Ngu???n g???c c???a b?? ?????o v?? b?? quy???n Trung Qu???c

Thứ hai - 02/09/2019 20:04
Trong s??ch Gi???c m?? Trung Qu???c, t??c gi??? ??? ?????i t?? Qu??n Gi???i ph??ng Trung Qu???c L??u Minh Ph??c ??? ?????c bi???t vi???t nhi???u v??? s??? b?? ?????o c???a M??? v?? v????ng ?????o c???a Trung Qu???c.
T??c gi??? d??nh c??? ch????ng II (c?? s??? trang nhi???u th??? 2 trong 8 ch????ng s??ch n??y) ????? tr??nh b??y c??i g???i l?? b?? quy???n c???a n?????c M??? v?? d??nh ch????ng III v?? IV
Ngu???n g???c c???a b?? ?????o v?? b?? quy???n Trung Qu???c

Ngu???n g???c c???a b?? ?????o v?? b?? quy???n Trung Qu???c

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T??c gi???: H??? Anh H???i

Trong s??ch Gi???c m?? Trung Qu???c, t??c gi??? ??? ?????i t?? Qu??n Gi???i ph??ng Trung Qu???c L??u Minh Ph??c ??? ?????c bi???t vi???t nhi???u v??? s??? b?? ?????o c???a M??? v?? v????ng ?????o c???a Trung Qu???c.

T??c gi??? d??nh c??? ch????ng II (c?? s??? trang nhi???u th??? 2 trong 8 ch????ng s??ch n??y) ????? tr??nh b??y c??i g???i l?? b?? quy???n c???a n?????c M??? v?? d??nh ch????ng III v?? IV (s??? trang nhi???u th??? 6 v?? 5) ????? n??i v??? nh???ng c??i hay c??i t???t c???a Trung Qu???c. T??c gi??? d??ng s??? trang nhi???u nh???t ????? n??i v??? n?????c M??? ??? v??? m???t t???t c??ng nh?? m???t x???u. S??? trang vi???t v??? Trung Qu???c th?? ??t h??n nhi???u; b???i l??? t??c gi??? c??ng ch???ng bi???t n??i g?? v??? nh???ng c??i hay c??i t???t c???a n?????c m??nh, c??n nh???ng c??i x???u th?? c?? l??? bi???t c??? ?????y nh??ng ch???ng d??m vi???t ra.

L??u Minh Ph??c ho??n to??n ch??? n??i v??? nh???ng c??i t???t c???a n?????c ??ng, nh???m ????? nh??n d??n th??? gi???i ?????ng e ng???i Trung Qu???c tr???i d???y tr??? th??nh ???qu???c gia qu??n qu??n???, ???qu???c gia l??nh t?????? s??? ??e d???a ho?? b??nh v?? ???n ?????nh tr??n th??? gi???i.

H??y th??? xem v??i c??i t???t c???a Trung Qu???c m?? L??u Minh Ph??c n??u ra trong s??ch.

T??c gi??? t??? h??o vi???t: Trung Qu???c kh??ng c?? t???i t??? t??ng,[1] cho n??n c?? t?? c??ch nh???t l??m l??nh t??? th??? gi???i! T???t c??? c??c n?????c l???n tr???i d???y kh??c ?????u ???c?? ti???n s??? ph???m t???i???, nh?? bu??n b??n n?? l??? ch??u Phi h???i th??? k??? 15-18, x??m l?????c, chinh ph???c thu???c ?????a???

????ng l?? c??c vua ch??a Trung Qu???c ch???ng h??? sang t???n ch??u Phi ????? mua n?? l??? ??? nh??ng ??i???u ???? ch???ng c?? g?? ????ng ????? L??u Minh Ph??c t??? h??o c???. ??ng kh??ng bi???t (hay gi??? v??? kh??ng bi???t) m???t s??? th???c l???ch s??? r???t ????n gi???n: d?????i tay c??c nh?? c???m quy???n Trung Qu???c ???? c?? s???n h??ng tri???u n?? l???! H??? g???i d??n n?????c m??nh l?? ???th???n d??n???, m?? ch??? ???th???n?????? trong ti???ng Trung Qu???c c?? ngh??a l?? ???n?? l??? trong x?? h???i n?? l??????. H??? ??p b???c b??c l???t ng?????i d??n ?????n t???n x????ng t???y. V?? d??? d?????i th???i th???nh tr??? nh?? ???????ng, Ho??ng ????? c?? t???i 3.000 cung n??? ??? ch??nh l?? 3.000 n?? l??? t??nh d???c c???a m???t g?? ?????c r???a d??m ??. N?????c n??y c??ng ph??t minh ra ch??? ????? ho???n quan c???c k??? d?? man: h??ng ngh??n nam gi???i b??? c???t b??? ph???n sinh d???c ch??? v?? ????? ph???c v??? nhu c???u t??nh d???c c???a m???t g?? nam gi???i kh??c. C??? tri???u ng?????i d??n ch???t trong c??ng tr??nh ?????p V???n l?? Tr?????ng th??nh. Nh?? v???y sao c?? th??? n??i Trung Qu???c kh??ng c?? t???i t??? t??ng?

??? ph????ng T??y, do m???i ng?????i d??n ?????u ???????c th???a nh???n l?? ch??? ?????t n?????c m??nh, n??n h??? ph???i sang t??m n?? l??? ??? c??c n?????c ch??u Phi l???c h???u, v?? th??? m?? ph????ng T??y ph???m ???t???i t??? t??ng???.

T??c gi??? vi???t ng?????i Trung Qu???c c?? t??nh c??ch y??u ho?? b??nh, ????? qu???c Trung Hoa l???n m???nh m?? kh??ng chinh ph???c, kh??ng c?? thu???c ?????a ??? n?????c ngo??i, v?? th??? c??c n?????c nh?????c ti???u xung quanh nh?? Vi???t Nam, Mi???n ??i???n, Th??i Lan ??? v???n gi??? ???????c ?????c l???p.

R?? r??ng ?????i t?? h??? L??u ???? c?? nh???ng nh???m l???n l???ch s??? ????ng ti???c.

Vi???t Nam ch???ng ???? b??? phong ki???n Trung Qu???c th???ng tr??? 1.000 n??m ?????y ??? Nh??ng h??? kh??ng ?????ng h??a n???i d??n t???c Vi???t v?? cu???i c??ng b??? d??n ta v??ng d???y ????nh ??u???i, gi??nh l???i ?????c l???p cho ?????t n?????c. Tuy th???t b???i cay ?????ng nh?? th??? nh??ng sau ???? c??c v????ng tri???u ph????ng B???c c??n m???y l???n c???t ?????i qu??n sang ???th???o ph???t??? Vi???t Nam, l???n n??o c??ng thua nh???c nh??.

T??c gi??? c??n n??u ???s??? ki???n n???i ti???ng nh???t??? l?? ?????i H??n Nguy??n ?????, tri???u ????nh quy???t ?????nh b??? kh??ng chi???m qu???n Ch??u Nhai ??? ?????o H???i Nam, coi ???? nh?? m???t minh ch???ng nh?? H??n kh??ng ch??? tr????ng m??? r???ng l??nh th???.

Nh??ng th???c ra ???? l?? do ?????o H???i Nam kh?? h???u n??ng ???m, quan qu??n Trung Qu???c l???c ?????a ra ?????y ?????u kh???n kh??? v?? d???ch b???nh, l???i th??m h???i qu??n Trung Qu???c nh??? y???u kh??ng d??? ra ???????c Ch??u Nhai ??? xa tr??n bi???n.

Ai c??ng bi???t ?????t Trung Qu???c qu?? r???ng, d??n qu?? ????ng, ch??nh quy???n phong ki???n trung ????ng qu???n l?? kh??ng xu???, l???i th??m trong n?????c lu??n lu??n r???i lo???n v?? n??ng d??n kh???p n??i n???i d???y ch???ng l???i tri???u ????nh, nhi???u ?????u l??nh c??c ?????a ph????ng mu???n l???p ch??nh quy???n c??t c???. Ch??nh quy???n trung ????ng ????n ??p d??n trong n?????c c??n ch??a xong, sao m?? d??m ??em qu??n ra n?????c ngo??i chi???m thu???c ?????a? N???u l??m th??? th?? ngai v??ng nh?? vua s??? l???p t???c b??? lo???n th???n ho???c n??ng d??n kh???i ngh??a c?????p m???t.

L??u Minh Ph??c n??i b???a r???ng nguy??n nh??n n??ng d??n Trung Qu???c n???i d???y nhi???u l?? do n?????c n??y thi???u ?????t tr???ng tr???t nh??ng ch??nh quy???n kh??ng l??m nh?? ph????ng T??y, t???c ??em qu??n ??i c?????p ?????t n?????c ngo??i ????? chuy???n d???ch m??u thu???n ra ngo??i, m?? ch??? ???v???n d???ng ph????ng ph??p h?????ng n???i, t???p trung gi???i quy???t ??? trong n?????c m???i m??u thu???n???.

Gi???i th??ch nh?? th??? l?? ng???y bi???n. N??ng d??n Trung Qu???c kh???i ngh??a ????nh l???i tri???u ????nh ch??? v?? h??? b??? ??p b???c b??c l???t qu?? t??n ??c, kh??ng c??n ???????ng s???ng n???a. H???u h???t c??c cu???c kh???i ngh??a ???y ?????u b??? tri???u ????nh d??m trong bi???n m??u. V?? n???u th???ng l???i th?? ??ng tr??m kh???i ngh??a l???i tr??? th??nh ??ng vua m???i, t??n ??c v???i d??n m??nh ch???ng kh??c g?? vua c??.

R?? r??ng c??c v????ng tri???u Trung Qu???c th???c h??nh b?? ?????o v???i ch??nh th???n d??n c???a m??nh, th??? m?? L??u Minh Ph??c d??m n??i b???a l?? th???c h??nh v????ng ?????o!

M???t ch??nh quy???n th???c h??nh b?? ?????o v???i ch??nh ?????ng b??o m??nh th?? sao c?? th??? l???i th???c h??nh v????ng ?????o v???i d??n ch??ng c??c n?????c kh??c? Trong B??nh Ng?? ?????i C??o, Nguy???n Tr??i t??? c??o ch??nh quy???n nh?? Minh ?????i x??? t??n ??c kh???ng khi???p v???i nh??n d??n ta: N?????ng d??n ??en tr??n ng???n l???a hung t??n, v??i con ????? xu???ng d?????i h???m tai v???.

T?????ng L??u ?? Ch??u (ng?????i vi???t L???i T???a s??ch Gi???c m?? Trung Qu???c c???a L??u Minh Ph??c) v???ch tr???n b???n ch???t c???a c??c t???ng l???p cai tr??? Trung Qu???c ?????u l?? ????????i ngo???i m???m m???ng, ?????i n???i t??n nh???n???. ????y ch??nh l?? nguy??n nh??n l??m cho nhi???u ng?????i Trung Qu???c c??m gh??t ch??nh quy???n; l??c b??nh th?????ng l???m phe ph??i ????nh l???n nhau r??nh r???p c?????p quy???n b??nh, khi c?? ngo???i x??m th?? kh??ng ??t ng?????i theo ?????ch ch???ng l???i ch??nh quy???n n?????c m??nh. L??u ?? Ch??u n??i Trung Qu???c th???i b??? Nh???t x??m l?????c c?? r???t nhi???u H??n gian ch??nh l?? v?? th???.

L??u Minh Ph??c t?? son ??i???m ph???n cho t??? ti??n m??nh trong khi ch??nh ??ng l???i th???a nh???n: ????? qu???c Trung Hoa c?? nhi???u n???i chi???n, ????? qu???c ph????ng T??y c?? nhi???u ???ngo???i chi???n???, n??ng d??n Trung Qu???c kh???i ngh??a nhi???u nh???t, quy m?? l???n nh???t th??? gi???i; ??? n?????c n??y n???i chi???n nhi???u, ???ngo???i chi???n??? ??t.

