Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 20/08/2019

Thứ hai - 19/08/2019 21:48
Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng ?????c (Bundesbank) cho bi???t qu???c gia n??y c?? th??? ??ang ??i v??o suy tho??i. N???n kinh t??? ???? suy gi???m 0,1% trong qu?? II v?? Bundesbank cho bi???t h??? kh??ng th???y c?? d???u hi???u ph???c h???i k??? t??? ????. N???n kinh t??? ?????nh h?????ng xu???t kh???u c???a ?????c ???? b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i Trung-M??? v?? s??? s???t gi???m nhu c???u ?? t??.
Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 20/08/2019

Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 20/08/2019

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Ngu???n: The Economist | Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy

TIN V???N

Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng ?????c (Bundesbank) cho bi???t qu???c gia n??y c?? th??? ??ang ??i v??o suy tho??i. N???n kinh t??? ???? suy gi???m 0,1% trong qu?? II v?? Bundesbank cho bi???t h??? kh??ng th???y c?? d???u hi???u ph???c h???i k??? t??? ????. N???n kinh t??? ?????nh h?????ng xu???t kh???u c???a ?????c ???? b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i Trung-M??? v?? s??? s???t gi???m nhu c???u ?? t??.

Trong th??ng 7, xu???t kh???u c???a Nh???t B???n ???? gi???m th??ng th??? t??m li??n ti???p. ?????n th??ng 8, ch??? s??? Reuters Tankan v??? ni???m tin kinh doanh c???a c??c c??ng ty s???n xu???t l???n ?????u ti??n xu???ng m???c ??m k??? t??? th??ng 4 n??m 2013. D??? li???u m???i l??m gia t??ng lo ng???i r???ng n???n kinh t??? Nh???t B???n c?? th??? r??i v??o suy tho??i khi th????ng m???i to??n c???u ch???m l???i.

Wilbur Ross, B??? tr?????ng Th????ng m???i Hoa K???, ???? gia h???n th??m 90 ng??y cho c??c c??ng ty M??? mua thi???t b??? t??? Huawei. Ch??nh quy???n Trump ???? ????a g?? kh???ng l??? c??ng ngh??? Trung Qu???c v??o danh s??ch ??en, c??o bu???c c??ng ty n??y l?? gi??n ??i???p nh?? n?????c (kh??ng c?? b???ng ch???ng c??? th???). Thi???t b??? c???a Huawei x??y d???ng n??n ph???n l???n m???ng l?????i vi???n th??ng t???i v??ng n??ng th??n c???a M???. ??ng Ross cho bi???t ??ng mu???n cho c??c c??ng ty M??? c?? th??m th???i gian ????? ??i t??m ngu???n cung m???i.

Cerebras, m???t c??ng ty kh???i nghi???p ??? Thung l??ng Silicon, ???? c??ng b??? c??i m?? h??? g???i l?? con chip m??y t??nh l???n nh???t th??? gi???i. B??? x??? l?? c?? k??ch th?????c ngang chi???c iPad n??y l???n h??n g???n 56 l???n so v???i b??? vi x??? l?? gi??? danh hi???u l???n nh???t tr?????c ????. C??ng ty n??y hy v???ng con chip s??? th??c ?????y ti???n b??? nhanh ch??ng trong l??nh v???c tr?? tu??? nh??n t???o. C??c h??? th???ng AI ?????u d???a tr??n ???h???c s??u??? ??? t???c m???ng l?????i n??-ron nh??n t???o ???  y??u c???u c?? c??c b??? vi x??? l?? c?? kh??? n??ng x??? l?? d??? li???u nhi???u h??n, nhanh h??n n???a.

Facebook v?? Twitter ???? x??a c??c t??i kho???n c??? g???ng l??m suy y???u c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh kh???ng l??? ???ng h??? d??n ch??? ??? H???ng K??ng. Trong c??c b??i ????ng ri??ng l???, c??? hai ng?????i kh???ng l??? truy???n th??ng x?? h???i cho bi???t c??c t??i kho???n n??y l?? m???t ph???n c???a chi???n d???ch b??p m??o th??ng tin ???????c nh?? n?????c h???u thu???n b???t ngu???n t??? Trung Qu???c ?????i l???c, v???i m???c ????ch mi??u t??? nh???ng ng?????i bi???u t??nh l?? b???o l???c.

Ch??y r???ng ??? Gran Canaria (T??y Ban Nha) ho??nh h??nh ngo??i t???m ki???m so??t. Kho???ng 8.000 ng?????i ???? bu???c ph???i di t???n kh???i nh?? c???a h???. H??n ?????o  c???a T??y Ban Nha l?? m???t ?????a ??i???m du l???ch n???i ti???ng, r???t may cho ?????n nay, ????m ch??y ch??? ???nh h?????ng ?????n trung t??m c???a h??n ?????o ch??? kh??ng ph???i c??c v??ng ven bi???n ???????c ??a chu???ng b???i nh???ng ng?????i ??i ngh??? m??t. V???n ch??a c?? b??o c??o th????ng vong.

Gi???i ch???c h??n ?????o Sardinia ???? b???t gi??? hai du kh??ch ng?????i Ph??p khi h??? ??ang r???i ?????o v???i kho???ng 40kg c??t b??i bi???n. Tr???m c??t l?? m???t v???n ????? ??ang gia t??ng ??? Sardinia, v?? s??? b??? tr???ng tr??? b???ng c??c kho???n ti???n ph???t l???n c??ng nh?? ??n t?? l??n ?????n s??u n??m. C???p v??? ch???ng n??i h??? mang c??t v??? nh?? ???l??m k??? ni???m??? v?? kh??ng h??? bi???t r???ng ??i???u n??y l?? b???t h???p ph??p.

