S??? t??? s??t c???a b?? quy???n M???

Thứ ba - 16/07/2019 05:21
V??o m???t th???i ??i???m n??o ???? trong hai n??m qua, b?? quy???n M??? ???? ch???t. Giai ??o???n th???ng tr??? kho???ng 30 n??m h??o h???ng nh??ng ng???n ng???i c???a M??? ???????c ????nh d???u b???i hai s??? ki???n. N?? khai sinh t??? s??? s???p ????? c???a B???c t?????ng Berlin n??m 1989. C??n s??? suy t??n c???a n??, hay ch??nh x??c h??n l?? kh???i ?????u c???a s??? suy t??n, c??ng l?? m???t s??? s???p ????? kh??c, l???n n??y l?? c???a Iraq n??m 2003, theo sau ???? l?? s??? suy s???p t??? t??? c???a b?? quy???n M???
S??? t??? s??t c???a b?? quy???n M???
S??? t??? s??t c???a b?? quy???n M???
Ngu???n: Fareed Zakaria, ???The Self-Destruction of American Power???, Foreign Affairs, July/August 2019 Issue.  
Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p
V??o m???t th???i ??i???m n??o ???? trong hai n??m qua, b?? quy???n M??? ???? ch???t. Giai ??o???n th???ng tr??? kho???ng 30 n??m h??o h???ng nh??ng ng???n ng???i c???a M??? ???????c ????nh d???u b???i hai s??? ki???n. N?? khai sinh t??? s??? s???p ????? c???a B???c t?????ng Berlin n??m 1989. C??n s??? suy t??n c???a n??, hay ch??nh x??c h??n l?? kh???i ?????u c???a s??? suy t??n, c??ng l?? m???t s??? s???p ????? kh??c, l???n n??y l?? c???a Iraq n??m 2003, theo sau ???? l?? s??? suy s???p t??? t??? c???a b?? quy???n M???. Nh??ng li???u c??i ch???t c???a b?? quy???n M??? l?? k???t qu??? c???a c??c t??c nh??n b??n ngo??i hay ch??nh Washington ???? ?????y nhanh s??? suy t??n c???a m??nh b???i c??c th??i quen v?? h??nh vi x???u? Nhi???u n??m n???a c??c s??? gia s??? ti???p t???c tranh lu???n v??? c??u h???i n??y. Nh??ng l??c n??y ????y, ch??ng ta ???? c?? ????? th???i gian v?? t???m nh??n ????? ????a ra m???t s??? quan s??t s?? b???.
C??ng nh?? bao c??i ch???t kh??c, c?? nhi???u t??c nh??n g??y n??n c??i ch???t n??y. Lu??n c?? nh???ng t??c ?????ng c???u tr??c s??u s???c trong h??? th???ng qu???c t??? ch???ng l???i b???t k?? qu???c gia n??o h???i t??? qu?? nhi???u quy???n l???c. Song, trong tr?????ng h???p c???a M???, ng?????i ta ph???i kinh ng???c tr?????c c??ch Washington d?? c?? m???t v??? th??? v?? ti???n kho??ng h???u ???? qu???n l?? sai b?? quy???n v?? l???m d???ng quy???n l???c c???a m??nh, ????nh m???t ?????ng minh v?? l??m k??? th?? tr??? n??n t??? tin h??n. L??c n??y ????y, d?????i s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ch??nh quy???n Trump, n?????c M??? d?????ng nh?? kh??ng c??n quan t??m, hay c?? l??? ???? m???t ni???m tin, v??o ch??nh nh???ng gi?? tr??? v?? m???c ti??u v???n th??c ?????y s??? hi???n di???n qu???c t??? c???a Hoa K??? trong su???t ba ph???n t?? th??? k??? qua.
M???t ng??i sao ra ?????i
B?? quy???n c???a M??? h???u Chi???n tranh L???nh l?? ??i???u ch??a t???ng c?? k??? t??? sau ????? qu???c La M??. Nhi???u c??y vi???t th?????ng g???i n??m 1945 l?? b??nh minh c???a ???th??? k??? M??????, kh??ng l??u sau khi ??ng ch??? b??t Henry Luce ?????t ra kh??i ni???m n??y. Song giai ??o???n h???u Th??? Chi???n II l?? t????ng ?????i kh??c so v???i giai ??o???n sau 1989. Ngay c??? sau 1945, tr??n nhi???u khu v???c c???a ?????a c???u, Anh v?? Ph??p v???n c??n nguy??n ????? ch??? v?? t???m ???nh h?????ng s??u r???ng c???a h???. Kh??ng l??u sau ????, Li??n X?? l??? di???n l?? m???t si??u c?????ng ?????ch th???, c???nh tranh ???nh h?????ng v???i Washington tr??n kh???p h??nh tinh. C??ng n??n nh??? r???ng c???m t??? ???Th??? gi???i th??? ba??? xu???t ph??t t??? s??? ph??n chia th??? gi???i l??m 3 ph???n, ???Th??? gi???i th??? nh???t??? bao g???m M??? v?? T??y ??u, ???Th??? gi???i th??? hai??? g???m c??c n?????c c???ng s???n. ???Th??? gi???i th??? ba??? l?? m???i n??i c??n l???i, m?? trong ???? m???i qu???c gia kh??ng nghi??ng h???n v??? M??? hay Li??n X??. ?????i v???i ph???n l???n d??n s??? th??? gi???i, t??? Ba Lan cho ?????n Trung Qu???c, th??? k??? 20 kh??ng ???????c ???M?????? cho l???m.
S??? v?????t tr???i c???a M??? sau Chi???n tranh L???nh tho???t ?????u r???t kh?? nh???n d???ng. Nh?? t??i ???? ch??? ra tr??n t??? The New Yorker v??o n??m 2002, nhi???u ng?????i ???? kh??ng h??? nh???n ra ??i???u ???y. N??m 1990, Th??? t?????ng Anh Margaret Thatcher khi ???y cho r???ng th??? gi???i ??ang ph??n t??ch th??nh ba kh???i ch??nh tr???, ch???u chi ph???i b???i ?????ng Dollar, ?????ng Yen, v?? ?????ng Mark ?????c. Trong quy???n Diplomacy xu???t b???n n??m 1994 c???a m??nh, Henry Kissinger d??? ??o??n v??? s??? tr???i d???y c???a m???t th???i ?????i ??a c???c m???i. ??????ng nhi??n ??? M??? c??ng c?? r???t ??t s??? h??n hoan ?????c th???ng. Cu???c b???u c??? t???ng th???ng n??m 1992 ???????c nh??? ?????n v???i ch??? ????? ch??nh xoay quanh s??? y???u ???t v?? tr?? tr???. ???Chi???n tranh L???nh ???? k???t th??c; Nh???t v?? ?????c chi???n th???ng???, ???ng vi??n ?????ng D??n Ch??? Paul Tsongas li??n t???c n??i nh?? v???y. C??n c??c chuy??n gia ch??u ?? th?? b???t ?????u n??i v??? ???th??? k??? Th??i B??nh D????ng???.
