L?? B???ng v?? vai tr?? g??y tranh c??i trong ch??nh bi???n Thi??n An M??n

Thứ ba - 30/07/2019 20:36
Nh???t k?? c???a L?? B???ng v??o ng??y 27 th??ng 4 n??m 1989 ghi l???i kho???nh kh???c s??? c??? bi???u t??nh Thi??n An M??n t??c ?????ng tr???c ti???p t???i ??ng. Tr??n ???????ng v??? nh?? t??? v??n ph??ng th??? t?????ng ??? B???c Kinh, chi???c xe c???a ??ng ???? b??? ch???n b???i nh???ng ng?????i bi???u t??nh. Ng?????i l??i xe v?? v??? s?? c???a ??ng ??? v?? ??ng vui m???ng v?? c?? h??? b??n c???nh l??c ???? ??? ph???i t??m ???????ng kh??c.
L?? B???ng v?? vai tr?? g??y tranh c??i trong ch??nh bi???n Thi??n An M??n



L?? B???ng v?? vai tr?? g??y tranh c??i trong ch??nh bi???n Thi??n An M??n

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Ngu???n: ???Obituary: Li Peng died on July 22nd???, The Economist, 25/07/2019.

Bi??n d???ch: Phan Nguy??n

Nh???t k?? c???a L?? B???ng v??o ng??y 27 th??ng 4 n??m 1989 ghi l???i kho???nh kh???c s??? c??? bi???u t??nh Thi??n An M??n t??c ?????ng tr???c ti???p t???i ??ng. Tr??n ???????ng v??? nh?? t??? v??n ph??ng th??? t?????ng ??? B???c Kinh, chi???c xe c???a ??ng ???? b??? ch???n b???i nh???ng ng?????i bi???u t??nh. Ng?????i l??i xe v?? v??? s?? c???a ??ng ??? v?? ??ng vui m???ng v?? c?? h??? b??n c???nh l??c ???? ??? ph???i t??m ???????ng kh??c.

Sau nhi???u ng??y bi???u t??nh ???ng h??? d??n ch??? c???a c??c sinh vi??n ??? Qu???ng tr?????ng Thi??n An M??n, ch??nh ph??? v???n ch??a c?? h??nh ?????ng n??o. Kh??ng ai ?????n ????nh ?????p v?? b???t gi??? nh???ng ng?????i bi???u t??nh nh?? t???ng x???y ra m???t l???n duy nh???t tr?????c ???? trong giai ??o???n cai tr??? c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n ??? trong m???t ?????t bi???u t??nh quy m?? l???n c??ng t???i ch??nh Thi??n An M??n. ???? l?? v??o n??m 1976, khi ng?????i d??n ??ang th????ng ti???c s??? qua ?????i c???a Th??? t?????ng Chu ??n Lai. L?? c??ng ???? kh??c th????ng ??ng Chu, c?? l??? nhi???u h??n nhi???u ng?????i kh??c, v?? Chu ???? ch??m s??c ??ng t??? khi ??ng c??n l?? m???t ?????a tr??? sau khi cha ??ng b??? gi???t, hi sinh v?? cu???c ?????u tranh c???a c??ch m???ng. ?????o ?????c v?? nguy??n t???c c???a Chu ???? ???nh h?????ng s??u s???c ?????n L?? sau n??y.

Nh??ng s??? ti???c th????ng c???a c??ng ch??ng n??m 1976 ???? bi???n th??nh bi???u t??nh ch??nh tr??? ch???ng l???i nh???ng k??? th?? c???ng r???n c???a Chu, v?? cu???c bi???u t??nh ???? ???? b??? tr???n ??p m???nh m???. B??y gi???, 13 n??m sau, nhi???u ng?????i Trung Qu???c ???? cho ph??p m??nh tin r???ng cu???i c??ng ?????ng c??ng ???? s???n s??ng ??i theo m???t con ???????ng ch??nh tr??? m???i, c??? m??? h??n v???i b???t ?????ng ch??nh ki???n. Nh??ng L?? kh??ng th??? cho ph??p ??i???u n??y. ??ng vi???t trong nh???t k?? c???a m??nh r???ng ??ng th?? ch???t c??n h??n l?? ????? c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh v?????t ra kh???i t???m ki???m so??t.

