Ng??nh ch??nh s??ch c??ng c?? th??? h???c h???i t??? ng??nh y nh?? th??? n??o?

Chủ nhật - 08/09/2019 19:30
Gi??? ????y ng?????i ta th?????ng ????? l???i cho ng??nh kinh t??? h???c ho???c c??c nh?? kinh t??? v??? nhi???u tai ????ng c???a th??? gi???i. C??c nh?? ph?? b??nh cho r???ng c??c l?? thuy???t kinh t??? ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m cho s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng gia t??ng, s??? khan hi???m c??c vi???c l??m t???t, s??? mong manh c???a h??? th???ng t??i ch??nh v?? t??ng tr?????ng th???p, b??n c???nh nh???ng th??? kh??c
Ng??nh ch??nh s??ch c??ng c?? th??? h???c h???i t??? ng??nh y nh?? th??? n??o?

Ng??nh ch??nh s??ch c??ng c?? th??? h???c h???i t??? ng??nh y nh?? th??? n??o?

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Ngu???n: Ricardo Hausmann, ???Don???t Blame Economics, Blame Public Policy???, Project Syndicate, 01/09/2019.

Bi??n d???ch: Phan Nguy??n

Gi??? ????y ng?????i ta th?????ng ????? l???i cho ng??nh kinh t??? h???c ho???c c??c nh?? kinh t??? v??? nhi???u tai ????ng c???a th??? gi???i. C??c nh?? ph?? b??nh cho r???ng c??c l?? thuy???t kinh t??? ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m cho s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng gia t??ng, s??? khan hi???m c??c vi???c l??m t???t, s??? mong manh c???a h??? th???ng t??i ch??nh v?? t??ng tr?????ng th???p, b??n c???nh nh???ng th??? kh??c. Nh??ng d?? nh???ng ch??? tr??ch n??y c?? th??? th??c ?????y c??c nh?? kinh t??? ph???i n??? l???c h??n, s??? c??ng k??ch t???p trung v??o kinh t??? h???c ???? v?? t??nh chuy???n s??? ch?? ?? kh???i m???t ng??nh h???c ????ng ra ph???i g??nh nhi???u tr??ch nhi???m h??n: ???? l?? ng??nh ch??nh s??ch c??ng.

Kinh t??? h???c v?? ch??nh s??ch c??ng c?? li??n quan ch???t ch??? v???i nhau, nh??ng ch??ng kh??ng gi???ng nhau, v?? kh??ng n??n ???????c xem l?? nh?? v???y. Kinh t??? h???c v?? ch??nh s??ch c??ng gi???ng nh?? ng??nh v???t l?? v?? k??? thu???t v???y, ho???c sinh h???c v???i y h???c. D?? v???t l?? l?? n???n t???ng cho vi???c thi???t k??? c??c t??n l???a c?? th??? s??? d???ng n??ng l?????ng ????? th??ch th???c tr???ng l???c, Isaac Newton kh??ng th??? ch???u tr??ch nhi???m cho th???m h???a c???a t??u con thoi Challenger. Ng??nh sinh h??a c??ng kh??ng th??? b??? ????? l???i cho c??i ch???t c???a Michael Jackson.

V???t l??, sinh h???c v?? kinh t???, trong vai  tr?? c??c ng??nh khoa h???c, gi??p tr??? l???i c??c c??u h???i v??? b???n ch???t c???a th??? gi???i ch??ng ta ??ang s???ng, t???o ra th??? m?? nh?? s??? h???c kinh t??? Joel Mokyr c???a ?????i h???c Northwestern g???i l?? ???ki???n ??????th???c mi??u t?????? (propositional knowledge). Trong khi ????, k??? thu???t, y h???c, v?? ch??nh s??ch c??ng gi??p tr??? l???i c??c c??u h???i v??? c??ch thay ?????i th??? gi???i theo nh???ng h?????ng c??? th???, d???n ?????n kh??i ni???m m?? Mokyr g???i l?? ???ki???n th???c gi???i quy???t v???n ???????? (prescriptive knowledge).

M???c d?? c??c tr?????ng k??? thu???t d???y v???t l?? v?? tr?????ng y d???y sinh h???c, nh???ng ng??nh h???c chuy??n m??n n??y ???? ph??t tri???n t??ch bi???t kh???i ng??nh khoa h???c c?? b???n c???a ch??ng ??? nhi???u kh??a c???nh kh??c nhau. Trong th???c t???, b???ng c??ch ph??t tri???n c??c ti??u ch?? v??? ch???t l?????ng, ch????ng tr??nh gi???ng d???y, c??c t???p ch?? v?? con ???????ng s??? nghi???p c???a ri??ng m??nh, c??c ng??nh k??? thu???t v?? y h???c ???? tr??? th??nh nh???ng ng??nh h???c th???c s??? kh??c bi???t.

Ng?????c l???i, c??c tr?????ng ch??nh s??ch c??ng ???? kh??ng tr???i qua m???t s??? chuy???n ?????i t????ng t???. Nhi???u tr?????ng trong s??? ???? th???m ch?? kh??ng thu?? gi???ng vi??n c???a ng??nh m??nh m?? thay v??o ???? h??? s??? d???ng c??c gi??o s?? t??? c??c ng??nh khoa h???c n???n t???ng nh?? kinh t???, t??m l?? h???c, x?? h???i h???c ho???c khoa h???c ch??nh tr???. Tr?????ng ch??nh s??ch c??ng t???i ?????i h???c c???a t??i, ?????i h???c Harvard, c??ng c?? m???t ?????i ng?? gi???ng vi??n l???n c???a ri??ng m??nh ??? nh??ng tr?????ng ch??? y???u tuy???n d???ng c??c ti???n s?? m???i t???t nghi???p trong c??c ng??nh khoa h???c n???n t???ng v?? ????? b???t h??? d???a tr??n c?? s??? c??c c??ng b??? c???a h??? tr??n c??c t???p ch?? h??ng ?????u v??? c??c ng??nh khoa h???c ????, ch??? kh??ng ph???i v??? ng??nh ch??nh s??ch c??ng.

Kinh nghi???m ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch tr?????c khi ?????t ???????c v??? tr?? gi??o s?? trong bi??n ch??? c??ng kh??ng ???????c khuy???n kh??ch v?? r???t hi???m. V?? ngay c??? c??c gi???ng vi??n trong bi??n ch??? c??ng c?? m???c ????? tham gia v???i th??? gi???i th???c m???t c??ch h???n ch??? ????ng ng???c nhi??n, do th??ng l??? tuy???n d???ng ph??? bi???n c??ng nh?? n???i s??? r???ng vi???c tham gia v??o th??? gi???i th???c t??? b??n ngo??i c?? th??? g??y r???i ro v??? m???t danh ti???ng cho tr?????ng ?????i h???c. ????? b?? ?????p cho ??i???u n??y, c??c tr?????ng ch??nh s??ch c??ng th?????ng thu?? c??c gi??o s?? th???c h??nh, ch???ng h???n nh?? t??i, nh???ng ng?????i ???? c?? ???????c kinh nghi???m ch??nh s??ch th???c t??? tr?????c ????y ??? c??c c??ng vi???c kh??c.