Song c?? m???t ngo???i l???, ???? l?? b??i lu???n mang t??nh ti??n tri ???Kho???nh kh???c ????n c???c??? (The Unipolar Moment) c???a nh?? b??nh lu???n b???o th??? Charles Krauthammer, xu???t b???n n??m 1990 c??ng tr??n t??? Foreign Affairs. Nh??ng ngay c??? c??ch nh??n h??n hoan n??y c??ng mang t??nh h???n ch???, nh?? ti??u ????? b??i cho th???y. ???Kho???nh kh???c ????n c???c s??? l?? ng???n ng???i???, Krauthammer th???a nh???n, d??? ??o??n tr??n t??? Washington Post r???ng Nh???t v?? ?????c, hai ???si??u c?????ng khu v???c??? ??ang l??n, s??? s???m h?????ng t???i ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i ?????c l???p h??n v???i M???.
C??c nh?? ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch ch??o ????n s??? suy m??n c???a tr???t t??? ????n c???c, ??i???u m?? h??? cho l?? kh??ng th??? tr??nh kh???i. Khi chi???n tranh Balkan b??ng n??? v??o n??m 1991, Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng Li??n minh Ch??u ??u khi ???y l?? Jacques Poos tuy??n b??? ???????y l?? th???i kh???c c???a ch??u ??u???. ??ng gi???i th??ch: ???N???u c?? m???t v???n ????? ng?????i ch??u ??u c?? th??? t??? gi???i quy???t, ???? ch??nh l?? v???n ????? Nam T??. ????y l?? m???t qu???c gia ??u Ch??u, v?? s??? ph???n n?? kh??ng ph??? thu???c v??o ng?????i M??????. Song cu???i c??ng ch??? c?? M??? l?? c?? ????? quy???n l???c v?? ???nh h?????ng ????? can thi???p hi???u qu??? v?? gi???i quy???t cu???c kh???ng ho???ng.
T????ng t??? nh?? v???y, ?????n cu???i nh???ng n??m 1990, khi m???t lo???t b???t ???n kinh t??? ????a c??c n???n kinh t??? ????ng ?? v??o kh???ng ho???ng, c??ng ch??? c?? M??? c?? th??? ???n ?????nh h??? th???ng t??i ch??nh qu???c t???. N?????c n??y ???? t??? ch???c g??i c???u tr??? qu???c t??? tr??? gi?? 120 t??? ???? la d??nh cho c??c qu???c gia b??? ???nh h?????ng nghi??m tr???ng nh???t, qua ???? gi???i quy???t cu???c kh???ng ho???ng. T???p ch?? Timeth???m ch?? g???i t??n ba ng?????i M???: B??? tr?????ng T??i ch??nh Robert Rubin, Ch??? t???ch C???c D??? tr??? Li??n bang (Fed) Alan Greenspan, v?? Th??? tr?????ng T??i ch??nh Lawrence Summers l?? ???H???i ?????ng gi???i c???u th??? gi???i???.
Kh???i ?????u c???a s??? k???t th??c
C??ng nh?? b?? quy???n M??? v????n l??n th???m l???ng v??o ?????u th???p ni??n 1990, ?????n cu???i th???p ni??n n??y c??c m???i ??e d???a ?????i v???i b?? quy???n ???y c??ng ?????n th???m l???ng nh?? v???y, k??? c??? khi ng?????i ta b???t ?????u g???i M??? l?? ???qu???c gia kh??ng th??? thi???u??? v?? ???si??u c?????ng duy nh???t c???a th??? gi???i???. Tr?????c h???t ch??nh l?? s??? tr???i d???y c???a Trung Qu???c. Khi nh??n l???i, s??? r???t d??? khi n??i r???ng B???c Kinh r???i s??? tr??? th??nh ?????i tr???ng duy nh???t c???a Washington, song 25 n??m tr?????c ??i???u n??y kh??ng h??? r?? r??ng. M???c d?? Trung Qu???c ???? ph??t tri???n nhanh k??? t??? th???p ni??n 1980, h??? xu???t ph??t t??? m???t n???n t???ng r???t th???p. G???n nh?? kh??ng c?? qu???c gia n??o c?? th??? ti???p t???c t??ng tr?????ng nh?? v???y trong h??ng th???p k???. S??? k???t h???p l??? k??? gi???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n v?? ch??? ngh??a Lenin ??? Trung Qu???c d?????ng nh?? l?? r???t mong manh, nh?? cu???c bi???u t??nh Thi??n An M??n ???? cho th???y.
Song Trung Qu???c v???n k??o d??i s??? tr???i d???y, tr??? th??nh m???t ?????i c?????ng m???i, v???i n???i l???c v?? tham v???ng s??nh ngang v???i M???. Trong khi ????, Nga t??? ch??? y???u ???t v?? tr?? tr??? nh???ng n??m ?????u th???p ni??n 1990 ???? tr??? th??nh m???t c?????ng qu???c theo ch??? ngh??a ph???c th?? (revanchist power), m???t k??? ph?? ????m c?? ????? ti???m l???c v?? th??? ??o???n. V???i hai ng?????i ch??i n???m ngo??i tr???t t??? qu???c t??? do M??? ki???n t???o, th??? gi???i ???? b?????c v??o giai ??o???n ???h???u Hoa K??????. Ng??y nay, M??? v???n l?? qu???c gia quy???n l???c nh???t, song t???n t???i b??n c???nh h??? l?? nh???ng c?????ng qu???c to??n c???u v?? khu v???c v???n c?? th???, v?? th?????ng xuy??n, ng??ng ch??n M???.
Cu???c t???n c??ng ng??y 11/9 v?? s??? tr???i d???y c???a ch??? ngh??a H???i gi??o c???c ??oan ????ng hai vai tr?? ?????i ngh???ch trong s??? suy tho??i c???a b?? quy???n M???. ?????u ti??n, cu???c t???n c??ng d?????ng nh?? ???? th???c t???nh Washington huy ?????ng s???c m???nh c???a h???. Trong n??m 2001, n?????c M???, v???i n???n kinh t??? l???n h??n c??? 5 qu???c gia k??? ti???p c???ng l???i, quy???t ?????nh t??ng chi ti??u qu???c ph??ng h???ng n??m l??n th??m g???n 50 t??? ???? ???l???n h??n c??? chi ti??u qu???c ph??ng trong m???t n??m c???a Anh. Khi Washington can thi???p v??o Afghanistan, h??? c?? ???????c s??? ???ng h??? r???ng r??i, bao g???m c???a c??? Nga. Hai n??m sau, b???t ch???p nh???ng ph???n ?????i, ng?????i M??? v???n c?? th??? huy ?????ng ???????c m???t li??n minh qu???c t??? l???n cho cu???c t???n c??ng Iraq. Nh???ng n??m ?????u c???a th??? k??? n??y ????nh d???u ?????nh cao c???a quy???n l???c M???, v???i vi???c Washington n??? l???c t??i ?????nh h??nh c??c qu???c gia l??? l???m c??ch xa h??ng ngh??n d???m ??? Afghanistan v?? Iraq ??? m???c cho th??? gi???i c?? mi???n c?????ng ch???p nh???n hay quy???t li???t ch???ng ?????i.
