M???t th??? gi???i, hai h??? th???ng

Thứ ba - 03/09/2019 20:22
V???i l??? k??? ni???m 30 n??m ng??y B???c t?????ng Berlin s???p ????? ??ang ?????n g???n, v???n ????? t??? do ???? n???i l??n tr??? l???i h??ng ?????u ??? Moskva v?? H???ng K??ng, m???c d?? trong nh???ng ho??n c???nh l???ch s??? v?? ch??nh tr??? r???t kh??c nhau. Ch??ng ta ???????c nh???c nh??? r???ng k??? nguy??n hi???n ?????i ???????c x??y d???ng tr??n s??? t??? do, v?? tr??n s??? th???a nh???n r???ng t???t c??? m???i ng?????i sinh ra ?????u b??nh ?????ng
M???t th??? gi???i, hai h??? th???ng

M???t th??? gi???i, hai h??? th???ng

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Ngu???n: Joschka Fischer,  ???Two Systems, One World???, Project Syndicate, 30/08/2019.

Bi??n d???ch: Phan Nguy??n

V???i l??? k??? ni???m 30 n??m ng??y B???c t?????ng Berlin s???p ????? ??ang ?????n g???n, v???n ????? t??? do ???? n???i l??n tr??? l???i h??ng ?????u ??? Moskva v?? H???ng K??ng, m???c d?? trong nh???ng ho??n c???nh l???ch s??? v?? ch??nh tr??? r???t kh??c nhau. Ch??ng ta ???????c nh???c nh??? r???ng k??? nguy??n hi???n ?????i ???????c x??y d???ng tr??n s??? t??? do, v?? tr??n s??? th???a nh???n r???ng t???t c??? m???i ng?????i sinh ra ?????u b??nh ?????ng. ?? t?????ng Khai s??ng c???p ti???n n??y, m???t khi b??n r???, s??? t???o th??nh m???t s??? kh??c bi???t so v???i to??n b??? l???ch s??? tr?????c ????. Nh??ng th???i th??? ???? thay ?????i. Trong th??? k??? hai m????i m???t, ch??ng ta ph???i ?????i m???t v???i m???t c??u h???i c?? b???n: Li???u m???t h??nh th???c chuy??n ch??? hi???n ?????i h??a c?? th??? ?????i di???n cho m???t s??? thay th??? ?????i v???i n???n d??n ch??? t??? do v?? nh?? n?????c ph??p quy???n hay kh??ng?

N??m 1989, c??u tr??? l???i r?? r??ng cho c??u h???i ???? s??? l?? kh??ng, kh??ng ch??? ??? ph????ng T??y m?? tr??n to??n th??? gi???i. Tuy nhi??n, k??? t??? ????, ch??ng ta ???? ch???ng ki???n ??????s??? h???i sinh c???a ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c ??? ch??u ??u, s??? th???t b???i c???a M??a xu??n ??? R???p, vi???c T???ng th???ng M??? Donald Trump ?????c c???, s??? quay l???i ch??? ngh??a ph???c th?? ??? Nga, v?? s??? tr???i d???y c???a Trung Qu???c tr??n to??n c???u. B??y gi???, t???t c??? c??c v??n c?????c v??o n???n d??n ch??? t??? do ???? kh??ng c??n ???????c l???a ch???n.

Vi???c Trung Qu???c n???i l??n nh?? m???t si??u c?????ng qu??n s???, kinh t??? v?? c??ng ngh??? l???n th??? hai cho th???y r???ng hi???n ???? c?? m???t m?? h??nh ph??t tri???n thay th???. ??? Trung Qu???c hi???n ?????i, nh?? n?????c ph??p quy???n v?? d??n ch??? ???????c coi l?? m???i ??e d???a ?????i v???i ch??? ????? ?????c ?????ng. Do ????, c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh ??ang di???n ra v?? t??? do v?? tr??ch nhi???m d??n ch??? ??? H???ng K??ng ???? l??m l??? r?? m???t kho???ng c??ch kh??ng ch??? gi???a hai khu??n kh??? quy ph???m, m?? c??n gi???a hai h??? th???ng quy???n l???c ch??nh tr??? v???i nhau.

Trong m???t th???i gian, Trung Qu???c d?????ng nh?? ???? t??m th???y m???t c??ng th???c ????? v?????t qua kho???ng c??ch n??y. Nguy??n t???c ???m???t qu???c gia, hai ch??? ???????? ???????c cho l?? s??? cho ph??p s??? h??a nh???p c?? tr???t t??? c???a H???ng K??ng v?? c?? th??? l?? ????i Loan v??o ?????i l???c. N???u c??ng th???c n??y gi??? ????y th???t b???i ??? H???ng K??ng, s??? c?? s??? leo thang c??ng th???ng qu??n s??? ngay l???p t???c t???i eo bi???n ????i Loan, b???i v?? vi???c h??n ?????o n??y duy tr?? l??u d??i ?????a v??? ?????c bi???t s??? khi???n ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c kh??ng th??? ch???p nh???n ho???c b??? qua.

Tuy nhi??n, c??ng th???c n??y th???c s??? cho ?????n nay ???? c?? hi???u qu???. H???ng K??ng ???? tr??? n??n c???c k??? quan tr???ng ?????i v???i n???n kinh t??? Trung Qu???c b???i v?? n?? gi??p Trung Qu???c ti???p c???n th??? tr?????ng v???n to??n c???u v?? ????ng vai tr?? l?? c???a ng?? t??i ch??nh cho ?????u t?? tr???c ti???p n?????c ngo??i. V?? quan h??? v???i ????i Loan ph???n l???n v???n kh?? h??a b??nh.

D??n x???p v???i H???ng K??ng c?? hi???u qu??? v?? ch??nh ph??? ??? B???c Kinh ???? cho th???y h??? ph???n l???n ???? t??n tr???ng ?????a v??? b??n t??? tr??? c???a th??nh ph??? n??y. Nh??ng khi Trung Qu???c tr??? n??n h??ng m???nh h??n, nh???n th???c c???a Trung Qu???c v??? ?????a v??? c???a m??nh nh?? l?? m???t si??u c?????ng to??n c???u m???i ???? t???o ra s??? thay ?????i trong h??nh vi. Ch??nh quy???n Trung Qu???c ??ang g??y ???nh h?????ng h??n bao gi??? h???t l??n H???ng K??ng, cho th???y r???ng h??? mu???n di chuy???n theo h?????ng ???m???t qu???c gia, m???t ch??? ????????.

D??? lu???t ???????c ????? xu???t (hi???n ???? b??? ????nh ch???) cho ph??p d???n ????? nh???ng ng?????i b??? b???t ??? H???ng K??ng sang Trung Qu???c ?????i l???c ???????c coi l?? m???i ??e d???a ?????i v???i n???n d??n ch??? v?? n???n ph??p quy???n ??? H???ng K??ng. Ch??nh quy???n B???c Kinh bi???t r???t r?? r???ng ch??nh n??? l???c l??m suy y???u quy???n t??? tr??? c???a H???ng K??ng n??y ??? ch??? kh??ng ph???i c??c ho???t ?????ng ng???m c???a c??c c?? quan t??nh b??o n?????c ngo??i ??? m???i l?? l?? do khi???n h??ng tri???u ng?????i d??n H???ng K??ng ???? xu???ng ???????ng bi???u t??nh.