V??? m???t gi???ng d???y, b???n c?? th??? ngh?? r???ng c??c tr?????ng ch??nh s??ch c??ng s??? ??p d???ng c??ch ti???p c???n t????ng t??? v???i c??c tr?????ng y. R???t cu???c, c??? c??c b??c s?? l???n c??c chuy??n gia ch??nh s??ch c??ng ?????u ???????c k??u g???i gi???i quy???t v???n ????? v?? c???n ph???i ch???n ??o??n ???????c c??c nguy??n nh??n t????ng ???ng. H??? c??ng c???n hi???u ???????c c??c gi???i ph??p kh??c nhau v?? t??m ra ??u v?? nh?????c ??i???m c???a t???ng gi???i ph??p. Cu???i c??ng, h??? c???n bi???t c??ch th???c hi???n gi???i ph??p m?? m??nh ????? xu???t v?? ????nh gi?? xem n?? c?? hi???u qu??? kh??ng.

Tuy nhi??n, h???u h???t c??c tr?????ng ch??nh s??ch c??ng ch??? cung c???p c??c ch????ng tr??nh th???c s?? m???t ho???c hai n??m v?? c?? m???t ch????ng tr??nh ti???n s?? nh??? v???i c???u tr??c th?????ng t????ng t??? nh?? trong c??c ng??nh khoa h???c b??nh th?????ng. C??ch l??m ???? kh??ng ??n thua so v???i c??ch c??c tr?????ng y ????o t???o b??c s?? v?? th??c ?????y chuy??n m??n c???a h???.

C??c tr?????ng y (??t nh???t l?? ??? Hoa K???) ch??? nh???n sinh vi??n sau khi h??? ho??n th??nh ch????ng tr??nh ?????i h???c b???n n??m, trong ???? c??c sinh vi??n ???? h???c xong m???t s??? m??n h???c t???i thi???u c?? li??n quan. C??c sinh vi??n y khoa sau ???? tr???i qua m???t ch????ng tr??nh hai n??m ch??? y???u l?? h???c trong l???p, sau ???? l?? hai n??m ???????c lu??n chuy???n qua c??c khoa kh??c nhau t???i c??c b???nh vi???n gi???ng d???y, n??i h??? h???c c??ch th???c h??nh m???i th??? trong th???c t??? b???ng c??ch tham d??? c??ng c??c b??c s?? gi??u kinh nghi???m v?? ?????i ng?? c???a h???.

Sau b???n n??m ????, c??c b??c s?? tr??? ???????c nh???n b???ng t???t nghi???p. Nh??ng sau ????, h??? v???n ph???i l??m b??c s?? n???i tr?? t??? ba ?????n ch??n n??m (t??y thu???c v??o chuy??n ng??nh) trong m???t b???nh vi???n gi???ng d???y, n??i h??? ???????c h?????ng d???n b???i c??c b??c s?? c?? kinh nghi???m nh??ng ???????c giao c??c tr??ch nhi???m ng??y c??ng t??ng. Sau b???y ?????n 13 n??m h???c t???p ch????ng tr??nh sau ?????i h???c, cu???i c??ng h??? m???i ???????c ph??p h??nh ngh??? b??c s?? m?? kh??ng c???n gi??m s??t, m???c d?? m???t s??? ng?????i  ti???n h??nh th??m c??c ch????ng tr??nh nghi??n c???u sinh c?? gi??m s??t trong c??c l??nh v???c chuy??n khoa.

Ng?????c l???i, c??c tr?????ng ch??nh s??ch c??ng v??? c?? b???n ng???ng d???y sinh vi??n sau hai n??m ?????u ti??n h???c t???p ch??? y???u ??? l???p v?? (ngo??i c??c ch????ng tr??nh ti???n s??) kh??ng cung c???p th??m c??c n??m ????o t???o b??? sung nh?? c??c tr?????ng y th?????ng l??m. Tuy nhi??n, m?? h??nh b???nh vi???n gi???ng d???y c??ng c?? th??? h???u ??ch trong ng??nh ch??nh s??ch c??ng.

V?? d???, h??y xem x??t Ph??ng th?? nghi???m T??ng tr?????ng (Growth Lab) c???a ?????i h???c Harvard do t??i th??nh l???p n??m 2006 sau hai l???n tham gia ch??nh s??ch r???t th??nh c??ng ??? El Salvador v?? Nam Phi. K??? t??? ????, ch??ng t??i ???? nghi??n c???u h??n ba ch???c qu???c gia v?? khu v???c. ??? m???t s??? kh??a c???nh, Ph??ng th?? nghi???m n??y tr??ng gi???ng nh?? m???t b???nh vi???n gi???ng d???y v?? nghi??n c???u. N?? t???p trung v??o c??? nghi??n c???u l???n c??ng vi???c ph???c v??? c??c ???b???nh nh??n???, hay trong tr?????ng h???p c???a ch??ng t??i l?? c??c ch??nh ph???. H??n n???a, ch??ng t??i tuy???n d???ng nh???ng sinh vi??n m???i t???t nghi???p ti???n s?? (t????ng ??????ng v???i nh???ng ng?????i c?? b???ng MD trong ng??nh y)[1] v?? nh???ng sinh vi??n m???i t???t nghi???p ch????ng tr??nh th???c s?? (gi???ng sinh vi??n y khoa sau hai n??m ?????u ti??n ??i h???c). Ch??ng t??i c??ng thu?? nh???ng sinh vi??n m???i t???t nghi???p ?????i h???c l??m tr??? l?? nghi??n c???u, t????ng t??? c??c ???y t?????.

????? gi???i quy???t v???n ????? c???a c??c ???b???nh nh??n???, ph??ng Lab ph??t tri???n c??c c??ng c??? ch???n ??o??n m???i ????? x??c ?????nh c??? b???n ch???t c??c v???n ????? m?? h??? g???p ph???i c??ng nh?? c??c ph????ng ph??p tr??? li???u ????? ??i???u tr??? ch??ng. V?? ch??ng t??i l??m vi???c c??ng v???i c??c ch??nh ph??? ????? th???c hi???n c??c thay ?????i ???????c ????? xu???t. ???? th???c s??? l?? n??i ch??ng t??i h???c h???i ???????c nhi???u nh???t. Theo c??ch ????, ch??ng t??i ?????m b???o r???ng l?? thuy???t gi??p ?????nh h?????ng cho th???c ti???n v?? nh???ng hi???u bi???t thu ???????c t??? th???c ti???n gi??p ?????nh h??nh nghi??n c???u trong t????ng lai c???a ch??ng t??i.

