Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 14/08/2019

Thứ tư - 14/08/2019 02:24
?????i di???n Th????ng m???i Hoa K???, quan ch???c th????ng m???i h??ng ?????u c???a M???, cho bi???t m???c thu??? 10% ?????i v???i m???t s??? h??ng h??a t??? Trung Qu???c, bao g???m m??y t??nh x??ch tay, ??i???n tho???i di ?????ng v?? qu???n ??o, s??? ???????c ho??n l???i cho ?????n gi???a th??ng 12. ?????u th??ng n??y, T???ng th???ng Donald Trump ???? c??ng b??? m???c thu??? b??? sung ?????i v???i 300 t??? ???? la
Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 14/08/2019

Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 14/08/2019

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Ngu???n: The Economist | Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy

TIN V???N H??M QUA

?????i di???n Th????ng m???i Hoa K???, quan ch???c th????ng m???i h??ng ?????u c???a M???, cho bi???t m???c thu??? 10% ?????i v???i m???t s??? h??ng h??a t??? Trung Qu???c, bao g???m m??y t??nh x??ch tay, ??i???n tho???i di ?????ng v?? qu???n ??o, s??? ???????c ho??n l???i cho ?????n gi???a th??ng 12. ?????u th??ng n??y, T???ng th???ng Donald Trump ???? c??ng b??? m???c thu??? b??? sung ?????i v???i 300 t??? ???? la h??ng nh???p kh???u c???a Trung Qu???c b???t ?????u t??? ng??y 1 th??ng 9. C??c nh?? b??n l??? hi???n c?? th???i gian ????? nh???p kh???u h??ng h??a mi???n thu??? tr?????c m??a mua s???m Gi??ng sinh.

Trong tu???n th??? m?????i c???a c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh ch???ng ch??nh ph??? ??? H???ng K??ng, s??n bay L??nh th??? n??y ???? h???y c??c th??? t???c check-in trong ng??y th??? hai li??n ti???p. C??c cu???c ???u ????? ???? n??? ra gi???a ng?????i bi???u t??nh v?? c???nh s??t trong c??c nh?? ga s??n bay. Trung Qu???c ???? g??y ??p l???c l??n phong tr??o ph???n kh??ng b???ng c??ch l??u h??nh m???t video nh???m m???c ????ch cho th???y m???t ??o??n xe qu??n s??? ??ang di chuy???n qua Th??m Quy???n, m???t th??nh ph??? c???a Trung Qu???c n???m gi??p H???ng K??ng.

John Bolton, c??? v???n an ninh qu???c gia c???a M???, cho bi???t trong chuy???n th??m t???i London, Anh, r???ng ??ng s??? l?? ng?????i ?????u ti??n ???ng h??? m???t th???a thu???n th????ng m???i c???a Anh v???i M??? sau Brexit, l???p l???i quan ??i???m c???a T???ng th???ng Donald Trump. ??ng n??i r???ng m???t lo???t c??c th???a thu???n theo t???ng ng??nh c?? th??? ???????c k??, m???t s??? th???a nh???n r?? r??ng r???ng vi???c k?? m???t hi???p ?????nh th????ng m???i to??n di???n s??? kh?? kh??n nh?? th??? n??o.

T???ng thu nh???p ??? Anh, bao g???m ti???n th?????ng, t??ng 3,7% so v???i c??ng k??? trong Qu?? II/2019, m???c cao nh???t k??? t??? th??ng 6 n??m 2008. Th???p ni??n v???a qua ch???ng ki???n s??? ph???c h???i ti???n l????ng th???c t??? h???u suy tho??i ch???m nh???t k??? t??? sau Th??? chi???n II. Tin t???t ???? ?????n b???t ch???p n???n kinh t??? Anh thu h???p 0,2% trong Qu?? II.

Rolls-Royce ???? b??? h??? x???p h???ng t??n d???ng b???i Moody???s. Nh?? s???n xu???t ?????ng c?? c???a Anh ???? ph???i ch???u m???t s??? t???n th???t l???n g???n ????y do chi ph?? li??n quan ?????n vi???c thay th??? c??nh qu???t b??? l???i trong ?????ng c?? tr??n m??y bay Boeing 787. Tin t???c ???????c ????a ra v??i ng??y sau khi m???t ?????ng c?? Rolls tr??n chi???c 787 b??? tr???c tr???c v?? l??m r??i h??ng lo???t m???nh v??? l??n ?????t ?? trong chuy???n bay t??? Rome ?????n Los Angeles.