Ngay t??? ?????u cu???c bi???u t??nh ??ng ???? s??? ??i???u t???i t??? nh???t: r???ng nh???ng k??? g??y r???i n??y s??? l???p l???i s??? h???n lo???n v?? b???o l???c m?? Trung Qu???c t???ng ch???u ?????ng trong C??ch m???ng V??n h??a. ??ng ???? tr???i qua nh???ng n??m bi th???m ???? trong vai tr?? m???t c??n b??? b??nh th?????ng ph??? tr??ch c??ng t??c ?????ng t???i s??? ??i???n l???c B???c Kinh. (Ph??t ??i???n, ?????c bi???t l?? k??? thu???t th???y ??i???n, l?? t??nh y??u l???n c???a ??ng, v?? ??ng t???ng theo h???c chuy??n ng??nh n??y t???i Vi???n K??? thu???t ??i???n ??? Moskva). Gi??? ????y, trong th???i ?????i c???a ?????ng Ti???u B??nh v???i kh???u hi???u ???c???i c??ch???, ch??nh tr??? tr??? n??n b??? pha tr???n theo m???t h?????ng m???i, v?? L?? ???????c g???i l?? m???t ng?????i b???o th???. Trong khi ?????ng l?? ng?????i c???i m???, L?? s??? t???o d???u ???n c???a m??nh b???ng c??ch gi??? l???p tr?????ng ng?????c l???i.

Th???c t???, ch??nh tr??? Trung Qu???c trong th???i ?????i c???a ?????ng th?????ng m??u thu???n: v???a ??n h??a v???a c???ng r???n. N??m 1989, ?????ng c?? hai ng?????i th??n c???n, v?? L?? l?? m???t trong s??? ????. Ng?????i c??n l???i, ho??n to??n kh??c, l?? T???ng B?? th?? Tri???u T??? D????ng (Zhao Ziyang), m???t ng?????i c?? v??? t??? do xuy??n su???t, m???t ng?????i l??i cu???n, thanh l???ch, th??ch m???c T??y ph???c. L?? t??? l??u ???? m??u thu???n v???i Tri???u v??? t???c ????? v?? ???????ng h?????ng c???i c??ch, v??? c??c v???n ????? t??? c???i c??ch gi?? c??? ?????n ki???m so??t ?? th???c h???. L?? m???t ng?????i tin t?????ng m???nh m??? v??o vai tr?? c???a nh?? n?????c v?? ?????ng, ??ng coi b???t k??? thay ?????i n??o ?????u c?? kh??? n??ng g??y nguy hi???m cho c??? hai.

Trong nh???ng ng??y xu??n c??ng th???ng n??m 1989, Tri???u c?? ph???n ?????ng c???m v???i c??c sinh vi??n. ??ng ngh?? h??? y??u n?????c. C??n L?? coi c??c l??nh ?????o sinh vi??n l?? nh???ng k??? ph???n c??ch m???ng, t??m c??ch l???t ????? ?????ng. H??? ph???i b??? ????n ??p. Trong c??c cu???c h???p c???a ???y ban Th?????ng v??? B??? Ch??nh tr???, ??ng v?? Tri???u ???? c??i nhau d??? d???i. Nh??ng L?? bi???t ?????ng ???ng h??? m??nh v?? ch??? tr?????ng d??ng v?? l???c ????? ????n ??p. V??o ng??y 17 th??ng 5, ??ng c??ng v???i m???t Tri???u T??? D????ng ??ang th???t v???ng r???i m???t cu???c h???p c???a B??? Ch??nh tr??? t???i nh?? ?????ng, vui m???ng v?? quan ??i???m c???a ??ng ???? th???ng th???. Vi???c ????n ??p ???? ???????c cho ph??p. V??o ng??y 18, ??ng ???? ch??? tr?? m???t cu???c h???p c??ng th???ng v???i m???t s??? l??nh ?????o sinh vi??n t???i ?????i l??? ???????ng Nh??n d??n nh??n ra Qu???ng tr?????ng Thi??n An M??n, n??i v???i h??? m???t c??ch l???nh l??ng: ???T??nh h??nh s??? kh??ng ph??t tri???n nh?? c??c c???u mu???n v?? mong ?????i???. Tr??i l???i, n?? s??? ph??t tri???n theo nh?? L?? mu???n v?? d??? ki???n.

????m 20 th??ng 5 ???? ghi d???u ???n c???a L?? v??o l???ch s??? Trung Qu???c. ???? l?? khi ??ng xu???t hi???n tr??n truy???n h??nh qu???c gia, m???c m???t b??? ????? ?????i c??n v???i m??i t??c vu???t ng?????c ra sau, bi???n minh cho vi???c chu???n b??? ??p d???ng thi???t qu??n lu???t ??? B???c Kinh. ???T??nh tr???ng v?? ch??nh ph??? ??ang ng??y c??ng x???u ??i???, ??ng ?????c b??i di???n v??n v???i gi???ng c??ng th???ng v?? t???c gi???n. ???S??? ph???n v?? t????ng lai c???a n?????c C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa, ???????c x??y ?????p b???i x????ng m??u c???a bao nhi??u chi???n s?? c??ch m???ng [trong ???? c?? cha ??ng], ??ang ?????i m???t v???i m???t m???i ??e d???a nghi??m tr???ng???. T??? trong m???t h???i tr?????ng ch???t c???ng, h??ng tr??m c??n b??? ???? v??? tay ???ng h??? ??ng.

