H??nh ?????ng c???a Trung Qu???c t???i Bi???n ????ng ??ang ?????y Vi???t Nam l???i g???n M??? h??n

Chủ nhật - 28/07/2019 08:08
Sau m???t th???i gian t???m l???ng ng???n ng???i khi B???c Kinh d?????ng nh?? ki???m ch??? kh??ng ti???n h??nh c??c h??nh ?????ng g??y h???n ?????i v???i c??c b??n tranh ch???p kh??c ??? Bi???n ????ng, Trung Qu???c l???i b???t ?????u d????ng oai di???u v?? trong nh???ng tu???n g???n ????y. T??? gi???a th??ng 6, m???t t??u H???i c???nh Trung Qu???c ???? qu???y r???i c??c t??u Vi???t Nam ??ang ph???c v??? gi??n khoan d???u Hakuryu-5 c???a Nh???t B???n
H??nh ?????ng c???a Trung Qu???c t???i Bi???n ????ng ??ang ?????y Vi???t Nam l???i g???n M??? h??n

H??nh ?????ng c???a Trung Qu???c t???i Bi???n ????ng ??ang ?????y Vi???t Nam l???i g???n M??? h??n


T??c gi???: L?? H???ng Hi???p
Sau m???t th???i gian t???m l???ng ng???n ng???i khi B???c Kinh d?????ng nh?? ki???m ch??? kh??ng ti???n h??nh c??c h??nh ?????ng g??y h???n ?????i v???i c??c b??n tranh ch???p kh??c ??? Bi???n ????ng, Trung Qu???c l???i b???t ?????u d????ng oai di???u v?? trong nh???ng tu???n g???n ????y. T??? gi???a th??ng 6, m???t t??u H???i c???nh Trung Qu???c ???? qu???y r???i c??c t??u Vi???t Nam ??ang ph???c v??? gi??n khoan d???u Hakuryu-5 c???a Nh???t B???n t???i B??i T?? Ch??nh, n??i Vi???t Nam coi l?? th???m l???c ?????a c???a m??nh nh??ng Trung Qu???c ????i l?? m???t ph???n thu???c qu???n ?????o Tr?????ng Sa ??ang tranh ch???p.
T??? ng??y 3 th??ng 7, Trung Qu???c c??ng ???? c??? t??u kh???o s??t Haiyang Dizhi 8 ????? th???c hi???n m???t cu???c kh???o s??t d???u kh?? t???i m???t khu v???c r???ng l???n n???m trong v??ng ?????c quy???n kinh t??? c???a Vi???t Nam. H??? t???ng  t??u kh???o s??t n??y c?? ??t nh???t ba t??u H???i c???nh, khi???n Vi???t Nam ph???i g???i c??c t??u c???nh s??t bi???n v?? ki???m ng?? c???a m??nh t???i hi???n tr?????ng ????? theo d??i ?????i t??u Trung Qu???c. Cu???c ?????i ?????u n??y g???i nh??? ?????n m???t cu???c tranh ch???p t????ng t??? v??o n??m 2014 v???n ????a quan h??? song ph????ng xu???ng m???c th???p nh???t trong nhi???u th???p ni??n. Continue reading ???H??nh ?????ng c???a Trung Qu???c t???i Bi???n ????ng ??ang ?????y Vi???t Nam l???i g???n M??? h??n???
Chuy???n ?????i v??n s?? Marguerite Duras, t??c gi??? ti???u thuy???t ???Ng?????i t??nh???