Ch??? s??? gi?? ti??u d??ng c???a M??? ???? t??ng 0,3% trong th??ng 7 so v???i th??ng 6, m???t tin vui ?????i v???i C???c D??? tr??? Li??n bang, c?? quan ??ang lo l???ng r???ng n???n kinh t??? ??ang ch???m l???i. L???m ph??t c?? b???n (kh??ng bao g???m gi?? nhi??n li???u v?? n??ng l?????ng d??? bi???n ?????ng ) c??ng l?? 0,3%. Nh??ng th??? tr?????ng ti???p t???c k??? v???ng r???ng Fed s??? c???t gi???m l??i su???t t???i cu???c h???p ch??nh s??ch ti???p theo v??o th??ng Ch??n.

CBS v?? Viacom, ???????c t??ch ra v??o n??m 2006, ???? ?????ng ?? t??i h???p trong m???t th???a thu???n ch???ng kho??n tr??? gi?? h??n 28 t??? ???? la. Si??u c??ng ty m???i n??y hy v???ng s??? ch???ng l???i nh???ng g?? kh???ng l??? truy???n th??ng l???n h??n, nh?? Netflix v?? Disney, trong m???t ng??nh c??ng nghi???p gi???i tr?? ??ang c???ng c??? nhanh ch??ng (t???c gi???m s??? c??ng ty th??ng qua mua b??n s??p nh???p ??? ND). Vi???c s??p nh???p di???n ra sau nhi???u n??m ????m ph??n th?????ng xuy??n b??? gi??n ??o???n.

TI??U ??I???M H??M NAY

N???i chi???n ??? Yemen

Cu???i c??ng th?? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a ??? R???p Saudi v?? C??c Ti???u v????ng qu???c ??? R???p Th???ng nh???t (UAE) c??ng ???? c??ng khai th???ng nh???t m???t ti???ng n??i chung v??? s??? b??ng n??? giao tranh ??? Aden. Song khi h??? k??u g???i ?????i tho???i th?? li??n minh c???a ch??nh h??? c??ng ??ang r???n n???t. Hai n?????c n??y tham chi???n ??? Yemen b???n n??m tr?????c v???i m???c ????ch kh??i ph???c ch??nh ph??? ???????c qu???c t??? c??ng nh???n, v???n ???? b??? thay th??? b???i phi???n qu??n Houthi d??ng Shia do Iran h???u thu???n.

C??c c?????ng qu???c v??ng V???nh ?????u tranh th??? c??c nh??m phi???n qu??n ?????a ph????ng, m???i nh??m c?? m???t m???c ti??u ri??ng v?? th?????ng m??u thu???n nhau. H???u h???t c??c nh??m n??y ?????u kh??ng ???ng h??? ch??nh ph??? Yemen, l???c l?????ng v???n b??? ?????y ra kh???i v??? tr?? quy???n l???c t???m th???i c???a h??? ??? Aden h???i tu???n tr?????c, b???i phe ly khai ???????c ch??nh UAE h???u thu???n, nh???ng ?????ng minh tr??n danh ngh??a c???a ch??nh ph??? n??y. Li??n minh ???? b??? chia r??? b???i nh???ng s??? c???nh tranh nh?? v???y, v?? ????y l?? m???t trong nh???ng l?? do gi???i th??ch v?? sao h??? ???? kh??ng th??? ????nh b???i phi???n qu??n Houthi ??? mi???n b???c. UAE ???? ????? m???t m???i, v?? s??? r??t lui c???a h??? c??ng l??m cho tri???n v???ng chi???n th???ng c???a li??n minh tr??? n??n m??? nh???t. C??u h???i b??y gi??? l?? li???u Yemen c?? c??n l?? m???t qu???c gia th???ng nh???t hay kh??ng.

