S??ng ki???n ???V??nh ??ai v?? Con ???????ng??? c???a Trung Qu???c l?? g???

Thứ hai - 09/09/2019 21:08
V??o gi???a th??ng 5/2017, T???p C???n B??nh ???? ????n ti???p 28 v??? l??nh ?????o nh?? n?????c v?? ch??nh ph??? t???i B???c Kinh cho m???t b???a ti???c mang t??nh ???gi???i thi???u??? nh???m ch??o m???ng s??ng ki???n ?????????V??nh ??ai v?? Con ???????ng???, ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i tham v???ng nh???t c???a ??ng. ???????c b???t ?????u v??o n??m 2013 v???i t??n g???i ???M???t v??nh ??ai, m???t con ???????ng???, ch??nh s??ch n??y li??n quan ?????n vi???c Trung Qu???c b???o l??nh h??ng t??? ???? la
S??ng ki???n ???V??nh ??ai v?? Con ???????ng??? c???a Trung Qu???c l?? g???

S??ng ki???n ???V??nh ??ai v?? Con ???????ng??? c???a Trung Qu???c l?? g???

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Ngu???n: ???What is China???s belt and road initiative????, The Economist, 15/3/2017

Bi??n d???ch: L?? Th??? H???ng Loan & L?? Xu??n Thu???n | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Nhi???u ?????ng c?? ?????ng sau ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i ch??nh c???a T???p C???n B??nh.

V??o gi???a th??ng 5/2017, T???p C???n B??nh ???? ????n ti???p 28 v??? l??nh ?????o nh?? n?????c v?? ch??nh ph??? t???i B???c Kinh cho m???t b???a ti???c mang t??nh ???gi???i thi???u??? nh???m ch??o m???ng s??ng ki???n ?????????V??nh ??ai v?? Con ???????ng???, ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i tham v???ng nh???t c???a ??ng. ???????c b???t ?????u v??o n??m 2013 v???i t??n g???i ???M???t v??nh ??ai, m???t con ???????ng???, ch??nh s??ch n??y li??n quan ?????n vi???c Trung Qu???c b???o l??nh h??ng t??? ???? la ????? ?????u t?? cho c?? s??? h??? t???ng ??? c??c qu???c gia d???c theo Con ???????ng T?? l???a c??? n???i li???n qu???c gia n??y v???i ch??u ??u. Tham v???ng n??y l?? v?? c??ng l???n. Trung Qu???c ??ang chi kho???ng 150 t??? ???? la m???i n??m ??? 68 qu???c gia ???? tham gia ch????ng tr??nh n??y. Cu???c h???p th?????ng ?????nh (???????c g???i l?? di???n ????n) ???? thu h??t s??? l?????ng l???n nh???t c??c l??nh ?????o cao c???p n?????c ngo??i t???i B???c Kinh k??? t??? Th??? v???n h???i Olympic n??m 2008. Tuy nhi??n, ch??? c?? v??i nh?? l??nh ?????o Ch??u ??u xu???t hi???n. Ph???n l???n h??? ???? ph???t l??? nh???ng h??m ?? trong s??ng ki???n n??y ??????c???a Trung Qu???c. V???y nh???ng h??m ?? ???? l?? g?? v?? li???u ph????ng T??y c?? ????ng kh??ng khi l??m ng?? s??ng ki???n n??y?

 

