T???i sao Trung Qu???c mu???n ??i l??n sao H???a?

Thứ bảy - 24/08/2019 21:51
Tu???n tr?????c, ???n ????? ???? thi???t l???p m???t k??? l???c th??? gi???i b???ng c??ch ph??ng 104 v??? tinh t??? m???t t??n l???a duy nh???t. Th??nh t???u n??y ???? th??m d???u v??o ???cu???c ch???y ??ua v??o kh??ng gian??? c???a ch??u ?? ch??? v??i tu???n sau khi Trung Qu???c c??ng b??? m???t danh s??ch r??t g???n g???m t??m t??n g???i c?? th??? ???????c ?????t cho con t??u v?? tr??? l??n sao H???a ?????u ti??n c???a m??nh, d??? ki???n ??????s??? ph??ng v??o n??m 2020. T??? nh???ng kh??i ni???m mang t??nh tinh th???n (nh?? ???Truy M???ng??? hay ???Thi??n V???n???)
T???i sao Trung Qu???c mu???n ??i l??n sao H???a?

T???i sao Trung Qu???c mu???n ??i l??n sao H???a?

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Ngu???n: ???Why China wants to go to Mars???, The Economist, 22/02/2017.

Bi??n d???ch: L?? Th??? H???ng Loan | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Cu???c ch???y ??ua v??o kh??ng gian ??ang chuy???n sang ch??u ??.

Tu???n tr?????c, ???n ????? ???? thi???t l???p m???t k??? l???c th??? gi???i b???ng c??ch ph??ng 104 v??? tinh t??? m???t t??n l???a duy nh???t. Th??nh t???u n??y ???? th??m d???u v??o ???cu???c ch???y ??ua v??o kh??ng gian??? c???a ch??u ?? ch??? v??i tu???n sau khi Trung Qu???c c??ng b??? m???t danh s??ch r??t g???n g???m t??m t??n g???i c?? th??? ???????c ?????t cho con t??u v?? tr??? l??n sao H???a ?????u ti??n c???a m??nh, d??? ki???n ??????s??? ph??ng v??o n??m 2020. T??? nh???ng kh??i ni???m mang t??nh tinh th???n (nh?? ???Truy M???ng??? hay ???Thi??n V???n???) ?????n nh???ng sinh v???t t?????ng t?????ng (nh?? ???Ph???ng T?????ng???, hay ???Th??ng Long???), ch??ng th??? hi???n nh???ng k??? v???ng l???n m?? gi???i l??nh ?????o ?????t n?????c d??nh cho s??? m???ng n??y.

Ban gi??m kh???o, nh???ng ng?????i ???? l???a ch???n nh???ng c??i t??n cu???i c??ng t??? m???t danh s??ch g???m 35.900 m???c, s??? ph???i c??ng b??? s??? l???a ch???n c???a m??nh v??o ng??y 24/4, Ng??y V?? tr??? ch??nh th???c c???a ?????t n?????c. S??? ph?? tr????ng n??y c??ch h??ng n??m ??nh s??ng so v???i cung c??ch b?? m???t m?? ch????ng tr??nh kh??ng gian c???a Trung Qu???c ???? t???ng c??. Qu???c gia n??y tuy??n b??? m???t t???m nh??n m???i ?????y tham v???ng ????? th??m d?? kh??ng gian, m???t t???m nh??n m?? c??c t??? ch???c ph????ng T??y c??ng d?? d???t. Khi m?? ph???n l???n th??? gi???i d?????ng nh?? ??ang b???n r???n v???i c??c v???n ????? tr???n th??? h??n, t???i sao Trung Qu???c l???i thi???t tha v???i vi???c g???i t??u th??m d?? v??o h??? m???t tr???i ?????n nh?? v???y?