Nh??n chung c?? th??? th???y: n???u ????? qu???c Trung Hoa th???i n??o ???? kh??ng qu?? ch?? tr???ng chinh ph???c v?? x??m l?????c n?????c ngo??i th?? ??i???u ???? ch???ng ph???i v?? h??? y??u ho?? b??nh v?? th???c h??nh ???v????ng ?????o???, m?? v?? h??? tuy r???t mu???n x??m l?????c n?????c ngo??i nh??ng kh??ng d??m l??m ho???c kh??ng l??m n???i. Th??? k??? 12, th???y qu??n nh?? Nguy??n ????nh Vi???t Nam v?? Nh???t B???n ?????u thua tr???n ph???i cu???n x??o v??? n?????c, l?? nh???ng ch???ng c??? hi???n nhi??n m?? t??c gi??? c??? t??nh b??? qua.

N??i c??ch kh??c, Trung Qu???c r???t mu???n l??m B?? nh??ng ch??a l??m ???????c. Th???y M??? l??m ???????c vai tr?? ???y h??? sinh ra ganh t??? v?? ch?? M??? ????? th??? x???u.

L??m ???????c vai tr?? B?? nh?? n?????c M??? ????u d???! ???? l?? vai tr?? k??? gi??? tr???t t??? c??ng c???ng, c???nh s??t ch??? ???????ng. T??c gi??? n??i Trung Qu???c mu???n l??m ???qu???c gia qu??n qu??n, l??nh t?????? nh??ng kh??ng mu???n l??m b?? quy???n, ch??? l??m ???qu???c gia d???n d???t??? th??i. Nh??ng ch??nh t??c gi??? th???a nh???n Trung Qu???c hi???n ch??a c???m ???????c ng???n c??? v??n ho?? l??n ??i???m cao kh???ng ch??? th??? gi???i, ch??a c?? gi?? tr??? quan n??o thu h??t to??n c???u nh?? gi?? tr??? quan t??? do d??n ch??? c???a M??? ??? th??? th?? sao m?? d???n d???t th??? gi???i ???????c?

??i???m n??y th?? t??c gi??? n??i ????ng: ng?????i Trung Qu???c x??a nay ch??a bao gi??? t??? h??o v???i n???n v??n h??a truy???n th???ng t??? ti??n ????? l???i (xem: ???V?? sao ng?????i Trung Qu???c thi???u t??? tin v??n h??a??? tr??n ???Nghi??n c???u qu???c t??????), th???m ch?? h??? ???? nhi???u l???n k??u g???i ????nh ????? h???c thuy???t c???a Kh???ng T??? ??? v??? th??nh nh??n ???????c t??? ti??n h??? th??? ph???ng m???y ngh??n n??m. Hai t??c ph???m v??n h???c h??? y??u th??ch l?? ???Th???y H?????? ng??y x??a v?? ???T?? tem s??i??? ng??y nay ?????u b??? th??? gi???i ch?? l?? c??? v?? cho ch??? ngh??a b???o l???c. M???t n???n v??n h???c nh?? th??? sao m?? c???m ???????c ng???n c??? v??n ho?? l??n ??i???m cao kh???ng ch??? th??? gi???i, t???o ra gi?? tr??? nh??n v??n thu h??t to??n c???u?

T??c gi??? vi???t: Trung Qu???c s??? l??nh ?????o th??? gi???i nh??ng kh??ng l??m b?? ?????o nh?? M??? m?? th???c h??nh v????ng ?????o. B???n ch???t c???a v????ng ?????o l?? ?????o ?????c nh??n ngh??a, d???a tr??n nguy??n t???c ???K??? s??? b???t d???c, v???t thi ?? nh??n??? (l???i Kh???ng T???: ??i???u m??nh kh??ng th??ch th?? ch??? ??em ?????n cho ng?????i kh??c), th???c hi???n b??nh ?????ng, c??ng b???ng, ch??n th??nh r???ng l?????ng, h??a b??nh, d??ng s???c m???nh ?????o ?????c ????? c???m h??a k??? kh??c ch??? kh??ng ??p b???c h???, ph??ng ng??? t??? v??? ch??? kh??ng ????nh tr?????c, kh??ng l???m d???ng v?? l???c.

Ch??nh quy???n Trung Qu???c c?? th??i quen n??i m???t ?????ng l??m m???t n???o, th???m ch?? c???y th??? to m???m vu v??? k??? hi???n l??nh th??nh k??? t???i ph???m. N??i v????ng ?????o, nh??ng th???c t??? trong c??ch gi???i quy???t c??c tranh ch???p l??nh th??? ??? Bi???n ????ng, h??? lu??n lu??n ??a d??ng s???c m???nh, c???y ta ????y l???m t??u nhi???u s??ng b???t n???t k??? y???u.

N??m 1974 Trung Qu???c c?????p Ho??ng Sa c???a Vi???t Nam. B???n ????? Trung Qu???c v??? ???????ng ch??n ??o???n chi???m 80% Bi???n ????ng xa n?????c h??? h??ng ngh??n d???m, ??p s??t l??nh th??? m???t s??? n?????c ????ng Nam ??. Nhi???u n??m nay h??? ngang nhi??n ra l???nh c???m ????nh c?? tr??n v??ng bi???n c?? tranh ch???p r???i cho t??u ng?? ch??nh ?????n Bi???n ????ng xua ??u???i t??u ????nh c?? c???a ng?? d??n ta, th???m ch?? cho t??u (ta g???i l?? ???t??u l??????) ????m ch??m nhi???u t??u c???a ng?? d??n Vi???t Nam, g??y ra ?????m t??u ch???t ng?????i v?? c??ng d?? man. N??m 2014 h??? ngang ng?????c k??o gi??n khoan 981 v??o v??ng bi???n n?????c ta khoan th??m d?? coi nh?? ??? n?????c h???. G???n ????y nh???t h??? hai l???n hung h??ng cho t??u kh???o s??t H???i D????ng ?????a Ch???t 8 (Haiyang Dizhi 8) c??ng v???i c??c t??u h???i c???nh v?? t??u c???a ???d??n qu??n bi???n??? x??m nh???p v??o v??ng ?????c quy???n kinh t??? Vi???t Nam. Th??? m?? h??? l???i to m???m vu v???: ???B???t ch???p s??? ph???n ?????i c???ng r???n c???a Trung Qu???c, Vi???t Nam ????n ph????ng b???t ?????u ho???t ?????ng khoan th??m d?? d???u kh?? ??? c??c v??ng bi???n thu???c quy???n t??i ph??n c???a Trung Qu???c ??? Bi???n Nam Trung Hoa [Bi???n ????ng], [v?? ????y l??] ngu???n g???c c???a t??nh h??nh hi???n th???i??? (ng?????i ph??t ng??n B??? Ngo???i giao Trung Qu???c n??i trong cu???c h???p b??o t???i B???c Kinh h??m 23/8/2019).

Nh?? th??? ch???ng l?? B?? ?????o th?? l?? g???

B???n s??? h???i: ????u l?? c???i ngu???n c???a t??nh c??ch th??ch l??m B???

H??y t??m v??? n???n v??n ho?? truy???n th???ng c???a h???.

Xin m?????n l???i c???a ch??nh h???: Ng?????i Trung Qu???c ??a chu???ng s???c m???nh v?? b???o l???c.

Ch???ng d??n t???c n??o ??a chu???ng s??? y???u ??u???i, nh??ng t??n th??? s???c m???nh nh?? ng?????i Trung Qu???c th?? qu??? l?? hi???m. Th???i x??a, nhi???u n?????c, nh???t l?? ??? ph????ng T??y, c?? lo???i ti???u thuy???t vi???t v??? t??nh y??u; nh??ng Trung Qu???c kh??ng c?? lo???i ???y. M???y b??? ti???u thuy???t c??? c???a n?????c n??y ?????u ????? cao nh???ng k??? c?? s???c m???nh v?? l???m d???ng b???o l???c, cho d?? d??ng v??o vi???c phi ngh??a. Th???i x??a ???? v???y; th??? k??? 20 l??nh t??? h??? Mao ????? ra ch??m ng??n S??ng ????? ra ch??nh quy???n. N???n v??n ho?? chu???ng b???o l???c, ?????u ????, ????nh ?????m, chi???n tranh ???y quy???t ?????nh h??? h??nh x??? ki???u B??, t???c d??ng v?? l???c gi???i quy???t m???i chuy???n.

C??c h???o h??n trong Th???y H??? l???m d???ng b???o l???c v?? h???n ?????; ch??? v?? ????? ch???ng t??? v?? c??ng c???a m??nh m?? h??? s???n s??ng h???i c??? k??? v?? t???i. L?? Qu??? gi???n l??n l?? gi???t b???t c??? ai m?? kh??ng gh?? tay. V?? T??ng kh???e v???t ch???t h???, nh???n t??m gi???t b?? ch??? d??u y???u ??u???i m?? kh??ng th???n v???i l????ng t??m k??? nam nhi. C??c nh??n v???t ???y ???????c ng?????i Trung Qu???c m?? say ca ng???i ??? ??i???u ???? cho th???y v??n ho?? chu???ng b???o l???c c???a h??? ch??nh l?? ngu???n g???c sinh ra t??nh c??ch th??ch l??m B??. M???t nh?? H??n h???c ng?????i Australia n??i Th???y H??? l?? cu???n ti???u thuy???t b???nh ho???n. M???t nh?? H??n h???c ng?????i ?????c nh???n ?????nh T?? Tem S??i tuy??n truy???n ch??? ngh??a ph??t x??t???

Gi??? ????y ????ng ?????o d??n m???ng Trung Qu???c h?? l???n ???T???, t???, t??? l???!??? [????nh! ????nh th??i!], ????i d???y Vi???t Nam m???t b??i h???c n???a, ????i ????nh Philippines ????? c?????p b??i c???n Scarborough. Hi???m th???y qu???c gia n??o hi???u chi???n nh?? v???y nh??ng mi???ng l???i lu??n n??i ???Tr???i d???y h??a b??nh???.

T??m l???i, v????ng ?????o th?? ch???ng th???y ????u m?? l???ch s??? c??ng nh?? hi???n t???i ?????u ?????y r???y nh???ng s??? th???t cho th???y b?? ?????o m???i l?? th??? ????????c s???n??? Trung Qu???c ??a th??ch.

???????????????

[1] T???i t??? t??ng (original sin) l?? m???t kh??i ni???m, m???t t??n ??i???u c???a Ki-t?? gi??o, n??i v??? t??nh tr???ng m???c t???i ngay t??? khi sinh ra c???a t???t c??? m???i ng?????i. Kinh Th??nh c?? ch??p t???i l???i c???a Adam v?? Eva, hai v??? t??? ?????u ti??n c???a lo??i ng?????i ???? ph???m t???i l??m tr??i l???i r??n c???a Th?????ng ?????, do ???? b??? Th?????ng ????? tr???ng ph???t: T???t c??? m???i ng?????i ?????u ph???i ch???t gi??. 
P/vTheo Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? ng??y 3 - 9 - 2019

02/06/1944: M??? b???t ?????u ???????nh bom con thoi??? trong Chi???n d???ch Frantic

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Ngu???n: United States begins ???shuttle bombing??? in Operation FranticHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1944, c??c m??y bay n??m bom thu???c Kh??ng l???c 15 Hoa K??? (Fifteenth Air Force) ???? kh???i ?????ng Chi???n d???ch Frantic (Operation Frantic) ??? m???t ?????t ????nh bom kh???p v??ng Trung ??u. Nh???ng m??y bay n??y ??i t??? c??c c??n c??? kh??ng qu??n ??? mi???n Nam n?????c ??, v?? h??? c??nh xu???ng c??c c??n c??? kh??ng qu??n ??? Poltava, Li??n X?? ??? th???c hi???n c??i g???i l?? ???????nh bom con thoi??? (shuttle bombing).