S??ng ki???n ???V??nh ??ai v?? con ???????ng??? l?? minh ch???ng r?? r??ng nh???t cho quy???t t??m c???a Ch??? t???ch T???p nh???m t??? b??? ph????ng ch??m ???gi???u m??nh ch??? th???i??? c???a ?????ng Ti???u B??nh. Di???n ????n ???V??nh ??ai v?? con ???????ng??? (vi???t t???t l?? BARF) l?? s??? ki???n th??? hai ???????c chu???n b??? k??? l?????ng trong n??m nay m?? qua ???? ch??? t???ch T???p ????a ra tuy??n b??? v??? vai tr?? l??nh ?????o to??n c???u c???a Trung Qu???c. (S??? ki???n ?????u ti??n l?? b??i ph??t bi???u ch???ng ch??? ngh??a b???o h??? t???i Di???n ????n Kinh t??? th??? gi???i ??? Davos v??o th??ng 1 v???a qua). N??m 2014, B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao Trung Qu???c V????ng Ngh??? n??i r???ng s??ng ki???n n??y l?? ch??nh s??ch ngo???i giao quan tr???ng nh???t c???a Ch??? t???ch T???p. M???c ????ch c?? b???n c???a n?? l?? bi???n khu v???c ??-??u (do Trung Qu???c chi ph???i) th??nh m???t khu v???c kinh t??? v?? th????ng m???i ?????i tr???ng v???i khu v???c xuy??n ?????i T??y D????ng (do M??? ?????ng ?????u).

?????ng sau n?? l?? m???t lo???t nh???ng ?????ng c?? th??? y???u, v?? ch??nh s??? l?????ng v?? s??? ??a d???ng c???a nh???ng ?????ng c?? n??y ???? t???o ra s??? ho??i nghi v??? s??? g???n k???t v?? t??nh th???c ti???n c???a s??ng ki???n. Ch??? t???ch T???p hy v???ng vi???c ?????u t?? c?? s??? h??? t???ng s??? ??em l???i nhi???u l???i nhu???n h??n cho kho???n d??? tr??? ngo???i t??? kh???ng l??? c???a Trung Qu???c, ch??? y???u ??ang ???????c s??? d???ng ????? mua c??c tr??i phi???u c?? l??i su???t th???p c???a Ch??nh ph??? M???. ??ng c??ng hi v???ng t???o ra m???t th??? tr?????ng r???ng l???n cho c??c c??ng ty Trung Qu???c nh?? c??c doanh nghi???p ???????ng s???t cao t???c, v?? gi??p ti??u th??? c??c s???n ph???m d?? th???a nh?? xi m??ng, th??p v?? m???t s??? kim lo???i kh??c. ??ng cho r???ng vi???c ?????u t?? v??o nh???ng qu???c gia Trung ?? c?? th??? mang l???i m???t khu v???c l??ng gi???ng ???n ?????nh cho c??c t???nh ph??a T??y Trung Qu???c v???n b???t ???n l?? T??y T???ng v?? T??n C????ng. H??n n???a, vi???c khuy???n kh??ch c??c d??? ??n quanh khu v???c Bi???n ????ng c?? th??? gi??p Trung Qu???c c???ng c??? c??c y??u s??ch ch??? quy???n c???a m??nh ??? khu v???c n??y. (C???u ph???n ???Con ???????ng??? trong s??ng ki???n l?? ????? ch??? c??c con ???????ng tr??n bi???n).

V???n ????? l?? nh???ng tham v???ng c???a Trung Qu???c ??ang c?? m??u thu???n v???i nhau. Li???u vi???c ?????u t?? v??o nh???ng d??? ??n kh??ng ????ng tin c???y ??? Trung ?? c?? t???t h??n vi???c ?????u t?? v??o tr??i phi???u ch??nh ph??? M???? V?? ??i k??m v???i c??c ?????ng l???c m??u thu???n l?? c??c l???i ??ch xung ?????t nhau. ??ang c?? s??? m??u thu???n ?????u ???? gi???a c??c c?? quy???n l???c nh???t c???a Trung Qu???c li??n quan t???i s??ng ki???n, nh?? B??? Th????ng m???i, B??? Ngo???i giao, U??? ban k??? ho???ch v?? c??c t???nh c???a Trung
Qu???c. T???i t??? h??n, Trung Qu???c ??ang r???t kh?? x??c ?????nh ???????c nh???ng d??? ??n ?????u t?? c?? th??? mang l???i l???i nhu???n ??? nhi???u n?????c n???m trong s??ng ki???n ???V??nh ??ai v?? con ???????ng???. (C??c doanh nh??n Trung Qu???c ??? Trung ?? ???? g???i n?? l?? s??ng ki???n ???M???t con ???????ng, m???t c??i b???y???). Cu???i c??ng, Trung Qu???c ??ang ph???i ?????i m???t v???i s??? ph???n ?????i m???nh m??? t???i m???t s??? d??? ??n khi c??c ch??nh ph??? m???i ???????c b???u l??n t???i Myanmar v?? Sri Lanka kh??ng th???a nh???n ho???c mu???n ????m ph??n l???i nh???ng d??? ??n ???? ???????c ph?? chu???n b???i c??c ch??nh ph??? ti???n nhi???m.