V????n t???i sao H???a s??? ch???ng minh r???ng h??nh tr??nh d??i c???a Trung Qu???c ????? ti???n v??o h??ng ng?? c??c c?????ng qu???c kh??ng gian h??ng ?????u th??? gi???i cu???i c??ng c??ng ho??n t???t. ???????c th??nh l???p v??o n??m 1956, ch????ng tr??nh kh??ng gian c???a Trung Qu???c ???? b??? gi??n ??o???n do cu???c C??ch m???ng V??n h??a c???a Mao. Nh???ng ngu???n l???c c???a n?? b??? h???n ch??? trong su???t h???u h???t nh???ng n??m 1980, khi nh???ng cu???c c???i c??ch c???a ?????ng Ti???u B??nh t???p trung ch??? y???u v??o ph??t tri???n kinh t???. Ch??? ?????n th???p ni??n ti???p theo, Trung Qu???c m???i b???t ?????u coi ti???n b??? v??? l??nh v???c kh??ng gian mang t???m quan tr???ng chi???n l?????c. S??? thay ?????i n??y m???t ph???n l?? do cu???c chi???n tranh v??ng V???nh n??m 1991, trong ???? c??c t??n l???a do v??? tinh d???n ???????ng ???? gi??p ????a li??n minh do M??? ?????ng ?????u ?????n v???i m???t chi???n th???ng nhanh ch??ng.

Nh??ng nh???ng n??? l???c c???a Trung Qu???c ????? h???c h???i t??? c??c qu???c gia th??nh c??ng trong khoa h???c kh??ng gian kh??c th?????ng th???t b???i. M???t d??? ??n h???p t??c k??o d??i c??? th???p ni??n, v???n ???? ph??ng h??ng t?? v??? tinh c???a M??? b???ng t??n l???a c???a Trung Qu???c, ???? b??? ng???ng l???i v??o n??m 1999, sau m???t lo???t c??c th???t b???i v?? nh???ng c??o bu???c v??? tr???m c???p c??ng ngh???. Taikonauts ??? c??c phi h??nh gia hay nh?? du h??nh v?? tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c ??? ch??a bao gi??? ???????c ph??p ?????t ch??n l??n Tr???m V?? tr??? Qu???c t??? (ISS); c??n s??? tham gia ban ?????u c???a Trung Qu???c trong h??? th???ng v??? tinh ?????nh v??? to??n c???u c???a ch??u ??u, Galileo, c??ng ch???ng ??i v??? ????u. Khi c??c c?? h???i h???p t??c gi???m ?????n m???c nh??? gi???t, Trung Qu???c ???? t??ng c?????ng g???p ????i nh???ng n??? l???c trong n?????c ????? ph??t tri???n c??ng ngh??? v?? tr???. Vi???c t??u th??m d?? sao H???a ?????u ti??n c???a Trung Qu???c b??? m???t v??o n??m 2011, do ???????c ph??ng l??n b???i m???t t??n l???a b??? tr???c tr???c c???a Nga, ???? c??ng kh???ng ?????nh ??u ti??n c???a qu???c gia n??y.

T??? vi???c quan s??t tr??i ?????t t???i vi???c ????a con ng?????i bay v??o kh??ng gian, k??? t??? ???? ?????n nay Trung Qu???c ???? th??nh c??ng vang d???i trong vi???c ph??t tri???n n??ng l???c to??n di???n. Nh??ng h??? c??nh t??u v?? tr??? c???a ri??ng m??nh tr??n sao H???a s??? l?? m???t h??nh ?????ng phi th?????ng (m???t t??u th??m d?? chung Nga-Ch??u ??u ???? b??? r??i khi theo ??u???i c??ng m???c ti??u v??o th??ng 10/2016). N?? c??ng s??? mang l???i cho Trung Qu???c m???t c?? h???i ????? v?????t qua ???n ?????, qu???c gia c?? t??u th??m d?? sao H???a ?????u ti??n ?????n ???????c h??nh tinh n??y v??o th??ng 09/2014. Uy t??n trong n?????c m?? ?????ng C???ng s???n gi??nh ???????c s??? l?? r???t l???n, t??? ???? c??ng mang l???i uy t??n cho ???Gi???c m???ng Trung Hoa??? c???a Ch??? t???ch T???p C???n B??nh, trong ???? k??u g???i kh??i ph???c s??? v?? ?????i ???? m???t c???a qu???c gia n??y.