T??c gi???: H??? Anh H???i
Marguerite Duras sinh ng??y 4/4/1914 t???i Gia ?????nh, cha m??? ?????u l?? gi??o vi??n d???y ti???u h???c ??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam. T??n khai sinh c???a b?? l?? Marguerite Donnadieu, khi b???t ?????u vi???t v??n (1943) b?? l???y t??n l?? Duras ??? m???t ?????a danh ngo???i ?? Paris, n??i cha b?? d?????ng b???nh nh???ng ng??y cu???i ?????i r???i ch???t (1918). M??? Duras l?? b?? Mary Legrand khi ???y ???? d??ng to??n b??? ti???n d??nh d???m t???u m???t khu ?????t t???i Campuchia ?????nh l???p ?????n ??i???n kinh doanh. V??? sau b?? m???i bi???t m??nh ???? nh???m v?? m???nh ?????t n??y h??ng n??m b??? ng???p n?????c 6 th??ng li???n. Ph?? s???n, cu???c s???ng gia ????nh kh?? kh??n h??n bao gi??? h???t ??? k???t c???c bi th???m ???y ???? ???nh h?????ng ?????n Mary v?? c??c con.
Sau 17 n??m ??? Vi???t Nam, Duras v??? Paris ??i h???c r???i t???t nghi???p khoa lu???t v?? ch??nh tr??? tr?????ng ?????i h???c Sorbonne. T??? n??m 1935 ?????n 1941 b?? l??m th?? k?? cho B??? Thu???c ?????a Ph??p. T???i ????y b?? quen r???i l???y ??ng Robert Antelme (n??m 1939), ng?????i qu???n l?? Ph??ng T?? li???u t??nh b??o thu???c ?????a. T??m n??m sau h??? ly d???.
Th???c ra th?? t??? n??m 1942, Duras ???? ??i l???i v???i b???n ch???ng l?? ??ng Dionys Mascolo. Ba n??m sau hai v??? ch???ng b?? c??ng Dionys gia nh???p ?????ng C???ng s???n Ph??p, nh??ng v??? sau c??? ba ?????u b??? khai tr??? ?????ng. C?? ng?????i n??i ???? l?? v?? Duras ???s???ng chung v???i hai ng?????i ????n ??ng???, c?? ng?????i n??i v?? v???n ????? ch??nh tr???. Cu???i th??? k??? 20, Dionys c??n kh???e m???nh; ??ng k???: ???Trong th???i gian s???ng v???i ch???ng, Marguerite c?? m???t v??i t??nh nh??n, c??n ??ng Robert c??ng ??i l???i v???i m???y ph??? n??? kh??c; cho n??n t??i ????u c?? l???a d???i g?? ??ng ???y.???
Duras b???t ?????u vi???t v??n t??? n??m 1943, v???i ti???u thuy???t ?????u tay ???Les Impudents??? (Nh???ng k??? v?? li??m s???). Cu???n ????????p ch???n Th??i B??nh D????ng??? (The Sea Wall) (1950) ph???n ??nh cu???c s???ng ngh??o kh??? th???i th?? ???u c???a b?? ??? Vi???t Nam. Nhi???u ti???u thuy???t kh??c l???y ????? t??i l?? th???c t??? x?? h???i ????ng D????ng. ???Th???y th??? Gribaltar??? (1952) v?? c??c t??c ph???m kh??c c???a b?? ch???a nhi???u h??nh ???nh v?? ?????i tho???i, v??? sau ?????u ???????c c???i bi??n th??nh k???ch b???n phim.
Duras ???????c coi l?? nh?? v??n tr?????ng ph??i ti???u thuy???t m???i, v?? trong c??c ti???u thuy???t nh?? ???Con ng???a nh??? Tarquinia??? (1953), ???Giai ??i???u ??m d???u??? (Moderato Cantabile) (1958), ??? b?? ???? m???nh d???n b??? l???i v??n k??? chuy???n truy???n th???ng m?? h??a tr???n hi???n th???c v???i h?? c???u l??m m???t. T??c ph???m c???a b?? th?????ng ph???n ??nh s??? ?????i l???p gi???a gi??u v???i ngh??o, n??i l??n c??c kh??t v???ng c???a con ng?????i.