 Australia duy tr?? ???nh h?????ng ??? Th??i B??nh D????ng

Scott Morrison ???? ?????n th??m b???n qu???c gia Th??i B??nh D????ng trong n??m qua k??? t??? khi ???????c b??? nhi???m l??m th??? t?????ng ??c. H??m nay, ??ng ?????n th??m qu???c gia th??? n??m ??? Tuvalu ??? nh???m  tham gia Di???n ????n Qu???n ?????o Th??i B??nh D????ng h??ng n??m c???a khu v???c. Hi???m c?? ng?????i ti???n nhi???m n??o c???a ??ng l???i d??nh cho nh???ng ng?????i h??ng x??m c???a m??nh m???t s??? ch?? ?? kh??ng ng???ng nh?? v???y. Song, th???c t??? Australia ng??y nay lo ng???i ???nh h?????ng ng??y c??ng t??ng c???a Trung Qu???c trong ???l??nh ?????a??? c???a ri??ng m??nh v?? mong mu???n tr??? th??nh ????????i t??c ???????c l???a ch???n???, nh?? c??c ch??nh tr??? gia th?????ng n??i.

Tuy nhi??n, ??ng Morrison ???????c ch??o ????n kh??ng m???y ni???m n??? t???i c??c ?????o qu???c Th??i B??nh D????ng. N???u c?? m???t ??i???u m?? c??c qu???c gia ?????o san h?? n??y c?? th??? c??ng ?????ng ??, th?? ???? l?? vi???c h??? ??ang b??? ??e d???a: h??? mu???n c?? c??c ?????ng th??i quy???t li???t nh???m h???n ch??? bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u v?? ng??n n?????c bi???n d??ng cao. Trong khi ????, ch??nh ph??? c???a li??n minh b???o th??? ??? Australia l???i lo l???ng nhi???u h??n v??? phi???u b???u t??? c??c khu v???c b???u c??? ph??? thu???c v??o khai th??c m???. ????? xoa d???u c??c n?????c n??y, ??ng Morrison ???? h???a s??? chuy???n 500 tri???u ???? la ??c (t????ng ??????ng 339 tri???u ???? la M???) nh???m gi??p c??c ?????o qu???c Th??i B??nh D????ng x??y d???ng ???kh??? n??ng ph???c h???i??? tr?????c bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u. M???t s??? ng?????i kh??c th?? mu???n nh??n th???y ??ng ????ng c???a c??c nh?? m??y nhi???t ??i???n than ??? Australia h??n.

?????o lu???t N???n nh??n Tr??? em c???a New York

M???t ph???n ba s??? n???n nh??n b??? l???m d???ng t??nh d???c tr??? em kh??ng bao gi??? ti???t l??? r???ng h??? b??? l???m d???ng. ????? tu???i trung b??nh c???a h??? khi ti???t l??? l?? 52, th?????ng qu?? mu???n ????? ????? ????n t??? gi??c ho???c ????n ki???n. ??? New York, m???t n???n nh??n s???ng s??t sau l???m d???ng t??nh d???c tr??? em ph???i n???p c??c ????n n??y tr?????c 23 tu???i. Song nh??? v??o ?????o lu???t N???n nh??n Tr??? em c?? hi???u l???c t??? h??m nay, nh???ng ng?????i s???ng s??t s??? c?? th???i gian ?????n khi 28 tu???i ????? n???p ????n t??? c??o v?? ?????n 55 tu???i ????? ????m ????n ki???n d??n s??? ??? k??? c??? ch???ng l???i c??c t??? ch???c che ch??? cho nh???ng k??? l???m d???ng.

?????o lu???t n??y bao g???m m???t n??m ?????u ti??n cho ph??p m???i ng?????i c?? th??? n???p ????n ki???n b???t k??? vi???c l???m d???ng ???? x???y ra bao l??u. Nh?? th???, tr?????ng h???c, c??c nh??m h?????ng ?????o v?? c??c nh??m Do Th??i ???? b???t ?????u t??? chu???n b??? (?????i ?????u v???i c??c v??? ki???n). ?????i h???c Rockefeller v?? T???ng gi??o ph???n New York ???? ki???n c??c c??ng ty b???o hi???m c???a h??? v?? t??? ch???i cung c???p b???o hi???m cho vi???c gi???i quy???t c??c v??? ki???n li??n quan ?????n ?????o lu???t m???i. Nicholas DiMarzio, Gi??m m???c C??ng gi??o Brooklyn, ???? c???nh b??o c??c gi??o d??n c???a m??nh r???ng, ???ch??ng t??i kh??ng bi???t ch??ng t??i s??? ph???i ?????i m???t v???i bao nhi??u v??? ki???n ??? v?? li???u ch??ng t??i c?? ph???i tuy??n b??? ph?? s???n hay kh??ng???.