V???i c??c c???u tr??c quy???n l???c hi???n t???i ??? Trung Qu???c (v?? Nga), c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh c???a qu???n ch??ng trong m??a h?? n??y t???i H???ng K??ng (v?? Moskva) c?? r???t ??t c?? h???i th??nh c??ng trong ng???n h???n. Tuy nhi??n, ch??ng r???t quan tr???ng b???i ch??ng t????ng ph???n v???i s??? ??o u???t lan r???ng c???a n???n d??n ch??? ph????ng T??y.

Nh??n r???ng h??n, vi???c ph??n chia th??? gi???i th??nh hai h??? th???ng ngay l???p t???c mang l???i nh???ng k?? ???c v??? th???i Chi???n tranh L???nh. Nh??ng trong cu???c xung ?????t ????, v???n ????? ch??nh l?? s???c m???nh qu??n s??? ??? theo ???? l?? v??? tr?? trung t??m c???a cu???c ch???y ??ua v?? kh?? h???t nh??n. C??n khi n??i v??? m???c s???ng, kh???i X?? vi???t ch??a bao gi??? th???c s??? c?? c?? h???i ??u???i k???p ph????ng T??y (nh?? ch??ng ta th???y r?? trong c??i g???i l?? Cu???c tranh lu???n nh?? b???p gi???a Ph?? T???ng th???ng Hoa K??? l??c b???y gi??? Richard Nixon v?? nh?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X??, Nikita Khrushchev, n??m 1959).

Tuy nhi??n, cu???c c???nh tranh v???i Trung Qu???c s??? ch??nh l?? v??? c??u h???i h??? th???ng n??o mang l???i nhi???u ti???n b??? v??? c??ng ngh??? v?? v???t ch???t h??n. Vi???c Trung Qu???c ??i l??n t??? m???t qu???c gia ??ang ph??t tri???n ngh??o ????i th??nh m???t c?????ng qu???c kinh t??? l?? m???t trong nh???ng th??nh t???u l???n nh???t c???a th???i k??? hi???n ?????i. H??ng tri???u ng?????i ???? tho??t kh???i c???nh ????i ngh??o v?? tr??? th??nh t???ng l???p trung l??u ti??u d??ng ng??y c??ng nhi???u, v?? h??ng tri???u ng?????i kh??c c?? th??? s???m theo b?????c h???.

?????ng th???i, m???c d?? Trung Qu???c ??ang x??y d???ng qu??n ?????i, nh??ng n?????c n??y ch??a bao gi??? khu???ch tr????ng s???c m???nh v?????t ra ngo??i khu v???c l??n c???n, kh??ng gi???ng nh?? Li??n X??. Khi Trung Qu???c theo ??u???i l???i ??ch chi???n l?????c ??? Ch??u Phi v?? ????ng ??u, h??? l??m nh?? v???y ch??? y???u th??ng qua c??c ph????ng ti???n kinh t??? v?? t??i ch??nh. Trung Qu???c c?? ???????c ???nh h?????ng to??n c???u gia t??ng kh??ng ph???i th??ng qua s???c m???nh qu??n s???, m?? th??ng qua n???n kinh t??? v?? kh??? n??ng ph??t tri???n c??ng ngh??? v?? s??ng t???o gia t??ng nhanh ch??ng. ?????i v???i ph????ng T??y, ???th??? th??ch Trung Qu???c???  ch??nh l?? l??m sao cho th???y r???ng m?? h??nh d??n ch??? v???n ph?? h???p h??n ch??? ????? ?????c ??o??n ki???u ph????ng ????ng trong m???t ??a s??? nh??n lo???i.

Trong cu???c c???nh tranh n??y, T???ng th???ng M??? Donald Trump nh?? m???t con ng???a th??nh Troa c???a Trung Qu???c. M???c d?? Trump ??ang ti???n h??nh m???t cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i v?? c??ng ngh??? m???nh m??? ch???ng l???i Trung Qu???c, ??ng ta c??ng ??ang l??m m???i th??? c?? th??? ????? l??m gi???m uy t??n c???a m?? h??nh ph????ng T??y. V??? m???t l???ch s???, c??c cu???c t???n c??ng c???a Trump v??o n???n d??n ch??? s??? mang l???i h???u qu??? l???n h??n nhi???u so v???i c??c bi???n ph??p thu??? quan c???a ??ng ta. V???n ????? c??ng t???i t??? h??n n???a khi ch??u ??u, v???i nh???ng ??i???m y???u kinh t??? v?? s??? ng??y th?? ?????a ch??nh tr??? r?? r??ng, c??ng th???t b???i trong vi???c huy ?????ng s??? b???o v??? m?? h??nh ph????ng T??y.

??? giai ??o???n n??y, s??? tr???i d???y c???a Trung Qu???c l?? kh??ng th??? ng??n ch???n ???????c. ?????t n?????c n??y ????n gi???n l?? qu?? r???ng l???n v?? qu?? m???nh ????? c?? th??? b??? t???y chay ho???c ki???m ch???. ??? m???t m???c ????? n??o ????, vi???c ng?????i d??n Trung Qu???c mong mu???n c?? ???????c m???t ph???n trong s??? th???nh v?????ng to??n c???u l?? ho??n to??n ch??nh ????ng. Ph????ng T??y c?? r???t ??t l???a ch???n ngo??i vi???c duy tr?? m???i quan h??? t???t v???i si??u c?????ng m???i n??y, ?????ng th???i b???o v??? c??c gi?? tr??? c???a m??nh. S??? tr???i d???y c???a Trung Qu???c ??? v?? c???a h??? th???ng Trung Qu???c ??? ch???c ch???n s??? t???o ra nhi???u c???nh tranh h??n, v?? nh???ng s??? ?????i ?????u m???i n??y ph???i ???????c x??? l?? m???t c??ch h??a b??nh b???ng m???i gi??. M???t th??? gi???i v???i t??m t??? ng?????i kh??ng th??? ch???u ?????ng ???????c m???t cu???c xung ?????t to??n c???u.

Li???u m?? h??nh hi???n ?????i h??a ?????c ??o??n c???a Trung Qu???c c?? th??? th??nh c??ng trong d??i h???n hay kh??ng l?? m???t c??u h???i m??? cho c??c th??? h??? t????ng lai c???a Trung Qu???c. Nh???ng ng?????i kh??ng c?? k?? ???c v??? nh???ng ??i???u kh???ng khi???p trong qu?? kh??? nh?? C??ch m???ng V??n h??a c?? th??? ch??? ????n gi???n coi m?? h??nh Trung Qu???c l?? chuy???n ??????ng nhi??n. Nh??ng k??? nguy??n hi???n ?????i ???????c x??y d???ng tr??n n???n t???ng t??? do. Nh?? ch??ng ta ???? th???y trong m??a h?? n??y ??? H???ng K??ng v?? Moskva, b??i h???c ???? s??? kh??ng s???m b??? l??ng qu??n.