Duras g???t h??i nhi???u th??nh c??ng trong l??nh v???c k???ch b???n s??n kh???u v?? ??i???n ???nh. V??o c??c n??m 1965, 1968, 1984 b?? t???ng vi???t 3 k???ch b???n v?? ???????c t???ng gi???i th?????ng l???n v??? s??n kh???u c???a H???c vi???n France. C??c k???ch b???n ??i???n ???nh xu???t s???c nh?? ???M???i t??nh Hiroshima??? (1960), ???Bi???t ly??? (1961) ??em l???i cho Duras ti???ng vang l???n. T??? 1965, b?? t??? ?????o di???n l??m phim. T??? phim ???B??i ca ???n ???????? (1974) tr??? ??i, n??m n??o b?? c??ng d??n d???ng 1-2 b??? phim, m???t s??? phim t???ng ???????c gi???i th?????ng l???n qu???c t???.
T???ng c???ng Duras ???? s??ng t??c ???????c h??n 60 t??c ph???m, n???i ti???ng nh???t l?? ti???u thuy???t ???Ng?????i t??nh??? (L???Amant) xu???t b???n n??m b?? 70 tu???i. Cu???n s??ch n???a t??? truy???n n??y k??? l???i m???t c??ch v?? c??ng c???i m??? h???i ???c c???a Duras v??? m???i t??nh ?????u gi???a m???t thi???u n??? Ph??p 16 tu???i v???i m???t ng?????i ????n ??ng ng?????i Hoa khi h??? c??ng s???ng ??? Nam Vi???t Nam. ???L???Amant??? nhanh ch??ng ???????c d???ch ra 43 ng??n ng???, l?? cu???n s??ch ti???ng Ph??p b??n ch???y nh???t n??m ???? (ph??t h??nh h??n 2,5 tri???u b???n) v?? ???????c t???ng gi???i v??n h???c Goncourt 1984. Duras tr??? th??nh nh?? v??n vi???t ti???ng Ph??p n???i ti???ng nh???t ??????ng th???i.
Sau khi ???????c tin ng?????i b???n trai ?????u ti??n c???a m??nh qua ?????i, n??m 1991 b?? ???? vi???t l???i ???Ng?????i t??nh??? d?????i c??i t??n m???i ???Ng?????i t??nh ph????ng B???c Trung Qu???c??? (L???Amant de la Chine du Nord), v???i ng??i b??t t??? th???c khi???n b???n ?????c v?? c??ng ng???c nhi??n. So v???i ???Ng?????i t??nh??? th?? thi??n truy???n vi???t l???i n??y m?? t??? r???t chi ti???t v??? m???t sinh l?? c???a ??ng b???n ng?????i Hoa. C??c ??o???n ?????c t??? v??? h??nh vi lo???n lu??n, luy???n ??i ?????ng t??nh tr???n tr???i t???i m???c kinh kh???ng. C?? ??i???u, su???t cu???n ti???u thuy???t ch??a bao gi??? b?? ????? l??? h??? t??n c??c nh??n v???t ch??nh, ch??? d??ng ?????i t??? nh??n x??ng ng??i th??? ba ch??? nh??n v???t n???, v?? d??ng ???ng?????i Hoa??? ????? ch??? t??nh nh??n c???a m??nh. C?? l??? b?? mu???n m??i m??i gi???u k??n b?? m???t n??y.
M???t ng?????i ?? l?? Angelo Morino ???? v??n b???c m??n b?? ???n ???y: Nh??n v???t ng?????i t??nh trong ???L???Amant??? th???c ra kh??ng ph???i l?? b???n trai c???a Duras, m?? l?? t??nh nh??n c???a m??? b??! Trong m???y n??m ng?????i ch???ng c???a Marie Legrand d?????ng b???nh ??? Ph??p r???i qua ?????i, th?? b?? Marie s???ng t???i Gia ?????nh ???? quan h??? v???i m???t ng?????i Hoa. M???i t??nh ngang tr??i ???y ????a ?????n s??? ra ?????i hai ch??? em: Duras v?? c???u em trai Paul. Sau n??y, khi tr?????ng th??nh, hai ch??? em ???y l???i quan h??? lo???n lu??n v???i nhau. Ch???ng c??? c?? s???c thuy???t ph???c nh???t do Morino ????a ra l?? khi v??? gi??, Duras c??ng ng??y c??ng c?? n??t m???t c???a m???t ng?????i ??u lai ??, t???c gi???ng nh??n v???t ch??nh ng?????i Hoa trong ???L???Amant???. Theo Morino, ch??nh m??? Duras ???? b???t c?? con g??i 16 tu???i c???a b?? b??n trinh cho ng?????i t??nh nhi???u tu???i c???a b?? ????? l???y ti???n l??m l??? ph?? ????a b???n m??? con t??? Nam Vi???t Nam v??? Ph??p !