Kinh t??? ?????c d?????i t??c ?????ng c???a th????ng chi???n

Khi cu???c chi???n tranh th????ng m???i leo thang gi???a M??? v?? Trung Qu???c, c??c n???n kinh t??? ?????nh h?????ng xu???t kh???u ??ang b??? d??nh ?????n l???c nhi???u h??n bao gi??? h???t. S??? li???u h??m nay d??? ki???n ??????s??? cho th???y n???n kinh t??? ?????c ch???m l???i, ho???c th???m ch?? l?? suy gi???m, trong Qu?? II. Xu???t kh???u d?????ng nh?? ???? b??? tr??ng ????n ??au. S???n xu???t c??ng nghi???p c??ng t????ng t??? nh?? v???y, ?????c bi???t l?? ng??nh s???n xu???t ?? t??, khi m?? ng??nh n??y b??? gi??ng m???t ????n n???ng n??? b???i nh???ng thay ?????i v??o n??m ngo??i c???a c??c quy t???c ki???m tra kh?? th???i. Chu???i cung ???ng s???n xu???t quan h??? m???t thi???t c?? ngh??a l?? thi???t h???i c?? th??? lan r???ng v??? ph??a ????ng ?????n c??c qu???c gia nh?? Hungary v?? Slovakia, nh???ng n?????c c??ng s??? c??ng b??? s??? li???u v??o h??m nay.

M???c cho t??nh h??nh ?? ???ch c???a khu v???c ch??? t???o c???a ?????c, chi ti??u h??? gia ????nh v???n gi??? v???ng. Nh??ng li???u ng?????i ti??u d??ng c?? th??? c???m c??? l??u h??n? Tr?????c nhu c???u gi???m, BASF, m???t nh?? s???n xu???t h??a ch???t, ??ang c???t gi???m 6.000 vi???c l??m. M???t s??? c??ng ty ??ang gi???m b???t gi??? l??m vi???c. C??c nh?? kinh t??? hy v???ng r???ng ch??nh s??ch t??i kh??a c?? th??? gi???i quy???t t??nh h??nh. Nh??ng cho ?????n nay c??c ch??nh tr??? gia ?????c cho th???y kh??ng s???n s??ng thay ?????i phong c??ch ???ki bo??? c???a h??? ????? duy tr?? t??ng tr?????ng.

H??? th???ng ???????ng s???t c???a Anh

H??m nay, Anh s??? c??ng b??? s??? li???u l???m ph??t gi?? ti??u d??ng, t??? ???? quy???t ?????nh m???c t??ng gi?? v?? t??u h??ng n??m. Nh??ng ng?????i Anh c??n l??u m???i h??i l??ng v???i ???????ng s???t c???a h???, v?? b???t m??n h??n khi ph???i tr??? nhi???u ti???n h??n cho ??i???u t??? h??n. Sau khi ?????t ???????c nhi???u ti???n b??? k??? t??? khi ???????c t?? nh??n h??a v??o nh???ng n??m 1990, ch???t l?????ng d???ch v??? ???? v?? ??ang b??? ?????o ng?????c. S??? l?????ng c??c v??? tr??? chuy???n v?? h???y t??u h???i n??m ngo??i ???? ?????t ?????n m???c t???i t??? nh???t trong g???n m???t th???p ni??n qua. V?? sau nhi???u n??m t??ng nhanh l?????ng h??nh kh??ch, n??m ngo??i ch???ng ki???n m???c gi???m 1,4%, l???n ?????u ti??n trong b???i c???nh kh??ng c?? suy tho??i, k??? t??? n??m 1995.

V??o m??a thu n??m nay, m???t b??o c??o ?????c l???p c???a Keith Williams, m???t s???p c?? c???a British Airways, s??? c??ng b??? c??ch th???c c???i t??? h??? th???ng nh?????ng quy???n ???????ng s???t hi???n ??ang cung c???p h???u h???t c??c chuy???n t??u ??? Anh. Song qu???c h???u h??a l???i l?? l???a ch???n ??a th??ch c???a c???ng ?????ng: theo m???t cu???c th??m d?? ???????c c??ng b??? n??m ngo??i b???i ????i truy???n h??nh Sky, kho???ng 60% ng?????i Anh ???ng h??? vi???c quay tr??? l???i s??? h???u nh?? n?????c.
 