TI??U ??I???M H??M NAY

Ch??nh tr?????ng Italy h???n lo???n

???Ngay c??? cu???c kh???ng ho???ng c??ng  g???p c???nh h???n lo???n???, m???t t??? b??o c???a ?? g???n ????y tuy??n b??? nh?? v???y. V???i vi???c ??ng Giuseppe Conte, Th??? t?????ng Italy, chu???n b??? ph??t bi???u t???i Th?????ng vi???n ng??y h??m nay, h??? qu??? c?? th??? x???y ra l?? r???t l???n. Matteo Salvini, nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a Li??n ??o??n ph????ng B???c c???c h???u, m???t trong hai ?????ng trong li??n minh c???a ??ng Conte, ???? r??t l???i s??? ???ng h??? c???a m??nh (nh??ng kh??ng ph???i ch???c b??? tr?????ng c???a ??ng). V?? v???y, Th??? t?????ng c?? th??? ph???i t??? ch???c m?? kh??ng c???n ch??? m???t cu???c b??? phi???u t??n nhi???m.

N???u m???t cu???c b??? phi???u t??n nhi???m ???????c t??? ch???c, n?? c?? th??? ??i theo b???t k??? k???ch b???n n??o: ??? m???t b??n, Phong tr??o N??m sao (M5S), c??ng v???i ?????ng PD trung t??? v?? nh???ng ?????ng kh??c c?? th??? gi??p ??ng Conte chi???m ??a s???. Tuy nhi??n, vi???c h??nh th??nh li??n minh PD-M5S v???i m???t ch????ng trinh h??nh ?????ng chung s??? kh??ng d??? d??ng. ??ng Salvini ???? c??? g???ng b???t ch???p th??nh ph???n ph???c t???p trong qu???c h???i ????? l??i k??o M5S, cho ?????n khi qu?? mu???n. Nh??ng v??o Ch??? nh???t v???a r???i, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o M5S ???? ????ng s???m c??nh c???a, m?? t??? ??ng Salvini l?? ???kh??ng ????ng tin c???y???. M???t cu???c b???u c??? c?? th??? s??? h???p ?? Li??n Minh Ph????ng B???c. Nh??ng d??? ??o??n k???t qu??? th?? sao? Qu??? l?? m??? m???t.

T??? l??? ???ng h??? c??c ?????ng trong qu???c h???i Italia.

X??? ph??c th???m H???ng Y George Pell

Gi??o h???i C??ng gi??o ???? b??? gi??ng m???t ????n m???nh v??o th??ng 2 khi George Pell, ng?????i c?? ch???c v??? cao th??? ba ??? Vatican, b??? k???t t???i l???m d???ng t??nh d???c hai b?? trai trong d??n h???p x?????ng ??? Melbourne. ??ng c?? th??? ???????c t??? do trong tu???n n??y, khi m???t t??a ph??c th???m Australia s??? quy???t ?????nh li???u c?? ????? b???ng ch???ng cho ph??n quy???t c???a b???i th???m ??o??n hay kh??ng. C??c lu???t s?? c?? xu h?????ng cho r???ng kh??ng ????? b???ng ch???ng.

Nh???ng t???i danh m?? H???ng y Pell b??? bu???c t???i x???y ra v??o n??m 1996, khi ??ng c??n l?? T???ng gi??m m???c Melbourne. M???t trong hai n???n nh??n ???? ch???t v??o n??m 2014, v?? ch??a t???ng t??? c??o v??? v??? l???m d???ng. V?? v???y, l???i khai ch??? ?????n t??? m???t ng?????i ????n ??ng, ng?????i n??i r???ng c???p ????i n??y ???? b??? bu???c ph???i tham gia v??o c??c h??nh vi t??nh d???c trong ph??ng th??? linh thi??ng, hay ph??ng thay ?????, sau m???t bu???i l??? Ch??? nh???t. N???u c??c th???m ph??n quy???t ?????nh r???ng b???i th???m ??o??n v???n c??n nghi ng??? v??? t???i l???i c???a H???ng y Pell, ??ng s??? ngay l???p t???c ???????c th??? ra. N???u kh??ng, m???t cu???c x??t x??? l???i v???n c?? th??? di???n ra, n???u c??c th???m ph??n cho r???ng c??c vi ph???m v??? th??? t???c t??? t???ng tr?????c ????y ???? t?????c ??i s??? c??ng b???ng d??nh cho v??? H???ng y.

Ch??nh ph??? chia s??? quy???n l???c ??? Sudan

V???i vi???c nh?? c???u ?????c t??i Omar al Bashir ?????i m???t v???i c??c phi??n t??a v??? t???i danh tham nh??ng, Sudan b?????c v??o m???t k??? nguy??n m???i. M???t th??? t?????ng d??n s??? s??? ???????c b??? nhi???m h??m nay v?? tuy??n th??? nh???m ch???c v??o ng??y mai. C??c nh?? l??nh ?????o bi???u t??nh ???? ????? c??? Abdalla Hamdok, m???t chuy??n gia kinh t??? tr?????ng c???a Li??n H???p Qu???c, ng?????i t???ng l??m vi???c cho B??? T??i ch??nh Sudan tr?????c khi ??ng Bashir l??n n???m quy???n sau cu???c ?????o ch??nh n??m 1989.