Kh??ng l???c 15 ???????c th??nh l???p v???i m???c ????ch duy nh???t l?? l??m t?? li???t n???n kinh t??? chi???n tranh c???a ?????c. Ho???t ?????ng ngo??i l??nh th??? ?? v?? do T?????ng Carl Spaatz, m???t phi c??ng chi???n ?????u trong Th??? chi???n I, ch??? huy ??? Kh??ng l???c 15 ???? ???????c Joseph Stalin tuy???t v???ng nh??? gi??p ????? H???ng Qu??n trong chi???n d???ch c???a h??? ??? Romania.

????? ?????i l???y s??? tr??? gi??p c???a Kh??ng l???c 15, Stalin ???? cho ph??p m??y bay n??m bom c???a M??? ???????c h??? c??nh t???i c??c c??n c??? kh??ng qu??n ??? Li??n X?? khi h??? th???c hi???n Chi???n d???ch Frantic, m???t k??? ho???ch t??n ph?? c??c khu v???c c??ng nghi???p c???a ?????c ??? Silesia, Hungary v?? Romania v???n ??ang b??? chi???m ????ng. Vi???c n??m bom n??y khi???n c??c chuy???n bay tr??? v??? Foggia v?? c??c v??ng kh??c ??? mi???n Nam n?????c ??, ??i???m xu???t ph??t c???a Kh??ng l???c 15, tr??? n??n b???t kh??? thi b???i v???n ????? ti???p nhi??n li???u. V?? ???????nh bom con thoi??? t???i Poltava l?? gi???i ph??p bi???n Frantic tr??? th??nh hi???n th???c.

Tr?????c khi t??n g???i c???a n?? ???????c r??t ng???n th??nh Frantic, chi???n d???ch n??y ???????c g???i l?? Chi???n d???ch Frantic Joe ??? m???t b??nh lu???n v??? l???i k??u g???i ???????c gi??p ????? kh???n c???p c???a Joe Stalin. Nh??ng n?? ???? ???????c ?????i t??n ????? tr??nh x??c ph???m l??nh ?????o Li??n X??.

C??ng v??o ng??y n??y n??m 1944: Ng??y D-Day, ng??y m?? qu??n ?????ng Minh ????? b??? v??o Normandy, ???? ???????c ???n ?????nh l?? 05/06. Ban ?????u, ng??y ????? b??? ???????c d??? ki???n l?? ng??y 04/06, nh??ng c??c chi???n l?????c gia c???a phe ?????ng Minh ???? nh???n ra r???ng th???i ti???t x???u s??? khi???n cho v???n ????? ng??y c??ng tr??? n??n kh?? kh??n. T?????ng Karl von Rundstedt, ng?????i nh???n ???????c m???t t??n hi???u radio li??n quan ?????n ng??y 04/06, ???? b??? thuy???t ph???c r???ng b???n ng??y th???i ti???t t???t li??n ti???p l?? ??i???u c???n thi???t ????? cu???c t???n c??ng ???????c th??nh c??ng. Nh??ng l??c ???? kh??ng c?? t??nh h??nh th???i ti???t t???t nh?? v???y, v?? v??? t?????ng ???? tin r???ng D-Day s??? kh??ng th??? di???n ra th??nh c??ng trong tu???n ?????u ti??n c???a th??ng 6 (m?? ph???i l??i qua tu???n sau).
 

#180 ??? Ng?????i gi??u ??? k??? ngh??o trong ch??nh tr??? th??? gi???i: S??? ph???n bu???n th???m c???a Ph????ng Nam

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Ngu???n: Charles W. Kegley, JR. & Gregory A. Raymond, The Global Future: A Brief Introduction to World Politics (Chapter 5), (Boston, MA: Wadsworth, 2010)

Bi??n d???ch: L?? Tu???n Anh | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

B??i li??n quan: C??c ch????ng kh??c c???a cu???n The Global Future

M???t x?? h???i lo??i ng?????i m?? d???a tr??n c?? s??? nhi???u qu???c gia ngh??o ????i v?? ch??? m???t s??? ??t th???nh v?????ng, ?????c tr??ng b???i nh???ng h??n ?????o th???nh v?????ng gi???a m???t bi???n ngh??o ????i, l?? kh??ng b???n v???ng.

Thiabo Mbeki ??? C???u t???ng th???ng Nam Phi

Ng??y 4 th??ng 2 n??m 1992, Hugo Chavez Fr??as, m???t ?????i t?? b???c ?????ng v?? c?? s???c thu h??t, ???? l??nh ?????o m???t cu???c ?????o ch??nh qu??n s??? ch???ng l???i ch??nh ph??? Venezuela. Khi m?? l???c l?????ng thua k??m nhi???u v??? s??? l?????ng c???a m??nh kh??ng gi??nh ???????c quy???n ki???m so??t Caracas v?? kh??ng b???t gi??? ???????c T???ng th???ng Carlos Andr??s P??rez, ??ng ta ???? ?????u h??ng v?? b??? t???m giam. Trong m???t tuy??n b??? ???????c ph??t tr??n truy???n h??nh, Chav??z mi???n c?????ng th???a nh???n r???ng cu???c ph???n lo???n ???? ch???m d???t, nh??ng ch??? ???por ahora??? (???t???m th???i???).

Ba n??m tr?????c, T???ng th???ng P??rez s??? d???ng qu??n ?????i ????? ????n ??p l???c l?????ng n???i d???y v???n xu???t hi???n khi ??ng n??y th???c thi c??c bi???n ph??p kinh t??? h?? kh???c do Qu??? Ti???n t??? Qu???c t??? ????a ra. T???c gi???n b???i nh???ng g?? h??? nh??n nh???n l?? vi???c m???t ch??nh ph??? y???u k??m nh?????ng s??? ki???m so??t n???n kinh t??? qu???c gia cho c??c nh??m l???i ??ch c???a n?????c ngo??i, Ch??vez v?? nh???ng s??? quan tr??? b???t ?????u cu???c n???i d???y. Hai nh??n v???t ???? truy???n c???m h???ng [cho cu???c b???o lo???n]. Ng?????i th??? nh???t l?? Sim??n Bol??var, ng?????i ???? t??? ch???c phong tr??o gi???i ph??ng ph???n l???n c??c qu???c gia Nam M??? kh???i s??? cai tr??? thu???c ?????a c???a T??y Ban Nha v?? th??nh l???p n??n m???t qu???c gia m?? trong m???t th???i gian ng???n ???? bao g???m c??c qu???c gia hi???n nay l?? Columbia, Panama, Venezuela v?? Ecuador. Ng?????i th??? hai l?? Fidel Castro, ng?????i ???? ph??t ?????ng cu???c c??ch m???ng x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a ??? Cuba v?? ho???t ?????ng kh??ng ng???ng ngh??? ????? ch???ng l???i ???nh h?????ng c???a Hoa K??? ??? M??? Latinh. ???????c kh??ch l??? b???i gi???c m?? ch??m ng??i cho m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a ??? Venezuela v?? x??y d???ng m???t kh???i l???n g???m c??c n?????c M??? Latinh ????? th??ch th???c Hoa K???, nh???ng s??? quan n??y ???? kh???i ?????ng cu???c ?????o ch??nh kh??ng th??nh n??y.

Hai n??m sau ????, trong khi Chav??z v?? nh???ng ?????ng ph???m b??? b??? t??, T???ng th???ng Per??z b??? c??o bu???c v??? t???i tham nh??ng. Sau ????, Ch??vez ???????c khoan h???ng v?? ngay khi ???????c ra t??, ??ng n??y b???t ?????u chi???n d???ch tranh c??? t???ng th???ng v???i c????ng l??nh tranh c??? theo ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y. Tr??ng c??? n??m 1998 (v?? t??i c??? n??m 2000 v?? 2006), ??ng n??y h???a s??? nh??? t???n g???c nh???ng ???k??? ?????u s??? ch??nh tr??? ??n th???t ng?????i??? c???a Venezuela, nh???ng k??? ph???c v??? cho t?? b???n qu???c t???. Trong b??i ph??t bi???u v???i nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? m??nh v??o ng??y 1 th??ng 3 n??m 2004, ??ng n??i s??? t??m c??ch k???t th??c h??? th???ng b???t c??ng trong ???? c??c n?????c gi??u khi???n n?????c ngh??o m??i ????ng vai tr?? ???ng?????i t???o ra c???a c???i nh??ng ch??? h?????ng nh???ng th??? c??n th???a???. Ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, ??ng n??y nh???n m???nh trong di???n v??n t???i Di???n ????n X?? h???i Th??? gi???i n??m 2005, l?? ???man r??????, t???o ra s??? b???n c??ng v?? ngh??o ????i.

Trong su???t nhi???m k??? c???a m??nh, Ch??vez ???? th???c hi???n nhi???u c???i c??ch, nh???n m???nh r???ng nh???ng c???i c??ch n??y s??? gi??p Venezuela ??u vi???t h??n ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n. C??c ch????ng tr??nh mang ?????nh h?????ng x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a v?? nhi???u t??nh khoa tr????ng nh???m gi???m t??? l??? m?? ch???, t??ng c?????ng ch??m s??c s???c kh???e, t??i ph??n b??? ?????t ??ai ???? ???????c b???t ?????u. Ch??a kh??a ????? th???c thi c??c ch????ng tr??nh n??y n???m ??? ngu???n t??i nguy??n d???u m??? d???i d??o c???a qu???c gia n??y. Venezuela s??? h???u l?????ng d???u m??? d??? tr??? l???n th??? 6 tr??n th??? gi???i v?? ???????c x???p h???ng th??? 8 v??? l?????ng th??ng d???u s???n xu???t m???i ng??y (Economist 2007, trang 55). ????? khai th??c ngu???n c???a c???i ti???m n??ng n??y, Chav??z ???? ki???m so??t Petr??leos de Venezuela (c??ng ty khai th??c d???u qu???c doanh), ????i h???i t??ng t??? l??? ph??n chia trong c??c h???p ?????ng c??ng h???p t??c khai th??c v???i c??c c??ng ty d???u m??? n?????c ngo??i v?? qu???c h???u h??a c??c c?? s??? b??m v?? l???c d???u c???a c??c c??ng ty kh??ng ch???p nh???n ??i???u ki???n c???a ??ng ta. Trong khi l??c Ch??vez l??n n???m quy???n, gi?? d???u l?? 10 USD m???t th??ng v?? ng??n s??ch ch??nh ph??? l?? 7 t??? USD, ?????n th??ng 6 n??m 2008, gi?? d???u l??n 140 USD m???t th??ng, c?? ngh??a l?? ???? l??m t??ng ng??n s??ch ch??nh ph??? l??n th??m 54 t??? USD. Khi thu nh???p t??? d???u m??? t??ng l??n, Ch??vez ph??n b??? l?????ng ti???n l???n h??n v??o c??c ch????ng tr??nh ph??c l???i x?? h???i v???n c???ng c??? v??? th??? c???a ??ng n??y trong l??ng ng?????i d??n ngh??o Venezuela.