M???c ????ch khoa h???c c???a nhi???m v??? n??y c??ng r???t quan tr???ng: th??m d?? kh?? quy???n c???a sao H???a ????? t??m ki???m kh?? metan v?? ch???p h??nh ???nh b???ng radar t??? 400 m??t d?????i m???t ?????t. Trong d??i h???n, phi h??nh ??o??n ?????u ti??n ??ang ???????c xem x??t ????? ???????c g???i l??n sao H???a, d??? ki???n ??????v??o gi???a nh???ng n??m 2030. N?? ???????c d??? ki???n ??????s??? l?? m???t d??? ??n ??a qu???c gia, do nh???ng th??ch th???c k??? thu???t l?? qu?? l???n; m???t nh??m 13 qu???c gia hi???n ???? t???n t???i ????? ??i???u ph???i d??? ??n n??y. Trung Qu???c d??? ?????nh l?? m???t trong nh???ng qu???c gia d???n ?????u.

C??c c?????ng qu???c ph????ng T??y t??? l??u ???? dao ?????ng v??? ch????ng tr??nh kh??ng gian c???a Trung Qu???c. Ph???n l???n c??c c??ng ngh??? m?? Ch????ng tr??nh n??y ph??t tri???n c?? th??? ???????c s??? d???ng cho c??? m???c ????ch d??n s??? v?? qu??n s???, v?? n?? ???????c li??n k???t ch???t ch??? v???i Qu??n ?????i Gi???i ph??ng Nh??n d??n. Lo ng???i v??? vi???c chuy???n giao c??ng ngh???, M??? v?? c??c ?????ng minh ph???n l???n ???? n?? tr??nh c??c c??u h???i v??? c??ch ph???n h???i c??c ????? ngh??? h???p t??c m?? Trung Qu???c nh???c ??i nh???c l???i. H??? c?? th??? s??? ph???i quy???t ?????nh s???m tr?????c khi c?? b???t c??? phi h??nh ??o??n n??o ???????c g???i l??n sao H???a. Tr???m kh??ng gian (CSS) ho??n thi???n ?????u ti??n c???a Trung Qu???c d??? ki???n ??????s??? ???????c ho??n th??nh v?? ho???t ?????ng v??o n??m 2022, m???t v??i n??m tr?????c khi ISS h???t h???n s??? d???ng. Trung Qu???c ???? nh???n ???????c s??? ???ng h??? ch??nh th???c c???a Li??n Hi???p Qu???c ????? m??? c???a CSS cho c??c qu???c gia kh??ng c?? kh??? n??ng ti???p c???n v?? tr???. N???u hai c?????ng qu???c kh??ng th??? thi???t l???p l???i quan h??? h???u ngh??? gi???a c??c ch????ng tr??nh kh??ng gian l???n nh???t th??? gi???i c???a m??nh tr?????c th???i ??i???m ????, hai tr???m v?? tr???, ?????i di???n cho g???n nh?? hai n???a c???a th??? gi???i b??n d?????i, s??? du h??nh trong nh???ng qu??? ?????o c???a ri??ng m??nh.
 

08/01/1790: Washington ?????c Th??ng ??i????p Li??n bang ??????u ti??n

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Ngu???n: President George Washington delivers first State of the UnionHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1790, T???ng th???ng George Washington ??a?? tri??nh ba??y Th??ng ??i????p Li??n bang ??????u ti??n tr??????c ca??c ??a??i bi????u Qu???c H???i t???i th??nh ph??? New York.

Washington b???t ?????u b???ng l????i ch??c ng?????i d??n v??? tri???n v???ng thu???n l???i ??????i v????i ca??c v????n ?????? c??ng cu??a ??????t n??????c, ????ng ch?? ?? nh???t trong s??? ???? l?? quy???t ?????nh g???n ????y c???a ti????u bang North Carolina v??? vi???c gia nh???p li??n bang. North Carolina ???? b??c b??? Hi???n ph??p v??o th??ng 07/1788 b???i v?? n?? thi???u Tuy??n ng??n Nh??n Quy???n. Theo c??c ??i???u kho???n c???a Hi???n ph??p, ch??nh ph??? m???i se?? chi?? co?? quy????n sau khi 11 trong s??? 13 ti???u bang ch???p nh???n v??n ki???n.