L?? ???? th???ng cu???c chi???n c???a m??nh, v?? Tri???u ???? thua. Nh??ng L?? ???? kh??ng gi??nh ???????c tr??i tim v?? kh???i ??c c???a c??c sinh vi??n. M???c d?? c??c sinh vi??n t???p trung s??? t???c gi???n c???a h??? v??o m???t s??? ng?????i, bao g???m c??? ch??nh ?????ng, nh??ng L?? ???? tr??? th??nh g????ng m???t ?????i di???n ch??nh cho nh???ng g?? x???u xa. Khi qu??n ?????i t???p trung ??? ngo???i th??nh B???c Kinh chu???n b??? ti???n v??o d???n d???p qu???ng tr?????ng, c??c sinh vi??n v?? c??c c??ng d??n kh??c ???? t??? ch???c m???t cu???c bi???u t??nh r???m r???, h??t vang ???????? ?????o L?? B???ng???! Trong cu???c g???p ng???n ng???i v???i h??? v??o ng??y 18, trong b???u kh??ng khi s??i s???c s??? khinh mi???t, ??ng ???? n??i th???ng v???i h???: ???Ch??ng ta ph???i b???o v??? ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i. T??i kh??ng quan t??m ?????n vi???c c??c anh ch??? c?? th??ch nghe ??i???u n??y hay kh??ng???. V??o ????m 3 th??ng 6, ??i???u n??y ???? ???????c l???p l???i m???t l???n n???a ??? b???ng nh???ng vi??n ?????n. H??ng tr??m, c?? th??? h??ng ng??n ng?????i, ???? b??? gi???t. M???t s??? ng?????i, ?????c bi???t l?? ?????ng, x???ng ????ng b??? b??u t??n l?? ???????? t??? B???c Kinh??? nh?? c??ch nhi???u ng?????i n?????c ngo??i sau ???? ???? g??n cho c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c. Nh??ng bi???t danh n??y th?????ng ???????c g??n cho L??.

B??nh xe v???n quay

Nh??ng L?? ch???ng h??? b???n t??m ?????n ??i???u ????. Th??? gi???i h???u Thi??n An M??n l?? th??? gi???i c???a ??ng. Quan ??i???m t??? do ki???u Tri???u kh??ng bao gi??? ???????c ph???c h???i. C???i c??ch kinh t??? cu???i c??ng ???? c???t c??nh m???t l???n n???a, nhanh h??n t???c ????? m?? nh???ng ng?????i b???o th??? nh?? ??ng mu???n. Nh??ng ?????ng v???n n???m v???ng quy???n l???c, v?? ???? m???i l?? ??i???u quan tr???ng nh???t. ??ng gi??? ch???c th??? t?????ng trong g???n m???t th???p ni??n, ?????m b???o cho c??c  th??nh vi??n gia ????nh ??ng tho???i m??i c???m r??? trong ng??nh ??i???n l???c: hai con trai v?? con g??i ??ng ?????u l??m vi???c trong B??? T??i nguy??n n?????c v?? ??i???n l???c, v?? m???t con trai c???a ??ng tr??? th??nh ch??? t???ch t???nh S??n T??y n??i c?? nhi???u than. Nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? chi???n d???ch ch???ng tham nh??ng ???? ph???n n??? v???i ???gia ????nh ??i???n l???c??? c???a ??ng. Nh??ng ??i???u ???? c??ng kh??ng h??? l??m ??ng b???n t??m.