Nh??ng m???t nh??n v???t t???ng nghi??n c???u k??? h??? s?? c?? nh??n c???a Duras l?? ??ng Adlai l???i n??i m??? Duras l??m vi???c ???y l?? ????? l???y ti???n mua ma t??y cho ng?????i con trai c??? c???a b??! C?? th??? nh???n th???y s??? th???t ??au l??ng n??y qua nh???ng d??ng vi???t trong ???L???Amant???, c??ng nh?? c??c b???c ???nh v?? cu???n phim c???a Duras. T??? ???? ng?????i ta hi???u ???????c t???i sao Duras l???i th??n thi???t v???i em trai m??nh nh?? th???, th???m ch?? t???i m???c c?? h??nh vi lo???n lu??n v???i nhau; trong khi ???? c??? hai ch??? em l???i v?? c??ng c??m gh??t ng?????i anh c??? c??ng m??? kh??c cha c???a h???. V???i vi???c vi???t l???i ???Ng?????i t??nh???, Duras mu???n tr??? th?? m??? m??nh. Qua ????y ta th???y Marguerite Duras c?? cu???c s???ng n???i t??m v?? c??ng c?? ????n. ????? gi???i s???u, m???i ng??y b?? u???ng t???i 5 l??t vang ?????, whisky c??ng c??c lo???i r?????u m???nh kh??c, nhi???u l???n r?????u l??m b?? h??n m?? v?? li???t ch??n tay. Qu??ng ?????i th?? ???u bu???n th???m v?? vi???c b?? m??? b???t m??nh b??n trinh khi???n Duras lu??n lu??n c???m th???y m??nh b??? k??? kh??c b??c l???t v?? l???a d???i. Su???t ?????i b?? so b?? t??? n???nh t???ng t?? m???t, t???n ti???n ?????n m???c kh?? hi???u, k??? c??? khi ???? gi??u c??.
Cu???i th???p ni??n 1950, Duras d??ng ti???n th?? lao c???i bi??n ti???u thuy???t ????????p ch???n Th??i B??nh D????ng??? th??nh phim, t???u m???t t??a nh?? c?? t???i ngo???i ?? Paris r???i ??? ????y cho t???i ng??y qua ?????i (03/03/1996). M???y n??m cu???i, b?? s???ng chung v???i Andrea, m???t ng?????i ????n ??ng k??m b?? 39 tu???i. ??ng n??y bi???n m???t ngay sau tang l??? Duras. T??a nh?? ???y hi???n do con trai b?? l?? Jean s??? h???u, nh??ng v???n gi??? nguy??n tr???ng nh?? khi Duras c??n s???ng.
Sau khi Duras qua ?????i, nhi???u t??c ph???m c???a b?? v???n ti???p t???c ???????c xu???t b???n. Nh???ng t???p b???n th???o, th?? t??n v?? t??i li???u, c??ng h??ng tr??m ???n b???n ngo???i ng??? c??c t??c ph???m c???a b?? x???p ?????y trong ph??ng kh??ch, ph??ng ??n. C??c ph??t bi???u c???a b?? tr??n ????i ph??t thanh truy???n h??nh qua ch???nh l?? ???????c ghi v??o ????a CD d??i t???i 5 gi??? ?????ng h???.