Joschka Fischer l?? Ngo???i tr?????ng v?? Ph?? Th??? t?????ng ?????c t??? n??m 1998 ?????n n??m 2005.
 

Lu???t ph??p Trung Qu???c sau H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng 4

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BN-FE563_chinah_P_20141024014322

Ngu???n: Carl Minzner, ???After the Fourth Plenum: What Direction for Law in China????, China Brief, Volume 14, Issue 22, 20/11/2014.

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Thi???n To??n | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Ng??y 23 Th??ng 10, gi???i ch???c Trung Qu???c ???? k???t th??c H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng ?????ng h??ng n??m, t???p trung v??o v???n ????? ???y ph??p tr??? qu???c??? (tr??? qu???c theo ph??p lu???t). ????y l?? l???n ?????u ti??n c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o h??ng ?????u Trung Qu???c xem ph??p lu???t l?? tr???ng t??m cu???c h???p. Trong c??c tu???n sau ????, c??c nh?? quan s??t ???? ph??n t??ch c??u ch??? c???a to??n b??? ngh??? quy???t ????? t??m ki???m c??c d???u hi???u cho th???y h?????ng ??i trong t????ng lai c???a cu???c c???i c??ch t?? ph??p t???i Trung Qu???c.

???????c n??u ra l???n ?????u ti??n trong ngh??? quy???t H???i ngh??? trung ????ng ?????ng v??o n??m 1997, v?? ???????c ????a v??o Hi???n ph??p Trung Qu???c n??m 1999, ???y ph??p tr??? qu???c??? ???? ch???ng minh l?? m???t thu???t ng??? g??y tranh c??i ?????i v???i nh?? n?????c c??ng nh?? x?? h???i Trung Qu???c. Nh?? ch???c tr??ch ???? d??ng n?? nh?? m???t ?????nh h?????ng chung ????? th??c ?????y m???t lo???t c??c c???i c??ch h??nh ch??nh v?? ph??p l??.

Ng?????i d??n v?? c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng x?? h???i ???? t??m c??ch v???n d???ng c??? nh???ng lu???n ??i???u li??n quan ?????n thu???t ng??? n??y c??ng nh?? c??c c???i c??ch th???c t??? ??i k??m v???i n?? l??m ph????ng ti???n ????? th??c ?????y m???t s??? thay ?????i s??u s???c h??n v??? m???t th??? ch??? v?? ch??nh tr??? trong m???t nh?? n?????c chuy??n ch???.

Gi??? ????y, Ngh??? quy???t ???? t???o cho Ch??? t???ch T???p C???n B??nh m???t c?? h???i ????? t???o ra d???u ???n c???a m??nh v??? kh??i ni???m n??y. Nh??n chung, ??i???u n??y th??? hi???n d?????i ba h??nh th???c.

C??c c???i c??ch k??? thu???t v??? ph??p l?? ????? c???i thi???n qu???n l??

Tr?????c h???t, Ngh??? quy???t n??y h???u thu???n cho m???t lo???t c??c c???i c??ch k??? thu???t v??? ph??p l?? nh???m t??ng c?????ng s??? qu???n l?? c???a nh?? n?????c v?? x?? h???i.

V?? d???, Ngh??? quy???t t??m c??ch t???p trung quy???n l???c t?? ph??p ????? h???n ch??? s??? can thi???p c???a ch??nh quy???n ?????a ph????ng v??o c??c quy???t ?????nh c???a t??a ??n. T??a ??n nh??n d??n t???i cao s??? l???p ra c??c t??a ??n l??u ?????ng ????? x??? l?? c??c v??? vi???c ???quan tr???ng??? li??n quan ?????n nhi???u c???p th???m quy???n x??t x??? kh??c nhau. Ngh??? quy???t n??y b???t ????n xanh cho vi???c th??? nghi???m c??c t??a ??n c??ng nh?? c??c vi???n ki???m s??t ?????a ph????ng v???i th???m quy???n ch??o nh?? v???y. Vi???c n??y ph?? h???p v???i Ngh??? quy???t c???a H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng ba c???a ?????ng n??m 2013, n??i ???? cho ra ?????i nh???ng ?????t c???i c??ch th??? nghi???m trong s??u t???nh nh???m lo???i b??? s??? ki???m so??t ?????i v???i l???c l?????ng nh??n s??? t??a ??n, ng??ng nh???n t??i tr??? t??? tay ch??nh quy???n ?????a ph????ng, v?? trao quy???n qu???n l?? ch??ng cho c?? quan ch???c n??ng c???p t???nh. N??m 2015 c?? th??? s??? ti???p t???c ch???ng ki???n c??c th??? nghi???m li??n quan ?????n b??? m??y h??nh ch??nh t????ng t??? khi m?? ch??nh Ngh??? quy???t m???i n??y ???????c th???c hi???n. C?? l??? c??ng s??? di???n ra c??c cu???c c???i c??ch t????ng ???ng trong h??? th???ng ????nh gi?? c??n b??? ch??nh th???c, khi m?? c??c quan ch???c ???????c ch??? ?????o ph???i theo d??i t???n su???t can thi???p c???a ch??nh quy???n ?????a ph????ng v??o c??c quy???t ?????nh t?? ph??p v?? li??n h??? s??? can thi???p n??y v???i vi???c ????nh gi?? c??ng t??c v?? ti???n l????ng c???a h???.

Ngh??? quy???t n??y c??ng s??? ???ng h??? cho c??c nh???n th???c v??? nghi???p v??? v?? t??? t???ng t?? ph??p ???? ???????c nh???n m???nh trong nh???ng n??m cu???i th???p ni??n 1990 v?? ?????u nh???ng n??m 2000, nh??ng l???i b??? ch??m xu???ng trong nh???ng n??m g???n ????y. B???t ?????u t??? kho???ng n??m 2005 v?? ?????c bi???t l?? v???i vi???c b??? nhi???m V????ng Th???ng Tu???n l??m ch??nh ??n T??a ??n nh??n d??n t???i cao (SPC) n??m 2008, nh???ng lu???n ??i???u ch??nh th???c ???? ??i ng?????c l???i nh???ng nh???n th???c tr?????c ????, v?? xoay qua ???ng h??? h??a gi???i ch??nh tr??? v?? c??c ph??n quy???t mang t??nh d??n t??y nh?? m???t ph????ng ti???n ????? l??m b???t c??? ??i???u g?? c???n thi???t nh???m gi???i quy???t c??c tranh ch???p d??n s???, bao g???m c??? vi???c n??m c??c ti??u chu???n ph??p l?? ra ngo??i c???a s???.[1]

Gi??? ????y, Ngh??? quy???t 2014 ???? h??i ?????i gi???ng ??i???u. C??c phi??n x??t x??? ??ang ???????c coi l?? trung t??m c???a h??? th???ng t??? t???ng. C??c v??? ki???n ngh??? d??n s??? s??? ???????c ????a tr??? l???i v??o c??c k??nh ph??p l??. V?? ph???m ch???t chuy??n m??n nghi???p v??? t?? ph??p ??ang m???t l???n n???a ???????c ch?? tr???ng.