C??c ch??nh ph??? c?? xu h?????ng tin t?????ng Ph??ng th?? nghi???m b???i ch??ng t??i kh??ng c?? ?????ng c?? l???i nhu???n m?? ch??? mong mu???n ???????c h???c h???i v???i h??? b???ng c??ch gi??p h??? gi???i quy???t v???n ?????. C??c ???b??c s?? n???i tr????? c???a ch??ng t??i ??? l???i ph??ng th?? nghi???m trong ba ?????n ch??n n??m, nh?? t???i tr?????ng y, v?? th?????ng ?????m nh???n c??c v??? tr?? c???p cao t???i ch??nh c??c qu???c gia c???a h??? sau khi r???i tr?????ng. Thay v?? s??? d???ng kinh nghi???m c?? ???????c ????? t???o ra c??c ???t??i s???n s??? h???u tr?? tu??????, ch??ng t??i l???i cung c???p ch??ng mi???n ph?? th??ng qua c??c ???n ph???m, c??ng c??? tr???c tuy???n v?? c??c kh??a h???c. Ph???n th?????ng ?????i v???i ch??ng t??i ch??nh l?? vi???c nh???ng ng?????i kh??c ??p d???ng gi???i ph??p c???a ch??ng t??i.

C???u tr??c n??y ???? kh??ng ???????c l??n k??? ho???ch t??? tr?????c, n?? ch??? xu???t hi???n trong qu?? tr??nh l??m vi???c. N?? kh??ng ???????c th??c ?????y t??? tr??n xu???ng m?? ch??? ????n gi???n l?? ???????c cho ph??p ph??t tri???n t??? d?????i l??n. Tuy nhi??n, n???u ?? t?????ng v??? c??c ???b???nh vi???n gi???ng d???y??? n??y ???????c ???ng h???, n?? c?? th??? thay ?????i ho??n to??n c??ch th???c ng??nh ch??nh s??ch c??ng ???????c c???i thi???n, gi???ng d???y v?? ????a v??o ph???c v??? th??? gi???i. C?? l??? l??c ???? m???i ng?????i s??? ng???ng ????? l???i cho c??c nh?? kinh t??? h???c v?? nh???ng ??i???u m?? ngay t??? ?????u kh??ng bao gi??? l?? tr??ch nhi???m c???a h???.

Ricardo Hausmann, nguy??n B??? tr?????ng B??? k??? ho???ch Venezuela v?? nguy??n Kinh t??? tr?????ng Ng??n h??ng Ph??t tri???n Li??n M???, hi???n l?? Gi??m ?????c Trung t??m Ph??t tri???n Qu???c t??? t???i ?????i h???c Havard v?? l?? gi??o s?? kinh t??? thu???c Tr?????ng Qu???n l?? Nh?? n?????c Kennedy.

???????????????

[1] MD (Doctor of medicine): g???n gi???ng v???i b??c s?? ??a khoa ??? Vi???t Nam 
P/vtheo Nghi??n c???u qu???c t???.
 

Ng??i White ?????: T???i sao cha ????? IMF l??m gi??n ??i???p cho Li??n X??? (P1)

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Ngu???n: Benn Steil, ???Red White: Why a Founding Father of Postwar Capitalism Spied for the Soviets???, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2013.

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Chi Lan | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

?????n l??c cu???c kh???ng ho???ng t??i ch??nh 2008 n??? ra v?? d???n theo ???? l?? th???i k?? suy tho??i kinh t??? to??n c???u, c??c ch??nh tr??? gia, h???c gi??? v?? c??c nh?? kinh t??? h???c l???i b???t ?????u t?????ng nh??? ?????n h??? th???ng Bretton Woods. V??o th??ng B???y n??m 1944, ngay gi???a Th??? chi???n II, ?????i di???n c???a 44 qu???c gia ???? t??? t???u ??? th??? tr???n h???o l??nh thu???c New Hampshire n??y ????? g??y d???ng n??n m???t th??? ch??a t???ng c?? tr?????c ????y: m???t h??? th???ng ti???n t??? to??n c???u ???????c ??i???u h??nh b???i m???t c?? quan qu???c t???. B???n v??? v??ng h???i cu???i th??? k??? 19 ??? n???n t???ng ???????c t???o d???ng m???t c??ch t??? nhi??n c???a qu?? tr??nh to??n c???u h??a kinh t??? l???n th??? nh???t ??? ???? s???p ????? trong cu???c chi???n tranh th??? gi???i tr?????c ????. C??c n??? l???c ????? h???i sinh n?? v??o nh???ng n??m 1920 ch??? to??n g???p ph???i nh???ng th???t b???i th???m h???i. C??c n???n kinh t??? v?? vi???c trao ?????i th????ng m???i s???p ?????; c??ng th???ng bi??n gi???i ng??y c??ng t??ng.

Trong nh???ng n??m 1930, nh???ng ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a qu???c t??? t???i B??? T??i ch??nh M??? ???? nh???n th???y nguy??n nh??n m???nh m??? c???a qu?? tr??nh n??y v?? quy???t t??m gi???i quy???t c??c l??? h???ng trong h??? th???ng kinh t??? th??? gi???i m???t l???n v?? m??i m??i. Theo nh?? l???i c???a Harry Dexter White, m???t nh??n vi??n B??? T??i ch??nh ??t ng?????i bi???t ?????n m?? kh??ng ai tin r???ng sau ?????y s??? tr??? th??nh ki???n tr??c s?? cho h??? th???ng Bretton Woods, th?? ???? ?????n l??c ????? x??y d???ng m???t ???Th???a thu???n M???i cho m???t th??? gi???i m????????.[1]

L??m vi???c ?????c l???p nh??ng ?????ng th???i c??ng ph???i nghi???n r??ng h???p t??c v???i v??? ?????ng nghi???p ng?????i Anh c???a m??nh, nh?? kinh t??? h???c c??ch m???ng John Maynard Keynes, White b???t ?????u c??ng vi???c x??y d???ng c??c n???n m??ng kinh t??? cho m???t n???n h??a b??nh th??? gi???i l??u d??i th???i h???u chi???n. C??c ch??nh ph??? s??? ???????c trao th??m nhi???u quy???n l???c h??n ?????i v???i th??? tr?????ng nh??ng s??? c?? ??t ?????c quy???n h??n nh???m tr??nh vi???c l???m d???ng ch??ng ????? thu l???i trong th????ng m???i. Th????ng m???i trong t????ng lai s??? ???????c s??? d???ng ????? ph???c v??? cho h???p t??c ch??nh tr??? th??ng qua vi???c ch???m d???t t??nh tr???ng thi???u h???t v??ng v?? ?????ng ????la M???. Nh???ng nh?? ?????u c?? thu l???i t??? n???i lo s??? c??c kho???n thi???u h???t ???? s??? b??? ng??n ch???n b???i c??c quy ?????nh h???n ch??? ??p ?????t l??n d??ng v???n tr??n tr??? xuy??n bi??n gi???i. T??? l??? l??i su???t s??? ???????c ?????nh ra b???i c??c chuy??n gia ???????c ????o t???o chuy??n ng??nh kinh t??? h???c v?? m?? m???i ?????y s???c m???nh, chuy??n ng??nh m?? ch??nh Keynes l?? nh??n t??? quy???t ?????nh gi??p h??nh th??nh n??n. Qu??? Ti???n T??? Qu???c t??? (IMF) m???i ???????c th??nh l???p s??? ?????m b???o r???ng t??? gi?? h???i ??o??i kh??ng b??? thao t??ng ????? t???o ra l???i th??? c???nh tranh. Quan tr???ng nh???t l?? c??c l??nh ?????o ?????c t??i sau n??y s??? kh??ng bao gi??? c?? th??? ti???p t???c bi???n c??c h??ng r??o trong th????ng m???i v?? lu??n chuy???n v???n th??nh c??c c??ng c??? kinh t??? nh???m h???y ho???i c??c qu???c gia l??n c???n v?? ????? th??m d???u v??o ch???o l???a chi???n tranh.