Song Iraq l?? m???t b?????c ngo???t. N?????c M??? b?????c v??o m???t cu???c chi???n m?? h??? t??? ch???n b???t ch???p nh???ng ho??i nghi t??? ph???n c??n l???i c???a th??? gi???i. H??? t??m ki???m s??? ch???p thu???n t??? Li??n H???p Qu???c, v?? khi n??? l???c n??y t??? ra b???t kh???, h??? l??m ng?? c??? t??? ch???c n??y. M??? c??ng ph???t l??? H???c thuy???t Powell, ???????c ????a ra b???i Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng Tham m??u tr?????ng Li??n qu??n Hoa K??? th???i Chi???n tranh v??ng V???nh Colin Powell, cho r???ng m???t cu???c chi???n ch??? ????ng tham gia khi l???i ??ch qu???c gia s???ng c??n b??? ??e d???a v?? m???t chi???n th???ng ??p ?????o ???????c ?????m b???o. Ch??nh quy???n Bush (con) kh???ng ?????nh r???ng th??ch th???c to l???n trong vi???c chi???m ????ng Iraq c?? th??? ???????c gi???i quy???t b???i m???t l???c l?????ng qu??n ?????i nh??? v?? kh??ng c???n ph???i t???n qu?? nhi???u n??? l???c. Iraq, nh?? h??? n??i, s??? t??? b???i ho??n c??c chi ph??. V?? m???t khi ???? ??? Baghdad, Washington quy???t ?????nh ph?? h???y nh?? n?????c Iraq, gi???i t??n qu??n ?????i v?? thanh l???c b??? m??y c??ng ch???c, t???o ra h???n lo???n v?? ch??m ng??i cho m???t cu???c n???i d???y. M???i sai l???m ri??ng l??? n??y ?????u c?? th??? v?????t qua ???????c. Song t???ng h???p l???i ch??ng ?????m b???o bi???n Iraq tr??? th??nh m???t th???m h???a.
Sau v??? 11/9, Washington ???? ????a ra c??c quy???t ?????nh l???n v?? g??y nhi???u h???u qu??? ti???p t???c ??m ???nh n?????c M???, nh??ng c??c quy???t ?????nh ???y l???i ???????c ????a ra trong v???i v?? v?? s??? h??i. Ng?????i M??? th???y b??? ??e d???a, c???n thi???t ph???i l??m b???t k?? ??i???u g?? ???? ????? t??? b???o v??? m??nh ??? t??? x??m l?????c Iraq cho ?????n chi nh???ng kho???n kh??ng ???????c ti???t l??? cho an ninh n???i ?????a hay ??p d???ng c??? tra t???n t?? nh??n. C??? th??? gi???i ch???ng ki???n m???t n?????c M??? ?????i m???t v???i m???t th??? ch??? ngh??a kh???ng b??? m?? nhi???u n?????c ???? s???ng c??ng b???y l??u nay, nh??ng n?????c M??? ???y ??ang ch??i ?????p kh???p n??i nh?? m???t con s?? t??? b??? th????ng, ph?? h???y c??c li??n minh v?? chu???n t???c qu???c t???. Ch??? trong v??ng 2 n??m ?????u ti??n c???a nhi???m k???, ch??nh quy???n Bush (con) ???? r???i b??? nhi???u hi???p ?????c qu???c t??? h??n m???i ch??nh quy???n ti???n nhi???m. (??????ng nhi??n k??? l???c ???y ???? b??? x?? ????? b???i Trump). H??nh ?????ng c???a ch??nh quy???n Bush ??? n?????c ngo??i ???? l??m suy y???u th???m quy???n ch??nh tr??? v?? ?????o ?????c c???a M???, v???i vi???c c??c ?????ng minh l??u n??m nh?? Ph??p v?? Canada m??u thu???n v???i M??? v??? n???i dung, kh??a c???nh ?????o ?????c, v?? phong c??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a M???.
B??n ph???n l?????i nh??
V???y ??i???u g?? ???? l??m x??i m??n b?? quy???n M??? ??? s??? tr???i d???y c???a nh???ng k??? th??ch th???c m???i hay s??? d??n tr???i qu?? ????? quy???n l???c? C??ng nh?? v???i m???i hi???n t?????ng l???ch s??? l???n v?? ph???c t???p kh??c, ????p ??n l?? t???t c??? nh???ng ??i???u tr??n. S??? tr???i d???y c???a Trung Qu???c l?? m???t trong nh???ng bi???n ?????i kh???ng l??? c???a ?????i s???ng ch??nh tr??? qu???c t???, h???a h???n l??m x??i m??n quy???n l???c c???a b???t c??? qu???c gia b?? quy???n n??o, cho d?? ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a b?? quy???n ???y c?? s???c s???o ?????n ????u. M???t kh??c, s??? tr??? l???i c???a Nga l?? m???t c??u chuy???n ph???c t???p h??n. Ng??y nay nhi???u ng?????i ???? d??? d??ng qu??n r???ng v??o ?????u nh???ng n??m 1990, c??c l??nh ?????o Nga r???t quy???t t??m bi???n ?????t n?????c c???a h??? th??nh m???t n???n d??n ch??? t??? do, m???t qu???c gia ??u ch??u, v?? m???t ?????ng minh c???a ph????ng T??y. Eduard Shevardnadze, Ngo???i tr?????ng cu???i c??ng c???a Li??n X??, ???? ???ng h??? cu???c Chi???n tranh v??ng V???nh 1990-91 c???a M???. Sau s??? s???p ????? c???a Li??n X??, Ngo???i tr?????ng ?????u ti??n c???a Li??n bang Nga Andrei Kozyrev th???m ch?? c??n l?? m???t nh?? ???ng h??? nhi???t th??nh cho t??? do, ch??? ngh??a qu???c t??? v?? quy???n con ng?????i.
Ai ???? ????nh m???t n?????c Nga l?? ????? t??i cho m???t b??i vi???t kh??c. Song c???n th???y r???ng m???c d?? Washington ???? trao cho Moskva m???t s??? ?????a v??? v?? s??? t??n tr???ng ??? m??? r???ng G7 th??nh G8 ????? k???t n???p Nga ch???ng h???n ??? h??? ch??a bao gi??? th???t s??? nghi??m t??c tr?????c c??c m???i b???n t??m v??? an ninh c???a ng?????i Nga. Ng?????i M??? nhanh ch??ng m??? r???ng NATO, m???t ti???n tr??nh c?? l??? l?? c???n thi???t cho c??c qu???c gia lu??n b??? Nga ??e d???a nh?? Ba Lan, song l???i thi???u c??n nh???c v?? h???i h???t tr?????c s??? nh???y c???m v??? an ninh c???a ng?????i Nga. Th???m ch?? gi??? ????y NATO c??n m??? r???ng t???i Macedonia. Ng??y nay, d?????ng nh?? m???i h??nh ?????ng ch???ng l???i Nga ?????u ???????c bi???n minh, nh??? v??o c??c h??nh ?????ng hung h??ng c???a T???ng th???ng Nga Vladimir Putin. Tuy nhi??n, n??n ?????t c??u h???i l?? ??i???u g?? ???? t???o n??n s??? tr???i d???y c???a Putin v?? ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a ??ng ta? R?? r??ng, c??u tr??? l???i ?????n ph???n l???n t??? n???i t??nh n?????c Nga, song c??c ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a M??? c??ng ???? g??y h???i, ??? m???t m???c ????? n??o ???? t???o ra s??? k??ch ?????ng ch??? ngh??a ph???c th?? c???a Nga.