D??? ??n m?? ??ng t??? h??o nh???t, m???c d?? n?? khi???n ??ng tr??? n??n tai ti???ng h??n, l?? vi???c x??y d???ng m???t con ?????p kh???ng l??? t???i Tam Hi???p tr??n s??ng D????ng T???, n??i c?? phong c???nh tuy???t ?????p. N?? ti??u t???n h??ng ch???c t??? ???? la, l??m 1,3 tri???u d??n ph???i di d???i v?? b??? c??c nh?? m??i tr?????ng ??? Trung Qu???c v?? n?????c ngo??i l??n ??n, nh??ng ??ng ???? t??n d????ng n?? v?? c??n ????a n?? v??o trong m???t b??i th?? c???a m??nh: ???B??nh xe kh???ng l??? quay/ D??ng ??i???n tr??n v?? t???n/ Th??nh t???u v??o l??c n??y/ L???i ??ch mu??n ?????i sau???. ??ng c??ng vi???t m???t cu???n s??ch v??? d??? ??n, d???a tr??n cu???n nh???t k?? m?? ??ng ???? gi??? sau ????. ??ng v???n gi??? th??i quen vi???t nh???t k?? m???i ng??y ngay c??? khi ???? v??? gi??. ??ng c??? g???ng xu???t b???n c??c ph???n tuy???n ch???n t??? nh???t k?? c???a m??nh ghi l???i nh???ng ng??y th??ng T??, th??ng N??m v?? th??ng S??u n??m 1989, b???o v??? vai tr?? c???a ??ng trong ch??nh bi???n Thi??n An M??n. ??ng d?????ng nh?? kh??ng quan t??m li???u ?????c gi??? c?? vui v??? ????n nh???n ch??ng hay kh??ng.
 

Nh???t k?? L?? B???ng vi???t v??? H???i ngh??? Th??nh ????

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thanhdo

T??c gi???: L?? B???ng | Bi??n d???ch : Nguy??n H???i

 [N??m 1986]

Ng??y 26 th??ng 12, Th??? S??u, tr???i ??m u, c?? m??a

T???i ?????i h???i VI ?????ng C???ng S???n Vi???t Nam [??CSVN], Nguy???n V??n Linh ???????c b???u l??m T???ng B?? th?? ?????ng, thay cho nguy??n T???ng B?? th?? L?? Du???n qua ?????i h???i th??ng 7.

[N??m 1989]

Ng??y 26 th??ng 8, Th??? B???y, tr???i ??m u, c?? m??a

H??m nay Vi???t Nam tuy??n b??? ???? ???r??t to??n b??? qu??n ?????i??? t??? Campuchia. ??i???u ???? t???o ??i???u ki???n thu???n l???i cho vi???c gi???i quy???t v???n ????? Campuchia, c??ng qu??t s???ch tr??? ng???i cho vi???c b??nh th?????ng h??a m???i quan h??? Trung Qu???c-Vi???t Nam.

B?????c ngo???t trong m???i quan h??? Trung Qu???c-Vi???t Nam ???H???i ngh??? Th??nh ????

[N??m 1990]

Ng??y 6 th??ng 6, Th??? T??, tr???i h???ng.

T???ng B?? th?? Nguy???n V??n Linh h???i ki???n ?????i s??? Tr????ng ?????c Duy t???i B??? Qu???c ph??ng Vi???t Nam. Nguy???n hy v???ng th???c hi???n b??nh th?????ng h??a quan h??? hai n?????c, hai ?????ng v?? mong mu???n s???m ??i th??m Trung Qu???c.

Ng??y 26 th??ng 8, Ch??? Nh???t, tr???i ??m u c?? m??a.

T??i n??i v???i ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n v??? vi???c T???ng B?? th?? ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam [??CSVN] Nguy???n V??n Linh v?? nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ?????o ch??? y???u ph??a Vi???t Nam ?????n th??m Trung Qu???c v???i t??nh ch???t n???i b???, ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n t??? ?? ho??n to??n t??n th??nh.

Ng??y 27 th??ng 8, Th??? Hai, tr???i m??a.

T??i ???? b??o c??o ?????ng ch?? ?????ng Ti???u B??nh v??? vi???c ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n v?? t??i s??? h???i ki???n Nguy???n V??n Linh. X??t th???y ?? V???n H???i s???p c??? h??nh t???i B???c Kinh, m?? l???n g???p g??? n??y b??n ?????n vi???c b??nh th?????ng h??a quan h??? hai n?????c Trung-Vi???t, l?? chuy???n tr???ng ?????i, ????? ti???n gi??? b?? m???t, ?????a ??i???m h???i ????m thu x???p t???i Th??nh ????.

Ng??y 30 th??ng 8, Th??? N??m, tr???i h???ng.

Vi???c ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n v?? t??i ??i Th??nh ???? h???i ????m v???i T???ng B?? th?? ??CSVN Nguy???n V??n Linh, Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng B??? tr?????ng ????? M?????i, ???? g???i l???i m???i cho ph??a Vi???t Nam. Gi??? ????y h??y xem Vi???t Nam tr??? l???i th??? n??o.

Ng??y 2 th??ng 9, Ch??? Nh???t, tr???i h???ng.