Tuy ch??a bao gi??? ???????c trao ch???c v??? g?? quan tr???ng, White t??? tr?????c n??m 1944 ???? n???m ???????c quy???n ???nh h?????ng l???n ?????n m???c kh??ng t?????ng ?????i v???i c??c ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i v?? kinh t??? M???. M???c d?? c??c ?????ng nghi???p ??? qu?? nh?? v?? c??? ??? n?????c ngo??i ?????u ph???i nghi???n r??ng nghi???n l???i n??? ph???c s??? kh??n kh??o, t??? m???, n??? l???c kh??ng bi???t m???t m???i v?? t??i n??ng ?????i v???i vi???c ?????nh h??nh ch??nh s??ch qu???c gia c???a ??ng, White l???i kh??ng th??m c??? g???ng ????? khi???n ng?????i kh??c c?? c???m t??nh v???i m??nh. ?????ng ta kh??ng h??? c?? ch??t ?? ni???m n??o v??? c??ch x??? s??? hay c??c quy t???c v??? quan h??? trong m???t x?? h???i v??n minh,??? Keynes c???n nh???n. Ng???o m???n v?? hay ??e n???t, nh??ng White ?????ng th???i c??ng d??? b??? c??ng th???ng th???n kinh v?? kh??ng c?? c???m gi??c an to??n, lu??n ?? th???c s??u s???c r???ng ?????a v??? m???ng manh c???a ??ng ??? Washington ho??n to??n ph??? thu???c v??o vi???c ??ng c?? kh??? n??ng gi??p B??? tr?????ng t??i ch??nh Henry Morgenthau, m???t ?????ng minh th??n c???n c???a T???ng th???ng Franklin Roosevelt nh??ng t??i n??ng l???i c?? h???n, ????a ra ???????c c??c ch??nh s??ch c?? kh??? n??ng th???c hi???n hay kh??ng. White th?????ng b??? ???m v?? suy nh?????c th???n kinh tr?????c nh???ng cu???c ????m ph??n v???i Keynes, ????? r???i b??ng n??? ?????n l??c ra tr???n. ???Ch??ng t??i s??? th??????, White ???? bu???t mi???ng trong m???t phi??n l??m vi???c ?????c bi???t n???y l???a, ???????a ra m???t th??? m?? ?????c Ho??ng th?????ng ??? ????y [ch??? Keynes] c?? th??? hi???u ???????c.???

Nh??ng v???i t?? c??ch l?? ki???n tr??c s?? ch??nh c???a h??? th???ng Bretton Woods, White l???i t??? ra xu???t s???c h??n r???t nhi???u so v???i v??? ?????ng nghi???p ng?????i Anh c???a m??nh. ??ng n???i b???t so v???i nh???ng ng?????i kh??c khi xu???t hi???n nh?? l?? m???t k??? theo ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c t??n nh???n, ng?????i c?? th??? moi ra ???????c m???i l???i th??? t??? s??? thay ?????i l???n v??? ?????a ch??nh tr??? ???????c t???o ra b???i Th??? Chi???n II. White ???? thi???t l???p n???n m??ng cho m???t tr???t t??? m???i th???i h???u chi???n l???y ?????ng ???? la l??m trung t??m v???n ?????i l???p ho??n to??n v???i c??c l???i ??ch l??u nay c???a ng?????i Anh, ?????c bi???t l?? khi c??c l???i ??ch n??y li??n quan ?????n ????? ch??? thu???c ?????a ??ang d???n s???p ????? c???a V????ng qu???c Anh.

Tuy nhi??n, ngay c??? nh???ng ?????ng nghi???p th??n thi???t c???a White c??ng kh??ng bi???t r???ng t???m nh??n th???i h???u chi???n c???a ??ng c??n d??nh d??ng ?????n vi???c tri???t ????? thi???t l???p l???i m???t ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i m???i c???a Hoa K??, v???i tr???ng t??m l?? th??nh l???p m???t li??n minh g???n g??i v??nh c???u v???i th??? l???c m???i ??ang l??n ??? ch??u ??u ??? Li??n X??. V?? h???u h???t nh???ng ng?????i n??y c??ng ch???c ch???n kh??ng bi???t r???ng White s??? s???n s??ng v???n d???ng ?????n nh???ng c??ch th???c phi th?????ng ????? hi???n th???c h??a ??i???u n??y.

Trong su???t kho???ng th???i gian 11 n??m, b???t ?????u t??? gi???a nh???ng n??m 1930, White ???? l??m gi??n ??i???p cho Li??n X??, ????a cho Li??n X?? nh???ng th??ng tin b?? m???t v?? l???i khuy??n ????? l??m th??? n??o ????m ph??n v???i ch??nh quy???n Roosevelt, ?????ng th???i b??nh v???c cho Li??n X?? trong c??c cu???c tranh c??i v??? ch??nh s??ch ?????i n???i. C?? th??? n??i ?????i v???i t??nh b??o Li??n X??, White th???m ch?? c??n quan tr???ng h??n so v???i Alger Hiss, nh??n vi??n B??? Ngo???i giao M???, gi??n ??i???p n???i ti???ng nh???t trong th???i k?? ?????u c???a Chi???n tranh L???nh.

S??? th???t v??? s??? nghi???p gi??n ??i???p c???a White ???? ???????c ????a ra ??nh s??ng ??t nh???t l?? t??? 15 n??m tr?????c ????y, tuy v???y c??c nh?? s??? h???c v???n b??? chia r??? s??u s???c v??? ?? ?????nh v?? di s???n m?? ??ng ????? l???i, b??? b???i r???i tr?????c s??? kh??c bi???t qu?? l???n gi???a quan ??i???m kinh t??? ch??nh tr??? c???a White, ???????c ????nh gi?? l?? ti???n b??? v?? ??i theo ch??? ngh??a Keynes ??????ng th???i, so v???i ho???t ?????ng ng???m c???a ??ng khi l??m vi???c cho Li??n X??. Cho ?????n g???n ????y, v??? ??n c???a White v???n ???????c so s??nh nh?? m???t v??? s??t nh??n b?? ???n v???i ?????y ????? nh??n ch???ng, hung kh?? nh??ng l???i kh??ng c?? m???t ?????ng c?? r?? r??ng.