Ch??nh s??ch c??ng c???a Ch??vez ???????c tranh lu???n s??i n???i. C??c nh?? quan s??t kh??ng nh???t tr?? v??? vi???c li???u ch??nh s??ch n??y l??m x??i m??n hay th??c ?????y ch???t l?????ng s???ng c???a n?????c n??y. T??? l??? t???i ph???m c???a Venezuela ??? m???c cao, c?? s??? h??? t???ng v???n kh??ng ???????c s???a ch???a, t??? l??? th???t nghi???p ??? m???c 16,8% v?? l???m ph??t l?? 13,6% (Economist 2007, 236). Tuy v???y, Ch??vez v???n nh???n ???????c s??? ???ng h??? cao t??? c??c cu???c th??m d?? d?? lu???n v???i ??a s??? ng?????i tr??? l???i cho r???ng ?????i s???ng c???a h??? ???????c c???i thi???n d?????i s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ??ng n??y. Tuy nhi??n, nh???ng ?????n ?????i v??? ??m m??u ch???ng l???i ??ng th?????ng xuy??n lan kh???p th??? ????, ???????c th???i b??ng l??n b???i cu???c ?????o ch??nh b???t th??nh v???n t???m th???i h??? b??? ??ng n??y v??o th??ng 4 n??m 2002. M???c d???u nhi???m k??? hi???n t???i k???t th??c v??o n??m 2013, Chav??z ???? g???i ?? r???ng ??ng c?? th??? t???i nhi???m l??u h??n m???c d?? cu???c tr??ng c???u d??n ?? v??? s???a ?????i Hi???n ph??p nh???m cho ph??p ??ng ti???p t???c t???i nhi???m ???? kh??ng th??nh c??ng v??o n??m 2007.

Trong cu???c ph???ng v???n v??o th??ng 3 n??m 2007 v???i ph??ng vi??n Jos?? Vincente Rangel, Chav??z ???? khoa tr????ng r???ng ???T??i lu??n lu??n suy ngh?? nh?? m???t ng?????i mang t?? t?????ng ch???ng ?????i???. C?? l??? ??i???u n??y l?? r?? r??ng h??n c??? ??? n??? l???c ch???ng l???i ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a Hoa K??? ??? Ch??u M??? Latinh, v???n ???????c Chav??z kh??i qu??t h??a trong b??i ph??t bi???u t???i Li??n H???p Qu???c v??o ng??y 20 th??ng 9 n??m 2006 l?? ?????m m??u th???ng tr???, b??c l???t v?? c?????p b??c???. M???t kh??c, Chav??z th??c ?????y m???nh m??? quan h??? song ph????ng v???i c??c l??nh ?????o [c?? t?? t?????ng] ch???ng Hoa K??? t??? T???ng th???ng Mahmoud Ahmadinejad c???a Iran cho t???i ng?????i c???m ?????u phong tr??o du k??ch L???c l?????ng Qu??n ?????i C??ch m???ng Columbia (FARC). ??? m???t kh??a c???nh kh??c, Chav??z c??? g???ng tham gia c??c t??? ch???c ??a ph????ng nh?? T??? ch???c Gi???i ph??p Bolivia cho Ch??u M??? (ALBA) c???a ??ng n??y ????? ch???ng l???i h???u thu???n c???a Washington ?????i v???i  Hi???p ?????nh Th????ng m???i T??? do li??n M??? (FTAA). Trong suy ngh?? c???a Chav??z, s??? ??????ng ?????u v???i c??c th??? l???c ????? qu???c l?? ??i???u kh??ng th??? tr??nh kh???i. Venezuela, nh?? trong l???i tuy??n th??? ng??y 27 th??ng 1 c???a ??ng ta, s??? kh??ng bao gi??? ???l?? thu???c ?????a c???a Hoa K?????? ho???c l?? con t???t cho c??c t??? ch???c t??i ch??nh qu???c t??? do c??c n?????c gi??u c?? ??i???u h??nh.

Lu???n ??i???u b???c l???a c???a Chav??z ???? ch???c gi???n c??c nh?? l??m ch??nh s??ch Hoa K???, nh???ng ng?????i th?????ng c??? b??? qua nh???ng ??i???u m?? h??? th???y l?? s??? khi??u kh??ch kh?? ch???u. Tuy nhi??n, s??? m?? t??? c???a Chav??z v??? h??? th???ng t?? b???n to??n c???u, v???n l??m l???i cho m???t s??? qu???c gia v?? h???n ch??? c??c qu???c gia kh??c, ???? nh???n ???????c s??? ???ng h??? ??? m???t s??? n??i thu???c T??y b??n c???u, ?????c bi???t l?? t??? nh???ng ng?????i ch???n c??ch ti???p c???n Marxist khi t??m hi???u v??? s??? ngh??o ????i tr??n th??? gi???i. B???t k??? quan ??i???m c???a ai ???? v??? ch??? ngh??a Chav??z (Chavismo) nh?? th??? n??o ??i n???a th?? ????y v???n l?? m???t l?? t?????ng ch??nh tr??? gi??p l??m n???i b???t s??? kh??c bi???t trong c??ch nhi???u ng?????i ??? c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n nh??n nh???n ch??nh tr??? th??? gi???i so v???i nh???ng ng?????i ??? c??c qu???c gia gi??u c?? v?? quy???n l???c h??n.

??? ch????ng tr?????c, ch??ng ta ???? xem x??t c??c qu???c gia h??ng m???nh nh???t trong h??? th???ng qu???c t???, nh???ng qu???c gia c?? kh??? n??ng kinh t??? v?? qu??n s??? th???ng tr??? b???t k??? qu???c gia n??o kh??c. Kinh nghi???m c???a Venezuela trong th???i k??? Chav??z l??m d???y l??n c??u h???i quan tr???ng v??? nh???ng qu???c gia kh??ng ph???i l?? c??c si??u c?????ng. Li???u c?? ph???i m???t qu???c gia ??t c???a c???i v?? s???c m???nh qu??n s??? th?? s??? ph???i ?????t t????ng lai c???a m??nh v??o tay c??c qu???c gia kh??c hay kh??ng? ??i???u g?? gi???i th??ch cho s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng c???a lo??i ng?????i? C?? th??? l??m ???????c g?? ????? thu h???p kho???ng c??ch gi???a c??c n?????c gi??u v?? c??c n?????c ngh??o tr??n th??? gi???i?

B???t b??nh ?????ng to??n c???u

Th??? gi???i ???????c chia th??nh hai b??n c???u: b??n c???u b???c v?? b??n c???u nam so v???i ???????ng x??ch ?????o. T???t nhi??n, ???????ng ph??n chia mang t??nh nh??n t???o n??y kh??ng c?? ?? ngh??a g?? tr??? khi ???????ng ranh gi???i n??y ???????c s??? d???ng cho nh???ng ng?????i l??m b???n ????? ????? ??o ?????c kho???ng c??ch v?? v??? tr?? tr??n b???n ?????. Tuy nhi??n, s??? ph??n chia n??y c??ng ????a l???i m???t c??ch th??ng th?????ng ????? mi??u t??? s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng v???n chia r??? c??c qu???c gia ngh??o v?? qu???c gia gi??u. Nh??n t???ng th???, hai nh??m qu???c gia n??y ??? hai ph??a b??n c???u (xem B???n ????? 5.1).

Cu???c s???ng c???a nhi???u ng?????i d??n ??? Ph????ng B???c r???t kh??c so v???i cu???c s???ng c???a ng?????i d??n ??? Ph????ng Nam. S??? b???t b??nh ?????ng c?? t??nh s??u s???c, v?? ??? nhi???u n??i c?? chi???u h?????ng t??ng l??n. S??? ph??n chia quy???n l???c v?? c???a c???i gi???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c[1] v?? c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam[2]l??md???yl??n v???n ????? v??? ?????o ?????c v?? an ninh. S??? ngh??o ????i v?? b???t b??nh ?????ng ???? t???n t???i trong t???t c??? giai ??o???n ???????c ghi nh???n c???a l???ch s???. Nh??ng ng??y nay m???c ????? [b???t b??nh ?????ng] ???? l??n m???c ch??a t???ng c??. C??c qu???c gia k??m ph??t tri???n ??? Ph????ng Nam th?????ng t??? nh???n th???y m??nh b??? g???t ra b??n l???, th???m ch?? th???y c??? b???n s???c c???a h??? n???m ??? v??? tr?? l??? thu???c trong h??? th???ng th??? b???c to??n c???u. M???c ????ch c???a ch????ng n??y l?? xem x??t ngu???n g???c v?? c??c h???u qu??? c???a s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng gi???a h??n 200 qu???c gia tr??n th??? gi???i. T???i sao c??c c?????ng qu???c l???i c?? s??? d?? d??? trong khi nhi???u qu???c gia kh??c l???i b??? k??m k???p trong ????i ngh??o? ??i???u g?? ???? nu??i d?????ng s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng?

Nhi???u nh?? ph??n t??ch b???t ?????u gi???i quy???t c??c c??u h???i n??y ??? c???p ????? ph??n t??ch h??? th???ng. H??? tin r???ng h??? th???ng g???m li??n qu???c gia c?? nh???ng ?????c t??nh c?? s???n b??n trong v???n g??p ph???n l??m cho c??c qu???c gia ngh??o kh??ng c?? kh??? n??ng thu h???p kho???ng c??ch ?????i v???i c??c n?????c gi??u. T??? quan ??i???m c???a h???, s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng hi???n t???i l?? m???t ph???n mang t??nh l???ch s???. ????? hi???u ???????c c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam ng??y nay, nh???ng nh?? ph??n t??ch n??y khuy???n ngh??? ch??ng ta n??n xem x??t nh???ng di s???n c???a ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n.[3]H???u h???t c??c qu???c gia ?????c l???p hi???n nay ??? Ph????ng Nam ???? t???ng l?? thu???c ?????a, t???ng b??? c??c qu???c gia h??ng m???nh h??n n?? d???ch.

Kinh nghi???m thu???c ?????a c???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam

Trong Chi???n tranh L???nh, thu???t ng??? Th??? gi???i th??? ba[4] ???????c s??? d???ng ????? ch??? c??c qu???c gia k??m ph??t tri???n v??? m???t kinh t??? v???n ???? t???ng c?? th???i l?? thu???c ?????a. C??c qu???c gia n??y ?????i l???p v???i c??i g???i l?? Th??? gi???i th??? nh???t,[5] bao g???m c??c qu???c gia c??ng nghi???p ??? T??y ??u, B???c M??? v?? Nh???t B???n; v?? Th??? gi???i th??? hai,[6] bao g???m Li??n X?? v?? c??c n?????c ?????ng minh. Ng??y nay, c??c qu???c gia c???ng s???n h??nh th??nh l??n Th??? gi???i th??? hai h???u nh?? kh??ng t???n t???i, khi???n cho thu???t ng??? Th??? gi???i th??? ba c??ng tr??? l??n l???i th???i. Ng??y nay, thu???t ng??? C??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c (c??c qu???c gia gi??u c?? tr?????c ????y ???????c g???i l?? Th??? gi???i th??? nh???t) v?? c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam (c??c qu???c gia k??m ph??t tri???n ??? d???c x??ch ?????o v?? Nam B??n c???u) tr??? n??n th??ng d???ng.

M???c d?? c??c ph??ng vi??n, nh?? ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch v?? c??c h???c gi??? th?????ng xuy??n ?????ng nh???t h??a thu???t ng??? Ph????ng Nam, nh??ng v???n c?? s??? ??a d???ng t????ng ?????i trong nh??m c??c qu???c gia n??y. V?? d???, c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam g???m c??? c??c qu???c gia thu nh???p th???p nh?? Ghana v?? Haiti, n??i ph???n ????ng d??n s??? lao ?????ng c??? ?????nh trong ng??nh n??ng nghi???p; c??c qu???c gia thu nh???p trung b??nh nh?? Brazil v?? Malaysia, l?? nh???ng qu???c gia s???n xu???t h??ng qua ch??? bi???n; v?? m???t s??? ??t qu???c gia nh?? Kuwait v?? Qatar, n??i xu???t kh???u d???u m??? t???o ra m???c thu nh???p t????ng ??????ng v???i c??c qu???c gia Ph????ng B???c.