Ti??nh ??????n th???i ??i???m North Carolina th??ng qua Hi????n pha??p v??o th??ng 11/1789, Qu???c H???i ?????u ti??n ???? nho??m ho??p, so???n th???o b???n Tuy??n ng??n Nh??n Quy???n v?? g???i cho c??c ti???u bang xem x??t. Khi Washington ph??t bi???u v??o th??ng 01, d??????ng nh?? ng?????i d??n My?? s??? ?????ng sau u??ng h???? ch??nh ph??? Washington v?? t????n h??????ng s???? ho??a thu????n, h??a b??nh, v?? nhi???u ??i???u kha??c m?? ??ng coi l?? bi???u t?????ng cho s???? may m????n cu??a qu???c gia.

Di????n v??n cu??a Washington ???? ????a ra m???t ph??c th???o ng???n g???n, nh??ng ??????y ??u??, v??? c??c ch??nh s??ch c???a ch??nh quy???n ??ng, ???????c thi???t k??? b???i Alexander Hamilton. V??? c???u ch??? huy Qu??n ?????i L???c ?????a ???ng h??? b???o v??? an ninh qu????c pho??ng v?? ??ng tin r???ng chu???n b??? cho chi???n tranh l?? m???t trong nh???ng ph????ng ti???n hi???u qu??? nh???t ????? b???o v??? h??a b??nh. Ng??n ng??? th???n tr???ng c???a Washington cho ph??p ??ng ??m ch??? s??? ???ng h??? c???a mi??nh ?????i v???i ?? t?????ng g??y tranh c??i la?? t???o ra m???t ?????i qu??n th?????ng tr???c m?? kh??ng c????n pha??i ????a ra m???t ????? ngh??? c??ng khai.

C??c ch???c n??ng c?? b???n nh???t c???a ho???t ?????ng qu???n tr??? qu???c gia h??ng ng??y v???n ch??a ???????c t??? ch???c ro?? ra??ng, v?? Washington ??a?? y??u c????u Qu???c H???i ph???i t???o ra m???t qu??? ?????? chi tra?? c??c chi ph?? li??n quan ?????n vi???c ti???n h??nh c??c hoa??t ??????ng ?????i ngo???i, cu??ng nh?? ta??o ra m???t quy t???c th???ng nh???t v??? nh???p qu???c t???ch va?? s??? ?????ng nh???t v??? ti???n t???, tr???ng l?????ng v?? ??o l??????ng tr??n toa??n ??????t n??????c.

Sau khi tri??nh ba??y ro?? r??ng ca??c v???n ????? li??n quan ?????n qu???c ph??ng v?? ?????i ngo???i, Washington k??u g???i chi??nh quy????n li??n bang cu??ng co?? ???nh h?????ng ?????n c??c v???n ????? trong n?????c. Ch??nh quy???n, v???n chi??u ???nh h?????ng m???nh m??? t???? Hamilton, mong mu???n co?? ng??n sa??ch v?? m???t s??? bi???n ph??p ?????? ki???m so??t N??ng nghi???p, Th????ng m???i v?? S???n xu???t c??ng nh?? Khoa h???c v?? V??n h???c. Nh???ng m???c ti??u qu???c gia n??y ????i h???i m????t B??u ??i???n v?? m????t h???? th????ng v????n chuy????n th?? t???? Li??n bang, cu??ng nh?? m???t h???? th????ng gi??o d???c c??ng c???ng m?? T???ng th???ng ???? ch???ng minh l?? ph????ng ti???n ????? ?????m b???o Hi???n ph??p ????????c th????c thi b???ng c??ch gi??o d???c c??c c??ng ch???c t????ng lai ??i theo c??c nguy??n t???c c???ng h??a c???a ch??nh ph??? ?????i di???n.

Kh??i qu??t l???ch s??? M??? (Ch.1): N?????c M??? th???i l???p qu???c

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