Sai l???m l???n nh???t trong ???kho???nh kh???c ????n c???c??? c???a M???, ?????i v???i Nga c??ng nh?? c??c n?????c kh??c n??i chung, ????n gi???n l?? ???kh??ng c??n quan t??m n???a???. Sau khi Li??n X?? s???p ?????, ng?????i M??? mu???n tr??? v??? nh??, v?? h??? ???? l??m v???y. Xuy??n su???t Chi???n tranh L???nh, ng?????i M??? can thi???p s??u v??o Trung M???, ????ng Nam ??, Eo bi???n ????i Loan, c??? Angola c??ng Namibia. ?????n gi???a th???p ni??n 1990, h??? kh??ng c??n b???n t??m nhi???u nh?? v???y n???a. Th???i l?????ng ph??t s??ng b???i c??c ph??ng vi??n ????ng ??? v??n ph??ng n?????c ngo??i tr??n k??nh NBC gi???m t??? 1,013 ph??t n??m 1988 xu???ng ch??? c??n 327 ph??t n??m 1996. (Ng??y nay, th???i l?????ng d??nh cho ph??ng vi??n ????ng ??? n?????c ngo??i c???a ba m???ng truy???n h??nh ch??nh c???ng l???i c??ng ch??? m???i b???ng th???i l?????ng c???a m???t ????i v??o n??m 1988). C??? Nh?? Tr???ng v?? Qu???c H???i d?????i th???i Bush (cha) ?????u kh??ng c?? ?? ?????nh bi???n ?????i n?????c Nga, th???c hi???n m???t k??? ho???ch Marshall m???i hay can thi???p v??o n?????c n??y. K??? c??? khi c??c cu???c kh???ng ho???ng kinh t??? ??? n?????c ngo??i b??ng n??? d?????i th???i Clinton, c??c nh?? h??nh ph??p ???? ph???i xoay s??? t??y c?? ???ng bi???n, bi???t r???ng Qu???c H???i s??? ch???ng ch??a ra m???t xu ????? c???u Mexico, Th??i Lan hay Indonesia. H??? cung c???p nh???ng t?? v???n m?? ph???n l???n ???????c thi???t k??? ????? kh??ng ????i h???i nhi???u s??? h??? tr??? t??? M???, th??i ????? c???a h??? l?? c???a m???t ng?????i ch??c ph??c t??? xa, kh??ng ph???i c???a m???t si??u c?????ng can d???
Xuy??n su???t t??? sau Th??? Chi???n I, Hoa K??? ???? lu??n mu???n bi???n ?????i th??? gi???i. Trong nh???ng n??m 1990, m???c ti??u ???y tr??? n??n kh??? quan h??n bao gi??? h???t. C??c qu???c gia d?????ng nh?? ?????u h?????ng v??? M???. Chi???n tranh v??ng V???nh ghi d???u m???t c???t m???c m???i cho tr???t t??? th??? gi???i, theo ngh??a r???ng n?? ???????c ti???n h??nh ????? b???o v??? m???t nguy??n t???c, c?? ph???m vi h???n ch???, ???????c h???u thu???n b???i c??c c?????ng qu???c l???n v?? ???????c h???p ph??p h??a b???i lu???t ph??p qu???c t???. Nh??ng ch??nh v??o l??c c?? nh???ng ti???n tri???n kh??? quan n??y, ng?????i M??? ???? ????nh m???t s??? quan t??m c???a m??nh. C??c nh?? l??m ch??nh s??ch M??? v???n mu???n bi???n ?????i th??? gi???i v??o nh???ng n??m 1990, song h??? mu???n l??m v???y m???t c??ch r??? ti???n. H??? kh??ng c?? ????? ngu???n l???c ch??nh tr??? v?? t??i ch??nh ????? d??nh cho m???c ti??u ???y. ???? l?? l?? do v?? sao l???i khuy??n c???a h??? d??nh cho c??c n?????c ?????u gi???ng nhau: li???u ph??p s???c kinh t??? v?? d??n ch??? t???c th???i. M???i bi???n ph??p kh??c l??u d??i v?? ph???c t???p h??n (m???c d?? ???? ???????c ch??nh c??c n?????c ph????ng T??y ??p d???ng tr?????c ???? nh???m t??? do h??a kinh t??? v?? d??n ch??? h??a n???n ch??nh tr??? c???a h???) ?????u kh??ng ???????c ch???p nh???n. Tr?????c v??? 11/9, m???i khi ?????i m???t v???i th??ch th???c, chi???n thu???t c???a M??? th?????ng l?? t???n c??ng t??? xa, k???t h???p c???m v???n kinh t??? v???i kh??ng k??ch ch??nh x??c. C??? hai chi???n thu???t n??y, nh?? nh?? khoa h???c ch??nh tr??? Eliot Cohen vi???t, c?? nh???ng ?????c ??i???m c???a ki???u h???n h?? nam n??? th???i hi???n ?????i: ???th???a m??n d???c v???ng m?? kh??ng cam k???t l??u d??i???.
T???t nhi??n, nh???ng gi???i h???n v??? m???c ????? s???n s??ng tr??? gi?? v?? g??nh ch???u h???u qu??? c???a M??? nh?? v???y ch??a bao gi??? thay ?????i lu???n ??i???u. ???? l?? l?? do v?? sao t??i t???ng vi???t tr??n t??? The New York Times v??o n??m 1998 r???ng ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a M??? ???????c ?????nh h??nh b???i ???lu???n ??i???u nh???n m???nh s??? bi???n ?????i nh??ng th???c t??? l???i l?? s??? ??i???u ????nh???. K???t qu??? nh???n ???????c, t??i t???ng n??i, l?? ???m???t n???n b?? quy???n tr???ng r???ng???. S??? tr???ng r???ng ???y ?????n nay v???n c??n ti???p di???n.
????n cu???i c??ng
Ch??nh quy???n Trump ch??? l??m cho ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a M??? th??m ???tr???ng r???ng???. B???n ch???t c???a Trump l?? m???t ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a Jackson, c???c k?? kh??ng h???ng th?? v???i th??? gi???i, tr??? vi???c ??ng ta cho r???ng c??c n?????c ??ang l???i d???ng M???. ??ng l?? m???t nh?? d??n t???c ch??? ngh??a theo ch??? ngh??a b???o h???, v?? l?? m???t nh?? d??n t??y, ki??n quy???t coi ???n?????c M??? tr??n h???t???. Song s??? th???t l??, h??n c??? m???i th???, ??ng ???y ???? r???i b??? cu???c ch??i. D?????i th???i Trump, n?????c M??? ???? r??t kh???i TPP, hay ??? g??c nh??n bao qu??t h??n, ???? gi???m can d??? v???i ch??u ??. N?????c M??? t??? l??m phai nh???t m???i quan h??? ?????ng minh 70 n??m c???a h??? v???i Ch??u ??u. H??? x??? l?? quan h??? v???i c??c n?????c M??? Latinh ch??? y???u ch??? th??ng qua l??ng k??nh ho???c t??? ch???i ng?????i nh???p c?? ho???c ki???m phi???u t??? bang Florida (n??i c?? ????ng ng?????i M??? Latinh sinh s???ng ??? NBT). H??? xa l??nh Canada. H??? th???m ch?? giao ph?? ch??nh s??ch Trung ????ng cho Israel v?? Saudi Arabia. Ngo???i tr??? m???t s??? ngo???i l??? ??? nh?? mong mu???n gi??nh gi???i Nobel h??a b??nh b???ng c??ch l??m h??a v???i B???c Tri???u Ti??n??? th?? n??t n???i b???t duy nh???t c???a ch??nh s??ch ngo???i giao th???i Trump ch??nh l?? s??? ???v???ng m???t??? c???a ch??nh n??.