Sau di???n ????n, m?? tr??n b??? m???t l?? m???t d???p ????? ??n m???ng s??ng ki???n n??y, th???c t??? Ch??? t???ch T???p s??? ph???i c??? g???ng ki???m ch??? s??? ph???n ?????i d??? d???i ch???ng l???i n??. S??? ph???n ?????i ???? d?????ng nh?? gi??p bi???n minh cho quy???t ?????nh xa l??nh s??ng ki???n n??y c???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Ch??u ??u. Nh??ng s??? l?? sai l???m khi ngh?? r???ng s??ng ki???n n??y s??? th???t b???i. Ch??? t???ch T???p c???n s??ng ki???n n??y v?? ??ng ???? d??nh nhi???u t??m huy???t cho n??. Trung Qu???c c??ng c???n s??ng ki???n n??y v?? n?? gi??p gi???i m???t s??? b??i to??n kinh t??? hi???n nay c???a Trung Qu???c. V?? ch??u ?? c???n n?? v?? t??nh tr???ng thi???u v???n tr???m tr???ng cho ?????u t?? c?? s??? h??? t???ng. S??ng ki???n ???V??nh ??ai v?? con ???????ng??? c?? nhi???u v???n ????? kh?? gi???i quy???t, song Ch??? t???ch T???p v???n quy???t t??m bi???n n?? th??nh hi???n th???c.
 

?????a ch??nh tr??? c???a vi???c ?????i ph?? v???i m???t Trung Qu???c ??ang l??n

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Ngu???n: Jeff Kingston, ???The geopolitics of coping with a rising China,??? The Japan Times, 30/05/2015.

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng | Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

Tu???n tr?????c, t??i ???? xem x??t t??nh logic v?? nh???ng h??? qu??? c???a ???H???c thuy???t Abe,??? theo ???? Nh???t B???n s??? t??ng c?????ng li??n minh v???i M??? b???ng vi???c ?????ng ?? m??? r???ng nh???ng ho???t ?????ng qu??n s??? m?? Nh???t s???n l??ng ti???n h??nh ????? h??? tr??? c??c chi???n d???ch an ninh to??n c???u c???a M???. ????y kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t v???n ????? ???? ???????c d??n x???p ???n th???a trong n?????c, v?? c?? r???t ??t ng?????i Nh???t ???ng h??? s??? thay ?????i l???n t??? ch??? ngh??a h??a b??nh v?? ch??? ngh??a t???i gi???n (v??? qu??n s???) ???????c th??? hi???n trong ???H???c thuy???t Yoshida??? v???n l?? n???n t???ng c???a ch??nh s??ch an ninh c???a Nh???t B???n k??? t??? nh???ng n??m 1950.

C???u Th??? t?????ng Yoshida Shigeru ???? t??? ch???i nh???ng y??u c???u c???a Washington r???ng Nh???t B???n ph???i g??nh ch???u m???t g??nh n???ng qu???c ph??ng l???n h??n b???ng c??ch vi???n d???n ??i???u 9 Hi???n ph??p Nh???t B???n[1] v?? ??u ti??n ph???c h???i kinh t???. Nh???t B???n ???? cam k???t h??a b??nh v?? c?? ch??nh s??ch qu???c ph??ng ch??? ????? ph??ng v??? t??? khi Chi???n tranh L???nh k???t th??c cho ?????n th??? k??? 21, nh??ng b???i c???nh chi???n l?????c ???? nhanh ch??ng thay ?????i v???i s??? n???i l??n c???a Trung Qu???c.