Jean l?? con trai duy nh???t c???a Duras, hai m??? con c??ng s???ng b??n nhau 49 n??m, t??nh c???m r???t s??u s???c. Jean n??i, m??? ??ng ????? l???i cho ??ng m???t t??i s???n quan tr???ng nh???t, ???? l?? t??nh c??ch kh??ng ch???u khu???t ph???c; b?? ???? d???y con l??ng y??u t??? do, kh??ng bao gi??? ????? m???t ni???m tin.
????ng th???, kh??ng ai c?? th??? l??m Duras thay ?????i ?? ki???n. Trong su???t 20 n??m li???n t??? khi b?? b???t ?????u s??ng t??c v??n h???c (1943), h???i ???y ch??a ai coi b?? l?? nh?? v??n, m???i t??c ph???m c???a Duras ch??? ???????c in v??i tr??m b???n. Th??? nh??ng b?? ch??a bao gi??? ng???ng s??ng t??c, ng??y n??o c??ng vi???t ch???ng 4-5 gi??? ?????ng h???, coi ???? l?? m???t s??? th??ch. M??i 40 n??m sau, khi cu???n ???Ng?????i t??nh??? nh???n gi???i Goncourt, b?? m???i tr??? th??nh th??nh ng??i sao s??ng tr??n b???u tr???i v??n h???c Ph??p v?? th??? gi???i.
C?? nhi???u ti???n nh??ng Duras v???n t???n ti???n. C?? ng?????i ch?? b?? b???n ti???n g??n d???, ch??? v?? ti???n m?? vi???t ??i vi???t l???i m???t ????? t??i. B?? m???c r???t gi???n d???: quanh n??m v???n m???t chi???c v??y ???ng, ?????i m?? ??en, ??i ????i ???ng ng???n m??a ????ng! C?? b??? qu???n ??o b?? m???c su???t 15 n??m tr???i. Duras ph??n bua: ???Th???c ra ch???ng c???n kho??c l??n ng?????i nh???ng th??? qu???n ??o ?????p l??m g??, v?? t??i su???t ng??y ch??? v??i ?????u v??o vi???t l??ch th??i m?????. Th???a tr??? b?? r???t ?????p, nh??ng s???c ?????p ???y b??? ngh??o t??ng l??m cho x???u ??i, v??? sau l???i b??? r?????u gi???t ch???t.
Su???t ?????i Duras s???ng trong h???i ???c, ho??i ni???m; khi ???y m???i th??? c???a qu?? kh??? ?????u s???ng ?????ng nh?? n?????c ch???y trong d??ng s??ng. Nh??ng nh???ng h???i ???c ?????p nh???t th?? b?? l???i ch??a h??? vi???t ra!
H??? Anh H???i t???ng h???p t??? c??c t??i li???u n?????c ngo??i.
#177 ??? Chi???n l?????c can d??? kinh t??? ??ang ????? v??? c???a Trung Qu???c
Ngu???n: Jeffrey Reeves (2013). ???China???s Unraveling Engagement Strategy???, The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 139???149.>>PDF
Bi??n d???ch: B??? Minh Nh???t | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p
S??? ?????ng thu???n gi???a c??c nh?? nghi??n c???u v??? Trung Qu???c, ??? c??? Trung Qu???c v?? ph????ng T??y, r???ng c??c y???u t??? c???a ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i hi???n t???i c???a Trung Qu???c ??ang t??? chu???c l???y th???t b???i,[1] l?? quan tr???ng nh??ng l???i h???n ch??? theo hai h?????ng n???i b???t nh?? sau. Th??? nh???t, ?? ki???n n??y ch??? t???p trung v??o c??c l???p tr?????ng ch??nh s??ch mang t??nh chia r??? nh???t c???a Trung Qu???c,v?? d??? nh?? nh???ng y??u s??ch b??nh tr?????ng l??nh th???, ch??nh s??ch ngo???i giao g??y chia r??? ?????i v???i Hi???p h???i c??c Qu???c gia ????ng Nam ?? (ASEAN), hay vi???c gia t??ng s??? d???ng c??c bi???n ph??p tr???ng ph???t kinh t??? ????n ph????ng. Vi???c t???p trung v??o nh???ng ch??nh s??ch g??y nhi???u tranh c??i n??y, d?? quan tr???ng, nh??ng ???? b??? qua c??c ch??nh s??ch ??t g??y tranh c??i h??n nh??ng gi??? l???i ??ang g??p ph???n g??y n??n s??? b???t ???n ??? khu v???c. Th??? hai,