C??c qu???c gia Ph????ng Nam c??ng ??a d???ng theo nhi???u ngh??a kh??c. Ch???ng h???n nh?? Indonesia, m???t qu???n ?????o g???m h??n 17.000 h??n ?????o r???i r??c tr??n m???t v??ng bi???n c?? di???n t??ch l???n h??n Hoa K??? v?? Burundi, m???t qu???c gia kh??ng c?? bi???n c?? di???n t??ch nh??? h??n bang Maryland. V?? [c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam] c??ng bao g???m Nigeria, v???i 150 tri???u d??n, v?? Belize, v???i d??n s??? d?????i 300.000 ng?????i. B??n c???nh s??? kh??c bi???t v??? ?????a l?? v?? d??n s???, c??c qu???c gia Ph????ng Nam c??ng ??a d???ng v??? ch??nh tr??? v?? v??n h??a, t??? c??c qu???c gia d??n ch??? nh?? Costa Rica t???i c??c qu???c gia ?????c t??i nh?? Myanmar.

B???t ch???p s??? ??a d???ng n??y, ph???n l???n c??c qu???c gia Ph????ng Nam ??? Ch??u Phi, Ch??u ?? v?? Ch??u M??? Latinh chia s??? m???t s??? v???n ????? chung v???n cho ph??p ch??ng ta ph??n bi???t c??c n?????c n??y v???i c??c qu???c gia Ph????ng B???c. M???c d?? c??c qu???c gia Ph????ng Nam l?? n??i sinh s???ng c???a tr??n 85% d??n s??? th??? gi???i, nh??ng c??c qu???c gia n??y chi???m d?????i 20% c???a c???i c???a to??n th??? gi???i. Nh???ng qu???c gia n??y c?? ?????c tr??ng l?? n??ng su???t th???p, t??? l??? t??ng d??n s??? cao v?? c?? s??? ch??nh l???ch v??? ph??n ph???i thu nh???p v???i ph???n l???n d??n s??? ch???u c???nh ????i ngh??o, m?? ch??? v?? b???nh t???t. Th???c t???, ba ng?????i gi??u nh???t th??? gi???i ??? Bill Gates, ng?????i ?????ng s??ng l???p ra Microsoft, nh?? ?????u t?? Warren Buffet v?? th????ng nh??n ng?????i Mexico Carlos Slim Hel?? ??? ??ang s??? h???u nhi???u c???a c???i h??n 48 qu???c gia ngh??o nh???t th??? gi???i c???ng l???i (xem b???n ????? 5.2).

S??? tr???i d???y c???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam v???i t?? c??ch l?? m???t nh??m c??c qu???c gia c?? th??? nh???n d???ng ???????c l?? m???t hi???n t?????ng m???i x???y ra. M???c d?? ph???n l???n c??c qu???c gia Ch??u M??? Latinh gi??nh ???????c ?????c l???p tr?????c Chi???n tranh th??? gi???i l???n th??? hai, nh??ng h???u h???t c??c qu???c gia Ph????ng Nam ch??? gi??nh ???????c ?????c l???p sau ????. N??m 1947, Anh trao tr??? ?????c l???p cho ??n ????? v?? Pakistan v?? sau ???? l??n s??ng phi th???c d??n h??a[7] ??? phong tr??o gi??nh ?????c l???p cho ng?????i d??n c???a c??c n?????c thu???c ?????a ??? b???t ?????u t??ng t???c. K??? t??? ????, nhi???u qu???c gia ?????c l???p ???? tham gia c???ng ?????ng th??? gi???i, g???n nh?? to??n b??? l?? c??c qu???c gia thu???c c??c ????? ch??? Anh, T??y Ban Nha, B??? ????o Nha, H?? Lan v?? Ph??p v???n ???????c x??y d???ng d?????i th???i k??? ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n 400 n??m tr?????c.

Ng??y nay, qu?? tr??nh x??a b??? thu???c ?????a h???u nh?? ???? ho??n t???t. Tuy nhi??n, t??c ?????ng v???n c??n. Nhi???u xung ?????t s???c t???c hi???n nay v???n ph??? bi???n ??? c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam ???? t???ng l?? thu???c ?????a khi c??c l???c l?????ng ????? qu???c v???ch ???????ng bi??n gi???i v???i r???t ??t s??? t??n tr???ng ?????i v???i b???n s???c c???a ng?????i d??n b???n ?????a. Th??m n???a, vi???c c??c qu???c gia Ph????ng Nam th?????ng ?????i m???t v???i n???n ngh??o ????i l?? m???t ph???n s???n ph???m c???a qu???c gia th???c d??n trong qu?? kh??? khi m?? c??c qu???c gia n??y b??? b??c l???t b???i c??c c?????ng qu???c Ch??u ??u. V???i nh???ng t??c ?????ng c???a ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n, ch??ng ta h??y xem x??t qua li???u ??i???u n??y ???? ph??t tri???n nh?? th??? n??o qua su???t s??u th??? k???.

L??n s??ng th??? nh???t c???a ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c Ch??u ??u

L??n s??ng th??? nh???t c???a ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c Ch??u ??u b???t ?????u v??o cu???i th??? k??? 15, khi H?? Lan, Anh, Ph??p, B??? ????o Nha v?? T??y Ban Nha s??? d???ng s???c m???nh qu??n s??? ????? chinh ph???c c??c v??ng ?????t v?? l???i ??ch th????ng m???i. Khi nh???ng ph??t ki???n khoa h???c gi??p cho c??c chuy???n ??i c???a c??c nh?? th??m hi???m Ch??u ??u tr??? n??n d??? d??ng, c??c th????ng gia theo sau, ???nhanh ch??ng n???m b???t c??c c?? h???i ????? t??ng ho???t ?????ng kinh doanh v?? l???i nhu???n. ?????i l???i, c??c ch??nh ph??? Ch??u ??u nh???n ???????c c?? h???i t??ng quy???n l???c v?? c???a c???i. C??c c??ng ty th????ng m???i ???????c th??nh l???p v?? c???p v???n v???i h??ng ??o??n qu??n ?????i v?? h???i qu??n ???????c g???i theo sau ????? ?????m b???o vi???c ki???m so??t ch??nh tr??? ??? l??nh th??? n?????c ngo??i??? (B.Cohen 1973).

Chi???n l?????c kinh t??? n???m sau m???i quan h??? gi???a c??c thu???c ?????a v?? qu???c gia th???c d??n trong th???i k??? n??y ???????c g???i l?? ch??? ngh??a tr???ng th????ng[8]: m???t quan ??i???m kinh t??? ???ng h??? s??? can thi???p c???a ch??nh ph??? v??o ?????i s???ng kinh t??? ????? t??ng quy???n l???c v?? an ninh c???a qu???c gia. Nh???ng ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a tr???ng th????ng th???i k??? ?????u cho r???ng thu ???????c nhi???u v??ng v?? b???c l??m t??ng s???c m???nh. Nh???ng ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a tr???ng th????ng giai ??o???n sau chuy???n d???ch tr???ng t??m sang vi???c x??y d???ng c??c n???n kinh t??? t??? cung t??? c???p v?? h??ng m???nh b???ng vi???c s??? d???ng c??c s???c l???nh ho??ng gia ????? b???t ?????u nh???ng ng??nh c??ng nghi???p m???i, tr??? c???p cho c??c doanh nghi???p c?? t???m chi???n l?????c, b???o v??? nh?? s???n xu???t trong n?????c kh???i s??? c???nh tranh t??? n?????c ngo??i th??ng qua h??ng r??o thu??? quan, v?? duy tr?? c??n c??n th????ng m???i ???c?? l???i??? nh??? vi???c t??ng xu???t kh???u v?? h???n ch??? nh???p kh???u.

????? t???i ??a h??a s???c m???nh v?? c???a c???i c???a qu???c gia, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Ch??u ??u nh???n th???y vi???c chinh ph???c n?????c ngo??i l?? m???t s???n ph???m t??? nhi??n c???a qu?? tr??nh qu???n l?? c???a ch??nh ph??? ?????i v???i n???n kinh t???. Ngo??i vi???c ????a l???i kim lo???i qu?? v?? nguy??n li???u, c??c thu???c ?????a l?? th??? tr?????ng ch??a khai ph??, kh??ng b??? c???nh tranh b???i c??c c?????ng qu???c kh??c. B???ng vi???c b??n c??c th??nh ph???m cho c??c thu???c ?????a d?????i ??i???u ki???n ?????c quy???n, c??c qu???c gia th???c d??n c?? th??? l??m t??ng c??ng ??n vi???c l??m trong n?????c v?? gi??? s??? l???i nhu???n t??? vi???c b??n s???n ph???m n??y ??? t???i n?????c nh??.

Cu???i th??? k??? 18, c??c c?????ng qu???c ??? Ch??u ??u ???? lan r???ng, d?? l???c l?????ng c??n m???ng, ra kh???p tr??n to??n th??? gi???i, nh??ng c??c ????? ch??? thu???c ?????a m?? h??? ???? x??y d???ng b???t ?????u tan r??. M?????i ba thu???c ?????a c???a Anh ??? B???c M??? ???? tuy??n b??? ?????c l???p v??o n??m 1776 v?? h???u h???t c??c thu???c ?????a c???a T??y Ban Nha ??? Nam M??? gi??nh ???????c ?????c l???p v??o ?????u th??? k??? 19. G???n 100 m???i quan h??? thu???c ?????a tr??n to??n th??? gi???i ???? ch???m d???t sau n???a th??? k??? k???t th??c v??o n??m 1825 (Bergesen v?? Schoenberg, 1980).

Khi l??n s??ng th??? nh???t c???a qu?? tr??nh thu???c ?????a h??a suy y???u, ni???m tin v??o tri???t l?? c???a nh???ng ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a tr???ng th????ng c??ng gi???m xu???ng. N??m 1776, nh?? kinh t??? ch??nh tr??? h???c ng?????i Scotland Adam Smith xu???t b???n cu???n s??ch ???C???a c???i c???a c??c d??n t???c???, m???t s??? ch??? tr??ch m???nh m??? ?????i v???i ch??? ngh??a tr???ng th????ng v?? theo ???? k??u g???i t??? do th????ng m???i. Trong khi Smith cho r???ng c??c qu???c gia n??n tham gia v??o vi???c b???o v??? m??nh tr?????c s??? t???n c??ng c???a n?????c ngo??i, c???ng c??? quy???n s??? h???u t??i s???n, duy tr?? h???p ?????ng, v?? nh???ng th??? t????ng t??? kh??c, Smith ph??? nh???n r???ng ??i???u n??y c?? th??? hi???u qu??? ho???c s??ng t???o h??n m???t th??? tr?????ng kh??ng b??? qu???n l??. L???p lu???n c???a ??ng ???? ?????t n???n m??ng t?? t?????ng cho kinh t??? h???c th??? tr?????ng t??? do.[9]T??? ????, c??c c?????ng qu???c ??? Ch??u ??u ti???p t???c t??m ki???m c??c thu???c ?????a nh??ng c?? s??? cho ch??nh s??ch thu???c ?????a c???a h??? b???t ?????u thay ?????i.