N??m 1997, n??m m?? B???n ?????nh h?????ng h???p t??c qu???c ph??ng M???-Nh???t ?????u ti??n ???????c ban h??nh, Trung Qu???c ???? chi 10 t??? USD cho qu???c ph??ng. N??m 2014, con s??? n??y ???? t??ng l??n kho???ng 144 t??? USD, nh???m t??i tr??? cho c??ng cu???c hi???n ?????i h??a nhanh ch??ng l???c l?????ng v?? trang c???a Trung Qu???c, ????? d???n thu h???p kho???ng c??ch qu??n s??? v???i li??n minh M???-Nh???t. S??? gia t??ng n??y c??ng tr??ng h???p v???i s??? quy???t ??o??n ng??y m???t gia t??ng c???a Trung Qu???c v??? nh???ng y??u s??ch ch??? quy???n l??nh th??? v?? l??nh h???i, g??y n??n m???i b???t ho?? gi???a B???c Kinh v???i nhi???u n?????c ch??u ??.

????? ch???ng l???i tham v???ng c???a B???c Kinh, John Mearsheimer t???i ?????i h???c Chicago, m???t ng?????i ???ng h??? c??i g???i l?? ch??? ngh??a t??n hi???n th???c t???n c??ng, ???? tr??? l???i t???p ch?? Nikkei Asian Review r???ng m???t li??n minh song ph????ng ch???t ch??? h??n (gi???a Nh???t B???n v?? Hoa K???) s??? gi??p ki???m ch??? Trung Qu???c.

???M??? kh??ng c?? ?? ?????nh chia s??? quy???n l???c v???i Trung Qu???c,??? ??ng n??i. ???M??? l?? ch??a ghen gh??t. H??? mu???n l?? qu???c gia m???nh nh???t ??? ????ng ??.???

Mearsheimer tin r???ng Trung Qu???c s??? quy???t t??m thay ?????i nguy??n tr???ng ch??u ?? v?? l???i ??ch c???a h???, b???i ???? l?? nh???ng g?? c??c c?????ng qu???c l??m, v?? Trung Qu???c s??? d???a v??o ????n b???y kinh t??? v?? l???c l?????ng qu??n s??? ????? ?????t ???????c nh???ng m???c ti??u c???a m??nh. ??ng l??u ?? r???ng vi???c tr??? th??nh b?? quy???n khu v???c l?? r???t h???p l?? theo quan ??i???m c???a Trung Qu???c, nh??ng c??ng b???t h???p l?? kh??ng k??m n???u nh??n t??? ph??a Nh???t hay M???. S??? c???nh tranh an ninh n??y, ??ng n??i, c?? th??? s??? kh??ng d???n ?????n m???t cu???c chi???n tranh r???ng l???n h??n, nh??ng ch???c ch???n l?? c?? nguy c?? xung ?????t v?? trang ??? bi???n Hoa ????ng v?? bi???n ????ng.

Nh??ng kh??t v???ng kh??ng ph???i l?? ?????nh m???nh.

???T???t c??? ???? k???t th??c th???m kh???c v???i Nh???t B???n. Tuy nhi??n, ng?????i Nh???t ???? r???t kh??n ngoan khi mu???n th???ng tr??? ch??u ??,??? Mearsheimer n??i. ??ng c??n cho r???ng Trung Qu???c ??ang hy v???ng v??o m???t k???t qu??? t???t h??n v?? h??? c??ng kh??n ngoan b???i ???t???t c??? c??c qu???c gia ?????u suy t??nh t???i vi???c th???ng tr??? khu v???c c???a h???, v?? ???? l?? c??ch t???t nh???t ????? ???????c an to??n.???