c??c nh?? ph??n t??ch khi xem x??t ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a Trung Qu???c ph???n l???n ch??? t???p trung v??o m???i quan h??? gi???a Trung Qu???c v???i c??c n?????c l???n v?? v???a ??? nh?? Nh???t B???n, ???n ?????, Vi???t Nam hay Philippines, ho???c c??c t??? ch???c t???m c??? khu v???c nh?? ASEAN. C??c nghi??n c???u n??y ???? b??? qua m???i quan h??? c???a Trung Qu???c v???i c??c qu???c gia ??ang ph??t tri???n v?? nh??? h??n ??? v?? d??? nh?? Campuchia, L??o, M??ng C??? hay Myanmar ??? c??c n?????c n??y, theo nhi???u c??ch, l???i ??ang l?? nh???ng vi??n g???ch t???o n??n an ninh khu v???c ngo???i bi??n c???a Trung Qu???c.

B??i vi???t n??y s??? ch??? ra r???ng nh???ng g?? ???????c xem l?? c???t l??i c???a nh???ng m???i quan h??? qu???c t??? ???n ?????nh c???a Trung Qu???c trong nhi???u n??m qua ??? hay ch??nh l?? vi???c trao ?????i kinh t??? v???i c??c nu???c nh??? v?? ??ang ph??t tri???n trong khu v???c ngo???i bi??n c???a m??nh ??? ???? tr??? th??nh m???t ngu???n d???n ?????n ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i ??ang t??? chu???c l???y th???t b???i c???a Trung Qu???c. Kh??ng nh???ng kh??ng gi??p ?????m b???o thi???n ch?? c???a c??c n?????c khu v???c ngo???i bi??n d??nh cho Trung Qu???c, s??? ph??? thu???c c???a B???c Kinh v??o m???i quan h??? kinh t??? v???i c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n ch??u ?? nh???m t??ng cu???ng quan h??? v???i c??c n?????c n??y c?? th??? s??? ph???n t??c d???ng. V?? d???, khi quan h??? kinh t??? v???i Trung Qu???c d???n ?????n nh???ng h??? qu??? ti??u c???c t???i c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n, c??c ch??nh ph??? v?? x?? h???i ??? ????y ???? b???t ?????u ph???n ?????i s??? hi???n di???n c???a B???c Kinh. V?? Trung Qu???c kh??ng cho th???y xu h?????ng s??? thay ?????i m???t c??ch c??n b???n c??ch ti???p c???n ?????t l???i ??ch kinh t??? l??n h??ng ?????u trong m???i quan h??? c???a m??nh v???i c??c qu???c gia, kh??a c???nh can d??? v???i n?????c ngo??i n??y ??ang d???n ????? v???.
T??nh ch???t t??? chu???c l???y th???t b???i c???a quan h??? kinh t??? gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? c??c n?????c nh??? ??? ch??u ?? l?? t????ng ?????i gi???ng nhau d?? cho th??? ch??? ch??nh tr???, c???u tr??c kinh t??? v?? x?? h???i c???a ch??nh c??c qu???c gia n??y l?? kh??c nhau. C??c doanh nghi???p Trung Qu???c, d?? l?? doanh nghi???p nh?? n?????c hay doanh nghi???p t?? nh??n, ?????u thi???t l???p quan h??? kinh t??? v???i c??c n?????c nh??? th??ng qua th????ng m???i, ?????u t??, c??c kho???n h??? tr??? ph??t tri???n ch??nh th???c (ODA) v?? c??c kho???n vay. Ho???t ?????ng kinh t??? t???i c??c n?????c nh??? ?????u d???n ?????n nh???ng k???t qu??? ti??u c???c v?? d??? nh?? gi???m ch???t l?????ng m??i tr?????ng, b??c l???t t??i nguy??n, hay qu?? ph??? thu???c v??o Trung Qu???c v??? th????ng m???i.