??ng Hamdok s??? l??nh ?????o m???t n???i c??c chuy???n ti???p, d?????i s??? gi??m s??t c???a m???t ???h???i ?????ng ch??? quy???n??? bao g???m s??u ?????i di???n d??n s??? v?? n??m qu??n nh??n ???????c ch??nh quy???n qu??n s??? ch??? ?????nh v???n ??i???u h??nh ?????t n?????c k??? t??? khi ??ng Bashir b??? l???t ????? v??o th??ng 4. Nhi???u ng?????i ho??i nghi v??? d??n x???p chia s??? quy???n l???c n??y, ???????c cho l?? s??? m??? ???????ng cho c??c cu???c b???u c??? trong th???i h???n ba n??m. N?? cho ph??p ch??nh quy???n qu??n s??? b??? nhi???m m???t ?????i di???n l??m ch??? t???ch h???i ?????ng trong 21 th??ng ?????u ti??n, v?? d?????ng nh?? s??? ?????m b???o cho h??? ???????c mi???n tr??? truy t??? c??c t???i ??c trong qu?? kh???. Nhi???u ng?????i cho r???ng c??c v??? t?????ng s??? t???n d???ng th???i gian n??y ????? c???ng c??? quy???n l???c c???a h???.

Ng?????i t??? n???n Syria kh??ng c??n ???????c ch??o ????n ??? Th??? Nh?? K???

Th??? Nh?? K??? ???? gi??p ????? cho h??ng tri???u ng?????i ch???y tr???n kh???i cu???c n???i chi???n Syria nhi???u h??n so v???i ph???n l???n c??c qu???c gia kh??c. Nh??ng ch??nh ph??? c???a T???ng th???ng Recep Tayyip Erdogan cho r???ng ???? ?????n l??c 3,6 tri???u ng?????i t??? n???n Syria ??? Th??? Nh?? K??? ph???i v??? n?????c. Th???c t??? th?? t???t c??? c??c ?????ng ?????i l???p ?????u ?????ng ??. ??ng Erdogan ???? nhi???u l???n n??i r???ng ??ng c?? k??? ho???ch t???o ra m???t khu v???c an to??n ??? mi???n b???c Syria b???ng c??ch ????nh b???i qu??n n???i d???y ng?????i Kurd ??? ????, cho ph??p ??ng ????a h??ng tr??m ng??n ng?????i t??? n???n ?????n khu v???c n??y.

Th??? Nh?? K??? ???? b??? ch??? tr??ch v?? tr???c xu???t c??c nh??m nh??? ng?????i t??? n???n tr??? l???i Syria, ??i???u m?? h??? ph??? nh???n. Vi???n d???n m???t ??i???u lu???t c???m h??? di chuy???n t??? do kh???p ?????t n?????c, ch??nh ph??? ???? y??u c???u h??ng ng??n ng?????i Syria ch??a ????ng k?? r???i kh???i Istanbul, n??i nhi???u ng?????i ???? chuy???n ?????n t??? mi???n Nam. H???n ch??t m?? h??? d??? ki???n s??? ph???i r???i kh???i th??nh ph??? l???n nh???t Th??? Nh?? K??? l?? h??m nay.

H???i ch??? ng??nh c??ng nghi???p game

C??c game th??? tr??n th??? gi???i s??? t??? h???p v??o h??m nay t???i Cologne ????? tham gia m???t h???i ch??? th????ng m???i l???n nh???t trong ng??nh. Trong b???n ng??y, kho???ng 400.000 ng?????i s??? tr??n qua ng??i l??ng cosplay (trang ph???c tr?? ch??i) v?? c??c khu v???c tr?? ch??i ho??i c??? d??ng tay c???m ??i???u khi???n, trong khi nh???ng ng?????i kh???ng l??? trong ng??nh ??? Sony, Microsoft, Nintendo v?? Google ??? ???????c d??? ??o??n s??? c??ng b??? c??c t???a game m???i v?? c??c trailer gi???i thi???u ng???n.

Doanh thu ng??nh game n??m 2018.

V???i s??? ph??t tri???n c???a game di ?????ng v?? th??? thao ??i???n t???, ng??nh c??ng nghi???p n??y ki???m ???????c nhi???u ti???n ngang v???i Hollywood t??? th??? tr?????ng M??? v??o n??m ngo??i. H??? thu ???????c h??n 150 t??? ???? la tr??n th??? gi???i trong n??m ngo??i, t??ng tr?????ng 13% m???i n??m. G???n m???t n???a doanh s??? n??y ???????c t???o ra t??? m?? h??nh mi???n ph??, trong ???? c??c tr?? ch??i l?? mi???n ph?? nh??ng ng?????i ch??i ???????c khuy???n kh??ch mua c??c s???n ph???m b??? sung trong khi ch??i. ???Chi???n tr?????ng c???nh tranh??? m???i nh???t l?? m?? h??nh ch??i game d???a tr??n ????ng k??, kh??ng y??u c???u thi???t b??? ??i???u khi???n chuy??n d???ng, ch??? c???n k???t n???i Internet t???c ????? cao. V?? d???, Google Stadia ???? ???????c c??ng b??? v??o th??ng 3, c??n Microsoft v?? Sony ???? ti???t l??? m???t quan h??? ?????i t??c cho m?? h??nh game d???a tr??n n???n t???ng ????m m??y v??o th??ng 5, c??n Apple s??? ra m???t Arcade, m???t d???ch v??? tr??n ???ng d???ng, v??o cu???i n??m nay.
 

T???i sao Stalin ???????c d???ng t?????ng, c??n Hitler th?? kh??ng?

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stalin-statue

Ngu???n: Peter Singer, ???A Statue for Stalin???? Project Syndicate, 09/01/2014.

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

Hitler v?? Stalin l?? hai k??? ?????c t??i t??n nh???n t???ng ti???n h??nh nh???ng v??? th???m s??t tr??n di???n r???ng. Nh??ng trong khi ng?????i ta kh??ng th??? h??nh dung ra m???t b???c t?????ng Hitler ??? Berlin hay ??? b???t c??? n??i n??o kh??c tr??n n?????c ?????c, th?? nh???ng b???c t?????ng Stalin l???i ???????c kh??i ph???c tr??n nh???ng th??? tr???n ??? kh???p Gruzia (qu?? h????ng c???a Stalin), v?? m???t b???c t?????ng kh??c s???p ???????c d???ng l??n ??? Moskva nh?? m???t ph???n trong vi???c t?????ng ni???m t???t c??? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X??.