Ba gi??? r?????i chi???u, t??i ????p chuy??n c?? c???t c??nh t??? s??n bay T??y Giao B???c Kinh, kho???ng 6 gi??? ?????n s??n bay Th??nh ????. Ch??ng t??i ??i ?? t??, sau 20 ph??t ?????n Nh?? kh??ch Kim Ng??u, B?? th?? T???nh ???y D????ng Nh??? ?????i ??ang ch???. ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n ????p m???t chuy??n c?? kh??c ?????n Th??nh ???? sau t??i n???a gi???. Bu???i t???i t??? 8 gi??? r?????i ?????n 11 gi???, t??i v?? ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n trao ?????i ?? ki???n v??? ph????ng ch??m h???i ????m v???i ph??a Vi???t Nam ng??y mai.

Ng??y 3 th??ng 9, Th??? Hai, Th??nh ????, tr???i h???ng.

Bu???i s??ng, t??i ?????n ch??? ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n c??ng ?????ng ch?? ti???p t???c nghi??n c???u ph????ng ch??m h???i ????m v???i ph??a Vi???t Nam chi???u nay.

Bu???i chi???u kho???ng 2 gi???, T???ng B?? th?? Trung ????ng ??CSVN Nguy???n V??n Linh, Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng B??? tr?????ng ????? M?????i v?? C??? v???n T?? ??CSVN Ph???m V??n ?????ng ?????n Nh?? kh??ch Kim Ng??u. Giang Tr???ch D??n v?? t??i ????n h??? t???i nh?? tr???t s??? 1. Nguy???n V??n Linh m???c ??u ph???c m??u c?? ph??, c?? phong th??i h???c gi???. ????? M?????i c??n kh???e m???nh, t??c b???c ph??, m???c ??u ph???c m??u lam. Hai ng?????i n??y ?????u ??? ????? tu???i 73-74, c??n Ph???m V??n ?????ng hai m???t b??? ?????c th???y tinh th???, th??? l???c r???t k??m, m???c b??? ?????i c??n m??u lam, gi???ng c??n b??? l??o th??nh Trung Qu???c.

Bu???i chi???u, h???i ????m b???t ?????u, tr?????c ti??n Nguy???n V??n Linh ph??t bi???u m???t b??i d??i. Tuy ???? t??? ?? mu???n gi???i quy???t th???t nhanh v???n ????? Campuchia v?? n??i th??nh l???p H???i ?????ng T???i cao Campuchia l?? nhi???m v??? c???p b??ch tr?????c m???t, kh??ng n??n lo???i b??? b???t c??? b??n n??o, nh??ng l???i t??? ?? kh??ng mu???n can thi???p v??o vi???c n???i b??? c???a Campuchia. Xem ra tr??n v???n ????? Campuchia, Nguy???n V??n Linh ch??? mu???n t??? th??i ????? v??? nguy??n t???c, m?? ?????t tr???ng ??i???m v??o m???t b??nh th?????ng h??a quan h??? Trung-Vi???t.

H???i ????m k??o d??i m???t m???ch ?????n 8 gi??? t???i. 8 gi??? r?????i m???i b???t ?????u ti???c chi??u ????i t???i. Tr??n b??n ??n, t??i v?? ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n t???ng ng?????i l??m vi???c v???i Nguy???n V??n Linh v?? ????? M?????i.

Ng??y 4 th??ng 9, Th??? Ba, tr???i ??m u.

Bu???i s??ng, ch??ng t??i ti???p t???c h???p v???i c??c ?????ng ch?? l??nh ?????o Vi???t Nam. ?????n gi??? n??y, n??n n??i l?? c??c v???n ????? h???i ngh??? n??u ra ???? ?????t ???????c s??? ?????ng thu???n t????ng ?????i tr???n v???n, quy???t ?????nh d??? th???o bi??n b???n h???i ngh???.

Hai gi??? r?????i chi???u, hai b??n Trung Qu???c-Vi???t Nam l??m l??? k?? bi??n b???n ??? nh?? tr???t s??? M???t nh?? kh??ch Kim Ng??u, T???ng B?? th?? v?? Th??? t?????ng m???i b??n ?????u k??. ????y l?? b?????c ngo???t c?? t??nh l???ch s??? trong m???i quan h??? Trung Qu???c-Vi???t Nam. Ngay t???i l??? k??, ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n t???ng c??c ?????ng ch?? Vi???t Nam c??u th?? ???????? t???n ki???p ba huynh ????? t???i, t????ng ph??ng nh???t ti???u m???n ??n c???u [T???m d???ch : Qua ho???n n???n, anh em c??n ????. G???p nhau c?????i, h???t s???ch ??n th??] ???. ????y l?? c??u th?? c???a L??? T???n.[1] C??c ?????ng ch?? Vi???t Nam t??? ?? vui m???ng v???i vi???c t???ng th?? n??y.