Nh???ng ti???n tri???n n??y cho th???y r???ng c?? quan trung ????ng ?????ng ???? t???o cho c??c nh?? k??? tr??? ph??p l?? c???a Trung Qu???c, ch???ng h???n nh?? nh???ng ng?????i ??i theo ng?????i hi???n ?????ng ?????u SPC Chu C?????ng (Zhou Qiang), m???t kho???ng tr???ng nh???t ?????nh ????? xoay x???. Vi???c n??y kh??ng ch??? gi???i h???n ri??ng ??? c???i c??ch t?? ph??p ???? n??i ??? tr??n, m?? c??n bao g???m m???t lo???t c??c c???i c??ch h??nh ch??nh, th??? t???c v?? li??n quan ?????n (n??ng cao) s??? minh b???ch.

??????ng nhi??n, c??c gi???i h???n cho kho???ng tr???ng n??y ??ang g??y tranh c??i gay g???t. ?????i m???t v???i s??? ph???n ?????i trong n???i b??? ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c, vi???c cho r???ng ???tr??? qu???c theo ph??p lu???t??? c??ng bao h??m kh??i ni???m ???qu???n l?? qu???c gia theo hi???n ph??p??? r?? r??ng ???? ???????c r??t ra kh???i c??c d??? th???o ?????u ti??n c???a Ngh??? quy???t trong qu?? tr??nh so???n th???o su???t t??m th??ng r??ng. Theo Ti???n C????ng (Qian Gang), n?? ch??? ???????c ????a tr??? l???i v??o t??i li???u n??y trong nh???ng ng??y cu???i c??ng c???a h???i ngh???. C??c cu???c tranh lu???n ti???p t???c n??? ra v??? ?? ngh??a c???a c??u ch???. Truy???n th??ng c???a ch??nh quy???n Trung Qu???c ???? nh???n m???nh r???ng n?? kh??ng h??? t????ng ??????ng v???i kh??i ni???m d??n ch??? l???p hi???n  c???a ???ph????ng T??y??? (CCTV, ng??y 5 th??ng 11). C???u ch??? t???ch SPC Ti???u D????ng (Xiao Yang), ???????c bi???t ?????n nhi???u v???i c??c n??? l???c c???i c??ch cu???i th???p ni??n 1990, ???? l??m s???ng l???i c??c ????? xu???t v??? vi???c t???o ra m???t ???y ban hi???n ph??p trong c?? quan l???p ph??p qu???c gia v???i nhi???m v??? xem x??t t??nh h???p ph??p v?? h???p hi???n c???a c??c ?????o lu???t.

T??ng c?????ng s??? ki???m so??t c???a ?????ng

Th??? hai, Ngh??? quy???t nh???n m???nh r???ng vi???c t???p trung h??? tr??? cho c???i c??ch lu???t ph??p kh??ng c?? ngh??a r???ng s??? c?? thay ?????i ?????i v???i nguy??n t???c c???t l??i l?? ?????ng ?????c t??n quy???n l???c.

Ngh??? quy???t t??i kh???ng ?????nh quan ni???m ???Ba ??i???u t???i th?????ng??? c?? t??? ch??nh quy???n c???a c???u ch??? t???ch H??? C???m ????o, trong ???? nh???n m???nh r???ng h???c thuy???t c???a ?????ng v?? l???i ??ch nh??n d??n l?? c??c ngu???n t????ng ??????ng (n???u kh??ng n??i l?? cao h??n) so v???i hi???n ph??p v?? lu???t ph??p, trong vai tr?? l?? c??c ngu???n ????? ?????nh h?????ng c??ng vi???c cho th???m ph??n v?? c??ng t??? vi??n c???a Trung Qu???c. N?? c??ng n??u r?? r???ng c??c ???y ban ch??nh tr??? ??? ph??p l?? s??? v???n l?? k??nh t??? ch???c n??ng c???t trong vi???c thi h??nh s??? ki???m so??t c???a ?????ng ?????i v???i h??? th???ng ph??p lu???t.

Nh??ng Ngh??? quy???t ???? ??i xa h??n l?? ch??? ????n thu???n n??i su??ng v??? s??? ki???m so??t c???a ?????ng. N?? c??ng ????a ra c??c b?????c h?????ng t???i vi???c th??? ch??? h??a ??i???u n??y. V?? d???, Ngh??? quy???t quy ?????nh r???ng t???t c??? c??c d??? lu???t li??n quan ?????n c??c quy???t ?????nh ch??nh s??ch ???quan tr???ng??? c???a c?? quan l???p ph??p qu???c gia ph???i ???????c b??o c??o cho c??c l??nh ?????o trung ????ng ?????ng ????? ???th???o lu???n v?? quy???t ?????nh.??? T????ng t??? nh?? v???y, t???t c??? c??c s???a ?????i ???quan tr???ng??? c???a ph??p lu???t hi???n h??nh ph???i ???????c b??o c??o cho ?????ng b??? trong ?????i h???i ?????i bi???u Nh??n d??n To??n qu???c (t???c Qu???c h???i).

T???t nhi??n, ??i???u n??y ch??? ????n gi???n l?? ph???n ??nh c??ch m?? quy???n l???c c???a ?????ng ???????c th???c thi trong th???c ti???n. Nh??ng l???i di???n ?????t m???i n??y c??ng ???? t???o n??n m???t s??? kh??c bi???t. B???n th??n Hi???n ph??p Trung Qu???c t??? n?? ch??? m???t l???n ????? c???p ?????n nguy??n t???c chung l?? quy???n ki???m so??t ch??nh tr??? c???a ?????ng. Do ????, c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng v?? c??c h???c gi??? Trung Qu???c trong nh???ng n??m cu???i th??? k??? 20 ho??n to??n c?? th??? ???? t?????ng t?????ng r???ng vi???c t???p trung vi???n d???n c??c kh??i ni???m nh?? ???tr??? qu???c theo ph??p lu???t??? c?? th??? t???o ra kh??ng gian cho vi???c x??y d???ng c??c thi???t ch??? ph??p l?? ?????c l???p, trong khi ch??? ????n gi???n l?? th???a nh???n vai tr?? ch??nh tr??? bao tr??m c???a ?????ng nh?? m???t nguy??n t???c n???n t???ng chung. Gi???i tri th???c theo xu h?????ng t??? do do ???? c?? th??? ?????t nghi v???n v??? vai tr?? c???a c??c ???y ban ch??nh tr??? ??? ph??p l?? trong vi???c ki???m so??t c??c ch??? th??? ph??p l?? c??? th???, ch???ng h???n nh?? t??a ??n, m?? kh??ng nh???t thi???t b??? xem l?? th??ch th???c quy???n l???c c???a ?????ng. Nh???ng l?? l??? n??y gi??? ????y ???? tr??? n??n kh??ng ???n khi ph???i ??????ng ?????u v???i vi???c ch??nh s??ch trung ????ng t??i tuy??n b??? s??? ki???m so??t c???a ?????ng ?????i v???i c??c ho???t ?????ng h??ng ng??y (c???a h??? th???ng ph??p l??) theo m???t c??ch r?? r??ng h??n nhi???u.