15/09/1972: Vi???t Nam CH t??i chi???m th??nh c??? Qu???ng Tr???

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Ngu???n: South Vietnamese forces retake Quang Tri City, History.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1972, l???c l?????ng Vi???t Nam C???ng H??a ???? t??i chi???m th??nh c??? Qu???ng Tr??? sau b???n ng??y chi???n ?????u d??? d???i, ?????ng th???i tuy??n b??? r???ng h??n 8.135 l??nh B???c Vi???t ???? b??? ti??u di???t trong tr???n ????nh.

L???c l?????ng B???c Vi???t ???? ph??t ?????ng m???t cu???c t???n c??ng ??? ???t, ???????c g???i l?? Chi???n d???ch Nguy???n Hu??? hay ???Chi???n d???ch Ph???c sinh??? v??o ng??y 31/03, v???i ba m???c ti??u ch??nh l?? Qu???ng Tr??? n???m v??? ph??a nam khu v???c phi qu??n s???, Kontum ??? T??y Nguy??n, v?? An L???c, ch??? c??ch S??i G??n 60 d???m v??? ph??a B???c.

Cu???c t???n c??ng n??y s??? d???ng 14 s?? ??o??n v?? 26 trung ??o??n ri??ng bi???t, t???ng l???c l?????ng h??n 120.000 qu??n, v?? ???????c thi???t k??? nh???m ????nh b???i Vi???t Nam C???ng H??a trong chi???n tranh v?? g??y th???t b???i cho c??c l???c l?????ng M??? c??n s??t l???i (c?? ??t h??n 70.000 qu??n M??? t???i Vi???t Nam v??o th???i ??i???m n??y do ch??nh s??ch ???Vi???t Nam h??a chi???n tranh??? c???a Nixon v?? k??? ho???ch r??t qu??n c???a ng?????i M???). ?????t t???n c??ng c???a B???c Vi???t ???????c ?????c tr??ng b???ng nh???ng tr???n h???p ?????ng t??c chi???n gi???a l???c l?????ng t??ng thi???t gi??p v?? b??? binh, ???????c h??? tr??? b???i ph??o binh h???ng n???ng, d???n ?????n m???t s??? nh???ng tr???n ????nh ???????c coi l?? d??? d???i nh???t trong Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam.

L???c l?????ng Vi???t Nam C???ng H??a v?? c??c c??? v???n M??? c???a h???, ???????c h??? tr??? b???i m??y bay n??m bom chi???n thu???t v?? m??y bay n??m bom B-52 c???a M???, ???? c?? th??? c???m c??? t???i An L???c v?? Kontum d?? b??? ??p ?????o v??? qu??n s???. Tuy nhi??n, l???c l?????ng t???i Qu???ng Tr??? ???? lung lay d?????i s??? t???n c??ng c???a l???c l?????ng c???ng s???n v?? nhanh ch??ng b??? ??p ?????o. Ch??? sau khi T???ng th???ng Thi???u sa th???i ch??? huy c???a Qu??n ??o??n I v?? thay th??? ??ng ta b???ng Thi???u t?????ng Ng?? Quang Tr?????ng, ng?????i ???????c cho l?? m???t trong nh???ng s?? quan gi???i nh???t trong qu??n ?????i Nam Vi???t Nam, th?? qu??n ?????i Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a m???i c?? th??? ng??n ch???n ???????c l???c l?????ng B???c Vi???t.

??ng Tr?????ng ???? c?? nh???ng bi???n ph??p ????? ???n ?????nh t??nh h??nh v?? l???c l?????ng Nam Vi???t Nam ???? b???t ?????u chi???n ?????u ????p tr???. Sau tr???n ????nh ?????m m??u k??o d??i b???n th??ng r?????i, trong ???? c?? 977 l??nh Vi???t Nam C???ng H??a thi???t m???ng, Tr?????ng v?? qu??n ?????i c???a ??ng ???? l???y l???i Qu???ng Tr??? t??? tay B???c Vi???t, v?? gi??nh ???????c m???t chi???n th???ng quan tr???ng. T???ng th???ng Nixon ???? s??? d???ng ??i???u n??y l??m b???ng ch???ng kh???ng ?????nh r???ng ch??nh s??ch Vi???t Nam h??a chi???n tranh c???a ??ng l?? c?? hi???u qu??? v?? qu??n ?????i Nam Vi???t Nam ???? s???n s??ng ????? ?????m tr??ch cu???c chi???n.
 