4 gi??? chi???u, chuy??n c?? c???t c??nh v??? B???c Kinh, Kho???ng 6 gi??? 10 ?????n n??i.

?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam h???p ?????i h???i VII

[N??m 1991]

Ng??y 29 th??ng 6, Th??? B???y.

?????i h???i VII ??CSVN b??? m???c, ????? M?????i ???????c b???u l??m T???ng B?? th??, Nguy???n V??n Linh, Ph???m V??n ?????ng l?? C??? v???n. Tinh th???n c?? b???n c???a ?????i h???i VII ??CSVN l?? ki??n tr?? ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i, c???i c??ch kinh t???, ch??? tr????ng h???u ngh??? Vi???t Nam-Li??n X??, Vi???t Nam-Trung Qu???c. Tinh th???n n??y c?? l???i cho vi???c c???i thi???n quan h??? Trung-Vi???t.

Ng??y 30 th??ng 7, Th??? Ba, B???c Kinh, tr???i h???ng.

Bu???i chi???u t??i h???i ki???n v???i ?????i bi???u ?????c bi???t Trung ????ng ??CSVN L?? ?????c Anh v?? H???ng H??. H??? y??u c???u t??? ch???c cu???c g???p c???p cao Trung-Vi???t. T??i n??i l?? ????? cho nh??n d??n hai n?????c c?? chu???n b???, ????? c??c n?????c kh??c trong ASEAN kh??ng ?????n n???i c?? lo ng???i, Trung Qu???c-Vi???t Nam tr?????c ti??n n??n ti???n h??nh g???p g??? c???p Th??? tr?????ng v?? B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao. C??n n??i v???  g???p g??? c???p cao, ph??a Trung Qu???c cho r???ng tr??n nguy??n t???c kh??ng c?? v???n ????? g??. Ng??y mai T???ng B?? th?? Giang Tr???ch D??n s??? ch??nh th???c tr??? l???i h???. V??? vi???c b??nh th?????ng h??a quan h??? kinh t??? Trung-Vi???t, c?? th??? tr??n nguy??n t???c b??nh ?????ng c??ng c?? l???i, c??c ????n v??? ?????i t??c c???a hai b??n s??? b??n b???c gi???i quy???t, Trung Qu???c ?????u c?? th??i ????? t??ch c???c ?????i v???i c??c v???n ????? n???i l???i th????ng m???i, b??u ch??nh, h??ng kh??ng, quy???t to??n ng??n h??ng, kh??i ph???c giao th??ng tr??n b???.

Th???c hi???n b??nh th?????ng h??a m???i quan h??? Trung Qu???c-Vi???t Nam

Ng??y 5 th??ng 11, Th??? Ba, tr???i h???ng.

5 gi??? chi???u, ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n v?? t??i l??m nghi th???c ????n T???ng B?? th?? ??CSVN ????? M?????i v?? Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng B??? tr?????ng V?? V??n Ki???t th??m Trung Qu???c t???i qu???ng tr?????ng ????ng M??n b??n ngo??i ?????i l??? ???????ng Nh??n d??n. Ti???p ???? ch??ng t??i h???i ????m. Tr??n v???n ????? ????i Loan, ????? M?????i c?? th??i ????? r?? r??ng. ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n n??i, sau khi m???i quan h??? hai n?????c tr???i qua m???t kh??c quanh co, h??m nay ng?????i l??nh ?????o hai n?????c Trung-Vi???t c?? th??? ng???i v???i nhau l??m cu???c g???p g??? c???p cao, ??i???u n??y c?? ?? ngh??a quan tr???ng. ????y l?? cu???c g???p k???t th??c qu?? kh???, m??? ra t????ng lai, ????nh d???u s??? b??nh th?????ng h??a m???i quan h??? hai n?????c, n?? ???t s??? c?? ???nh h?????ng s??u xa ?????i v???i s??? ph??t tri???n m???i quan h??? gi???a hai n?????c. ????? M?????i n??i, vi???c b??nh th?????ng h??a m???i quan h??? Vi???t-Trung ph?? h???p nguy???n v???ng v?? l???i ??ch c??n b???n c???a nh??n d??n hai n?????c, c??ng c?? l???i cho h??a b??nh v?? ???n ?????nh khu v???c n??y v?? th??? gi???i. Ti???p ???? v??o ti???c chi??u ????i.

Ng??y 6 th??ng 11, Th??? T??, tr???i h???ng.