L??n s??ng th??? hai c???a ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c Ch??u ??u

B???t ?????u v??o n??m 1870 v?? cho t???i Chi???n tranh th??? gi???i l???n th??? nh???t, m???t l??n s??ng c???a ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n qu??t qua to??n th??? gi???i khi Ch??u ??u, sau ???? l?? Hoa K??? v?? Nh???t B???n, m???nh m??? th???c hi???n qu?? tr??nh x??m chi???m thu???c ?????a m???i. T??? l??? m?? c??c n?????c Ch??u ??u ki???m so??t l?? 1/3 to??n c???u (Fieldhouse 1973, trang 3). Nh?? minh h???a trong h??nh 5.3, trong hai m????i n??m cu???i c??ng c???a th??? k??? 19, Ch??u Phi r??i v??o tay c???a b???y c?????ng qu???c Ch??u ??u (B???, Anh, ?????c, Ph??p, Italy, B??? ????o Nh?? v?? T??y Ban Nha) v?? trong s??? t???t c??? c??c n?????c ??? Vi???n ????ng v?? Th??i B??nh D????ng, ch??? c?? Trung Qu???c, Nh???t B???n v?? Siam (Th??i Lan) l?? kh??ng b??? th???ng tr???. Tuy nhi??n, Trung Qu???c b??? chia c???t th??nh nh???ng khu v???c ???nh h?????ng[10]c???a c??c c?????ng qu???c n?????c ngo??i, v?? Nh???t chi???m ????ng H??n Qu???c v?? Formosa (????i Loan). ??? c??c n??i kh??c, Hoa K??? chi???m ????ng Puerto Rico v?? Philippines sau cu???c chi???n tranh T??y Ban Nha ??? Hoa K??? n??m 1898, m??? r???ng thu???c ?????a t???i t???n Hawaii, ???????c thu?? ???v??nh vi???n??? khu v???c k??nh ????o Panama t??? qu???c gia m???i l?? Panama (do Hoa K??? d???ng n??n) v?? th???c thi quy???n ki???m so??t ????ng k??? v???i m???t v??i qu???c ?????o Caribbe, trong ???? ????ng ch?? ?? l?? Cuba. C?????ng qu???c thu???c ?????a Anh ch??? trong m???t th??? h??? ???? tr???i r???ng ????? ch??? t???i 1/5 di???n t??ch tr??i ?????t. V?? th??? th???c d??n Anh ???? t??? h??o tuy??n b??? r???ng h??? l?? ????? ch??? n??i m?? m???t tr???i kh??ng bao gi??? l???n.

Nh??ng t???i sao ph???n l???n c??c c?????ng qu???c n??y ??? v?? c??? nh???ng qu???c gia mong m???i tr??? th??nh c??c c?????ng qu???c ??? tham gia v??o nh???ng cu???c c???nh tranh t???n k??m v?? th?????ng l?? lu???n qu???n ????? ki???m so??t l??nh th??? v?? ng?????i d??n n?????c kh??c? ??i???u g?? gi???i th??ch l??n s??ng th??? hai c???a ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c? C??u tr??? l???i c?? ngu???n g???c v??? m???t kinh t??? v?? ch??nh tr???.

Gi???i th??ch v??? m???t kinh t??? c???a l??n s??ng ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c l???n th??? hai. V???i cu???c c??ch m???ng c??ng nghi???p, ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n ???? tr?????ng th??nh, nh???n m???nh v??o th??? tr?????ng t??? do, quy???n s??? h???u t?? nh??n v???i ph????ng ti???n s???n xu???t, v?? t??ch l??y c???a c???i. Nh???ng nh?? l?? thuy???t theo quan ??i???m c???a Karl Marx, nh??n nh???n ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c l?? k???t qu??? c???a s??? c???nh tranh gi???a nh???ng nh?? t?? b???n ????? gi??nh n??i ?????u t?? t?? b???n th???ng d?? c???a h??? ra n?????c ngo??i. M???t trong c??c nh?? l?? thuy???t n??y l?? nh?? l??nh ?????o Soviet Vladimir Lenin. Trong chuy??n kh???o n???i ti???ng n??m 1916 Ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n, giai ??o???n t???t c??ng c???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, Lenin ???? l???p lu???n r???ng s??? m??? r???ng qu??n s??? ??? n?????c ngo??i l?? do ???giai ??o???n ?????c quy???n c???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n??? t???o ra. Lenin k???t lu???n r???ng con ???????ng duy nh???t ????? ch???m d???t ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n l?? x??a b??? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n. M???t kh??c, c??c nh?? kinh t??? theo t?? t?????ng t??? do kh??ng coi ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n l?? s???n ph???m c???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n m?? coi ???? l?? k???t qu??? c???a qu?? tr??nh ??i???u ch???nh sai trong h??? th???ng t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a v???n c?? th??? s???a ch???a ???????c. M???t ??i???u m?? c??? hai t?? t?????ng n??y ?????u chia s??? l?? ni???m tin r???ng kinh t??? h???c c?? th??? gi???i th??ch l??n s??ng m???i c???a ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n ???V???n ????? c?? b???n l?? gi??? ?????nh v??? nhu c???u nguy??n li???u c???a c??c n?????c t?? b???n ph??t tri???n ??? nhu c???u ?????i v???i nguy??n li???u th?? gi?? r??? ????? cung c???p ?????u v??o cho c??c t??? h???p c??ng nghi???p ??ang ph??t tri???n, nhu c???u mu???n c?? th??? tr?????ng ????? ti??u th??? m???c s???n xu???t t??ng cao, v?? nhu c???u c?? n??i ?????u t?? b??n ngo??i ????? h???p th??? m???c ????? t??ch t??? t?? b???n gia t??ng??? (Cohen, 1973). Do ????, t??? quan ??i???m c???a ch??? ngh??a Marx v?? c??c quan ??i???m t??? do c??? ??i???n, nhu c???u v???t ch???t c???a c??c x?? h???i t?? b???n gi???i th??ch ?????ng l???c [x??m chi???m] thu???c ?????a.

Gi???i th??ch v??? m???t ch??nh tr??? c???a l??n s??ng ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c l???n th??? hai: Kh??ng ph???i t???t c??? m???i ng?????i ?????u ?????ng ?? r???ng ?????ng c?? kinh t??? n???m sau l??n s??ng th??? hai c???a vi???c m??? r???ng ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c. Ng?????i ta c??ng x??c ?????nh c??c nh??n t??? ch??nh tr???. V?? d???, trong cu???n s??ch c?? t???m ???nh h?????ng c???a m??nh v??o n??m 1902, Ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n, J.A. Hobson l???p lu???n r???ng cu???c ch???y ??ua v??? quy???n l???c v?? danh ti???ng gi???a c??c ????? ch??? c???nh tranh nhau lu??n l?? ?????c tr??ng cho h??nh vi c???a c??c c?????ng qu???c ??? Ch??u ??u trong m???t h??? th???ng c??n b???ng quy???n l???c, v?? r???ng ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c th??ng qua b??nh tr?????ng ??? n?????c ngo??i ????n gi???n l?? s??? m??? r???ng ra quy m?? to??n c???u c???a cu???c c???nh tranh gi??nh quy???n th???ng tr??? ??? ch??u ??u.

Quy???n t??? quy???t v?? s??? x??a b??? thu???c ?????a

Cho d?? l?? do n???m sau l??n s??ng th??? hai c???a ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c l?? g?? ??i n???a, c??ng lu???n th??? gi???i ???? b?????c sang h?????ng ch???ng ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n khi H??a ?????c Versailles k???t th??c chi???n tranh th??? gi???i ????a v??o nguy??n t???c quy???n t??? quy???t c???a c??c d??n t???c ???????c ???ng h??? b???i T???ng th???ng M??? Woodrow Wilson. Quy???n t??? quy???t c?? ngh??a l?? m???i d??n t???c ph???i c?? quy???n quy???t ?????nh c?? quan ?????i di???n v?? cai tr??? h???. Wilson v?? nh???ng ng?????i kh??c v???n chia s??? quan ??i???m theo ch??? ngh??a t??? do tin r???ng quy???n t??? do l???a ch???n s??? d???n t???i vi???c h??nh th??nh c??c qu???c gia v?? ch??nh ph??? h??i l??ng v???i c??c bi??n gi???i l??nh th??? c???a m??nh, do ???? s??? ??t x???y ra chi???n tranh h??n. Tuy nhi??n, trong th???c t??? n??? l???c v??? l???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i ????? ph??n t??ch c??c qu???c gia ch??? ???????c ??p d???ng ??? Ch??u ??u [n??i] b??? chi???n tranh t??n ph??, trong ???? c?? 6 qu???c gia ???????c th??nh l???p t??? ????? ch??? ??o ??? Hung (??o, Ti???p Kh???c, Hungary, Ba Lan, Rumani v?? n?????c Nam T?? b??? chia r??? s???c t???c). M???t v??i ??i???u ch???nh l??nh th??? ???????c th???c hi???n ??? Ch??u ??u, nh??ng nguy??n t???c t??? quy???t m?? ????ng l??? ph???i ???????c ph??? bi???n ra ngo??i ph???m vi Ch??u ??u l???i kh??ng nh???n ???????c s??? ???ng h??? ????ng k???.

Nh??ng l??nh th??? c???a c??c c?????ng qu???c b??? ????nh b???i trong Chi???n tranh th??? gi???i l???n th??? nh???t l???i kh??ng ???????c chia ?????u cho c??c n?????c ?????ng minh chi???n th???ng nh?? ???? t???ng di???n ra tr?????c ????y. Thay v??o ???? nh???ng v??ng l??nh th??? t???ng b??? ?????c v?? ????? ch??? Ottoman ki???m so??t ???? ???????c H???i Qu???c Li??n chuy???n cho c??c qu???c gia v???n s??? cai qu???n c??c v??ng ?????t n??y v???i t?? c??ch ???ng?????i ???????c ???y th??c??? [trong khi] ch??? quy???n t??? cai tr??? c???a nh???ng v??ng l??nh th??? n??y. Nguy??n t???c n???m sau h??? th???ng ???y th??c n??y l?? c??c thu???c ?????a l?? s??? t??n th??c (t???c t??i s???n ???????c gi??? h??? ??? NBT), ch??? kh??ng ph???i l?? ?????i t?????ng ????? b??? b??c l???t.??i???u n??y t???o ra ti???n l??? quan tr???ng cho ????m ph??n sau Chi???n tranh th??? gi???i l???n th??? hai khi m?? l??nh th??? c???a c??c n?????c b???i tr???n ???????c ?????t d?????i s??? ???y th??c c???a Li??n H???p Qu???c kh??ng b??? c??c qu???c gia kh??c gi??nh l???y, thay v??o ???? ???????c h???a s??? ???????c t??? tr???, qua ???? s??? ???ng h??? cho quy???n t??? quy???t gi??nh l???i ?????ng l???c. Qu?? tr??nh phi th???c d??n h??a t??ng t???c v??o n??m 1947 khi Anh trao quy???n ki???m so??t ch??nh tr??? cho ???n ????? v?? Pakistan. Chi???n tranh r???t cu???c n??? ra gi???a hai n?????c v???a gi??nh ?????c l???p n??y khi c??? hai ?????u t??m c??ch ki???m so??t v??ng ?????t tranh ch???p Kashmir. B???o l???c c??ng n??? ra ??? ????ng D????ng v?? Algeria v??o nh???ng n??m 1950 v?? ?????u th???p ni??n 1960 khi Ph??p ????i gi??nh l???i quy???n ki???m so??t ?????i v???i v??ng l??nh th??? m?? h??? ???? t???ng n???m gi??? tr?????c chi???n tranh th??? gi???i th??? hai. T????ng t??? v???y, m??u ???? ????? ngay sau khi Congo ???????c ng?????i B??? trao tr??? ?????c l???p v??o n??m 1960 v?? theo sau ???? l?? nh???ng n??? l???c kh??ng th??nh c??ng c???a ng?????i B??? ????o Nha ????? ch???ng l???i ng???n gi?? c???a phong tr??o x??a b??? ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n m?? ???? qu??t kh???p Ch??u Phi khi b???t ?????u th???p ni??n 1960.

V???i vi???c ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n lui b?????c, n??m 1960, c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam ???? t???n d???ng vi???c gia t??ng s??? l?????ng t???i ?????i h???i ?????ng Li??n H???p Qu???c ????? ?????m b???o vi???c th??ng qua tuy??n b??? l???ch s??? v??? trao tr??? ?????c l???p cho c??c qu???c gia v?? d??n t???c thu???c ?????a. ????????i h???i ?????ng Li??n H???p Qu???c kh???ng ?????nh r???ng vi???c bu???c b???t k??? d??n t???c n??o ph???i ch???u s??? th???ng tr??? c???a n?????c kh??c l?? m???t s??? ch???i b??? quy???n c?? b???n c???a con ng?????i, tr??i v???i Hi???n ch????ng Li??n H???p Qu???c, l?? m???t s??? c???n tr??? ?????i v???i h??a b??nh th??? gi???i, v?? t???t c??? m???i d??n t???c thu???c ?????a ?????u c?? quy???n ???????c h?????ng ?????c l???p ho??n to??n v?? ngay l???p t???c. Kh??ng m???t qu???c gia n??o b??? phi???u ch???ng l???i b???n tuy??n b??? ch???ng ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n???. ????y l?? chi???n th???ng v??? m???t l?? t?????ng??? (Riggs v?? Plano 1994).