Gi??? th?? ch??ng ta ???? t??m ra n??. Th??? c?? kh??? n??ng li??n k???t c??ng ch???c White v?? ??i???p vi??n White nh???t l???i l?? m???t b???n vi???t tay tr??n t??? gi???y k??? v??ng ch??a t???ng ???????c c??ng b??? tr?????c ????y, b??? v??i l???p trong m???t t???p l???n c??c gi???y t??? linh tinh c???a White m?? t??i ???? t??m th???y ??? ?????i h???c Princeton. B??? b??? qua b???i nh???ng ng?????i nghi??n c???u v??? ??ng tr?????c ????y, b???n vi???t tay n??y ???? m??? ra m???t c?? h???i th?? v??? ????? t??m hi???u v??? kh??t v???ng v?? t?? t?????ng c???a m???t nh??n v???t tr?? th???c v?????t tr???i v?? ?????y tham v???ng ngay trong th???i k?? ?????nh cao quy???n l???c c???a ??ng, n??m 1944.

Trong b??i vi???t tay ???????c ?????t m???t c??i t??t m?? h??? ???Th??? ch??? Kinh t??? ??? Ch??nh tr??? c???a T????ng lai???, White mi??u t??? m???t th??? gi???i th???i h???u chi???n trong ???? t??? ch???c kinh t??? theo m?? h??nh x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a c???a Li??n X?? s??? chi???m ??u th???, d?? kh??ng ho??n to??n th??? ch??? cho m?? h??nh t??? do t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a c???a M???. ???Trong b???t c??? tr?????ng h???p n??o,??? ??ng vi???t, ???s??? thay ?????i s??? ??i theo h?????ng (nh?? n?????c) t??ng c?????ng ki???m so??t n???n c??ng nghi???p, v?? ho???t ?????ng c???a c??c doanh nghi???p c???nh tranh v?? t??? do s??? b??? h???n ch??? h??n.??? Trong khi White tin v??o d??n ch??? v?? quy???n con ng?????i, ??ng l???i li??n t???c coi nh??? s??? thi???u v???ng quy???n t??? do c?? nh??n ??? Li??n X?? (???Xu h?????ng ??? Nga c?? v??? nh?? h?????ng ?????n t??? do t??n gi??o h??n??? Hi???n ph??p c???a Li??n X?? ?????m b???o quy???n ???????) v?? s??? phi??u l??u c???a Li??n X?? trong ch??nh tr??? ?????i ngo???i v?? qu???c ph??ng (???Ch??nh s??ch m?? n?????c Nga hi???n nay ??ang theo ??u???i l?? kh??ng ch??? ?????ng ???ng h??? c??c phong tr??o (c??ch m???ng x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a) ??? c??c qu???c gia kh??c???).

Trong b??i vi???t, White cho r???ng ph????ng T??y l?? ?????o ?????c gi??? khi c??? g??n h??nh t?????ng x???u xa cho Li??n X??. ??ng th??c gi???c Hoa K?? l??i k??o Li??n X?? v??o m???t li??n minh qu??n s??? ch???t ch??? ????? d???p t???t s??? hi???u chi???n c???a n?????c ?????c v?? Nh???t B???n m???i. Th??? nh??ng m???t li??n minh nh?? v???y, White than th???, l???i g???p ph???i nh???ng ch?????ng ng???i v???t l???n kh???ng khi???p: ???ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c tr??n lan??? ??? Hoa K?? ???????c che gi???u d?????i ???????? lo???i m??c ??o y??u n?????c???; ???gi???i ch???c C??ng gi??o ?????y quy???n l???c??? ??? M??? c?? th??? ???nh??n li??n minh v???i Nga d?????i con m???t th?? ?????ch???; v?? nh???ng nh??m ???e s??? r???ng li??n minh v???i m???t n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a s??? l??m ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i m???nh h??n v?? t??? ???? l??m suy y???u ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n.???

Sau khi lo???i b??? h???t nh???ng th??? c?? th??? ???????c coi l?? ngu???n g???c cho s??? ch???ng ?????i c???a ph????ng T??y ?????i v???i Li??n X??, nh?? l?? ch??nh tr??? ?????i n???i, t??n gi??o, v?? ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i, White k???t lu???n r???ng g???c r??? th???t s??? cho m??u thu???n n??y ch??nh l?? ??? h??? t?? t?????ng kinh t???. ???C?? b???n ???? l?? s??? ?????i l???p gi???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n v?? ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i,??? ??ng vi???t. ???Nh???ng k??? th???c s??? nghi??m t??c tin v??o s??? v?????t tr???i c???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n ?????i v???i ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i??? ??? c?? v??? nh?? White lo???i b???n th??n m??nh kh???i nh??m ng?????i n??y ??? ???s??? Nga v?? n?? ch??nh l?? ngu???n g???c c???a t?? t?????ng ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i.??? ??ng, v??? chi???n l?????c gia kinh t??? quan tr???ng nh???t c???a ch??nh quy???n M???, sau ???? ???? k???t th??c b??i vi???t c???a m??nh v???i m???t k???t lu???n khi???n nhi???u ng?????i s???ng s???: ???Nga l?? v?? d??? ?????u ti??n c???a m???t n???n kinh t??? x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a trong th???c t???. V?? n?? ???? th??nh c??ng!???

H??a ra nh?? thi???t k??? ch??nh c???a c???u tr??c t??i ch??nh t?? b???n to??n c???u th???i h???u chi???n nh??n Li??n X?? qua l??ng k??nh m??u h???ng kh??ng ch??? l?? v?? ??ng tin t?????ng Li??n X?? s??? tr??? th??nh m???t ?????ng minh s???ng c??n ?????i v???i M???, m?? c??n v?? ??ng c??ng nhi???t t??nh tin v??o s??? th??nh c??ng c???a Li??n X?? trong vi???c m???nh d???n th??? nghi???m ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i.

Kh??ng ch??? ????n gi???n l?? m???t ng?????i th??n c???ng s???n

S??? ng?????ng m??? c???a White ?????i v???i h??? th???ng kinh t??? Li??n X?? th???c s??? g??y gi???t m??nh, ?????c bi???t khi n?? ?????n t??? m???t trong nh???ng nh??n v???t ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch c?? t???m ???nh h?????ng nh???t v??o nh???ng n??m 1940 ??? Washington. Th??? nh??ng n?? kh??ng h??? l???c ??i???u khi x??t ?????n ho??n c???nh th???i ?????i l??c ????. White thu???c v??? th??? h??? c???a nh???ng nh?? v??n v?? nh???ng c??ng ch???c s??ng b??i Nga ?????t ???????c ????? ch??n v??? nh???n th???c ??? nh???ng n??m gi???a hai cu???c chi???n tranh th??? gi???i, th???i k?? ???????c ????nh d???u b???i bi???n ?????ng ch??nh tr???, cu???c ?????i Suy tho??i, v?? s??? s???p ????? c???a c??c h??? th???ng th????ng m???i v?? ti???n t??? th??? gi???i. To??n b??? tr???t t??? th??? gi???i c?? v??? nh?? b??? ho??n ?????i li??n t???c. ?????i v???i nhi???u nh?? quan s??t, nh???ng thay ?????i c??n b???n v??? x?? h???i, kinh t??? v?? ch??nh tr??? l?? kh??ng th??? tr??nh kh???i. ?????i v???i m???t v??i ng?????i kh??c th?? bi???n ?????ng tr??n c??ng ch??nh l?? m???t l???i k??u g???i h??nh ?????ng ??? c??? ??? trong v?? ngo??i ?????nh ngh??a truy???n th???ng v??? ch??nh tr??? qu???c gia.