Quan ??i???m cho r???ng s??? ph??? thu???c l???n nhau ng??y m???t gia t??ng v??? kinh t??? c?? th??? ng??n ch???n chi???n tranh l?? kh??ng ch???c ch???n v?? ch??nh tr??? th?????ng ????nh b???i l?? l??? v??? kinh t???.

???Ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c Trung Qu???c r???t m???nh m???,??? ??ng l???p lu???n, ????????n n???i n???u m???t cu???c kh???ng ho???ng n??? ra, c?? th??? s??? c?? ??p l???c r???t l???n t??? nh??n d??n l??n c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c ????? bu???c h??? ph???i th???c s??? chi???n ?????u ch???ng Nh???t B???n. C??n ng?????i Nh???t B???n th?? xem qu???n ?????o Senkaku l?? v??ng l??nh th??? thi??ng li??ng, v?? v???y h??? s??? chi???n ?????u ????? b???o v??? v??ng l??nh th??? ????.???

T??i kh?? nghi ng??? vi???c c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a Trung Qu???c s??? ????a ra quy???t ?????nh quan tr???ng nh?? v???y d???a tr??n ??p l???c d??n t??y v?? ??i???u n??y ch??nh x??c l?? b???i v?? ch??? r???t ??t ng?????i Nh???t xem Senkaku l?? thi??ng li??ng n??n ch??nh ph??? Nh???t B???n ??ang c??? g???ng h???t s???c ????? kh??i d???y t??nh c???m d??n t???c v??? ???l??nh th??? th???a k?????? n??y trong c??c s??ch gi??o khoa m???i, c??c ho???t ?????ng ngo???i giao, v?? tr??n c??c ph????ng ti???n truy???n th??ng.

Trong khi m???t s??? chuy??n gia kh???ng ?????nh r???ng c??c th??? ch??? qu???c t???, v?? vi???c ph??t tri???n m???t m???ng l?????i trao ?????i, v?? c??c bi???n ph??p x??y d???ng l??ng tin trong m???t ki???n tr??c an ninh khu v???c m???nh m??? h??n s??? c?? th??? ng??n ch???n chi???n tranh, Mearsheimer l???i ch??? ra r???ng m???t gi??? ?????nh d???a tr??n nguy??n t???c nh?? v???y ???? b??? qua m???t ??i???m quan tr???ng: ???C??c c?????ng qu???c s??? kh??ng tu??n theo lu???t khi h??? kh??ng cho r???ng ???? l?? v?? l???i ??ch c???a h???.???

V??? ?????ng minh c???a Nh???t B???n, ??ng cho r???ng ???M??? th?????ng vi ph???m lu???t ph??p qu???c t??? khi n?? cho r???ng l???i ??ch c???t l??i c???a n?? b??? ??e d???a. Ng?????i M??? ???? vi ph???m lu???t qu???c t??? khi ti???n h??nh chi???n tranh ch???ng Iraq. D???u sao, T???ng th???ng George W. Bush ???? n??i, ???T??i kh??ng quan t??m nh???ng g?? lu???t ph??p qu???c t??? n??i.??????

Nh?? v???y, n???u ch??? ngh??a h??a b??nh ????n ph????ng, s??? ph??? thu???c l???n nhau v??? kinh t???, c??c th??? ch??? ho???c lu???t qu???c t??? c??ng kh??ng th??? ?????m b???o h??a b??nh th?? Nh???t B???n n??n l??m g???

Khi Trung Qu???c tr??? n??n gi??u m???nh h??n, n?? s??? tr??? th??nh m???t g?? kh???ng l??? Goliath[2] kh??ng th??? ki???m so??t, v?? ?????n m???t l??c n??o ????, ??i???u n??y c?? ngh??a l?? M??? v?? Nh???t s??? ph???i ?????i di???n v???i Trung Qu???c nh?? m???t b?? quy???n khu v???c. Theo quan ??i???m c???a Mearsheimer, ????y s??? l?? th???m h???a ?????i v???i Nh???t B???n. ??ng d??? ??o??n r???ng sau hai m????i n??m n???a Nh???t B???n s??? ph???i coi giai ??o???n hi???n nay l?? ???th???i k??? v??ng son c???a an ninh ??? ????ng ??.???