Khi h??? th???ng tr???t t??? c?? b??? s???p ????? v?? khi c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a c??c qu???c gia m???i ???????c gi???i ph??ng ph??t hi???n ra r???ng quy???n ?????c l???p kh??ng t??? ?????ng chuy???n th??nh quy???n t??? ch??? v?? ?????c l???p v??? m???t kinh t??? v?? s??? gi??u c?? trong n?????c ??? s??? xung ?????t gi???a c??c n?????c gi??u ??? Ph????ng B???c v?? c??c n?????c m???i n???i ??? Ph????ng Nam b???t ?????u.

Ph????ng B???c v?? Ph????ng Nam ng??y nay: Hai th??? gi???i kh??c bi???t

C??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam ng??y nay ????i khi ???????c m?? t??? l?? ???khu v???c h???n lo???n??? ch??? y???u l?? v??, ?????i l???p v???i c??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c d??n ch??? v?? h??a b??nh, nhi???u ng?????i d??n c???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam ?????i m???t v???i ngh??o ????i, chi???n tranh v?? s??? ?????c t??i (Collier 2005). M???c d?? d??n ch??? ???? tr???i r???ng t???i c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam k??? t??? th???p ni??n 1980, cam k???t c???a m???t s??? ch??nh ph??? ?????i v???i tuy???n c??? ph??? th??ng v?? quy???n con ng?????i v???n kh?? mong manh (Gershman 2005). Nhi???u qu???c gia Ph????ng Nam thi???u th??? tr?????ng trong n?????c ph??t tri???n d???a v??o tinh th???n kinh doanh v?? c??ng ty t?? nh??n. S??? kh??c nhau v??? n??ng l???c c??ng ngh??? c??ng chia c???t c??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c v?? Ph????ng Nam. ??i???n h??nh l?? c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam kh??ng c?? kh??? n??ng t???o ra c??ng ngh??? c???a ri??ng m??nh ph?? h???p v???i ngu???n l???c c???a h??? v?? ph???i ph??? thu???c v??o c??c c??ng ty ??a qu???c gia[11] Ph????ng B???c trong vi???c chuy???n giao b?? quy???t. ??i???u n??y c?? ngh??a l?? chi ph?? nghi??n c???u v?? ph??t tri???n ???????c h?????ng v??o c??c gi???i ph??p cho c??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c, v???i nh???ng ti???n b??? c??ng ngh??? hi???m khi ????p ???ng nhu c???u c???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam. V?? trong th???i ?????i c??ng ngh??? th??ng tin, c??ng ngh??? kh??ng ???????c ph??n b??? ?????u v??? m???t ?????a l??: N??i c?? m???t ????? t???p trung cao v??? s??? m??y t??nh k???t n???i Internet l?? ??? c??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c.

Th???c t??? 85% d??n s??? th??? gi???i ngh??o ????i ph???n ???nh s??? ph??n b??? kh??ng ?????ng ?????u c???a ngu???n l???c. Nh?? trong b???ng 5.1, s??? li???u v??? s??? ph??n chia gi???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c v?? Ph????ng Nam cho th???y s??? ch??nh l???ch v?? b???t b??nh ?????ng s??u s???c. B???c tranh n??y c??n ???m ?????m h??n khi tr???ng t??m chuy???n v??o m???c s???ng c???a nh???ng ng?????i ngh??o nh???t ??? c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n c?? thu nh???p th???p. Theo c??c ti??u ch?? ???????c H???i ?????ng Kinh t??? v?? X?? h???i c???a Li??n Hi???p Qu???c s??? d???ng, 53 qu???c gia hi???n l?? c??c qu???c gia k??m ph??t tri???n nh???t (LDCs) thu???c Ph????ng Nam. C??c qu???c gia n??y c?? t???ng m???c thu nh???p qu???c d??n r??ng (GNI) d?????i m???c 590 USD m???t n??m v?? th?????ng xuy??n ph??? thu???c v??o vi???c h??ng ?????i h??ngtrong nhi???u trao ?????i kinh t???. Nh???ng qu???c gia n??y kh??ng ph???i l?? ng?????i tham gia ????ng k??? v??o th??? tr?????ng to??n c???u. Kim ng???ch xu???t kh???u h??ng ch??? y???u d???a v??o s???n ph???m s?? c???p gi?? r???, bao g???m th???c ph???m (cocoa, c?? ph?? v?? ch??), kho??ng s???n, da s???ng v?? g???. B???i v?? c??c qu???c gia n??y ti??u th??? h???u h???t c??c s???n ph???m m?? h??? s???n xu???t, c??c n???n kinh t??? n??y ??i???n h??nh l?? c??c n???n kinh t??? t??? cung t??? c???p. Tri???n v???ng thay ?????i c??ng r???t m??? nh???t v?? ph???n l???n c??c qu???c gia n??y b??? ?????u t?? n?????c ngo??i v?? c??c nh?? t??i tr??? n?????c ngo??i b??? qua (WDR 2008, 335; WDI 2007).

T???c ????? t??ng d??n s??? cao ???? l??m ph???c t???p th??m v???n ????? m?? c??c n?????c k??m ph??t tri???n nh???t ?????i m???t. Ch??? m???t 25 n??m ????? d??n s??? ??? c??c qu???c gia k??m ph??t tri???n nh???t t??ng g???p ????i so v???i [th???i gian] hai th??? k??? r?????i c???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c. T???c ????? t??ng tr?????ng kinh t??? c???a c??c n?????c k??m ph??t tri???n nh???t trong th???i gian g???n ????y ?????t m???c b??nh qu??n d?????i 0,1% m???i n??m. T???c ????? t??ng tr?????ng ??? nh???ng n??i kh??c ?????u ?????t m???c cao h??n. ????y l?? m???t l?? do r?? r??ng cho th???y t???i sao m???t thi???u s??? c??c n?????c gi??u tr??? n??n gi??u c?? h??n trong khi c??c n?????c ngh??o nh???t trong s??? c??c n?????c ngh??o ng??y c??ng ngh??o h??n.

B???ng 5.1. Hai th??? gi???i c???a s??? ph??t tri???n: S??? ph??n chia tr??n th??? gi???i

Ti??u ch??/Ch??? ti??u C??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n Ph????ng Nam C??c n?????c ph??t tri???n Ph????ng B???c
S??? qu???c gia 152 56
D??n s??? (tri???u ng?????i) 5.489 1.029
Di???n t??ch (ngh??n km2) 99.346 34.595
GNI (t??? ???? la) 10.978 USD 37.529 USD
T???ng thu nh???p r??ng b??nh qu??n ?????u ng?????i 2.000 USD 36.487 USD
T???ng ?????u t?? tr???c ti???p n?????c ngo??i r??ng (tri???u USD) 280.795 USD 693.488 USD
Nh???p kh???u (t??? USD) 2.869 7.816
Xu???t kh???u (t??? USD) 3.057 7.377
Ph??? n??? trong c??c v??? tr?? ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch (%) 16% 24%
T??? l??? h???c sinh/gi??o vi??n ti???u h???c 31 16
Tu???i th??? trung b??nh l??c sinh 64 76
T??? l??? d??n s??? s???ng ??? th??nh ph??? 44% 78%
Ti???p c???n v??? sinh n??ng cao (% d??n s???) 52% 100%
S??? ph????ng ti???n c?? gi???i tr??n 1.000 d??n 47 636
S??? m??y t??nh c?? nh??n tr??n 10.000 d??n 113 759
S??? ng?????i d??ng Internet tr??n 1.000 d??n 84 527
S??? h??? gia ????nh c?? ti vi 48% 97%
S??? b??o h??ng ng??y tr??n 1.000 d??n 49 263
Ti??u th??? ??i???n b??nh qu??n m???i ng?????i (Kwh) 1.243 9.609

N??i m?? con ng?????i s???ng c?? t??c ?????ng t???i c??ch h??? s???ng th??? n??o. T??? th??ng tin ??? tr??n, ch???t l?????ng cu???c s???ng ??? c??c n?????c ph??t tri???n Ph????ng B???c h??n ch???t l?????ng s???ng ??? c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam. Ng??n h??ng th??? gi???i d??? b??o r???ng s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng gi???a n?????c gi??u v?? n?????c ngh??o s??? t??ng ????ng k??? t???i n??m 2050.

Ngu???n: WDR (2008), WDI (2007)

V??? tr?? ?????a l?? c??ng c???n tr??? s??? ph??t tri???n kinh t??? c???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam. C??c qu???c gia ??ang ph??t tri???n kh??ng c?? bi???n m?? thi???u h??? th???ng s??ng ng??i c?? th??? v???n chuy???n ho???c h??? th???ng ???????ng s???t v?? ???????ng b??? c?? hi???u qu??? s??? r???t b???t l???i do chi ph?? m?? c??c qu???c gia n??y ph???i ?????i m???t khi ti???p c???n th??? tr?????ng th??? gi???i. ???Nh???ng qu???c gia kh??ng c?? bi???n trung b??nh ph???i tr??? cao h??n 50% m???c trung b??nh m?? c??c qu???c gia ven bi???n ph???i tr?????? Ricardo Hausman (2001, trang 47), c???u kinh t??? tr?????ng c???a Ng??n h??ng Li??n M??? ch??? ra. M???t s??? qu???c gia ??ang ph??t tri???n l?? c??c ?????o nh??? c??ng ph???i ch???u chi ph?? v???n chuy???n cao, ch??? y???u l?? do kho???ng c??ch xa x??i v???i c??c th??? tr?????ng to??n c???u. H??n n???a, nh???ng qu???c gia kh??ng c?? bi???n v?? c??c ?????o qu???c nh??? th?????ng ??? khu v???c nhi???t ?????i, n???n kinh t??? c???a c??c qu???c gia n??y b??? t??n ph?? b???i b???nh d???ch ch???ng h???n nh?? s???t r??t. Theo th???ng k?? m???i ????y ?????c t??nh, khi c??c nh??n t??? kh??c kh??ng ?????i, t???c ????? t??ng tr?????ng thu nh???p b??nh qu??n ?????u ng?????i c???a n?????c b??? b???nh s???t r??t th?????ng th???p h??n 1% so v???i thu nh???p c???a c??c n?????c kh??ng c?? b???nh s???t r??t (Sachs, 2002).

?????i v???i nhi???u ng?????i d??n Ph????ng Nam, t????ng lai th???t ???m ?????m. M???u h??nh chung n???m sau khuynh h?????ng to??n c???u trong su???t 20 n??m qua cho th???y tr??n 60 qu???c gia hi???n nay ngh??o h??n so v???i tr?????c ????y v?? t???t h???u xa h??n so v???i m???c ?????t ???????c c???a c??c qu???c gia Ph????ng B???c. T??nh hu???ng bi ????t n??y l??m d???y l??n c??u h???i l?? thuy???t: t???i sao nhi???u n?????c Ph????ng Nam r??i v??o t??nh tr???ng ngh??o kh????

T???i sao s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng gi???a Ph????ng Nam v?? Ph????ng B???c k??o d??i?