White l??c c??n tr??? l?? m???t ng?????i ???ng h??? nhi???t t??nh c???a nh??n v???t di???u h??u Robert La Follette, ???ng vi??n ?????u ti??n c???a ?????ng C???p ti???n ra tranh c??? t???ng th???ng v??o n??m 1924. La Follette k??u g???i ch??nh ph??? m???nh tay can thi???p v??o kinh t??? M??? v?? ???? k???t t???i ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c c???a Hoa K?? t???i M??? Latinh. White t??? l??u ???? c?? h???ng th?? v???i k??? ho???ch kinh t??? c???a Li??n X?? v?? ???? quy???t ?????nh th??? ??i ?????n Li??n X?? ????? nghi??n c???u h??? th???ng n?????c n??y v??o n??m 1933, ch??? m???t th???i gian ng???n sau khi ??ng tr??? th??nh gi??o s?? kinh t??? t???i ?????i h???c Lawrence ??? Wisconsin. ??ng ch??? t??? b??? k??? ho???ch n??y khi nh???n ???????c l???i m???i nghi??n c???u v??? c???i c??ch ti???n t??? ??? B??? T??i ch??nh. Ngay sau khi ?????n Washington v??o n??m 1934, White ???? v?????ng v??o m???t m???ng l?????i c??c nh??n v???t th??n C???ng s???n ho???t ?????ng t??nh b??o cho Li??n X??. H??o h???c v???i quy???n l???c v?? kh??ng b??? c??c h??ng r??o h??nh ch??nh c???n tr??? khi h??nh ?????ng, White b???t ?????u cu???c s???ng hai m???t nguy hi???m c???a m??nh, t????ng t??? nh?? h??ng lo???t nh???ng nh??n v???t ?????ng l???a kh??c v???i ??ng ??? Washington trong su???t nh???ng th???p ni??n 1930 v?? 1940.

Theo nh?? l???i c???a Whittaker Chambers, nh??n v???t trung gian gi???a c?? quan t??nh b??o Li??n X?? v???i c??c ngu???n tin b?? m???t c???a h??? n???m trong ch??nh ph??? M???, th?? ho???t ?????ng ng???m c???a White b???t ?????u t??? n??m 1935. L?? m???t nh??n v???t theo ch??? ngh??a l?? t?????ng m?? ?????c m???t th??? gi???i t????ng lai n??i quan h??? qu???c t??? ???????c chi ph???i b???i nh???ng nh??n v???t k?? tr??? khai s??ng nh?? m??nh, White ???? ????n nh???n c?? h???i ????? th??c ?????y t????ng lai ???? ?????n s???m h??n b???ng c??ch h???p t??c v???i nh???ng ng?????i trung gian b?? m???t nh?? Chambers. V??? tr?? c??ng ch???c trong b??? m??y ch??nh quy???n M??? c???a White th???p h??n m???c m?? ??ng bi???t t??i n??ng c???a ??ng ????ng ???????c h?????ng, v?? ??ng kh??t khao s??? th???a nh???n m?? c??ng vi???c gi??n ??i???p d??nh cho m??nh. Tuy nhi??n kh??ng gi???ng v???i Chambers, White kh??ng nh???n l???nh tr???c ti???p t??? Moskva. ??ng t??? h??nh ?????ng theo ?? m??nh. ??ng c??ng kh??ng tham gia b???t c??? chi???n d???ch ng???m n??o. L??m vi???c qua c??c nh??n v???t trung gian th??n c???n v???i m??nh, White thu th???p c??c t??i li???u ch??nh th???c c???a B??? T??i ch??nh v?? g???i cho Chambers. Sau khi Chambers ch???p ???nh l???i c??c t??i li???u ??? x?????ng l??m vi???c c???a m??nh t???i Baltimore, ch??ng s??? ???????c White tr??? l???i ch??? c?? th??ng qua k??nh t????ng t???. H??ng tu???n ho???c hai tu???n m???t l???n, White c??ng s??? chu???n b??? c??c b???n ghi ch??p cho Chambers trong ???? t??m t???t l???i nh???ng th??ng tin m?? ??ng cho l?? h???u d???ng.

???Vi???c Harry g???n g??i v???i ng?????i Nga l?? kh??ng c??n nghi ng??? g?? n???a,??? Edward Bernstein, ?????ng nghi???p c???a White ??? B??? T??i ch??nh nh??? l???i sau h??ng th???p k??? k??? t??? th???i Bretton Woods. V?? ???Harry th?? to??n nh?? th??? ??ng ???y c?? th??? ????a ra l???i khuy??n cho b???t k?? ai v???y.??? Th??? nh??ng t???i sao White l???i ??i xa h??n c??? m???c ch??? thu???n t??y ????a ra l???i khuy??n nh?? v???y?

Trong su???t th???i k?? Th??? Chi???n II, c?? m???t l?????ng l???n ?????n m???c ????ng ng???c nhi??n c??c vi??n ch???c M??? ???? b?? m???t h??? tr??? Li??n X?? m?? th???m ch?? c??n kh??ng ngh?? r???ng m??nh ???? ph???n b???i l???i t??? qu???c. ???B???n h??????, theo nh?? l???i c???a Elizabeth Bentley, m???t ??i???p vi??n n???i ti???ng ???? ra t??? th??, ???l?? m???t ????m nh???ng k??? theo ch??? ngh??a l?? t?????ng m???t ?????nh h?????ng. H??? l??m nh?? v???y v?? h??? tin r???ng ???? l?? ??i???u ????ng ?????n??? H??? c???c k?? tin r???ng ch??ng ta l?? ?????ng minh v???i Nga, r???ng Nga ??ang ph???i ch???u ph???n l???n g??nh n???ng c???a chi???n tranh, r???ng Nga ph???i c?? ???????c ?????y ????? m???i s??? gi??p ?????, b???i v?? nh???ng ng?????i trong ch??nh ph??????.  kh??ng cung c???p nh???ng th??? m?? ch??ng ta ????ng ra ph???i ????a cho Nga???. [nh???ng th???] m?? ch??ng ta l???i ????a cho Anh, ch??? kh??ng ph???i l?? Nga. V?? h??? c???m th???y??? chuy???n nh???ng th??? ???? cho Nga th???c s??? l?? tr??ch nhi???m c???a h???.???

White ???? b???t ?????u c??ng vi???c c???a m??nh t??? tr?????c chi???n tranh, trong nh???ng n??m ngay sau khi Li??n X?? ???????c M??? thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v??o n??m 1933 v?? gia nh???p H???i Qu???c Li??n v??o n??m 1934. White th???c s??? tin r???ng ch??nh s??ch c???a M??? n??n v?? s??? ??i theo h?????ng quan h??? s??u r???ng h??n v???i Moskva. S??? h???p t??c c???a ??ng v???i Chambers ???? gi??p ??ng ch???ng t??? ???????c l??ng th??nh c???a m??nh v???i m???t th??? l???c n?????c ngo??i v???n c??n h???t s???c huy???n b?? h???ng nhi???u n??m tr?????c khi ??ng ch??nh th???c c?? ???????c m???t c?? h???i th???t s??? n??o.