S??? kh??c bi???t trong th??i ????? kh??ng ch??? gi???i h???n trong bi??n gi???i c???a c??c qu???c gia m?? Hitler v?? Stalin t???ng cai tr???. ??? M???, c?? m???t b???c t?????ng b??n th??n c???a Stalin ??? ????i t?????ng ni???m D-Day Qu???c gia ??? Virginia. ??? New York, t??i (Peter Singer) m???i ??n t???i t???i m???t nh?? h??ng Nga c?? ????? d??ng ki???u X?? vi???t, n??? ph???c v??? m???c ?????ng ph???c Li??n X??, v?? m???t b???c tranh v??? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o X?? vi???t, trong ???? n???i b???t l?? Stalin. New York c??ng c?? m???t Qu??n ba KGB. Theo t??i ???????c bi???t, kh??ng c?? nh?? h??ng n??o mang phong c??ch ?????c Qu???c x?? ??? New York; v?? c??ng kh??ng c?? qu??n ba Gestapo hay SS n??o.

V???y t???i sao Stalin l???i t????ng ?????i ???????c ch???p nh???n h??n so v???i Hitler?

Trong m???t cu???c h???p b??o h???i th??ng tr?????c, T???ng th???ng Nga Vladimir Putin ???? c??? g???ng bi???n minh. Khi ???????c h???i v??? k??? ho???ch d???ng t?????ng Stalin c???a Moskva, Putin nh???c ?????n Oliver Cromwell, l??nh ?????o phe Ngh??? vi???n trong cu???c N???i chi???n Anh h???i th??? k??? 17, v?? h???i: ???S??? kh??c bi???t th???c s??? gi???a Cromwell v?? Stalin l?? g?????? R???i Putin t??? m??nh tr??? l???i c??u h???i: ???Ch???ng kh??c g??,??? v?? sau ???? m?? t??? Cromwell l?? m???t ???k??? x???o quy???t??? ???c?? vai tr?? r???t m?? h??? trong l???ch s??? n?????c Anh.??? (C?? m???t b???c t?????ng Cromwell ???????c d???ng b??n ngo??i Vi???n Th??? d??n [t???c H??? vi???n] ??? London.)

???M?? h?????? l?? l???i m?? t??? h???p l?? cho t??nh ?????o ?????c trong nh???ng h??nh ?????ng c???a Cromwell. Tuy th??c ?????y quy???n l???c c???a ngh??? vi???n ??? Anh qu???c, ch???m d???t n???i chi???n, v?? cho ph??p m???t m???c ????? khoan dung t??n gi??o nh???t ?????nh, Cromwell c??ng ???ng h??? phi??n t??a x??t x??? v?? h??nh quy???t vua Charles I, v?? hung b???o x??m chi???m Ireland ????? ph???n ???ng l???i m???i ??e d???a t??? li??n minh gi???a ng?????i C??ng gi??o Ireland v?? Ho??ng gia Anh.

Nh??ng kh??ng nh?? Cromwell, Stalin ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m tr?????c v?? s??? c??i ch???t c???a nh???ng ng?????i d??n th?????ng, b??n ngo??i c??c cu???c chi???n tranh v?? chi???n d???ch qu??n s???. Theo Timothy Snyder, t??c gi??? cu???n Bloodlands (Nh???ng v??ng ?????t ?????m m??u, ch??u ??u gi???a Hitler v?? Stalin), kho???ng 2 ?????n 3 tri???u ng?????i ???? ch???t trong c??c tr???i lao ?????ng c?????ng b???c (g???i l?? Gulag) v?? c?? l??? kho???ng 1 tri???u ng?????i ???? b??? b???n ch???t trong cu???c ?????i Thanh tr???ng cu???i nh???ng n??m 1930. Kho???ng 5 tri???u ng?????i ch???t ????i trong n???n ????i 1930-1933, trong ???? c?? 3,3 tri???u ng?????i Ukraina thi???t m???ng v?? m???t ch??nh s??ch c?? ch??? ????ch li??n quan ?????n qu???c t???ch hay th??n th??? trung n??ng c???a h???, ???????c g???i l?? kulak (t???ng l???p ?????a ch???).

?????c t??nh c???a Snyder v??? t???ng s??? n???n nh??n c???a Stalin kh??ng t??nh ?????n nh???ng ng?????i s???ng s??t sau nh???ng tr???i lao ?????ng c?????ng b???c hay b??? l??u ????y trong n?????c d?????i nh???ng ??i???u ki???n kh???c nghi???t. N???u t??nh c??? h??? th?? c?? kho???ng 25 tri???u ng?????i ph???i ch???u ?????ng n???i th???ng kh??? d?????i ch??? ????? ?????c t??i c???a Stalin. T???ng s??? ng?????i ch???t m?? Snyder quy tr??ch nhi???m cho Stalin th???p h??n con s??? th?????ng ???????c tr??ch d???n l?? 20 tri???u ng?????i, con s??? n??y ???????c ?????c t??nh tr?????c khi gi???i s??? gia ti???p c???n ???????c v??n kh??? c???a Li??n X??. D?? th??? n??o th?? ???? c??ng l?? m???t con s??? kh???ng khi???p ??? t????ng ??????ng s??? l?????ng ng?????i m?? ?????c Qu???c x?? s??t h???i (trong kho???ng th???i gian ng???n h??n).