T????ng t???, Ngh??? quy???t c???t b???t nh???ng m???ng x??m kh??c m?? m???t s??? ng?????i ???? s??? d???ng ????? x??c ti???n c???i c??ch. C??c v??n ki???n h???i ngh??? trung ????ng ?????ng t??? nh???ng n??m cu???i th???p ni??n 1990 v?? ?????u nh???ng n??m 2000 ???? ????? c???p ?????n c??c thi???t ch??? t??? d?????i l??n ch???ng h???n nh?? c??c cu???c b???u c??? v?? bi???u quy???t khi th???o lu???n v??? c???i c??ch t?? ph??p.[2] Nh???ng ??i???u tr??n ???? b??? h???n ch??? b???t, n???u kh??ng n??i l?? b??? lo???i b??? ho??n to??n. ???? c?? th??m nh???ng l???i k??u g???i c??? th??? c???n t??ng c?????ng s??? ki???m so??t ch??nh tr??? c???a ?????ng ?????i v???i c??c nh??n t??? ???? c??? g???ng s??? d???ng c??c k??nh ph??p l?? nh???m th??c ?????y nh???ng c???i c??ch s??u s???c h??n. Lu???t s?? tr??? th??nh m???c ti??u c???a m???t cu???c tuy??n truy???n ch??nh tr??? l???n h??n. C??c h???c gi??? nghi??n c???u ph??p l?? c??ng b??? ch???n. Ngh??? quy???t nh???n m???nh s??? c???n thi???t ph???i x??y d???ng m???t ?????i ng?? c??c h???c gi??? ph??p l?? ????ng tin c???y v??? ch??nh tr???, c?? hi???u bi???t v??? ?????c ??i???m qu???c gia c???a Trung Qu???c.

Tr??? v??? qu?? kh???

Th??? ba, h???i ngh??? ???? b???t ?????u qu?? tr??nh g???n l??nh v???c ph??p l?? v???i ???Gi???c m???ng Trung Hoa???, m???t kh???u hi???u tuy??n truy???n n??ng c???t xu???t hi???n t??? n??m 2012 khi T???p C???n B??nh nh???m ch???c. H???c thuy???t n??y th??? hi???n quan ??i???m m???u ch???t h?????ng v??? l???ch s??? v?? truy???n th???ng v??n h??a  Trung Qu???c ??? v???n b??? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???ng s???n trong th??? k??? 20 ????? k??ch m???nh m??? ??? nh?? m???t c?? s??? cho t??nh ch??nh danh c???a ?????ng.

Ngh??? quy???t k??u g???i c??c c?? quan c???a ?????ng ???ti???p thu tinh t??y c???a v??n h??a ph??p l?? Trung Hoa??? v?? th??c ?????y ???n???n v??n h??a truy???n th???ng Trung Qu???c ????? t??ng c?????ng t??nh ?????o ?????c trong c??c n??? l???c th??c ?????y ph??p tr???.??? M???t gi???ng ??i???u t????ng t??? ???? ???????c s??? d???ng trong bu???i nghi??n c???u t???p th??? do Ch??? t???ch T???p ch??? tr?? d??nh cho c??c th??nh vi??n B??? Ch??nh tr??? ngay tr?????c h???i ngh???, trong ???? t???p trung nhi???u v??o l???ch s??? v?? v??n h??a truy???n th???ng. ????? t???ng k???t n???i dung c???a bu???i nghi??n c???u ????, ??ng T???p n??i: ???Con ???????ng v?? c??c ph????ng ph??p th??ch h???p ????? gi???i quy???t v???n ????? c???a Trung Qu???c ch??? c?? th??? ???????c t??m th???y t??? trong ch??nh Trung Qu???c???.

??i???u n??y ????nh d???u s??? thay ?????i so v???i cu???i th??? k??? 20. Khi m?? c??c v??? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c l??c ?????u n??ng kh??i ni???m ???tr??? qu???c theo ph??p lu???t??? l??n th??nh kh???u hi???u ch??nh c???a ?????ng, h??? ???? cho c??c quan ch???c v?? h???c gi??? m???t kho???ng r???ng ????? nh??n ra b??n ngo??i t??m ki???m c??c m?? h??nh ????? ??em v??? xem x??t khi ??i t??m gi???i ph??p cho nh???ng th??ch th???c v??? th??? ch??? m?? Trung Qu???c ph???i ??????ng ?????u. T???t nhi??n, c??c v??n ki???n c???a h???i ngh??? trung ????ng ?????ng trong th???i gian n??y n??i r?? r???ng Trung Qu???c s??? kh??ng ti???p nh???n c??c thi???t ch??? ch??nh tr??? ???ph????ng T??y??? nh?? d??n ch??? ??a ?????ng hay ph??n chia quy???n l???c.[3] Tuy nhi??n, m?? h??nh ph??p l?? n?????c ngo??i l?? m???t v???n ????? b???t ph??n th???ng b???i.

C??? c??c quan ch???c nh?? n?????c l???n c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng x?? h???i ?????u l???i d???ng kho???ng kh??ng gian n??y. N??m 1998, c??c v??? nguy??n th??? qu???c gia v??o l??c ???? l?? Giang Tr???ch D??n v?? Bill Clinton th???m ch?? ???? ?????t ???????c m???t th???a thu???n ch??nh th???c v??? vi???c m??? r???ng h???p t??c song ph????ng trong l??nh v???c ph??p quy???n.[4] Vi???c B??? Ngo???i giao M??? t??i tr??? cho c??c ch????ng tr??nh ??? Trung Qu???c di???n ra kh??ng l??u sau ????. V??o th??ng 12 n??m 2002, khi c???u ch??? t???ch H??? kh???i x?????ng th??ng l??? m???i l?? c??c bu???i nghi??n c???u  th?????ng k??? c???a B??? Ch??nh tr???, trong ???? c?? c??c bu???i nghi??n c???u t???p th??? t???p trung v??o lu???t hi???n ph??p, c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng ph??p l?? c???a Trung Qu???c ???? ch?? ?? t???i ??i???u n??y. C??c n??m ti???p theo ???? ch???ng ki???n vi???c c??c h???c gi??? Trung Qu???c, c??c lu???t s?? v?? th???m ph??n d???a v??o hi???n ph??p Trung Qu???c, lu???t ph??p v?? l?? l??? ph??p l?? ????? l??m c??ng c??? th??ch th???c nh???ng h??nh ?????ng c???a nh?? n?????c, ????ng k??? nh???t l?? c??c th??ch th???c n??m 2003 ?????i v???i t??nh h???p ph??p c???a h??? th???ng ???t???m giam v?? tr???c xu???t??? v???n g??y nhi???u tranh c??i. M???t s??? ???? vi???n d???n ?????n c??c ngu???n ph??p l?? n?????c ngo??i, bao g???m c??? c??c v??? t???i T??a ??n t???i cao Hoa K??? nh?? Marbury v???i Madison v?? New York Times v???i Sullivan.