G???i n?????c Nga v???i t???t c??? y??u th????ng 

Khi nh???ng c?? h???i nh?? v???y cu???i c??ng c??ng ?????n, White ???? t???n d???ng ch??ng ?????n c??ng. M???t trong nh???ng c?? h???i ????ng ch?? ?? nh???t l?? v??o ?????u n??m 1944, khi B??? T??i ch??nh b???t ?????u l??n k??? ho???ch ????a ra m???t ?????ng ti???n ????? s??? d???ng ??? n?????c ?????c b??? chi???m ????ng sau cu???c chi???n. N?????c Anh ?????ng ?? r???ng ?????ng ti???n n??n ???????c in ??? Hoa K??, nh??ng Li??n X?? l???i y??u c???u ???????c t??? m??nh in ti???n b???ng m???t b???n kh???c in gi???ng h???t v???i b???n c???a M???. Vi???c n??y ??????ng nhi??n s??? cho ph??p Li??n X?? mu???n in bao nhi??u ti???n ?????c th?? in. B???o v??? cho y??u c???u c???a Li??n X?? tr?????c c??c ?????ng nghi???p B??? T??i ch??nh c???a m??nh, theo nh?? l???i c???a m???t trong nh???ng c??? v???n c???a ??ng th?? White ???? cho r???ng Hoa K?? ???ch??a gi??p ????? ????? cho Li??n X?? v?? n???u nh?? Li??n X?? ???????c l???i t??? cu???c giao d???ch n??y th?? ch??ng ta ph???i vui m???ng m?? t???ng cho h???, nh?? l?? bi???u t?????ng cho l??ng tr??n tr???ng nh???ng c???ng hi???n c???a h???.??? Gi??m ?????c C???c In v?? Kh???c Alvin Hall ph???n ?????i quy???t li???t vi???c ????a cho Li??n X?? b???n kh???c in, v?? ???? nh???n ???????c nh???ng l???i tr??ch m???ng n???ng n??? t??? White. ??ng kh???ng ?????nh r???ng Li??n X?? ???ph???i ???????c tin t?????ng ??? c??ng m???c ????? nh?? nh???ng ?????ng minh kh??c.???

Morgenthau giao cho White ch???u tr??ch nhi???m vi???c n??y, v?? ??ng ???? ?????m b???o r???ng Li??n X?? c?? ???????c b???n kh???c in. K???t qu??? ???? d??? ki???n t??? tr?????c l?? Li??n X?? ???? cho in r???t nhi???u ti???n. Kh???i ?????ng minh ???? ????a v??o l??u h??nh t???ng c???ng kho???ng 10,5 t??? ti???n m???t c?? d???u qu??n ?????ng minh t??? th??ng 9 n??m 1944 ?????n th??ng 7 n??m 1945; Li??n X?? th?? in kho???ng h??n 78 t???. Ph???n l???n s??? ti???n n??y cu???i c??ng l???i ???????c ch??nh ph??? M??? thu mua l???i v???i t??? gi?? c??? ?????nh m?? White ????a ra, d???n ?????n vi???c Li??n X?? v?? v??t ???????c t??? B??? T??i ch??nh M??? 300-500 tri???u ???? la, t????ng ??????ng kho???ng 4-6,5 t??? ???? la hi???n nay. White ???? mu???n ????a cho Li??n X?? ???m???t bi???u t?????ng cho l??ng tr??n tr???ng nh???ng c???ng hi???n c???a h?????? v?? ????y qu??? th???c l?? m???t m??n qu?? r???t h??o ph??ng.

Th??? nh??ng quan h??? c???a White v???i Li??n X?? li???u c?? t??c ?????ng th???c ch???t g?? ?????n k???t qu??? c???a h??? th???ng Bretton Woods hay kh??ng? M???c d?? r?? r??ng l?? ???K??? ho???ch White??? cho IMF kh??ng c?? b???t c??? d???u ???n n??o t??? t?? t?????ng ti???n t??? c???a Li??n X??, v???n c??ng kh??ng c?? g?? ????? c?? th??? nh???c ?????n c???, White l???i r???t quan t??m ?????n nh???ng k??? ph?? ????m ng?????i Li??n X?? t???i h???i ngh??? ??? h??n h???n so v???i b???t k?? ?????ng nghi???p M??? n??o trong ??o??n ????m ph??n, v?? h??n r???t nhi???u so v???i c??c ?????i bi???u ch??u ??u, trong ???? m???t s??? ng?????i ???? n???i gi???n v?? th??i ????? c???a White. Lo r???ng ch??nh quy???n Li??n X?? s??? kh??ng th??ng qua c??c hi???p ?????nh c???a h???i ngh???, s??u th??ng sau White ???? ????? xu???t m???t kho???n cho vay l??i su???t th???p c???a ch??nh ph??? M??? tr??? gi?? 10 t??? ???? la cho Li??n X?? nh???m t??i thi???t ?????t n?????c ??? g???p 3 l???n s??? ti???n h??? tr??? qu?? ????? m?? ??ng ???? ????? xu???t cho V????ng qu???c Anh. Th???c t??? r???ng vi???c cu???i c??ng s??? ti???n ???? kh??ng ???????c th??ng qua ???? tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng l?? do ch??nh khi???n ch??nh quy???n Li??n X?? quy???t ?????nh kh??ng tham gia IMF v?? Ng??n h??ng Th??? gi???i ???? ????ng v???i nh???ng g?? m?? White lo ng???i.

T???ng th???ng M??? Harry Truman m???i ?????u ?????nh ????? White l??m l??nh ?????o ?????u ti??n c???a IMF. N???u White ???????c nh???n v??? tr?? n??y th?? t?? t?????ng th??n Li??n X?? c???a ??ng s??? c?? t??c ?????ng l???n ?????n c??c ho???t ?????ng c???a t??? ch???c n??y. Tuy nhi??n, l?? do ch??nh m?? White kh??ng tr??? th??nh ng?????i ?????ng ?????u IMF ??? v?? k??? t??? ???? kh??ng ng?????i M??? n??o ???????c tr??? th??nh nh??n v???t l??nh ?????o c???a t??? ch???c n??y ??? ch??nh l?? t??? nh???ng ti???t l??? r???ng White l??m vi???c cho Li??n X??.