H??n n???a, c??c t??i li???u l??u tr??? c???a Li??n X?? cho th???y ch??ng ta kh??ng th??? n??i r???ng nh???ng v??? gi???t ng?????i c???a ?????c Qu???c x?? l?? t???i t??? h??n v?? ch??ng nh???m ?????n c??c n???n nh??n d???a tr??n c?? s??? ch???ng t???c hay s???c t???c c???a h???. Stalin c??ng nh???m ?????n m???t s??? n???n nh??n d???a tr??n c?? s??? ???? ??? kh??ng ch??? c?? ng?????i Ukraina, m?? c??n c?? c??? nh???ng ng?????i d??n t???c thi???u s??? c???a c??c n?????c c?? chung ???????ng bi??n gi???i v???i Li??n X??. Nh???ng cu???c b???c h???i c???a Stalin c??ng nh???m ?????n m???t s??? l?????ng l???n ng?????i Do Th??i.

Kh??ng c?? ph??ng h??i ng???t n??o, v?? c??? cho l?? ?????ng l???c ?????ng sau nh???ng v??? s??t h???i c???a Stalin kh??ng ph???i l?? di???t ch???ng, m?? l?? m???i ??e d???a hay s??? ?????i l???p, d?? th???t hay t?????ng t?????ng, t???i ch??? ????? c???a Stalin. Nh??ng ??i???u ???? c??ng kh??ng th??? bi???n minh cho quy m?? c???a vi???c s??t h???i v?? t?? ????y ???? di???n ra.

N???u c?? b???t c??? s??? ???m?? h?????? n??o v??? l?? l???ch ?????o ?????c c???a Stalin, th?? n?? c?? l??? l?? v?? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n c??ng c?? ??i???m ?????ng v??? nh???ng ?????c mu???n cao th?????ng h??n nh?? c???a ch??ng ta, l?? t??m ki???m s??? b??nh ?????ng cho t???t c??? v?? ch???m d???t ????i ngh??o. Kh??ng th??? t??m th???y kh??t v???ng ph??? qu??t n??o nh?? v???y trong ch??? ngh??a qu???c x??, th??? r?? r??ng l?? kh??ng quan t??m ?????n nh???ng g?? l?? t???t cho t???t c??? m?? ch??? quan t??m ?????n nh???ng g?? l?? t???t cho m???t nh??m ch???ng t???c, v?? ch??? ngh??a qu???c x?? r?? r??ng l?? ???????c th??c ?????y b???ng th??i ????? h???n th?? v?? khinh mi???t v???i c??c nh??m d??n t???c kh??c.

Nh??ng ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n d?????i th???i Stalin l???i ??i ng?????c l???i ch??? ngh??a qu??n b??nh, v?? n?? trao quy???n l???c tuy???t ?????i cho m???t s??? ??t, v?? ph??? nh???n m???i quy???n l???i c???a s??? nhi???u. Nh???ng ng?????i b??nh v???c danh ti???ng c???a Stalin ghi nh???n ??ng ???? ????a h??ng tri???u ng?????i tho??t kh???i ????i ngh??o; nh??ng h??ng tri???u ng?????i ????ng l??? c??ng ???? ???????c c???u tho??t kh???i ????i ngh??o m?? kh??ng c???n ph???i s??t h???i v?? giam gi??? h??ng tri???u ng?????i kh??c.

M???t s??? ng?????i kh??c b???o v??? s??? v?? ?????i c???a Stalin d???a tr??n vai tr?? c???a ??ng trong vi???c ?????y lui cu???c x??m l?????c c???a ?????c Qu???c x?? v?? cu???i c??ng l?? ????nh b???i Hitler. Nh??ng cu???c thanh tr???ng nh???ng l??nh ?????o qu??n ?????i trong cu???c ?????i Thanh tr???ng c???a Stalin ???? l??m suy y???u nghi??m tr???ng H???ng Qu??n, vi???c Stalin k?? Hi???p ?????c B???t t????ng x??m X??-?????c n??m 1939 ???? m??? ???????ng cho s??? kh???i ?????u c???a Th??? chi???n II, v?? s??? m?? qu??ng c???a Stalin tr?????c m???i ??e d???a c???a ?????c Qu???c x?? n??m 1941 ???? khi???n Li??n X?? kh??ng ???????c chu???n b??? ????? ch???ng l???i cu???c t???n c??ng c???a Hitler.

????ng l?? Stalin ???? ????a ?????t n?????c c???a ??ng ?????n th???ng l???i trong chi???n tranh, v?? ?????n m???t v??? th??? quy???n l???c to??n c???u m?? n?? ch??a t???ng ?????t ???????c tr?????c ????, m???t ??i???u c??ng l?? l?? do khi???n n?? s???p ????? sau n??y. Hitler, ng?????c l???i, ???? ????? ?????t n?????c c???a m??nh tan r??, b??? chi???m ????ng, v?? b??? chia c???t.

M???i ng?????i ?????ng c???m v???i ?????t n?????c m??nh v?? ng?????ng m??? nh???ng ng?????i ???? d???n d???t n?? ??? th???i k??? ?????nh cao nh???t. ??i???u ???? c?? th??? gi???i th??ch l?? do t???i sao ng?????i Moskva l???i s???n s??ng ch???p nh???n m???t b???c t?????ng Stalin h??n l?? ng?????i Berlin s???n s??ng ch???p nh???n m???t b???c t?????ng Hitler.

Nh??ng ???? c?? th??? ch??? l?? m???t ph???n l?? do c???a th??i ????? ?????i x??? kh??c bi???t ?????i v???i hai k??? gi???t ng?????i h??ng lo???t n??y. N?? v???n c??n khi???n t??i b???i r???i tr?????c nh?? h??ng mang phong c??ch X?? vi???t v?? Qu??n ba KGB ??? New York.

