr?????ng c???a ch??nh ph??? Ba Lan ???? khi???n Hi???p ?????c Molotov-Ribbentrop ???????c k??, v?? cu???c Kh???i ngh??a Warsaw n??m 1944 ???? khi???n th??nh ph??? g???n nh?? b??? ph?? h???y ho??n to??n.

L???p lu???n n??y kh??ng n??n b??? xem l?? m???t n??? l???c ????? l???i cho c??c n???n nh??n. T???i l???i c??? v??? m???t ?????o ?????c v?? l???ch s??? ?????u thu???c v??? ?????c Qu???c x??, v?? song song v???i ???? l?? Li??n X??. Nh??ng n???u ch??nh ph??? Ba Lan mu???n x??t l???i l???ch s???, th?? nh???ng v???n ????? r???ng h??n c??ng ph???i ???????c gi???i quy???t. M???t qu???c gia v?? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a n?? ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m cho h???u qu??? t??? nh???ng quy???t ?????nh c???a m??nh.

M???i ????y, t??i ???? ?????n th??m POLIN, m???t b???o t??ng Do Th??i ??? Warsaw, n??i ???????c kh???i x?????ng x??y d???ng b???i T???ng th???ng ??????ng th???i Kwasniewski. T??i ???? ???n t?????ng s??u s???c kh??ng ch??? b???i s??? phong ph?? v?? c??ch tr??nh b??y c??c t??i li???u, m?? c??n b???i s??? tinh t??? v?? ch??n th???c v??? l???ch s??? c???a to??n b??? d??? ??n n??y. Cu???c tri???n l??m ???? th??? hi???n m???t c??ch r?? r??ng r???ng: kh??ng c?? ng?????i Do Th??i, Ba Lan s??? kh??ng ph???i l?? Ba Lan.

Tuy nhi??n, b???o t??ng c??ng cho th???y m???t ??en t???i h??n trong nh???ng ??an xen l???ch s??? n??y, ?????c bi???t l?? s??? xu???t hi???n c???a ?????ng D??n ch??? Qu???c gia b??i Do Th??i v?? theo ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c c???c ??oan do Roman Dmowski l??nh ?????o v??o nh???ng n??m cu???i th??? k??? 19 v?? ?????u th??? k??? 20. M???t ng?????i b???n kh??ng ph???i ng?????i Do Th??i khi ?????n tri???n l??m n??y c??ng t??i ???? n??i: ???Gi??? l?? l??c x??y d???ng m???t b???o t??ng Ba Lan, v???i nh???ng ti??u chu???n t????ng t???.???

B???n t??i ???? ????ng. Nh??ng ch??nh ph??? hi???n t???i c???a Ba Lan l???i ??ang ??i theo m???t con ???????ng sai l???m v?? thi???u kh??n ngoan. Nh?? ch??nh ng?????i ?????c ???? cho ch??ng ta th???y, c??ch t???t nh???t ????? Ba Lan b???o v??? m??nh l?? ?????i m???t, d?? kh?? kh??n, v???i s??? th???t l???ch s???.

Shlomo Avineri l?? Gi??o s?? Khoa h???c Ch??nh tr??? t???i ?????i h???c Do Th??i ??? Jerusalem v?? l?? th??nh vi??n c???a Vi???n H??n l??m Khoa h???c v?? Nh??n v??n Israel. ??ng t???ng l?? T???ng V??? tr?????ng thu???c B??? Ngo???i giao Israel d?????i th???i Th??? t?????ng Yitzhak Rabin. Cu???n s??ch g???n ????y nh???t c???a ??ng l?? ???Theodor Herzl and the Foundation of the Jewish State.???

Copyright: Project Syndicate 2016 ??? Poland???s Crime Against History

??????????????????

[1] Aryan side: Nh???ng ph???n c??n l???i c???a th??nh ph???, b??n ngo??i c??c khu ??? chu???t, ???????c g???i l?? Aryan. T??n g???i n??y b???t ngu???n t??? vi???c b???t k??? ai s???ng b??n ngo??i c??c khu ??? chu???t ?????u ph???i c?? gi???y t??? ch???ng minh h??? kh??ng ph???i l?? ng?????i Do Th??i, m?? l?? ng?????i Aryan (t???c ng?????i ?????c).

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