Bu???i chi???u, t??i h???i ????m v???i Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng B??? tr?????ng V?? V??n Ki???t, kh??ng kh?? h???i ????m r???t t???t. Tr?????c h???t t??i n??i, s??ng nay T???ng B?? th?? Giang Tr???ch D??n v?? T???ng B?? th?? ????? M?????i ???? ti???n h??nh cu???c h???i ????m r???t t???t, hai b??n ???? g???ng s???c trao ?????i m???i ?? ki???n. V?? V??n Ki???t c?? th??i ????? ????ng tr??n v???n ????? ????i Loan. Trong h???i ????m, t??i ???? n??u ra c??c v???n ????? n???, bi??n gi???i, n???n d??n v.v??? Hai b??n ?????ng ?? sau n??y s??? b??n l???i. V??? vi???c Vi???t Nam ????? xu???t vay ti???n cho c??c d??? ??n m???i, t??i nh???n l???i tr?????c h???t s??? kh???o s??t c??c d??? ??n c???a Vi???t Nam. V??? v???n ????? Campuchia, t??i n??i hi???p ?????nh gi???i quy???t ch??nh tr??? to??n di???n v???n ????? Campuchia ???? k?? t???i Paris, vi???c thi h??nh hi???p ?????nh n??y c??n c???n t???i s??? ti???p t???c c??? g???ng c???a c??c b??n.

Ng??y 7 th??ng 11, Th??? N??m, tr???i h???ng.

Bu???i chi???u, hi???p ?????nh th????ng m???i Trung-Vi???t v?? hi???p ?????nh t???m th???i v??? vi???c gi???i quy???t c??ng vi???c ??? bi??n gi???i hai n?????c ???????c k?? t???i Nh?? kh??ch qu???c t??? ??? ??i???u Ng?? ????i. L??nh ?????o ?????ng v?? Ch??nh ph??? hai n?????c d??? l??? k?? k???t. Sau ???? t??i v?? ?????ng ch?? Giang Tr???ch D??n n??i l???i t???m bi???t v???i ????? M?????i v?? V?? V??n Ki???t. H??? s??? ??i th??m Qu???ng Ch??u, Th??m Quy???n.

???????????????

B??i vi???t tr??ch t??? nh???t k?? c???a c???u Th??? t?????ng Trung Qu???c L?? B???ng. Nh???t k?? c???a L?? B???ng ???????c in th??nh s??ch d?????i t??n ???H??a b??nh Ph??t tri???n H???p t??c ??? L?? B???ng ngo???i s??? nh???t k?????, T??n Hoa xu???t b???n x??.

Ngu???n:   ??????????????????1990?????????????????????????????????   2012???05???03???   ?????????   ??????

?????c th??m:

????????????????????????

[1] Giang Tr???ch D??n n??i c??u th?? n??y l?? c???a Giang V??nh (1681-1762), nh?? th?? ?????i Thanh. Giang Tr???ch D??n qu?? ??? Giang Loan, V??? Nguy??n (nay thu???c Giang T??y), m?? Giang V??nh l?? danh nh??n l???ch s??? v??ng n??y, ch???c h???n ??ng bi???t r?? v??? Giang V??nh. Nh?? v???y c?? th??? L??? T???n ???? m?????n c??u th?? ???y c???a Giang V??nh ????a v??o b??i th?? ???????? Tam Ngh??a Th??p ??? L??? T???n l??m n??m 1933. ??ng C??? Ti???u T??ng Ph?? Vi???n tr?????ng Vi???n Khoa h???c x?? h???i Qu???ng T??y c??ng n??i nh?? Giang Tr???ch D??n (ND).
 

15/03/1990: Gorbachev ???????c b???u l??m T???ng th???ng Li??n X??

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Ngu???n: ???Gorbachev elected president of the Soviet Union,??? History.com (truy c???p ng??y 13/03/2015).

Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

Ng??y 15 th??ng 3 n??m 1990, ?????i h???i ?????i bi???u Nh??n d??n Li??n X?? b???u T???ng b?? th?? Mikhail Gorbachev l??n l??m T???ng th???ng ?????u ti??n c???a Li??n bang X?? vi???t. Trong khi cu???c b???u c??? l?? m???t th???ng l???i ?????i v???i Gorbachev, n?? c??ng cho th???y nh???ng ??i???m y???u nghi??m tr???ng trong c?? s??? quy???n l???c c???a ??ng, cu???i c??ng d???n ?????n vi???c ch??nh quy???n t???ng th???ng c???a ??ng s???p ????? cu???i th??ng 12 n??m 1991.