Peter Singer l?? Gi??o s?? ?????o ?????c sinh h???c (Bioethics) t???i ?????i h???c Princeton v?? Gi??o s?? Danh d??? t???i ?????i h???c Melbourne. C??c cu???n s??ch c???a ??ng bao g???m Animal LiberationPractical EthicsOne WorldThe Ethics of What We Eat (?????ng t??c gi??? v???i Jim Mason), Rethinking Life and DeathThe Point of View of the Universe, ?????ng t??c gi??? v???i Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek, v?? g???n ????y nh???t l?? The Most Good You Can Do. N??m 2013, ??ng ???????c Vi???n Gottlieb Duttweiler vinh danh l?? ???nh?? t?? t?????ng ??????ng th???i c?? ???nh h?????ng nh???t??? th??? ba tr??n th??? gi???i.
 

T??? h??ng r??o ??i???n t??? McNamara ?????n b???c t?????ng bi??n gi???i c???a Trump

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Ngu???n: Sharon Weinberger, ???Five Decades Ago in Vietnam, a Different Great, Great Wall,??? The New York Times, 25/04/2017.

Bi??n d???ch: Ph???m H???ng Anh | Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

Khi tr??? v??? t??? Nam Vi???t Nam n??m 1961, T?????ng Maxwell Taylor ????? xu???t m???t k??? ho???ch c?? v??? ????n gi???n ????? ng??n ch???n cu???c n???i d???y c???a C???ng s???n: m???t h??ng r??o kh??ng th??? xuy??n th???ng s??? c???t ?????t ngu???n cung nh??n l???c v?? kh?? t??i t??? mi???n B???c.

Khi ???? Taylor c??ng khuy??n T???ng th???ng John F. Kennedy g???i th??m qu??n ?????i ch??nh quy t???i Vi???t Nam, m???t l???i ki???n ngh??? c??n ??m ???nh n?????c M??? trong nhi???u th???p ni??n sau n??y. Taylor l?? lu???n r???ng h??ng r??o s??? l??m suy y???u M???t tr???n D??n t???c Gi???i ph??ng mi???n Nam (Vi???t C???ng), gi??p c??c l???c l?????ng Hoa K??? v?? Nam Vi???t Nam ????nh b???i C???ng s???n.

Ai c??ng bi???t c??u chuy???n M??? can d??? qu??n s??? v??o Vi???t Nam v?? th???t b???i. Nh??ng c??u chuy???n g???c r??? v??? n??? l???c th???t b???i c???a M??? trong vi???c x??y d???ng m???t b???c t?????ng tr??n ?????t n?????c Vi???t Nam g???n nh?? ???? r??i v??o qu??n l??ng. H??ng r??o Vi???t Nam b???t ?????u t??? m???t Taylor v???i nh???n th???c sai l???m, ng?????i m?? theo ph??ng vi??n Thomas E. Ricks c?? l??? l?? ???v??? t?????ng ph?? ho???i nh???t trong l???ch s??? n?????c M???.??? Taylor ???? ch??? d???n cho chuy??n gia ch???ng n???i d???y n???i ti???ng Edward Lansdale ???????a m???i thi??n t??i M??? v??o l??m vi???c ????? c?? m???t ???????ng d??y ??i???n hay c??i g?? ???? gi??ng ngang ranh gi???i [B???c Nam], v?? sau ???? d???c xu???ng ph??a L??o v?? Campuchia.???

Lansdale kh??ng m???y h???ng th?? v???i r??o ch???n n??y, b???i v???y ??ng chuy???n nhi???m v??? cho C?? quan qu???n l?? c??c d??? ??n nghi??n c???u cao c???p (ARPA), m???t ????n v??? ??t ???????c bi???t ?????n thu???c L???u N??m G??c, g???m c??c nh?? khoa h???c v?? k??? s??, ???????c th??nh l???p n??m 1958 ????? gi??p Hoa K??? chi???n th???ng cu???c ch???y ??ua kh??ng gian v???i Li??n X??. ARPA (sau n??y th??m t??? ???Qu???c ph??ng??? v??o t??n g???i v?? ???????c bi???t v???i c??i t??n Darpa) ???? nghi??m t??c t???p h???p m???t s??? ng?????i gi???i nh???t ????? nghi??n c???u v???n ?????. H??? k???t lu???n r???ng n???u th???c s??? mu???n ng??n nh???ng ng?????i quy???t t??m v?????t bi??n th?? c???n ph???i t??n nh???n.

C??c b??o c??o b?? m???t c???a ARPA th???i gian ???? m?? t??? nh???ng chi ti???t m?? ???c??c thi??n t??i M?????? cho l?? c???n l??m ????? r??o k??n m???t qu??ng ???????ng d??i 2.000 d???m (3.200 km) ??? t????ng ??????ng v???i chi???u d??i bi??n gi???i M???-Mexico, m???c d?? trong tr?????ng h???p Vi???t Nam, n?? b??? chia c???t th??nh n??m khu v???c ri??ng bi???t. B??n c???nh vi???c tri???n khai m???t h???m ?????i g???m m??y bay c??nh c??? ?????nh v?? t??u tu???n tra, d??? ??n ???ni??m phong bi??n gi???i??? ????? xu???t s??? d???ng thu???c di???t c??? ????? ph?? tr???i m???t ??o???n ???????ng c???t y???u d??i 180 d???m (290 km) thu???c ???????ng m??n H??? Ch?? Minh, m???t tuy???n ???????ng m?? B???c Vi???t s??? d???ng ????? ti???p t??? cho Vi???t C???ng; ?????t m??n d???c v?? tuy???n 17, ranh gi???i gi???a mi???n B???c v?? mi???n Nam; v?? d??ng h??a ch???t c?? m??u ????? theo d??i t??u thuy???n tr??n c??c tuy???n ???????ng th???y.