Gi??? ????y, kho???ng kh??ng gian n??y ??ang d???n h???p l???i. S??? ????n ??p c??c lu???t s?? nh??n quy???n Trung Qu???c ???? leo thang. Nh???ng nh??n v???t nh?? H???a Ch?? V??nh (Xu Zhiyong) v?? Ph??? Ch?? C?????ng (Pu Zhiqiang) ???? b??? giam gi???. C??c t??? ch???c do n?????c ngo??i t??i tr??? b??? th???t ch???t ki???m so??t. V?? Ngh??? quy???t ???? t??ng c?????ng c???nh b??o ?? th???c h??? v??? vi???c ??p d???ng c??c m?? h??nh n?????c ngo??i, tuy??n b??? m???t c??ch r?? r??ng r???ng Trung Qu???c s??? ???kh??ng sao ch??p ?? t?????ng hay m?? h??nh ph??p tr??? n?????c ngo??i.??? Xu h?????ng n??y c??ng kh??ng ch??? di???n ra trong l??nh v???c ph??p lu???t. T???p C???n B??nh c??n ????a ra nh???ng l???i ch??? tr??ch ?????i v???i c??c c??ng tr??nh ki???n tr??c hi???n ?????i ???k??? c???c???, v?? k??u g???i c??c ngh??? s?? l???y c???m h???ng t??? v??n h??a truy???n th???ng Trung Qu???c. C??c nh?? ki???m duy???t ???? ch???n c??c ch????ng tr??nh truy???n h??nh n?????c ngo??i nh?? ???Big Bang Theory???. S??ch gi??o khoa ??ang ???????c thay ?????i ????? t??ng l?????ng n???i dung c???a th?? c??? ??i???n Trung Qu???c, trong khi ph???n d??nh cho c??c nh?? ph?? b??nh x?? h???i hi???n ?????i, nh???ng ng?????i t???ng ???????c ?????ng ca ng???i, nh?? L??? T???n, ??ang b??? gi???m b???t.[5]

K???t lu???n

C??? gi???i truy???n th??ng n?????c ngo??i l???n Trung Qu???c g???i Ngh??? quy???t (??ang ???????c d???ch ra ti???ng n?????c ngo??i) l?? th??c ?????y n???n ???ph??p quy???n???. ??i???u n??y ph???n n??o kh??ng ch??nh x??c. ?????i v???i h???u h???t c??c ?????c gi??? n??i ti???ng Anh, kh??i ni???m n??y g???i l??n ?? ni???m v??? h??? th???ng c??c quy???n c??ng d??n t??? d?????i l??n v?? s??? x??t x??? ?????c l???p theo c??c ti??u chu???n ph??p l??. Kh??ng ?? ni???m n??o trong s??? ???? l?? tr???ng t??m m???c ????ch c???a ?????ng ???????c th??? hi???n qua Ngh??? quy???t.

Ng?????c l???i, c?? m???t ?? ngh??a c???t l??i th??? ba n???m trong thu???t ng??? ???lu???t??? c???a ti???ng Anh c?? li??n quan r???t nhi???u ?????n c??ch ?????ng c??? g???ng s??? d???ng c??c thu???t ng??? ???ph??p??? v?? ???y ph??p tr??? qu???c???. N?? ???????c g??i g???n trong kh??i ni???m ???tr???t t??????. ??i???u ?????ng t??m ki???m l?? s??? cai qu???n ???????c c???i ti???n, t???p trung h??a t??? tr??n xu???ng. ?????ng ??ang ?????y m???nh c???i c??ch ph??p l?? ????? n??ng cao s??? qu???n l?? c?? tr???t t??? c???a m??nh ?????i v???i x?? h???i. H??? c??ng ??ang x??c ti???n nh???ng c???i c??ch ho??n to??n kh??ng li??n quan ?????n lu???t ph??p ????? c???i thi???n t??nh h??nh qu???n tr??? n???i b??? ?????ng. Nhi???u nh?? quan s??t ph????ng T??y kh??ng g???n c??c c???i c??ch ?????i v???i h??? th???ng k??? lu???t b?? m???t c???a ?????ng v???i c??c c???i c??ch t??a ??n, nh??ng t??? quan ??i???m c???a ch??nh quy???n Trung Qu???c, ????y l?? c???t l??i c???a c??ng m???t th???.

T??m l???i, Ngh??? quy???t ti???p t???c ?????y m???nh c??c c???i c??ch k??? thu???t v??? ph??p l?? ??? Trung Qu???c nh???ng v???n ch???u s??? ki???m so??t ch??nh tr??? ?????c ?????ng. Nh??ng n?? c??ng c?? nh???ng b?????c ??i r?? r??ng ????? x??c ?????nh l???i kh??i ni???m ???cai tr??? theo ph??p lu???t??? b???ng c??ch v?? hi???u h??a c??c y???u t??? m?? n?? cho l?? nguy hi???m, ch???ng h???n nh?? s??? tham gia t??? d?????i l??n v?? c??c l???c l?????ng ph??p l?? ?????c l???p, thay v??o ???? ???ng h??? s??? qu???n l?? t???p trung t??? tr??n xu???ng, m???t thi??n h?????ng ng??y c??ng ???????c ph??? d??y th??m b???ng t???m ??o c??? ??i???n Trung Qu???c.

Carl Minzner l?? gi??o s?? t???i Tr?????ng Lu???t, ?????i h???c Fordham, chuy??n nghi??n c???u lu???t ph??p v?? ch??nh quy???n Trung Qu???c.

?????????????????????

[1] Carl Minzner, China???s Turn Against Law, 59 Am. J. Comp. L. (2011).

[2] Ch???ng h???n nh?? trong c??c b??o c??o H???i ngh??? trung ????ng ?????ng n??m 2000 v?? 2001, Zhonggong Zhongyang Guanyu zhiding Guomin jingji ??ng shehui Fazhan di Shiwu Nian Jihua de jianyi (????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???  trung c???ng trung ????ng quan vu ch??? ?????nh qu???c d??n kinh t??? h??a x?? h???i ph??t tri???n ????? th???p c?? ng?? ni??n k??? hoa ????ch ki???n ngh???), ban h??nh ng??y 11 th??ng 10 2000;  zh??ng g??ng zh??ng y??ng gu??n y?? ji?? qi??ng h?? g??i j??n d??ng de zu?? f??ng ji??n sh?? de ju?? d??ng (???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???  trung c???ng trung ????ng quan vu gia c?????ng h??a c???i ti???n ?????ng ????ch t??c phong ki???n thi???t ????ch quy???t ?????nh), ban h??nh ng??y 26 th??ng 9 n??m 2001.