Putin v?? quy???n l???c m???m c???a Nga

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Ngu???n: Joseph Nye, ???Putin???s Rules of Attraction???, Project Syndicate, 12/12/2014.

Bi??n d???ch: Phan Vi???t H??ng | Bi??n t???p: B??i Thu Th???o

H??nh ?????ng g??y h???n ng???m c???a T???ng th???ng Nga Vladimir Putin ??? Ukraina v???n ti???p t???c v?? c??c bi???n ph??p tr???ng ph???t c???a ph????ng T??y ?????i v???i Nga c??ng v???y. Tuy nhi??n n???n kinh t??? kh??ng ph???i l?? th??? duy nh???t ??ang b??? ??e d???a; quy???n l???c m???m c???a Nga ??ang b??? suy y???u, v???i nh???ng h???u qu??? c?? ti???m n??ng g??y t???n h???i t???i ?????t n?????c.

M???t ?????t n?????c c?? th??? bu???c c??c n?????c kh??c th??c ?????y l???i ??ch c???a m??nh b???ng 3 c??ch ch??nh: th??ng qua ??p bu???c, mua chu???c, hay thu h??t. Putin ???? c??? g???ng ??p bu???c v?? g???p ph???i c??c bi???n ph??p tr???ng ph???t ng??y c??ng c???ng r???n. Th??? t?????ng ?????c Angela Merkel, ng?????i ?????i tho???i ch??nh c???a ch??u ??u v???i Putin, ???? b??y t??? s??? th???t v???ng v??? ch??nh s??ch c???a Nga ?????i v???i Ukraine b???ng nh???ng l???i l??? ng??y c??ng gay g???t.

Cho d?? nh???ng h??nh ?????ng c???a Putin ??? Ukraine c?? mang l???i l???i ??ch ng???n h???n g?? ??i n???a th?? ch??ng c??ng kh??ng th??? ????? b?? ?????p cho (thi???t h???i trong) d??i h???n, khi m?? Nga m???t quy???n ti???p c???n v???i c??c c??ng ngh??? c???a ph????ng T??y m?? n?????c n??y c???n ????? hi???n ?????i h??a n???n c??ng nghi???p v?? m??? r???ng th??m d?? n??ng l?????ng t???i c??c v??ng B???c C???c xa x??i.

V???i m???t n???n kinh t??? Nga tr?? tr???, Putin s??? ng??y c??ng kh?? kh??n trong vi???c s??? d???ng c??ng c??? quy???n l???c th??? hai: mua chu???c. Ngay c??? d???u m??? v?? kh?? ?????t ??? nh???ng t??i nguy??n qu?? gi?? nh???t c???a Nga ??? c??ng kh??ng th??? c???u v??n n???n kinh t???, ??i???u n??y ???? ???????c ch???ng minh b???i th???a thu???n g???n ????y c???a Putin v??? vi???c cung c???p kh?? ?????t cho Trung Qu???c trong 30 n??m v???i gi?? r???.

Ch??? c??n l???i s??? thu h??t ??? m???t ngu???n quy???n l???c m???nh m??? h??n ng?????i ta t?????ng. Trung Qu???c l?? m???t v?? d???, n?????c n??y v???n ??ang s??? d???ng quy???n l???c m???m ????? g??y d???ng m???t h??nh ???nh ??t ??e d???a h??n ??? m???t h??nh ???nh m?? h??? hy v???ng s??? l??m suy y???u, v?? th???m ch?? ng??n ch???n, nh???ng li??n minh ??ang xu???t hi???n ????? ?????i tr???ng v???i s???c m???nh kinh t??? v?? qu??n s??? ??ang n???i l??n c???a h???.

Quy???n l???c m???m c???a m???t ?????t n?????c d???a tr??n ba ngu???n ch??nh: m???t n???n v??n h??a h???p d???n, c??c gi?? tr??? ch??nh tr??? m?? n?? ki??n ?????nh ???ng h???, v?? ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i th???m nhu???n t??nh ?????o ?????c. Th??? th??ch n???m ??? vi???c k???t h???p ba ngu???n l???c n??y v???i c??c t??i nguy??n quy???n l???c c???ng nh?? s???c m???nh kinh t??? v?? qu??n s??? ????? ch??ng c?? th??? b??? tr??? cho nhau.