Cu???c b???u c??? c???a Gorbachev n??m 1990 kh??c xa so v???i nh???ng cu???c ???b???u c?????? kh??c ???????c t??? ch???c tr?????c ???? t???i Li??n X??. K??? t??? khi l??n n???m quy???n n??m 1985, Gorbachev ???? n??? l???c m??? ra c??c ti???n tr??nh ch??nh tr??? t???i Li??n X??, v???n ?????ng th??ng qua m???t ?????o lu???t nh???m lo???i b??? s??? ?????c quy???n c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n v?? th??nh l???p ?????i h???i ?????i bi???u Nh??n d??n. Ph???n l???n th??nh vi??n ?????i h???i ???????c b???u l??n th??ng qua b??? phi???u k??n. Tuy nhi??n, ?????n n??m 1990, Gorbachev ph???i ?????i m???t v???i nhi???u ch??? tr??ch ?????n t??? c??? nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? c???i c??ch v?? nh???ng ng?????i theo phe c???ng s???n b???o th??? c???ng r???n. Nh???ng nh?? c???i c??ch nh?? Boris Yeltsin cho r???ng ngh??? tr??nh c???i c??ch c???a Gorbachev l?? qu?? ch???m ch???p. M???t kh??c, nh???ng ng?????i theo phe c???ng s???n b???o th??? l???i ch??? tr??ch nh???ng b?????c ??i c???a Gorbachev l?? xa r???i c??c nguy??n t???c c???a ch??? ngh??a M??c. Trong n??? l???c th??c ?????y ch????ng tr??nh c???i c??ch c???a m??nh, Gorbachev ???? d???n ?????u m???t phong tr??o s???a ?????i Hi???n ph??p Li??n X??, bao g???m vi???c th??nh l???p m???t v??? tr?? t???ng th???ng m???i v?? m???nh m??? h??n, v???n ph???n nhi???u ch??? mang t??nh bi???u t?????ng tr?????c ????.

Ng??y 15 th??ng 3 n??m 1990, ?????i h???i ?????i bi???u Nh??n d??n Li??n X?? b???u Gorbachev l??m T???ng th???ng v???i nhi???m k??? 5 n??m. Trong khi ????y ch???c ch???n l?? m???t th???ng l???i d??nh cho Gorbachev, cu???c b???u c??? c??ng ch???ng minh m???t c??ch sinh ?????ng nh???ng v???n ????? m?? ??ng g???p ph???i trong qu?? tr??nh c??? g???ng x??y d???ng s??? ?????ng thu???n trong n?????c ????? ???ng h??? cho ch????ng tr??nh c???i c??ch ch??nh tr??? c???a m??nh.

Gorbachev ???? l??m vi???c kh??ng ng???ng ngh??? ????? ?????m b???o r???ng ?????i h???i d??nh cho ??ng hai ph???n ba s??? phi???u ??a s??? c???n thi???t, k??? c??? li??n t???c ??e d???a s??? t??? ch???c n???u kh??ng ?????t ???????c ??i???u ????. N???u ??ng kh??ng gi??nh ???????c s??? phi???u c???n thi???t, ??ng s??? ph???i ch???y ??ua v???i nh???ng ???ng c??? vi??n kh??c trong m???t cu???c t???ng tuy???n c???. Gorbachev tin r???ng t???ng tuy???n c??? s??? ??em ?????n s??? nhi???u lo???n cho n?????c Nga v???n ???? b???t ???n; nh???ng ng?????i kh??c ??? Li??n X?? th?? ngh?? h??nh ?????ng c???a ??ng xu???t ph??t t??? n???i s??? thua cu???c trong m???t cu???c t???ng tuy???n c??? nh?? th???. V??ng b???u c??? cu???i c??ng trong ?????i h???i di???n ra h???t s???c gay c???n, v?? Gorbachev gi??nh ???????c hai ph???n ba ??a s??? c???a m??nh ch??? v???i kho???ng c??ch 46 phi???u mong manh (so v???i s??? phi???u t???i thi???u c???n c??).

Gorbachev ???? th???ng c??? t???ng th???ng, nh??ng nh???ng ng?????i ch??? tr??ch v???n ti???p t???c t???n c??ng ??ng v?? th??nh qu??? kinh t??? y???u k??m c???a ?????t n?????c v?? b???t ???n bao tr??m l??n ????? ch??? X?? vi???t. Th??ng 12 n??m 1991, ??ng t??? ch???c t???ng th???ng, v?? Li??n X?? tan r??. B???t ch???p nh???ng l???i ch??? tr??ch Gorbachev, ??ng v???n ???????c ghi nh???n l?? ng?????i ???? thi???t l???p n??n nhi???u c???i c??ch ch??ng m???t gi??p n???i l???ng s??? k??m k???p c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ?????i v???i ng?????i d??n X?? vi???t.

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