V??o th???i n?????c Anh v???n c??n l?? si??u c?????ng, b?? quy???n c???a h??? b??? x??i m??n b???i nh???ng bi???n ?????i c???u tr??c to l???n ??? s??? tr???i d???y c???a ?????c, M??? v?? Li??n X??. Song h??? c??ng ????nh m???t s??? ki???m so??t ????? ch??? c???a m??nh do d??n tr???i quy???n l???c qu?? ????? v?? t??? ph???. N??m 1900, v???i m???t ph???n t?? d??n s??? th??? gi???i n???m d?????i quy???n l??nh ?????o c???a ng?????i Anh, ph???n l???n c??c thu???c ?????a ch??? y???u c???a Anh ch??? ????i h???i c??c quy???n t??? tr??? c?? gi???i h???n ??? ???quy ch??? li??n k???t??? hay ???t??? qu???n??? ??? theo c??ch n??i th???i b???y gi???. N???u n?????c Anh nhanh ch??ng trao c??c quy???n ???y cho c??c thu???c ?????a, ai m?? bi???t ???????c li???u ????? ch??? c???a h??? s??? c??n t???n t???i th??m bao nhi??u th???p ni??n n???a? Song h??? ???? kh??ng l??m v???y, h??? nh???n m???nh c??c l???i ??ch h???n h???p, ??ch k??? c???a m??nh h??n l?? ??i???u ch???nh b???n th??n ph?? h???p v???i l???i ??ch bao tr??m c???a ????? ch???.
N?????c M??? gi??? ????y c??ng ??? trong m???t t??nh th??? t????ng t???. N???u ng?????i M??? m???ch l???c h??n trong c??ch m?? h??? theo ??u???i c??c l???i ??ch v?? gi?? tr??? bao qu??t, h??? ???? c?? th??? k??o d??i ???nh h?????ng c???a m??nh th??m v??i ch???c n??m n???a (cho d?? ??? m???t th??? d???ng kh??c). Quy lu???t c???a vi???c m??? r???ng b?? quy???n t??? do d?????ng nh?? ????n gi???n: b???t b?? quy???n v?? t??? do h??n. Song M??? l???i th?????ng xuy??n v?? l??? li???u theo ??u???i c??c l???i ??ch t??? th??n h???p h??i, xa l??nh ?????ng minh v?? k??ch ?????ng k??? th??. Kh??ng nh?? ????? qu???c Anh v??o nh???ng ng??y cu???i c??ng, n?????c M??? kh??ng h??? t??ng thi???u hay ph???i d??n tr???i quy???n l???c. H??? v???n s??? ti???p t???c duy tr?? ???nh h?????ng r???ng l???n, nhi???u h??n b???t k??? qu???c gia n??o kh??c. Nh??ng M??? s??? kh??ng c??n ?????nh h??nh v?? th???ng tr??? h??? th???ng qu???c t??? nh?? h??? ???? l??m trong g???n 30 n??m qua n???a.
Nh???ng g?? c??n s??t l???i l?? c??c gi?? tr??? M???. Hoa K??? l?? m???t b?? quy???n ?????c nh???t, ???? m??? r???ng ???nh h?????ng c???a m??nh nh???m thi???t l???p m???t tr???t t??? th??? gi???i m???i, th??? m?? T???ng th???ng Woodrow Wilson ???? t???ng mong ?????c v?? ???????c th???c hi???n g???n nh?? to??n v???n b???i Franklin Roosevelt. ???? l?? m???t th??? gi???i ???????c d???ng n??n m???t ph???n sau 1945, ????i khi ???????c g???i l?? ???tr???t t??? th??? gi???i t??? do???, c??i m?? Li??n X?? s???m ch???i b??? v?? t??? ??i thi???t l???p m???t tr???t t??? c???a ri??ng m??nh. Nh??ng r???i th??? gi???i t??? do s???ng s??t qua Chi???n tranh L???nh, ????? ?????n sau 1991 m??? r???ng bao tr??m l??n ph???n l???n ?????a c???u. Nh???ng gi?? tr??? c???a n?? t???o n??n ???n ?????nh v?? th???nh v?????ng trong su???t 75 n??m qua. C??u h???i ?????t ra b??y gi??? l?? li???u khi quy???n l???c M??? phai nh??a, h??? th???ng qu???c t??? m?? n?? t???ng h???u thu???n ??? nh???ng quy t???c, th??ng l???, v?? gi?? tr??? ??? s??? c??n t???n t???i hay kh??ng. Hay M??? c??ng s??? ch???ng ki???n s??? suy t??n ????? ch??? c??c gi?? tr??? c???a ch??nh m??nh.
Fareed Zakaria l?? m???t t??c gi???, nh?? khoa h???c ch??nh tr???, nh?? b??o, v?? nh?? b??nh lu???n ch??nh tr??? ng?????i M??? g???c ???n. ??ng l?? c??y vi???t l??u n??m cho t??? The Washington Post, Newsweek v?? Time. ??ng ?????ng th???i c??ng l?? ng?????i d???n ch????ng tr??nh Fareed Zakaria GPS c???a ????i CNN.
T??n g???i New Zealand c?? t??? ????u?
Ngu???n: ???What???s new about New Zealand????, History.com (truy c???p ng??y 17/12/2015).
Bi??n d???ch: L?? Ho??ng Giang
Ng??y nay, nhi???u ng?????i ???? bi???t r???ng nh???ng n??i nh?? New York v?? New London ???????c ?????t t??n theo c??c ?????a danh ??? Anh, nh??ng c??n New Zealand th?? sao? V??ng Zealand g???c l?? ??? ????u v???y? ????? c?? ???????c c??u tr??? l???i, ch??ng ta ph???i t??m v??? giai ??o???n ?????u c???a phong tr??o th??m hi???m c???a ng?????i ch??u ??u, v?? t??n g???i g???c c???a New York ??? New Amsterdam ??? mang l???i cho ch??ng ta m???t manh m???i.
C??c nh?? th??m hi???m H?? Lan l?? nh???ng ng?????i ch??u ??u ?????u ti??n kh???i h??nh ra bi???n ??i t??m nh???ng v??ng ?????t l???, v?? th??? gi???i ng??y nay v???n c??n mang nhi???u v???t t??ch c???a di s???n ????. N??m 1642, nh?? th??m hi???m v?? h??ng h???i H?? Lan Abel Tasman (t??n ??ng ???? ???????c ?????t cho ?????o Tasmania c???a Australia) ???? kh???i h??nh v???i nhi???m v??? th??m hi???m v??ng nam Th??i B??nh D????ng v???i t?? c??ch ?????i di???n cho C??ng ty ????ng ???n H?? Lan, v?? ?????n ???????c nh???ng v??ng l??nh th??? ng??y nay l?? New Zealand, Tonga, v?? Fiji. Khi ??ng tr??? v??? b??o l???i nh???ng ph??t hi???n c???a m??nh, c??c v??ng ???? ???? ???????c th??m v??o b???n ????? th???i b???y gi???.