M??? ???? th???t b???i trong vi???c ?????t ???????c s??? c??n b???ng n??y trong cu???c x??m l?????c Iraq n??m 2003. Trong khi s???c m???nh qu??n s??? M??? ????? ????? ????nh b???i qu??n ?????i c???a Saddam Hussein m???t c??ch nhanh ch??ng, n?? ???? g??y n??n s??? s???t gi???m s???c h??t c???a M??? t???i nhi???u n?????c kh??c. Gi???ng nh?? v???y, vi???c th??nh l???p H???c vi???n Kh???ng t??? ??? Manila ????? d???y ng?????i Philippines v??? v??n h??a Trung Qu???c c?? th??? gi??p g??y d???ng quy???n l???c m???m c???a Trung Qu???c, tuy nhi??n ???nh h?????ng c???a vi???c n??y s??? b??? h???n ch??? s??u s???c n???u Trung Qu???c c??ng l??c s??? d???ng quy???n l???c c???ng c???a h??? ????? b???t n???t Philippines trong tranh ch???p b??i c???n Scarborough.

V???n ????? c???a Nga l?? h??? c?? qu?? ??t quy???n l???c m???m ????? c?? th??? s??? d???ng. Th???t v???y, nh?? nh?? ph??n t??ch ch??nh tr??? Sergei Karaganov ???? l??u ?? v??o n??m 2009, s??? thi???u h???t quy???n l???c m???m ch??nh l?? th??? ???? khi???n cho Nga h??nh x??? m???t c??ch hung h??ng ??? nh?? trong cu???c chi???n v???i Gruzia v??o n??m 2008.

Ch???c ch???n l?? trong l???ch s???, Nga t???ng c?? m???t quy???n l???c m???m ????ng k???, do n???n v??n h??a c???a h??? c?? ????ng g??p to l???n ?????i v???i n???n ngh??? thu???t, ??m nh???c v?? v??n h???c. H??n n???a, ngay sau khi k???t th??c Chi???n tranh th??? gi???i l???n th??? hai, Li??n X?? tr??? n??n h???p d???n ?????i v???i nhi???u ng?????i ??? T??y ??u, ph???n l???n nh??? v??o s??? l??nh ?????o c???a h??? trong cu???c chi???n ch???ng ph??t x??t.

Nh??ng nh???ng ng?????i Li??n X?? ???? l??ng ph?? nh???ng quy???n l???c m???m n??y b???ng vi???c x??m l?????c Hungary n??m 1956 v?? Ti???p Kh???c n??m 1968. ?????n n??m 1989, h??? ch??? c??n l???i ch??t ??t quy???n l???c m???m. B???c t?????ng Berlin kh??ng s???p ????? d?????i s??? oanh t???c c???a ph??o binh NATO, m?? d?????i t??c ?????ng c???a nh???ng chi???c b??a v?? m??y ???i ?????t c???a nh???ng ng?????i ???? thay ?????i suy ngh?? c???a h??? v??? h??? t?? t?????ng X??-vi???t.

Gi??? Putin ??ang ph???m ph???i sai l???m gi???ng nh?? nh???ng b???c ti???n nh??n th???i X??-vi???t c???a ??ng. D?? ???? tuy??n b??? v??o n??m 2013 r???ng n?????c Nga n??n t???p trung v??o vi???c ???v???n d???ng kh??n kh??o??? quy???n l???c m???m, Putin ???? kh??ng th??? t???n d???ng ???????c c?? h??ch quy???n l???c m???m d??nh cho n?????c Nga khi t??? ch???c Th??? v???n h???i M??a ????ng 2014 t???i Sochi.

Thay v??o ????, ngay khi Th??? v???n h???i ??ang di???n ra, Putin ???? ph??t ?????ng m???t cu???c can thi???p qu??n s??? b??n b?? m???t v??o Ukraine, h??nh ?????ng n??y c??ng v???i vi???c ??ng n??i v??? ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c Nga ???? g??y ra m???i lo ng???i m???nh m???, nh???t l?? ??? c??c n?????c thu???c Li??n X?? c??. ??i???u n??y ???? h???y ho???i ch??nh m???c ti??u ???????c Putin tuy??n b??? l?? x??y d???ng m???t Li??n minh ?? ??? ??u do Nga ?????ng ?????u ????? c???nh tranh v???i Li??n minh Ch??u ??u.