Trong b???i c???nh kh?? ch???u v?? t??n b???o ???? c???a ch??nh tr??? qu???c t???, Watanabe Tsuneo, trong m???t b??i b??o do Qu??? Tokyo (Tokyo Foundation) xu???t b???n n??m 2014, ???? l???p lu???n v??? vi???c ???theo ??u???i l???i ??ch an ninh th??ng qua m???t li??n minh v???i M??? v?? l???i ??ch kinh t??? th??ng qua th????ng m???i v???i Trung Qu???c.??? ??i???u n??y ????i h???i ph???i ???t??ng c?????ng kh??? n??ng qu??n s??? c???a ri??ng Nh???t B???n, s???a ?????i Hi???n ph??p nh???m cho ph??p ch??nh s??ch an ninh linh ho???t h??n, m??? r???ng ph???m vi c???a li??n minh ????? ????p ???ng nh???ng th??ch th???c khu v???c v?? to??n c???u v?? m??? r???ng quan h??? an ninh v???i c??c qu???c gia kh??c c?? chung t?? t?????ng.

???Trong qu?? kh???, qu??n b??i l???ch s??? c???a Trung Qu???c ???? c?? hi???u qu??? trong vi???c ki???m ch??? ch??nh s??ch an ninh c???a Nh???t. Nh??ng khi ?????i m???t v???i vi???c hi???n ?????i h??a qu??n s??? v?? n???n kinh t??? ??ang ph??t tri???n c???a Trung Qu???c ??? c??ng nh?? khi s??? l?????ng ng?????i cao tu???i Nh???t B???n, nh???ng ng?????i ???? tr???i qua th???i k??? chi???n tranh x??m l?????c, gi???m xu???ng ??? kh??? n??ng t??? ki???m ch??? c???a Nh???t B???n ??ang y???u d???n ??i.???

C?? l??? v???y, nh??ng ng??n s??ch qu???c ph??ng c???a Nh???t B???n v???n c??n kh?? khi??m t???n, ?????c bi???t l?? tr?????c s??? m???t gi?? m???nh c???a ?????ng y??n v?? nh???ng ho???t ?????ng mua s???m (qu??n s???) k??m hi???u qu???, ??i???u c?? ngh??a l?? h??? ph???i tr??? nhi???u ti???n h??n v?? nh???n ???????c ??t h??n m???c ????ng c??. Abe th?????ng ???????c m?? t??? l?? m???t ng?????i hi???u chi???n, nh??ng ??ng b??? bao quanh b???i c??ng lu???n v?? ng??n s??ch h???n ch???, v?? nh?? ?????ng nghi???p c???a t??i l?? Robert Dujarric th?????ng ch??? ra, ??ng l?? m???t ???con c???u trong b??? l??ng s??i.???

Nh??ng v???i m???t Trung Qu???c ??ang l??n v?? th?? ?????ch, c?? l??? s??? kh??n ngoan n???u Nh???t B???n ho???t ?????ng ngo???i giao nhi???u h??n ????? chu???n b??? cho s??? chuy???n giao quy???n l???c kh??ng th??? tr??nh kh???i. ??i???u n??y kh??ng c?? ngh??a l?? ?????u h??ng, nh??ng n?? ????i h???i ph???i c?? s??? can d??? v???i Trung Qu???c s??u s???c v?? nhi???u c???m h???ng h??n hi???n t???i.