Nh???ng ng?????i v??? b???n ????? c???a C??ng ty ????ng ???n H?? Lan tr?????c ???? ???? g???i m???t v??ng ?????t b??n c???nh l?? New Holland ??? t???c Australia ng??y nay ??? v?? quy???t ?????nh g???i ph??t hi???n m???i c???a Tasman l?? ???Nieuw Zeeland??? theo m???t t???nh ??? H?? Lan. Zeeland l?? m???t v??ng ?????t ven bi???n tr??ng ??? ph??a t??y nam H?? Lan, t??n g???i c???a n?? ngh??a l?? ???v??ng ?????t bi???n???.
D?? Tasman ???????c ghi c??ng l?? ng?????i ch??u ??u ?????u ti??n ph??t hi???n ra New Zealand, song ??o??n th??m hi???m c???a ??ng ???? kh??ng d???ng l???i t???i ????, v?? ng?????i H?? Lan c??ng kh??ng thi???t l???p thu???c ?????a c??? ?????nh ??? ????. N??m 1768, m???t nh?? h??ng h???i ng?????i Anh l?? Thuy???n tr?????ng Cook ???? du h??nh ?????n Th??i B??nh D????ng ????? t??m hi???u th??m v??? ph??t hi???n tr?????c ???? c???a Tasman. Cook ???? ??i t??u v??ng quanh c??c h??n ?????o ph??a b???c v?? nam, v?? ghi ch??p l???i r???t chi ti???t v??? nh???ng ???????ng b??? bi???n. Trong th???p ni??n sau ????, Cook ???? ba l???n du h??nh ?????n New Zealand, t???o quan h??? gi???a ng?????i Anh v?? ng?????i Maori b???n ?????a, v?? d???n ???????ng ????? thi???t l???p thu???c ?????a. Cook v?? nh???ng ng?????i Anh ?????n ???? sau n??y kh??ng ?????i t??n qu???n ?????o m?? ch??? Anh h??a t??n g???i ti???ng H?? Lan g???c, v?? v???y l?? ???Nieuw Zeeland??? tr??? th??nh New Zealand.
Xem th??m: 
La S??n phu t??? Nguy???n Thi???p v?? ?????i th???ng K??? D???u (1789)
T??c gi???: Duy T?????ng
X?? h???i Vi???t Nam trong th???i gian n???a sau th??? k??? 18 xu???t hi???n m???t nh??n v???t n???i ti???ng uy??n th??m, h???c cao hi???u r???ng, c???t c??ch phi ph??m, xem th?????ng danh l???i. ??ng ???? g??p ph???n r???t quan tr???ng gi??p vua Quang Trung ????nh tan 29 v???n qu??n Thanh v??o T???t K??? D???u (1789). Vua Quang Trung ???? giao cho ??ng tr???ng tr??ch c???i t??? n???n v??n h??a, gi??o d???c v???i m???c ????ch ????a ?????t n?????c tr??? th??nh m???t qu???c gia c?????ng th???nh.
Xa l??nh quan tr?????ng
Nguy???n Thi???p (t??n hi???u l?? La S??n phu t???, La Giang phu t???, Lam H???ng D??? Nh??n, H???nh Am, L???c Ni??n h???u, L???p Phong c?? s?????), sinh ng??y 25 th??ng 8 n??m Qu?? M??o (1723), t???i l??ng M???t Th??n, x?? Nguy???t ??o, t???ng Lai Th???ch, huy???n La S??n, ph??? ?????c Quang (nay thu???c ?????a gi???i huy???n Can L???c, t???nh H?? T??nh). Ban ?????u ??ng ???????c ?????t t??n l?? Nguy???n Minh, sau v?? tr??ng t??n h??y Minh ???? v????ng (t???c ch??a Tr???nh Doanh) n??n ?????i th??nh Nguy???n Thi???p.
Gia ????nh Nguy???n Thi???p c?? ti???ng l?? hi???u h???c trong v??ng. Th??n m???u c???a Nguy???n Thi???p thu???c d??ng d??i h??? Nguy???n ???Tr?????ng L??u???, huy???n Can L???c, c??ng l?? m???t d??ng h??? danh gia v???ng t???c ??? x??? Ngh???. H??? Nguy???n ???Tr?????ng L??u??? c?? nh???ng nh??n v???t xu???t ch??ng m???t th???i nh?? Nguy???n Huy O??nh, Nguy???n Huy Qu??nh, Nguy???n Huy T??????
N??m 1780, Tr???nh S??m c?? t??? truy???n m???i Nguy???n Thi???p ra Th??ng Long nh???n ch???c quan. L???nh ch??a kh?? c??i, Nguy???n Thi???p ph???i mi???n c?????ng ra ??i. Tuy nhi??n, ??ng th???y r?? Th??ng Long l??c n??y th??? ?????o suy vi, nh??n t??m ph??n h??a sau cu???c ??ua tranh quy???n l???c k??o d??i. ??ng khuy??n ch??a Tr???nh kh??ng n??n ti???m quy???n vua L?? m?? ph???i bi???t gi??? ngh??a t??i trung, ch??m lo cho mu??n d??n tr??m h???. Nh??ng ch??a Tr???nh kh??ng nghe. Nguy???n Thi???p ch??n n???n xin c??o t??? m?? kh??ng nh???n b???t c??? ch???c t?????c hay b???ng l???c n??o. ??ng tr??? v??? n??i Thi??n Nh???n d???y h???c v?? ngao du ???? ????y, vui ri??ng v???i n???p s???ng thanh cao t??? t???i.
Cu???c h???i ki???n l???ch s???
N??m 1786, B???c B??nh v????ng Nguy???n Hu??? ti???n qu??n ra B???c chinh ph???t ch??a Tr???nh. Khi v??? ?????n Ph?? Xu??n, Nguy???n Hu??? vi???t th?? c??ng l??? v???t ra Ngh??? An m???i Nguy???n Thi???p v??? Ph?? Xu??n gi??p m??nh. Trong th?? c?? ??o???n: ???L??u nay ???????c nghe ti???ng Phu t???, ?????c tu???i ?????u cao, kinh lu??n s???n c??. Ch??nh qu??? ?????c mu???n t???i n??i g???p m???t, ????? th???a l??ng t??m kh?? nh???c. Nh??ng v?? k??? sinh ph????ng T??y, ng?????i l??nh c??i B???c, ch???ng ph???i nh?? S???n D??, Nam D????ng g???n g??i, c?? th??? nghe ti???ng s???m m??a xu??n m?? ????nh th???c Ng???a Long.
V???y ?????c sai hai ????nh th???n mang v???t m???n ?????n, g???i l?? ????? t??? l??ng th??nh s?? s??i. May chi Phu t??? kh??ng th???y th??? l??m l???, b??? c??i nh?? th?? l??ng l??ng, ngh?? t???i l??ng qu??? ?????c mong ?????i m?? b??? c??y, qu???ng c??u, c??ng ????ng cho s??? nghi???p Y, Kh????ng. ???????c th???, kh??ng nh???ng ri??ng qu??? ?????c may m???n m?? d??n m?????i hai Th???a tuy??n ??? B???c c??ng ???????c may. Xin ch??? l??m qu??? ?????c th???t v???ng, mong Phu t??? l?????ng cho???.