[3] Ch???ng h???n nh?? trong Ngh??? quy???t h???i ngh??? trung ????ng ?????ng n??m 2001,  ban h??nh 26 th??ng 9 n??m 2001.

[4] ????? bi???t m???t b???n thu???t l???i tuy???t v???i v??? s??? ra ?????i c???a s??ng ki???n n??y, h??y xem Paul Gewirtz,  The U.S.-China Rule of Law Initiative, 11 Wm. & Mary Bill RTS. J. 603 (2003).

[5] ??????ng nhi??n, ??i???u n??y kh??ng ph???i l?? ????? cho th???y r???ng cu???c t??m v??? qu?? kh??? c???a Trung Qu???c l?? sai. Trong th???c t???, m???t cu???c ph??n t??ch c???n th???n, c??ng b???ng v??? l???ch s??? Trung Qu???c ????? t??m ki???m c??c gi???i ph??p ph??p l?? hay th??? ch??? cho c??c v???n ????? m?? Trung Qu???c ??ang ph???i ?????i m???t c?? th??? l?? m???t c??ch ch???a ch??y h???u ??ch cho r???t nhi???u tr??m n??m qua, kho???ng th???i gian m?? h??? ???? th?????ng xuy??n ch?? tr???ng v??o vi???c nh???p kh???u m?? qu??ng c??c kh??i ni???m t??? ph????ng T??y, d?? l?? ch??? ngh??a t??? do hay ch??? ngh??a M??c. Nh??ng ??i???u n??y ho??n to??n kh??c v???i vi???c t???o ra m???t c??u chuy???n m???i, ???????c nh?? n?????c ph?? chu???n, ????ng ?????n v??? m???t ch??nh tr???, thi??n v??? l???ch s??? d??n t???c ch??? ngh??a m?? ch??? ????? ????n gi???n l?? nh???m ph???c v??? nh?? m???t c??ng c??? ti???n d???ng ????? h???p ph??p h??a s??? cai tr??? ?????c ??o??n hi???n ?????i.

Tri???u Ti??n ph??ng t??n l???a, quan h??? Trung ??? H??n ngu???i l???nh

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Ngu???n: ???N Korea rocket launch chills Beijing-Seoul ties???, The New York Times, 11/02/2016.

Bi??n d???ch: Phan Nguy??n

Khi Ch??? t???ch Trung Qu???c T???p C???n B??nh ?????n th??m ?????ng minh v???ng ch???c c???a Hoa K??? l?? H??n Qu???c v??o n??m 2014, ???? d?????ng nh?? l?? s??? kh???i ?????u c???a m???t m???i quan h??? g???n g??i ?????y h???a h???n.

Ng?????i ????n ti???p ??ng T???p, T???ng th???ng Park Geun-hye, ???? ????p l???i b???ng c??ch ?????n B???c Kinh n??m ngo??i ????? tham d??? m???t cu???c di???u binh m?? c??c ?????ng minh kh??c c???a M??? t???y chay, m???t c??? ch??? m?? ??ng T???p c?? th??? ???? tin r???ng s??? khi???n b?? Park ng??y c??ng c??ch xa Washington h??n.

V??? ph???n m??nh, b?? Park hy v???ng r???ng ng?????i b???n m???i ??? B???c Kinh ??? ?????i t??c kinh t??? h??ng ?????u c???a H??n Qu???c ??? s??? gi??p ki???m ch??? tham v???ng kh??ng ng???ng theo ??u???i v?? kh?? h???t nh??n c???a nh?? l??nh ?????o B???c Tri???u Ti??n Kim Jong Un.

Nh??ng tri???n v???ng v??? m???t k??? nguy??n th??n thi???n m???i gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? H??n Qu???c d?????ng nh?? ???? s???p ????? trong tu???n n??y. Sau khi B???c Tri???u Ti??n, m???t ?????ng minh hi???p ?????c c???a Trung Qu???c, ph??ng m???t qu??? t??n l???a, r?? r??ng l?? ????? th??? nghi???m c??ng ngh??? t??n l???a ?????n ?????o, H??n Qu???c ???? ????n nh???n ??i???u m?? Trung Qu???c t??? l??u ???? c??? g???ng ng??n ch???n: M???t h??? th???ng ph??ng th??? ch???ng t??n l???a c???a M??? s??? ???????c tri???n khai ngay tr??n ng?????ng c???a c???a Trung Qu???c.

Trung Qu???c hi???n t??? ra gi???n d??? h??n v???i H??n Qu???c, thay v?? ??ng Kim, ng?????i ???? b??? ngo??i tai l???i khuy??n c???a Trung Qu???c l?? ?????ng ph??ng t??n l???a.

Ch??nh ph??? c???a b?? Park n??i r???ng h??? ??ang b?????c v??o cu???c ????m ph??n v???i ch??nh quy???n c???a T???ng th???ng M??? Barack Obama v??? vi???c tri???n khai h??? th???ng n??y c???a M???, v?? L???u N??m G??c n??i r???ng vi???c l???p ?????t h??? th???ng n??y, v???n ???????c chi tr??? b???i M???, s??? ???????c ti???n h??nh m???t c??ch nhanh ch??ng nh???t c?? th???.

H??n Qu???c ???? h??nh ?????ng sau khi ph???n ???ng c???a Trung Qu???c ?????i v???i v??? th??? nghi???m h???t nh??n m???i ????y c???a B???c H??n t??? ra nh??? nh??ng h??n so v???i nh???ng g?? b?? Park mong ?????i sau g???n hai n??m ve v??n c???a ??ng T???p (?????i v???i Seoul), c??c nh?? ph??n t??ch ng?????i H??n Qu???c n??i.

H??? th???ng n??y, ???????c g???i l?? THAAD, (Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense ??? H??? th???ng ph??ng th??? t??n l???a chi???n tr?????ng t???m cao giai ??o???n cu???i), s??? cung c???p cho H??n Qu???c, v?? g???n 30.000 binh s?? M??? ????ng qu??n ??? ????, s??? b???o v??? v?????t tr???i ch???ng l???i th??ch th???c h???t nh??n ng??y c??ng l???n t??? B??nh Nh?????ng so v???i h??? th???ng ph??ng th??? t??n l???a ch??a ?????y ????? hi???n t???i c???a Seoul, c??c nh?? ph??n t??ch n??y n??i.

???T???ng th???ng Park ???? r???t th???t v???ng v?? ch??n n???n v???i s??? thi???u h??nh ?????ng v?? im l???ng c???a ??ng T???p ?????i v???i B???c Tri???u Ti??n khi b?? c???n s??? gi??p ????? c???a ??ng T???p nh???t,??? Gi??o s?? Kim Heung-kyu, Gi??m ?????c Vi???n Ch??nh s??ch Trung Qu???c t???i ?????i h???c Ajou ??? Suwon, H??n Qu???c, n??i. ??ng T???p sau ???? ???? b??? m???t m???t ??? trong n?????c khi b?? Park nhanh ch??ng ch???p nh???n h??? th???ng ph??ng th??? t??n l???a c???a M???, Gi??o s?? Kim n??i.