Chuy??n gia an ninh Hugh White c???a ??c ???? l???p lu???n trong cu???n S??? l???a ch???n Trung Qu???c: T???i sao ch??ng ta n??n chia s??? quy???n l???c (The China Choice: Why We Should Share Power) c???a ??ng r???ng c???n m??? r???ng h???p t??c M???-Trung ????? t???o ra m???t c??n c??n quy???n l???c c??ng c?? l???i, m???t ???s??? h??a h???p quy???n l???c ??? ch??u ????? (Concert of Asia). ??i???u ???? c?? v??? l?? kh??ng t?????ng v?? nhi???u l?? do, ch??? y???u l?? b???i m???t t??nh th??? h??a d???u ??? khu v???c l?? kh??ng m???y h???p d???n ?????i v???i B???c Kinh, Tokyo hay Washington; c??ng th???ng s??? ti???p t???c di???n ra mi???n l?? ch??ng ???????c ki???m so??t.

Nh??ng Nh???t B???n c???n m???t chi???n l?????c tho??t kh???i b??? t???c hi???n nay v???i Trung Qu???c v?? s??? m???t l??ng tin l???n nhau ????ng lo ng???i tr??n nhi???u m???c ?????. ??i???u n??y ph???i ???????c gi???i quy???t trong m???i quan h??? ba b??n bao g???m c??? M??? v?? Trung Qu???c, v?? ph???i ???????c ?????m b???o b???ng m???t h??nh ?????ng c??n b???ng tinh t???. Watanabe k???t lu???n r???ng quan h??? li??n minh ch???t ch??? h??n v???i M??? l?? r???t c???n thi???t, d?? c??i gi?? ph???i tr??? l?? gia t??ng th??m lo ng???i v?? ng??? v???c t??? ph??a Trung Qu???c. Nh??ng ??i???u ???? c??ng kh??ng th??? thay th??? cho vi???c c??? g???ng gi???i quy???t v?? v?????t qua nh???ng lo ??u v?? ??c c???m. Tr??n m???t tr???n ngo???i giao n??y, Nh???t B???n ??ang t??? ra y???u k??m.

Jeff Kingston l?? tr?????ng khoa Nghi??n c???u ch??u ?? t???i ?????i h???c Temple, c?? s??? Nh???t B???n.

?????????????????????

[1] ??i???u 9 Hi???n ph??p Nh???t B???n quy ?????nh v??? Tuy??n b??? t??? b??? quy???n khai chi???n:
???Nh??n d??n Nh???t B???n th??nh th???t mong mu???n m???t n???n ho?? b??nh qu???c t??? d???a tr??n ch??nh ngh??a v?? tr???t t???, cam k???t v??nh vi???n kh??ng ph??t ?????ng chi???n tranh nh?? l?? m???t ph????ng ti???n gi???i quy???t xung ?????t qu???c t??? bao g???m chi???n tranh x??m ph???m ch??? quy???n d??n t???c v?? c??c h??nh vi v?? l???c ho???c c??c h??nh vi ??e do??? b???ng v?? l???c.
????? th???c hi???n m???c ????ch ghi ??? tr??n, l???c qu??n, h???i qu??n v?? kh??ng qu??n c??ng nh?? c??c ti???m l???c chi???n tranh kh??c s??? kh??ng ???????c duy tr??. Quy???n tham chi???n c???a ?????t n?????c s??? kh??ng ???????c c??ng nh???n.??? ??? NH??

[2] Goliath l?? m???t d??ng s?? kh???ng l??? c?? s???c m???nh phi th?????ng c???a d??n t???c Philistines. Nh??? c?? Goliath m?? ng?????i Philistines ???? chi???n th???ng ng?????i Israel trong m???t th???i gian d??i trong cu???c chi???n tr?????ng k??? c???a h??? tr??n mi???n ?????t H???a. Nh??ng do ch??? quan v?? khinh th?????ng k??? ?????ch, Goliath sau n??y ???? b??? m???t tr??ng s?? tr??? tu???i, v??? vua t????ng lai c???a ng?????i Israel l?? David h??? g???c b???ng m???t h??n s???i nh??? ??? NH??

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