L???i th?? ch??n th??nh, tha thi???t nh?? th???, nh??ng v???n l?? ng?????i kh??ng m??ng danh l???i, Nguy???n Thi???p ???? kh??o l??o t??? ch???i. ??ng ????a ra 3 l?? do ????? tr??? l???i Nguy???n Hu???, t??? nh???n m??nh m???t th???n t??? nh?? L??, tu???i cao, t??i h??n s???c m???n, kh??ng th??? gi??p g?? ???????c.
Th??ng 8 n??m 1787, Nguy???n Hu??? l???i c??? quan L??u th??? l?? Nguy???n V??n Ph????ng v?? Binh b??? Th??? lang L?? T??i ra Ngh??? An d??ng th?? m???i Nguy???n Thi???p. L???i th?? l???n n??y c??ng tha thi???t kh??ng k??m: ???Phu t??? l?? danh s?? h??n ?????i: v?? ?????nh b???ng kh??ng ch???u c??ng qu??? ?????c ch???ng kh???i thi??n h???, n??n m???i n??u ba l??? kh??ng ra. Nh??ng nay thi??n h??? lo???n nh?? th??? n??y, sinh d??n kh??? nh?? th??? n??y, m?? Phu t??? nh???t ?????nh ???n kh??ng ra, th?? sinh d??n thi??n h??? l??m sao??? Mong Phu t??? ngh?? ?????n thi??n h??? v???i sinh d??n, v???t d???y ??i ra, ????? cho qu??? ?????c c?? th???y m?? th???, cho ?????i n??y c?? th???y m?? c???y. Nh?? th??? m???i ng?? h???u kh???i ph??? ?? tr???i sinh ra k??? gi???i?????? L???n n??y Nguy???n Thi???p c??ng khi??m nh?????ng t??? ch???i.
L???n th??? 3, ng??y 13 th??ng 9 n??m 1787, Nguy???n Hu??? sai quan Th?????ng th?? B??? h??nh H??? C??ng Thuy??n d??ng th?? m???i Nguy???n Thi???p. Ph???n k???t c???a l?? th?? c?? ??o???n: ???Mong Phu t??? soi x??t ?????n t???m l??ng th??nh, v???t d???y m?? ?????i b???ng; l???y l??ng v?? Nghi??u Thu???n qu??n d??n m?? ra d???y b???o, gi??p ?????. Qu??? ?????c xin im nghe l???i d???y b???o, khi???n cho qu??? ?????c th???a ???????c l??ng ao ?????c t??m th???y, v?? ?????i n??y ???????c nh??? khu??n ph??p c???a k??? ti??n gi??o. Th??? th?? may l???m l???m???. Nguy???n Thi???p v???n tho??i th??c kh??ng ??i.
T???m bia ghi l???i n???i dung chi???u truy???n c???a Nguy???n Hu??? g???i La S??n phu t??? ch???n ?????t ????ng ????.
Th??ng 6 n??m 1788, Nguy???n Hu??? ??em qu??n ra B???c l???n th??? hai ????? tr??? t???i V?? V??n Nh???m. Khi ?????n ?????t Ngh??? An, Nguy???n Hu??? ???? c??? C???n T??n h???u Nguy???n Quang ?????i mang th?? ?????n m???i Nguy???n Thi???p ?????n h???i ki???n. V?? l???n n??y Nguy???n Thi???p ?????ng ??. C?? th??? n??i ????y l?? cu???c g???p c?? m???t kh??ng hai, r???t ?????c bi???t trong l???ch s???. Theo nhi???u t??i li???u ghi ch??p, hai ng?????i r???t t??m ?????u ?? h???p, b??n lu???n s??i n???i. Cu???c h???i ki???n t?????ng ch???ng nh?? kh??ng d???t.
Tuy ch??a ch??nh th???c nh???n l???i ra gi??p nh?? T??y S??n nh??ng cu???c h???i ki???n l?? s??? kh???i ?????u cho nh???ng h???p t??c sau n??y. Vi???c ?????u ti??n, B???c B??nh v????ng nh??? La S??n phu t??? ch???n ?????t ????? x??y d???ng kinh ???? m???i thay cho Ph?? Xu??n. Nguy???n Thi???p ???? ch???n khu v???c n??i D??ng Quy???t ??? ng???n n??i n???m gi???a n??i Ph?????ng Ho??ng v?? n??i K??? L??n, nay thu???c ?????a ph???n Vinh, Ngh??? An l??m ?????t ????ng ????, g???i l?? Ph?????ng Ho??ng Trung ????. Tuy nhi??n do vua Quang Trung ?????t ng???t b??ng h?? n??n c??ng vi???c b??? d???, v?? Ph?????ng Ho??ng Trung ???? c??ng r??i v??o qu??n l??ng. Ng??y nay, d?????i ch??n n??i D??ng Quy???t v???n c??n d???u t??ch c???a Ph?????ng Ho??ng Trung ????.
?????i ph?? qu??n Thanh xu??n K??? D???u
Cu???i n??m 1788, vua C??n Long c??? T???ng ?????c L?????ng Qu???ng T??n S?? Ngh??? mang 29 v???n qu??n Thanh sang chi???m ?????i Vi???t. B???c B??nh v????ng Nguy???n Hu??? l??n ng??i Ho??ng ????? v??o ng??y 22 th??ng 12 n??m 1788, l???y ni??n hi???u l?? Quang Trung v?? ngay h??m sau ??ng c???t ?????i qu??n ra B???c. Ng??y 26 th??ng 12 n??m 1788, ?????i qu??n t???i Ngh??? An. Vua Quang Trung cho ng?????i mang th?? ?????n m???i La S??n phu t??? ?????n b??n k??? s??ch ????nh qu??n Thanh.
Trong bu???i h???i ki???n l???n n??y, vua Quang Trung h???i Nguy???n Thi???p: ???Hay tin vua L?? Chi??u Th???ng sang nh?? Thanh c???u l???y, vua Thanh cho qu??n sang ????nh, tr???m s???p ??em qu??n ra ch???ng c???, m??u ????nh v?? gi??? n?????c ???????c hay thua, Phu t??? ngh?? th??? n??o????.
Nguy???n Thi???p tr??? l???i: ???B??y gi??? trong n?????c tr???ng kh??ng, l??ng ng?????i tan r??, qu??n Thanh th?? ??? xa t???i m?? l??ng b???n t?????ng so??i th?? hu??nh hoang t??? ?????c, ch??ng kh??ng c???n bi???t t??nh h??nh qu??n ta y???u hay m???nh, binh l????ng v?? tr???n chi???n s??? x???y ra nh?? th??? n??o, c??n qu??n l??nh th?? ph??n v??n kh??ng bi???t l?? sang ????nh hay ?????n gi??? theo s??? kh???n kho???n c???a vua L????? S??? qu??n c???a Ho??ng ????? k??o t??? mi???n trong ra ch??a ????? ????? ch???ng ?????i v???i qu??n gi???c, m?? tr??? l???i chi??u m??? th??m binh th?? th???i gian kh??ng cho ph??p. V???y Ho??ng ????? ph???i tuy???n m??? ngay qu??n l??nh ??? ?????t Thanh Ngh???, v?? n??i ????y l?? ?????t th?????ng v?? x??a nay, anh h??ng nhi???u, m?? h???o h??n c??ng nhi???u???.