V???i vi???c r???t ??t ng?????i n?????c ngo??i xem phim Nga, v?? ch??? c?? m???t tr?????ng ?????i h???c c???a Nga ?????ng trong top 100 th??? gi???i, Nga c?? r???t ??t l???a ch???n ????? l???y l???i s???c h???p d???n c???a m??nh. V?? v???y, Putin ???? quay sang s??? d???ng vi???c tuy??n truy???n.

N??m ngo??i, Putin ???? c???i t??? l???i c?? quan th??ng t???n RIA Novosti, sa th???i 40% s??? nh??n vi??n, g???m c??? ban qu???n tr??? t????ng ?????i ?????c l???p c???a h???. Trong th??ng 11, l??nh ?????o m???i c???a c?? quan th??ng t???n l?? Dmitry Kiselyov ???? th??ng b??o v??? vi???c th??nh l???p ???Sputnik???, m???t m???ng l?????i c??c trung t??m tin t???c ???????c ch??nh ph??? t??i tr??? t???i 34 n?????c, v???i 1.000 nh??n vi??n s???n xu???t c??c n???i dung ph??t thanh, truy???n th??ng x?? h???i, v?? tin t???c qua Internet b???ng ti???ng b???n ?????a.

Nh??ng m???t trong c??c ngh???ch l?? c???a quy???n l???c m???m l?? vi???c tuy??n truy???n th?????ng ph???n t??c d???ng do ch??ng thi???u ??i ????? tin c???y. Trong Chi???n tranh L???nh, c??c cu???c giao l??u v??n h??a m??? ??? nh?? H???i th???o Salzburg, cho ph??p gi???i tr??? giao l??u v???i nhau ??? ???? ch???ng minh r???ng ti???p x??c gi???a nh??n d??n mang l???i nhi???u ?? ngh??a h??n.

Ng??y nay, ph???n l???n quy???n l???c m???m c???a M??? ???????c t???o ra kh??ng ph???i b???i ch??nh ph??? m?? b???i x?? h???i d??n s???, bao g???m c??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c, t??? ch???c v?? n???n v??n h??a ?????i ch??ng. Th???t v???y, x?? h???i d??n s??? kh??ng b??? ki???m duy???t c???a M???, v?? s??? s???n s??ng ch??? tr??ch c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o, cho ph??p ?????t n?????c b???o t???n quy???n l???c m???m c???a m??nh ngay c??? khi c??c n?????c kh??c kh??ng ?????ng ?? v???i c??c h??nh ?????ng c???a ch??nh ph??? M???.

Gi???ng nh?? v???y, ??? V????ng qu???c Anh, ????i BBC gi??? ???????c uy t??n c???a m??nh v?? h??? c?? th??? ch??? tr??ch ch??nh ph??? ??? nh???ng ng?????i tr??? ti???n cho h???. Tuy nhi??n Putin v???n nh???t quy???t h???n ch??? vai tr?? c???a c??c t??? ch???c phi ch??nh ph??? v?? x?? h???i d??n s???.

C?? th??? Putin hi???u r???ng quy???n l???c c???ng v?? quy???n l???c m???m b??? sung cho nhau, nh??ng ??ng v???n t??? ra b???t l???c trong vi???c ??p d???ng s??? hi???u bi???t n??y v??o c??c ch??nh s??ch. Do v???y, n???u kh??ng d??ng c??ch ??p bu???c hay mua chu???c, kh??? n??ng thu h??t c??c qu???c gia kh??c c???a n?????c Nga s??? ti???p t???c suy gi???m.

Joseph S. Nye, c???u tr??? l?? B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng M??? v?? c???u ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng T??nh b??o Qu???c gia M???, l?? gi??o s?? t???i ?????i h???c Harvard v?? l?? th??nh vi??n c???a H???i ?????ng Ngh??? s??? To??n c???u v??? T????ng lai c???a Ch??nh ph??? thu???c Di???n ????n Kinh t??? Th??? gi???i. G???n ????y nh???t, ??ng l?? t??c gi??? c???a cu???n s??ch Presidential Leadership and the Creation of the American Era [L??nh ?????o c???a T???ng th???ng v?? s??? s??ng t???o n??n k??? nguy??n M???].
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t???. org

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