???Nh???ng n??? l???c c???a T???p C???n B??nh ????? bi???n T???ng th???ng Park th??nh m???t ng?????i b???n ???? kh??ng di???n ra nh?? ??ng hy v???ng,??? ??ng n??i, ???v?? ch???c ch???n b?? ???y th???t v???ng v???i nh???ng n??? l???c c???a ??ng T???p trong vi???c ki???m so??t Kim Jong Un.???

Sau v??? ph??ng t??n l???a v??o ng??y Ch??? Nh???t, Trung Qu???c l???y ???l??m ti???c??? v?? tranh lu???n gay g???t t???i Li??n Hi???p Qu???c ch???ng l???i c??c l???nh tr???ng ph???t m???i s??u r???ng h??n ?????i v???i B???c H??n.

Ng?????c l???i, Trung Qu???c n??i n?????c n??y ???quan ng???i s??u s???c??? v??? quy???t ?????nh c???a H??n Qu???c cho ph??p tri???n khai c??c h??? th???ng ph??ng th??? t??n l???a. B???c Kinh c???nh b??o ???m???i qu???c gia kh??ng ???????c ph??p ph?? ho???i l???i ??ch an ninh c???a c??c n?????c kh??c trong qu?? tr??nh theo ??u???i l???i ??ch an ninh c???a ri??ng m??nh???, ng??? ?? r?? r??ng r???ng h??? th???ng t??n l???a l?? nh???m c???ng c??? m???ng l?????i c??c li??n minh c???a Washington t???i ????ng B???c ??, thay v?? cung c???p s??? b???o v??? ch???ng l???i B???c H??n.

????? ch???ng minh s??? kh??ng h??i l??ng c???a m??nh, B??? Ngo???i giao Trung Qu???c ???? tri???u t???p ?????i s??? H??n Qu???c t???i B???c Kinh Kim Jang-soo nh???m ph???n ?????i c??c cu???c ????m ph??n gi???a Seoul v?? M??? v??? h??? th???ng ph??ng th??? t??n l???a. (Nh???m th??? hi???n s??? c??ng b???ng, Trung Qu???c c??ng tri???u t???p ?????i s???c B???c H??n Ji Jae Ryong nh???m ph???n ?????i v??? ph??ng t??n l???a.)

S??? t???c gi???n c???a Trung Qu???c v??? h??? th???ng t??n l???a s???p ???????c l???p ?????t c???a M??? ngay s??t bi??n gi???i c???a m??nh b???t ngu???n t??? hai nguy??n nh??n, ??ng Chu Shulong, m???t gi??o s?? v??? quan h??? qu???c t??? t???i ?????i h???c Thanh Hoa ??? B???c Kinh, n??i.

Th??? nh???t, nhi???u ng?????i trong ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c kh??ng tin B???c H??n s??? s??? d???ng v?? kh?? h???t nh??n c???a m??nh, Gi??o s?? Chu n??i. Th??? hai, ni???m tin r???ng vi???c tri???n khai h??? th???ng THAAD ch??? y???u l?? nh???m c???ng c??? v??? th??? c???a M??? ??? ????ng B???c ?? t???n t???i r???ng r??i ??? B???c Kinh, n??i gi???i ch???c lo ng???i m???c ti??u cu???i c??ng c???a n?? l?? ????? ng??n ch???n Trung Qu???c.

???B???c Tri???u Ti??n l?? m???t ch??? ????? x???u, v??ng, t???t c??? m???i ng?????i ?????u ?????ng ?? v???i ??i???u ???????, Gi??o s?? Chu n??i. ???Nh??ng li???u B???c Tri???u Ti??n s??? c?? s??? d???ng v?? kh?? (h???t nh??n) c???a m??nh kh??ng? C?? l??? l?? kh??ng. Kh??ng n??n coi B???c H??n l?? m???t m???i ??e d???a t???c th??.???

Nh???n ?????nh n??y r???t kh??c so v???i t?????ng tr??nh ?????u tu???n n??y tr?????c Qu???c h???i M??? c???a Gi??m ?????c T??nh b??o Qu???c gia M???, ??ng James Clapper, ng?????i ?????t B???c H??n ?????ng ?????u danh s??ch c???a Washington v??? c??c m???i ??e d???a li??n quan ?????n v?? kh?? h???t nh??n v?? ph??? bi???n v?? kh?? h???t nh??n.

????ng lo ng???i h??n v???i Trung Qu???c kh??ng ph???i l?? v?? kh?? h???t nh??n c???a B???c Tri???u Ti??n, Gi??o s?? Chu n??i, m?? l?? quan ??i???m r???ng THAAD s??? g???n k???t ch???t ch??? h??n H??n Qu???c v?? Nh???t B???n, hai ?????ng minh c???a M??? v???n ??ang c?? nh???ng cu???c c??i v?? ri??ng, d?????i m???t chi???c ?? chung c???a Washington.

Quy???t ?????nh c???a H??n Qu???c ?????ng c???nh ng?????i b???o l??nh an ninh c???a m??nh l?? Washington di???n ra khi m???i quan h??? t???ng th??? gi???a M??? v?? Trung Qu???c ???? tr??? n??n c??ng th???ng h??n, ???????c th??? hi???n kh??ng ch??? b???i s??? kh??c bi???t v??? quan ??i???m ?????i v???i v???n ????? B???c Tri???u Ti??n m?? c??n b???i s??? c???nh tranh ??? Bi???n ????ng.

Tu???n t???i, ??ng Obama s??? ????n ti???p l??nh ?????o 10 th??nh vi??n c???a Hi???p h???i c??c qu???c gia ????ng Nam ?? (ASEAN) t???i Sunnylands, ?????a ??i???m ??? California n??i ??ng v?? ??ng T???p ???? g???p nhau h???i n??m 2013. V??o d???p ????, hai v??? l??nh ?????o cam k???t s??? l??m vi???c c??ng nhau ????? gi???i quy???t v???n ????? h???t nh??n B???c Tri???u Ti??n. L???n n??y, ??ng Obama c?? kh??? n??ng s??? ????? ngh??? c??c l??nh ?????o ASEAN, d?? ch??? gi??n ti???p, ?????ng v??? ph??a Washington thay v?? B???c Kinh.

?????i v???i Trung Qu???c, ???s??? ra ?????i c???a THAAD l?? m???t tr??? ng???i v?? n?? k???t n???i H??n Qu???c v???i m???t chi???n l?????c khu v???c c???a M??????, ??ng Scott Snyder, chuy??n gia cao c???p v??? nghi??n c???u H??n Qu???c t???i H???i ?????ng Quan h??? ?????i ngo???i, n??i. ???V???n ch??a r?? li???u Trung Qu???c s??? ph???n ???ng v???i tr??? ng???i n??y b???ng c??ch h???n ch??? h???p t??c v???i M??? v??? B???c Tri???u Ti??n, hay Trung Qu???c s??? c?? th??? tr???ng ph???t H??n Qu???c v?? quy???t ?????nh n??y.???

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