Khi vua Quang Trung h???i chi???n thu???t ????nh qu??n Thanh, Nguy???n Thi???p tr??? l???i: ???Ng?????i Thanh ??? xa t???i m???t nh???c kh??ng bi???t t??nh h??nh kh?? d??? th??? n??o. N?? c?? b???ng khinh ?????ch. N???u ????nh g???p th?? kh??ng ngo??i m?????i ng??y s??? ph?? tan. N???u tr?? ho??n m???t ch??t th?? kh?? l??ng m?? ???????c???.
Di???n bi???n c???a tr???n quy???t chi???n v???i qu??n Thanh qu??? ????ng nh?? d??? ki???n thi??n t??i c???a vua Quang Trung c??ng nh?? nh???n ?????nh ch??nh x??c c???a Nguy???n Thi???p. Ch??? trong v??ng 6 ng??y, qu??n T??y S??n ???? ????nh tan t??nh 29 v???n qu??n Thanh. ????ng tr??a m???ng 5 T???t K??? D???u (1789), vua Quang Trung ti???n v??o th??nh Th??ng Long trong s??? vui m???ng ch??o ????n c???a nh??n d??n.
B???i l?? do n??y, nh?? vua c??ng tr??n tr???ng v?? ????nh gi?? cao t??i n??ng c???a Nguy???n Thi???p. Trong b???c th?? g???i Nguy???n Thi???p, vua Quang Trung th??? l???: ???Tr???m ba l???n xa gi?? B???c th??nh, Phu t??? ???? ch???u ra b??n chuy???n thi??n h???. Ng?????i x??a b???o r???ng: M???t l???i n??i m?? d???y n???i c?? ?????. L???i Phu t??? h???n c?? th??? th???t???.
C???i c??ch v??n h??a, gi??o d???c cho nh?? T??y S??n
Sau khi ????nh th???ng qu??n Thanh, La S??n phu t??? tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng v??? h???c gi??? ???????c vua Quang Trung tin c???y nh???t. Ngay t???i khoa thi H????ng ?????u ti??n d?????i tri???u ?????i Quang Trung ???????c t??? ch???c ??? Ngh??? An v??o n??m 1789, Nguy???n Thi???p ???????c c??? l??m ????? ??i???u ki??m Ch??nh Ch??? kh???o. ??ng khuy??n nh?? vua h??a ho??n v???i nh?? Thanh ????? t???p trung x??y d???ng ?????t n?????c tr??? th??nh m???t qu???c gia c?????ng th???nh. Tuy nhi??n sau khi gi??p vua Quang Trung, Nguy???n Thi???p l???i v??? n??i Thi??n Nh???n m?? kh??ng ch???u ??? Ph?? Xu??n.
Th??ng 8 n??m 1791, vua Quang Trung cho x??y d???ng Vi???n S??ng Ch??nh t???i n??i Nam Hoa thu???c huy???n La S??n, n??i tr?????ng c?? c???a Nguy???n Thi???p. Nh?? v???y Nguy???n Thi???p kh??ng ph???i r???i n??i ??? ???n m?? v???n c?? ??i???u ki???n thi th??? s??? h???c c???a m??nh. ??ng ???? ????? ra nh???ng c???i c??ch v??n h??a, gi??o d???c m???t c??ch c??? th???, khoa h???c.
Theo ??ng, vi???c h???c th???i L?? ??? Tr???nh ???? kh??ng c??n gi??? ???????c ??i???u c?? b???n c???a ?????o h???c, ng?????i ta ch??? tranh ??ua h???c t??? ch????ng, c???t c???u c??ng danh m?? qu??n h???n s??? h???c tam c????ng ng?? th?????ng. T??? ???? d???n ?????n t??nh tr???ng ???ch??a t???m th?????ng, t??i n???nh h??t, qu???c ph?? gia vong???. ??ng ????? ngh??? m??? r???ng n???n gi??o d???c ra to??n di???n, h???c bao g???m c??? h???c v??n v?? h???c v??.
V??? c??ch d???y h???c, ??ng cho r???ng v???n n??n l???y Ti???u h???c l??m g???c, t??? ???? m??? r???ng d???y T??? th??, Ng?? kinh, c??c b??? s???. ???Vi???c gi??o d???c t???t th?? ng?????i t???t nhi???u, ng?????i t???t nhi???u th?? tri???u c????ng ch??nh v?? thi??n h??? tr??????.
C??ng vi???c c???a Vi???n S??ng Ch??nh c?? ?? ngh??a r???t l???n ?????i v???i vi???c ?????t c?? s??? cho c??ng cu???c c???i c??ch gi??o d???c c???a nh?? T??y S??n. C?? th??? n??i c??ng lao l???n nh???t c???a Nguy???n Thi???p l?? th???c hi???n ch??? tr????ng c???a Quang Trung: ch???n h??ng, ????? cao ch??? N??m, ????a ch??? N??m tr??? th??nh v??n t??? ch??nh th???c c???a n?????c ta.
??ng ???? d???ch nhi???u b??? s??ch quan tr???ng t??? ch??? H??n sang ch??? N??m, nh?? c??c b???: Ti???u h???c, T??? th?? (g???m 32 t???p) v?? c??c b??? Kinh thi, Kinh th??, Kinh d???ch??? sang ch??? N??m ????? chu???n b??? quy ch??? m???i v??? h???c t???p v?? thi c??? d?????i th???i T??y S??n.
Danh th??m b???t h???
Sau khi ti??u di???t nh?? T??y S??n, Nguy???n ??nh ???? x??? nh???ng ng?????i theo T??y S??n v?? c??ng t??n b???o. Nh???ng danh t?????ng l???ng l???y m???t th???i nh?? Tr???n Quang Di???u, B??i Th??? Xu??n, V?? V??n D??ng??? ?????u b??? h??nh h??nh r???t th?? th???m.
Tuy nhi??n, ?????i v???i Nguy???n Thi???p, Nguy???n ??nh v???n c?? l??ng k??nh tr???ng. Nguy???n ??nh cho m???i Nguy???n Thi???p ?????n v?? h???i: ???Ng???y T??y S??n m???i Ti??n sinh l??m th???y, v???y Ti??n sinh d???y n?? ra sao????. Nguy???n Thi???p ung dung tr??? l???i: ???C?? t??m ??i???u trong s??ch ?????i h???c, c?? ch??n ??i???u trong s??ch Trung dung, ng?????i gi???i th?? l??m ???????c, ng?????i kh??ng gi???i th?? kh??ng l??m ???????c???.
Nguy???n ??nh v???n kh??ng l???y l??m kh?? ch???u m?? c??n ng??? ?? m???i Nguy???n Thi???p ra gi??p m??nh. Nguy???n Thi???p ???? t??? ch???i, sau ???? ??ng c??o t??? m?? kh??ng nh???n b???t c??? l??? v???t n??o.
V??? l???i Thi??n Nh???n, Nguy???n Thi???p s???ng ???n d???t nh?? x??a, kh??ng b???n l??ng ?????n vi???c tr???n ai n???a. Hai n??m sau, ng??y 25 th??ng Ch???p n??m Qu?? H???i (1804) ??ng m???t t???i qu?? nh?? trong ni???m ti???c th????ng v?? h???n c???a gi???i s?? phu v?? ng?????i d??n hi???u h???c.
H??nh: ?????n th??? vua Quang Trung ??? n??i Quy???t, n??i La S??n phu t??? ch???n x??y d???ng Ph?????ng Ho??ng Trung ????.
Ngu???n: ANTG

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