T???i sao c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam b??? b??? l???i xa h??n so v???i c??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c x??t v??? m???c ph??c l???i v?? ph??t tri???n[12] t????ng ?????i? V?? t???i sao, nh?? trong b???ng 5.2. cho th???y, kinh nghi???m ph??t tri???n ngay c??? gi???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam c??ng kh??c nhau? V?? d???, m???t th??? h??? tr?????c ????y, t???ng s???n ph???m qu???c n???i b??nh qu??n ?????u ng?????i c???a Nigeria (GNP) cao h??n Th??i Lan, Malaysia v?? Indonesia. Tuy nhi??n, t???i th???p ni??n 1990, Nigeria t???t l???i ph??a sau so v???i c??c n?????c Ch??u ?? n??y. Nh??ng tr?????ng h???p c???a Nigeria c??ng kh??ng ph???i l?? b???t b??nh th?????ng. C???a c???i c???a m???t s??? n?????c Ch??u Phi kh??c c??ng gi???m r???t m???nh khi h???t th??? k??? 20, trong khi m???t v??i qu???c gia ????ng ?? tr???i qua giai ??o???n t??ng tr?????ng ????ng k??? (Richburg 1992; Laddes 1998). ??i???u g?? t???o n??n s??? kh??c bi???t kh??ng d??? ch???u n??y v?? li???u ??i???u n??y c?? ti???p t???c trong th??? k??? 21 kh??ng?

B???ng 5.2. C??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam trong vi???c ?????t ???????c c??c m???c ti??u ph??t tri???n

  B???c Phi V??ng h??? Sahara Ch??u Phi T??y ?? Nam ?? ????ng Nam ?? Ch??u M??? Latinh v?? Caribbe
Gi???m t??? l??? ngh??o xu???ng m???t n???a + ??? ??? + ++ ???
Gi???m t??? l??? ????i xu???ng m???t n???a + ??? ??? ??? + +
C???i thi???n cu???c s???ng c???a d??n c?? ??? chu???t + ??? ??? ??? + ???
Gi???m t??? l??? t??? vong d?????i 5 tu???i xu???ng c??n 2/3 + ??? ??? ??? + +
Ti??m ph??ng s???i ++ ??? + ??? + ++
Ng??n ch???n v?? gi???m lan r???ng HIV/AIDS N/A ??? N/A ??? ??? ???
Ng??n ch???n v?? gi???m s???t r??t + ??? + ??? ??? ???
Gi???m n???a t??? l??? kh??ng c?? n?????c u???ng + ??? + + + +
Gi???m t??? l??? kh??ng c?? nh?? v??? sinh + ??? + ??? ??? ???
Ph??? c???p gi??o d???c ti???u h???c + ??? ??? ??? ??? +
B??nh ?????ng tr??? em g??i ??i h???c ti???u h???c + ??? ??? ??? ??? ++

??? Kh??ng c?? ti???n b??? ho???c suy gi???m ho???c xu???ng c???p

??? Kh??ng ?????t ???????c m???c ti??u v??o n??m 2015 n???u xu h?????ng hi???n t???i ti???p t???c

+ ?????t ???????c m???c ti??u v??o n??m 2015 n???u xu h?????ng hi???n t???i ti???p t???c

++ ???? ho??n th??nh m???c ti??u ho???c c??ch r???t g???n m???c ti??u.

N/A: kh??ng ????? s??? li???u

Khi g???p g??? t???i Li??n H???p Qu???c v??o n??m 2000, 189 qu???c gia ???? k?? Tuy??n b??? Thi??n ni??n k???, trong ???? v???ch ra c??c m???c ti??u ph??t tri???n c???n ?????t ???????c v??o n??m 2015. Bi???u ????? tr??n cho th???y ti???n b??? v??o n??m 2006, c??c nh??m qu???c gia Ph????ng Nam kh??c nhau ???? ?????t m???t s??? ????ch ch??? y???u ?????i v???i y t???, gi??o d???c v?? ph??c l???i kinh t???.

NGU???N: B??o c??o M???c ti??u ph??t tri???n thi??n ni??n k??? (2006)

C??c b???ng ch???ng kh??c nhau Ph????ng Nam ????a ?????n k???t lu???n r???ng t??nh tr???ng k??m ph??t tri???n ???????c gi???i th??ch b???i m???t s??? nh??n t???. M???t s??? nh?? l?? thuy???t gi???i th??ch t??nh tr???ng k??m ph??t tri???n b???ng vi???c ch??? y???u xem x??t c??c nguy??n nh??n b??n trong. M???t s??? nh?? l?? thuy???t kh??c t???p trung v??o v??? tr?? c???a n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n trong n???n kinh t??? ch??nh tr??? to??n c???u. Ch??ng ta th???o lu???n ng???n g???n m???i tr?????ng ph??i t?? t?????ng n??y, b???t ?????u b???ng c??ch gi???i th??ch do l?? thuy???t kinh t??? ph??t tri???n c??? ??i???n ????a ra.

Nh???ng nguy??n nh??n b??n trong: c??ch gi???i th??ch c???a l?? thuy???t kinh t??? ph??t tri???n c??? ??i???n

C??c l?? thuy???t kinh t??? ph??t tri???n t??? do v??? hi???n ?????i h??a[13] ra ?????i trong giai ??o???n ?????u h???u Chi???n tranh th??? gi???i l???n th??? hai. C??c l?? thuy???t n??y cho r???ng r??o c???n c?? b???n c???a s??? ph??t tri???n l?? do c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam c?? ?????c t??nh ri??ng b??n trong. N??ng su???t lao ?????ng th???p do qu???n l?? k??m hi???u qu???, thi???u k??? thu???t hi???n ?????i v?? c?? s??? h??? t???ng v?? giao th??ng ch??a ?????y ?????. ????? v?????t qua nh???ng r??o c???n n??y, ph???n l???n c??c nh?? l?? thuy???t c??? ??i???n khuy???n ngh??? r???ng c??c n?????c gi??u c???n cung c???p nh???ng ???y???u t??? c??n thi???u??? c???a s??? ph??t tri???n ch???ng h???n nh?? ?????u t?? t?? b???n th??ng qua vi???n tr??? n?????c ngo??i ho???c ?????u t?? tr???c ti???p c???a t?? nh??n n?????c ngo??i.

M???t khi l?????ng v???n c???n thi???t ???????c t??ch l??y ????? ????? th??c ?????y t??ng tr?????ng kinh t???,  c??c nh?? l?? thuy???t n??y d??? ??o??n r???ng l???i ??ch c???a  n?? ???s??? nh??? gi???t??? xu???ng ph???n l???n x?? h???i. Theo c??ch ????, m???i ng?????i, kh??ng ch??? c?? ng?????i gi??u c??, s??? ???????c h?????ng l???i t??? vi???c gia t??ng s??? gi??u c??. Walt W.Rostow, m???t nh?? l???ch s??? kinh t??? v?? nh?? ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch ng?????i M???, ???? ch??nh th???c h??a l?? thuy???t n??y trong cu???n s??ch c?? t???m ???nh h?????ng c???a m??nh C??c giai ??o???n t??ng tr?????ng kinh t??? (1960). ??ng n??y d??? ??o??n r???ng c??c x?? h???i truy???n th???ng b???t ?????u con ???????ng ph??t tri???n s??? kh??ng tr??nh kh???i vi???c tr???i qua c??c giai ??o???n kh??c nhau b???ng ph????ng th???c c???a th??? tr?????ng t??? do v?? cu???i c??ng s??? ???c???t c??nh??? ????? tr??? th??nh x?? h???i ti??u d??ng l???n nh?? c??c n?????c t?? b???n Ph????ng B???c. L?? thuy???t n??y cho r???ng m???c d?? c??c n?????c gi??u s??? gi??u h??n nh??ng t???ng thu nh???p c???a th??? gi???i s??? t??ng, ph???n t??ng ??? c??c qu???c gia ti???n c??ng nghi???p h??a s??? t??ng nhanh h??n v?? th???p ch?? s??? gi???m kho???ng c??ch gi???a c??c n?????c n??y v???i c??c n?????c gi??u h??n.

Quan ??i???m v?? c??c ch??nh s??ch d???a tr??n l?? thuy???t n??y ???? b??? c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam lo???i b???. Nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o ??? ????y kh??ng ch???p nh???n nh???ng l???p lu???n tr?????ng ph??i t??? do c??? ??i???n cho r???ng c??c n?????c Ph????ng B???c s??? tr??? n??n gi??u c?? v?? h??? t???p trung v??o lao ?????ng, s??ng t???o v?? k??? n??ng (xem Thurow 1999). Thay v??o ????, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o b??? thuy???t ph???c b???i l?? thuy???t ?????i l???p cho r???ng s??? ngh??o kh?? c???a n?????c Ph????ng Nam c?? li??n quan t???i c?? c???u c???a n???n kinh t??? ch??nh tr??? th??? gi???i.

Nh??n t??? b??n ngo??i: c??ch gi???i th??ch c???a l?? thuy???t ph??? thu???c

Li???u kho???ng c??ch kinh t??? c?? th??? h???p l???i?

Ph???n ???ng ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a c??c n?????c Ph????ng Nam

T??m ki???m an ninh

T??m ki???m s??? th???nh v?????ng

T????ng lai c???a Ph????ng Nam

T??m t???t ch????ng

B??i ?????c g???i ??

Download to??n b??? v??n b???n t???i ????y: So phan buon tham cua Phuong Nam.pdf

???-

[1] Global North: M???t thu???t ng??? ???????c s??? d???ng ????? ????? c???p t???i c??c n?????c gi??u, c??ng nghi???p h??a ch??? y???u n???m ??? B???c b??n c???u.

[2] Global South: M???t thu???t ng??? ???????c s??? d???ng ????? ????? c???p t???i c??c k??m ph??t tri???n h??n ch??? y???u n???m ??? Nam b??n c???u.

[3] Colonialism: s??? cai tr??? m???t khu v???c b???i m???t c?????ng qu???c b??n ngo??i.

[4] Third World: m???t thu???t ng??? th???i Chi???n tranh L???nh ????? mi??u t??? c??c qu???c gia ??ang ph??t tri???n ??? Ch??u Phi, Ch??u ?? v?? M??? Latinh.

[5] First World: c??c n?????c c??ng nghi???p h??a t????ng ?????i gi??u c?? v???n chia s??? s??? cam k???t ?????i v???i c??c h??nh th???c th??? ch??? ch??nh tr??? d??n ch??? kh??c nhau v?? c??c n???n kinh t??? ph??t tri???n.

[6] Second World: trong Chi???n tranh L???nh, nh??m c??c qu???c gia bao g???m Li??n X?? v?? c??c ?????ng minh ????ng ??u v???n chia s??? c??c n???n kinh t??? k??? ho???ch t???p trung.

[7] Decolonization: vi???c gi??nh ???????c ?????c l???p c???a c??c qu???c gia t???ng l?? thu???c ?????a c???a c??c qu???c gia kh??c.

[8] Mercantilism: m???t chi???n l?????c kinh t??? nh???m t??ch l??y s??? th???nh v?????ng v?? quy???n l???c c???a nh?? n?????c th??ng qua ??i???u ti???t c???a ch??nh ph??? nh???m khuy???n kh??ch xu???t kh???u v?? h???n ch??? nh???p kh???u.

[9] Laissez-faire economics: m???t tr?????ng ph??i t?? t?????ng nh???n m???nh th??? tr?????ng t??? do v?? ??t s??? ??i???u ti???t c???a ch??nh ph???.

[10] Sphere of influence: khu v???c b??? th???ng tr??? b???i m???t c?????ng qu???c.

[11] Multinational corporation: c??c doanh nghi???p c?? tr??? s??? ch??nh ??? m???t n?????c v?? ?????u t??, ho???t ?????ng r???ng kh???p ??? c??c n?????c kh??c.

[12] Development: Ti???n tr??nh m?? qua ???? m???t qu???c gia t??ng n??ng l???c ????p ???ng c??c nhu c???u con ng?????i c?? b???n c???a ng?????i d??n v?? n??ng cao m???c s???ng c???a h???.

[13] Modernization: quan ??i???m v??? ph??t tri???n cho r???ng t??ng tr?????ng kinh t??? t??? duy tr?? ???????c t???o ra th??ng qua c???i ti???n c??ng ngh???, s???n xu???t hi???u qu??? v?? ?????u t?? t??? t??ch l??y t?? b???n.

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