D??? ??n n??y c??ng k??u g???i ph??t tri???n c??c c??ng ngh??? ???m???i.??? ????nh k??m v???i b???n ????? xu???t n??m 1964 c???a ARPA l?? m???t danh s??ch y??u c???u ???????c vi???t tay, bao g???m hai tri???u qu??? m??n ???????c ng???y trang gi???ng nh?? ????, 20.000 qu??? bom bi ch???a ch???t l??m r???ng l?? v?? m???t l?????ng kh??ng x??c ?????nh ???ch???t thu h??t c??n tr??ng.??? C?? l??? ????ng lo ng???i nh???t l?? y??u c???u c???p 25.000 ???v?? kh?? h??a h???c??? kh??ng x??c ?????nh r?? t??n g???i.

C??c chuy??n gia t???i L???u N??m G??c ???? do d??? tr?????c b???n ????? xu???t c???a ARPA. Khi xem x??t k??? ho???ch n??y, Seymour Deitchman, m???t tr??? l?? ?????c bi???t v??? ch???ng n???i d???y, nh???n x??t r???ng ????? r??o ch???n ho???t ?????ng ???????c, chi ph?? cho s??? m??y bay c??nh c??? ?????nh v?? tr???c th??ng c???n c?? l?? v?? c??ng l???n. B???t k??? lo???i r??o ch???n n??o, d?? l?? h??ng r??o v???t l?? hay h??ng r??o ??i???n, ?????u ????i h???i ph???i b???o d?????ng li??n t???c v?? ?????t ?????. ???C??c thi???t b??? gi??m s??t bi??n gi???i kh??ng c???n ng?????i ??i???u khi???n c??ng c???n chi ph?? ????ng k??? ????? b???o tr?? v?? thay th??? nh???ng chi ti???t h???ng h??c, b??n c???nh m???t h??? th???ng ch??? huy v?? ki???m so??t kh???ng l??? ????? nh???n di???n c??c ??i???m x??m nh???p,??? Deitchman vi???t.

????? xu???t l??m r??o ch???n c???a ARPA b??? L???u N??m G??c b??c b??? b???i chi ph?? qu?? ?????t ????? v?? ????i h???i m???t cam k???t qu??n s??? c???a M??? ??? Vi???t Nam m?? Nh?? Tr???ng ch??a s???n s??ng ????a ra. Nh??ng gi???ng nh?? nhi???u ?? t?????ng t??? h???i, b???n ????? xu???t n??y l???i ???????c t??i s??? d???ng ch??? v??i n??m sau ???? khi cu???c chi???n v?? trang ??? Vi???t Nam leo thang. M???t c???u quan ch???c ARPA vi???t r???ng b???c r??o ch???n ???? s???ng l???i nh??? s??? ???tuy???t v???ng??? c???a B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng Robert McNamara. L???n n??y, nhi???m v??? ???????c giao cho m???t nh??m c?? t??n Jasons ???????c ARPA t??i tr???, g???m c??c nh?? khoa h???c m?? c??c t??i li???u L???u N??m G??c m?? t??? l?? ???nh??m tinh t??y nh???t c???a c???ng ?????ng h???c thu???t trong c??c l??nh v???c k??? thu???t.???

Thay v?? x??y d???ng m???t b???c t?????ng hay r??o ch???n th???c s???, nh??m Jasons t?? v???n x??y d???ng m???t c??i g?? ???? gi???ng nh?? m???t b???c t?????ng ???o l??m t??? c???m bi???n ??m thanh v?? ?????a ch???n, k???t n???i v???i m???t trung t??m m??y t??nh ch??? huy v?? ki???m so??t c?? th??? ra l???nh cho m??y bay qu??n s??? t???n c??ng. C???m bi???n s??? x??c ?????nh c?? ng?????i ho???c xe ??i qua l???n ranh v?? h??nh n??y; c??c thu???t to??n s??? t??nh to??n v??? tr??; sau ???? c??c t???a ????? n??y s??? ???????c chuy???n ?????n cho phi c??ng ????? n??m bom v??o ?????a ??i???m ?????c ?????nh.

?????n n??m 1967, Kh??ng qu??n Hoa K??? ???? th??? nhi???u chu???i c???m bi???n ??m thanh d???c ???????ng m??n H??? Ch?? Minh. Ch??ng gi??p ph??t hi???n c??c ??o??n ng?????i ??i qua v?? chuy???n d??? li???u ?????n m???t c???p m??y t??nh IBM l???n ??? Th??i Lan, c???p m??y t??nh n??y s??? ??i???u khi???n m??y bay tr???c th??ng v?? m??y bay chi???n ?????u t???i t???a ????? d??? t??nh. Thay v?? n??m bom m???c ti??u m?? h??? nh??n th???y, l???n ?????u ti??n phi c??ng th???c hi???n t???n c??ng d???a tr??n m???c ti??u nh???n t??? m??y t??nh, m??? ra th???i k??? ???chi???n tranh nh???n n??t???.

D??? ??n c?? t??n m?? l?? Igloo White v?? ???????c tri???n khai ch??? y???u m???t c??ch b?? m???t n??y ???? g???p ph???i v?? s??? v???n ????? k??? thu???t, nh?? tu???i th??? pin c???m bi???n ng???n. Khi th??ng tin v??? d??? ??n b???t ?????u l???t ra ngo??i, McNamara bu???c ph???i ????a ra m???t tuy??n b??? c??ng khai, m???c d?? cung c???p r???t ??t chi ti???t v??? h??ng r??o. ???T??i kh??ng c?? ?? ?????nh d??ng cho k??? th?? l???i th??? bi???t ???????c ch??ng ta s??? s??? d???ng c??ng c??? n??o, ??? ????u hay s??? l?????ng bao nhi??u,??? McNamara n??i t???i m???t cu???c h???p b??o v??o th??ng 9 n??m 1967.