Truman ???? ????? c??? White tr??? th??nh ng?????i M?? ?????u ti??n l??m gi??m ?????c ??i???u h??nh (?????i di???n cho M???) trong IMF v??o ng??y 23 th??ng 1 n??m 1946, v?? d??? ?????nh s??? ????? c??? ti???p ??ng l??m gi??m ?????c qu???n l?? (ch???c v??? cao nh???t trong IMF) m???t th???i gian ng???n sau ????. Truman ???? kh??ng bi???t r???ng v??o l??c ???? White ???? b??? FBI gi??m s??t trong hai th??ng v?? nghi ng??? ??ng l??m gi??n ??i???p cho Li??n X??. Hai tu???n sau ????, gi??m ?????c FBI J. Edgar Hoover ???? g???i m???t b??o c??o ?????n t???ng th???ng trong ???? mi??u t??? White l?? ???m???t m???t x??ch gi?? tr??? trong m???t t??? ch???c t??nh b??o ng???m c???a Li??n X????? v?? bu???c t???i ??ng c??i gi??n ??i???p Li??n X?? v??o trong ch??nh quy???n M???. Hoover c???nh b??o r???ng n???u c??c ho???t ?????ng c???a White b??? c??ng khai, IMF c?? th??? s??? g???p nguy hi???m. Th??? nh??ng ???y ban Ng??n h??ng v?? Ti???n t??? c???a Th?????ng vi???n do kh??ng bi???t g?? v??? b???n bu???c t???i ???? th??ng qua ????? c??? White tr??? th??nh gi??m ?????c ??i???u h??nh c???a M??? t???i IMF v??o ng??y 5 th??ng 2, m???t ng??y sau khi b???n b??o c??o c???a Hoover ???????c g???i l??n.

Sau khi ?????c b??o c??o c???a Hoover, Ngo???i tr?????ng M??? James Byrnes ???? ????? ngh??? Truman r??t l???i ????? c???; B??? tr?????ng T??i ch??nh Frederick Vinson th?? mu???n White c??ng l??c ra kh???i b??? m??y ch??nh quy???n lu??n. Truman kh??ng tin Hoover nh??ng c??ng nh???n th???y r???ng ??ng c?? kh??? n??ng s??? ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m cho m???t v??? x?? c??ng ??an v??o l??c n??y. ??ng quy???t ?????nh ch??? ????? White l??m gi??m ?????c ??i???u h??nh c???a M??? t???i IMF, m???t n???c h??? l???n t??? v??? tr?? gi??m ?????c qu???n l??. Th??? nh??ng ????? c??? m???t ng?????i M??? kh??c v??o v??? tr?? ??? tr??n White s??? khi???n m???i ng?????i ph???i nh?????ng m??y ng???c nhi??n, v?? Nh?? Tr???ng s??? ph???i gi???i th??ch v?? sao ki???n tr??c s?? ch??nh c???a qu??? ti???n t??? l???i b??? b??? qua nh?? v???y.

Trong th??ng ti???p theo, Vinson ???? g???p g??? Keynes, l??c ???? ???? l?? th???ng ?????c Anh ??? c??? IMF v?? Ng??n h??ng Th??? gi???i. ??ng n??i r???ng Truman ???? quy???t ?????nh kh??ng ????? t??n White l??n v??? tr?? ?????ng ?????u IMF v?? thay v??o ???? s??? ????a m???t ng?????i M??? v??o v??? tr?? ???? ??? Ng??n h??ng Th??? gi???i nh???m c???ng c??? ???l??ng tin c???a th??? tr?????ng ?????u t?? M??????. Ch??nh ph??? ???? k???t lu???n v???i m???t t?? t?????ng c??ng b???ng hi???m th???y r???ng s??? l?? kh??ng ???th??ch ????ng n???u ng?????i M??? ?????ng ?????u ??? c??? hai t??? ch???c???.

C??c ?????ng minh c???a Hoa K?? th?? r???t vui s?????ng m?? tu??n theo, v?? m???t ng?????i B???, Camille Gutt, ???? tr??? th??nh l??nh ?????o ?????u ti??n c???a IMF, trong khi m???t ng?????i M??, Eugene Meyer, l???i tr??? th??nh l??nh ?????o ?????u ti??n c???a Ng??n h??ng Th??? gi???i. Hoa K?? t?????ng nh?? ch???c ch???n r???ng s??? c?? th??? ????? m???t ng?????i M??? ph??? tr??ch IMF sau khi Gutt r???i ??i v??o n??m 1951, th??? nh??ng ?????n l??c ???? th?? vai tr?? c???a qu??? l???i ???? b??? thay th??? b???i K??? ho???ch Marshall, v?? Washington th?? ???? th???a m??n khi ???????c n???m l???y v??? tr?? ?????ng ?????u Ng??n h??ng Th??? gi???i.

V???n ch??a r?? li???u White c?? bi???t hay nghi ng??? g?? v??? cu???c ??i???u tra c???a FBI hay kh??ng. D?? th??? n??o ??i n???a th?? th???i gian t???i ch???c c???a ??ng ??? qu??? l?? r???t ng???n; ??ng t??? ch???c v??o m??a xu??n n??m 1947. Sau 13 n??m ??? Washington, ??ng ???? tuy???t v???ng v???i t??nh tr???ng quan h??? M??? ??? X?? v?? ho??n to??n v??? m???ng v???i m???t ????????ng D??n ch??? kh??ng c??n c?? th??? ti???p t???c ?????u tranh v?? h??a b??nh v?? v?? m???t n?????c M??? t???t ?????p h??n.??? ??ng chuy???n l??ng nhi???t huy???t c???a m??nh sang gi??p ????? Henry Wallace c???a ?????ng Ti???n b??? (Progressive Party) trong k?? tranh c??? t???ng th???ng n??m 1948. Wallace, ng?????i t???ng l?? b??? tr?????ng th????ng m???i trong ch??nh quy???n Truman, ???? m???i ng?????i m???t ng??? v???i t???ng th???ng c???a m??nh v?? ???????ng l???i ng??y c??ng c???ng r???n c???a ch??nh ph??? ?????i v???i Li??n X??. Gi???ng nh?? nhi???u h???c gi??? kh??c ??? c??? hai b??? ?????i T??y D????ng v??o th???i k?? ????, Wallace tin r???ng cu???c C??ch m???ng Nga n??m 1917 l?? m???t s??? ki???n mang t??nh b?????c ngo???t trong l???ch s??? ?????u tranh v?? t??? do c???a lo??i ng?????i. Chi???n th???ng c???a Wallace, ??i???u kh?? c?? kh??? n??ng x???y ra, s??? ????a White tr??? v??? ch??nh tr?????ng v???i v??? tr?? B??? tr?????ng T??i ch??nh ??? nh??ng ?????y l?? trong tr?????ng h???p nh???ng ng?????i bu???c t???i White kh??ng chi???m ???????c th??? th?????ng phong.

(C??n ti???p Ph???n 2)

Benn Steil l?? Nghi??n c???u vi??n C???p cao v?? l?? Gi??m ?????c ph??? tr??ch Kinh t??? Th??? gi???i t???i H???i ?????ng Quan h??? ?????i ngo???i. B??i vi???t n??y ???????c r??t ra t??? cu???n s??ch m???i nh???t c???a ??ng, The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order (Princeton University Press, 2013).

H??nh: Harry Dexter White v?? John Maynard Keynes l?? hai ki???n tr??c s?? ch??nh c???a tr???t t??? Bretton Woods.

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