Kh??ng qu??n Hoa K??? tuy??n b??? th??nh c??ng vang d???i, d???n ra nh???ng con s??? l???n v??? c??c ??o??n ng?????i b??? tr??ng bom, tuy nhi??n vi???c x??c minh nh???ng con s??? ???? l?? r???t kh?? kh??n, b???i trong th???i ?????i chi???n tranh s??? m???i, ch??? L???u N??m G??c m???i c?? s??? ti???p c???n ?????y ????? ?????i v???i chi???n tr?????ng. Tr??n th???c t???, b???c r??o ch???n n??y c?? ???nh h?????ng r???t nh??? ?????n Vi???t C???ng. Nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? c??ng ngh??? n???n t???ng ch??? tr??ch Kh??ng qu??n v?? s??? d???ng c??ng ngh??? c???m bi???n ????? theo ??u???i chi???n d???ch n??m bom chi???n l?????c th???t b???i v??o B???c Vi???t, l??m tr???ch h?????ng ngu???n l???c kh???i k??? ho???ch r??o ch???n. D?? l?? do l?? g?? th?? c??ng c?? m???t k???t lu???n r?? r??ng: B???t ch???p nh???ng b??o c??o l???c quan t??? Kh??ng qu??n, s??? th???t b???i c???a b???c r??o ch???n l???n ?????n m???c cu???i c??ng n?? b??? ch??? gi???u b???ng c??i t??n ???H??ng r??o McNamara.???

Th???t b???i n??y ???? b??? l??? ??i nhi???u h??n l?? b??? qu??n l??ng khi c??c th??nh ph???n c???a h??ng r??o ??i???n t??? l???i ???????c ????a v??o s??? d???ng h??ng th???p ni??n sau ????. B???t ?????u t??? n??m 2006, ch??nh ph??? Hoa K??? ???? th??? nghi???m k???t h???p c??c camera, c???m bi???n, v?? m??y bay ????? ng??n c???n ng?????i v?????t bi??n tr??i ph??p qua bi??n gi???i M???-Mexico. M???t s??? c??ng ngh???, nh?? c???m bi???n v?? kh?? c???u c??? ?????nh, l?? h???u th??n tr???c ti???p c???a c??ng tr??nh c???a ARPA trong th???i k??? Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam. Ch????ng tr??nh tr??? gi?? nhi???u t??? ???? la n??y ???? b??? ????nh ch??? sau n??m n??m, gi???a b???i c???nh chi ph?? leo thang v?? c?? b???ng ch???ng cho th???y c??ng ngh??? n??y kh??ng ng??n ch???n hi???u qu??? t??nh tr???ng v?????t bi??n.

Hi???n nay T???ng th???ng Trump ??ang ????? xu???t k??? ho???ch x??y m???t b???c t?????ng c???a ri??ng m??nh. Tuy nhi??n ???b???c t?????ng v??, v?? ?????i??? c???a ??ng, m???t ??i???m nh???n trong chi???n d???ch tranh c??? v?? nay l?? nhi???m k??? t???ng th???ng c???a ??ng, ch??a bao gi??? ???????c di???n gi???i c??? th??? h??n ngh??a ??en l?? b???c t???ng x??y b???ng g???ch v?? v???a. H??m 24 th??ng 2, ch??nh quy???n ????? ngh??? (c??c nh?? th???u ti???m n??ng) n???p ????? xu???t v??? ???thi???t k??? v?? x??y d???ng m???t s??? c???u tr??c t?????ng m???u ??? quanh v??ng bi??n gi???i gi???a M??? v???i Mexico.???

Ngay c??? khi b??? qua chi ph?? v?? nh???ng kh?? kh??n v??? m???t k??? thu???t ????? x??y d???ng m???t c???u tr??c d??i g???n 2.000 d???m, b???c t?????ng s??? l?? v?? d???ng n???u kh??ng c?? c??ch gi??m s??t ?????t nh???p. Nh???n th???c ???????c ??i???u n??y, Rudolph W. Giuliani, m???t trong nh???ng ng?????i th??n c???n v???i Trump, ???? m?? t??? b???c t?????ng n??y ???v???a l?? b???c t?????ng k??? thu???t, v???a l?? b???c t?????ng v???t l??,??? nh??ng ?????nh ngh??a c??? th??? nh???t t??? tr?????c ?????n nay v??? b???c t?????ng c??ng m???i ch??? d???ng ??? m???c ????.

B???c t?????ng do T???ng th???ng Trump ????? xu???t kh??ng ph???i l?? n??? l???c ?????u ti??n hay cu???i c??ng nh???m x??y d???ng m???t b???c r??o ch???n b???t kh??? x??m ph???m. ??t nh???t th?? H??ng r??o McNamara c??ng ???????c t???o n??n nh??? gi???i tinh hoa khoa h???c c???a M???. ??i???u ?????c ????o duy nh???t v??? ????? xu???t x??y t?????ng m???i nh???t c???a Trump l?? n?? thi???u c??? c??i m?? s??ng t???o c??ng ngh???, ch??? ch??a n??i ?????n y???u t??? ???thi??n t??i M???.???

Sharon Weinberger l?? t??c gi??? cu???n The Imagineers of War: The Untold Story of Darpa, the Pentagon Agency That Changed the World.

H??nh: B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng M??? McNamara th??ng b??o trong m???t bu???i h???p b??o v??? k??? ho???ch x??y d???ng h??ng r??o ??i???n t??? gi???a B???c v?? Nam Vi???t Nam. Ngu???n: NYT.

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