Ki???u quan h??? kinh t??? n??y th?????ng d???n ?????n s??? m???t ???n ?????nh trong n???i b??? c??c n?????c nh??? v?? ??? b??? ngo??i l?? quan h??? gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? c??c n?????c nh???. Trong n???i b???, c??c n?????c nh??? th?????ng c?? b???t ???n x???y ra do c??ng th???ng gi???a ch??nh ph??? v?? x?? h???i. Khi nh???ng y???u t??? ti??u c???c trong s??? h?????n di???n kinh t??? c???a Trung Qu???c t??ng l??n, x?? h???i b???t ?????u g??y ??p l???c l??n nh?? n?????c ????? c?? bi???n ph??p c???ng r???n h??n ?????i v???i Trung Qu???c. V?? ?????i v???i c??c ch??nh tr??? gia, vi???c theo ??u???i ch??nh s??ch h???n ch??? s??? can d??? kinh t??? c???a Trung Qu???c v???i ?????t n?????c kh??ng ph???i l?? vi???c l??m t???t nh???t ?????i v???i l???i ??ch c???a h???, n??n h??? th?????ng ch???ng ?????i v?? k???t qu??? l?? d???n t???i c??ng th???ng. Nh??ng ch??nh ngay khi c??c n?????c nh??? th???c hi???n c??c ch??nh s??ch ????? h???n ch??? ???nh h?????ng kinh t??? c???a Trung Qu???c ??? nh?? Lu???t ?????u t?? N?????c ngo??i ?????i v???i c??c l??nh v???c chi???n lu???c n??m 2012 c???a M??ng C??? nh???m h???n ch??? vi???c c??c doanh nghi???p nh?? nu???c Trung Qu???c s??? h???u v?? khai th??c t???i c??c khu m??? tr???ng ??i???m trong nu???c ??? s??? c??ng th???ng v???i Trung Qu???c b???t ?????u xu???t hi???n. S??? b???t ???n ?????i ngo???i n??y c??ng x???y ra khi c??c n?????c nh??? l???a ch???n h???p t??c nhi???u h??n v???i c??c ?????i t??c n?????c ngo??i kh??c nh?? Hoa K???, ????? c??n b???ng s??? hi???n di???n c???a Trung Qu???c. S??? b???t ???n trong ?????i n???i v?? ?????i ngo???i c?? th??? x???y ra ri??ng l??? ho???c ?????ng th???i.
?????i v???i Trung Qu???c, k???t qu??? cu???i c??ng c???a c??? hai s??? b???t ???n k??? tr??n ?????u gi???ng nhau: an ninh ngo???i bi??n b??? gi???m s??t. S??? ph??? thu???c c???a Trung Qu???c v??o quan h??? kinh t??? v???i c??c qu???c gia n??y nh???m t??ng c?????ng h??n n???a l???i ??ch c???a m??nh, c??ng v???i vi???c n?????c n??y kh??ng th??? hay kh??ng mu???n h???n ch??? nh???ng t??c ?????ng ti??u c???c c???a s??? hi???n di???n kinh t??? c???a h??? t???i c??c n?????c, v?? th??? tr??? th??nh m???t th???t s??ch ngo???i giao.
B??i vi???t s??? minh h???a qu?? tr??nh n??y b???ng vi???c xem x??t m???i quan h??? c???a Trung Qu???c ?????i v???i b???n qu???c gia nh??? t???i ch??u ?? ??? M??ng C???, Campuchia, L??o, v?? Myanmar. T???t c??? b???n nu???c n??y ?????u c?? li??n quan b???i l??? h??? ?????u g???n g??i v???i Trung Qu???c v??? m???t ?????a l??, c?? m???i quan h??? kinh t??? kh??ng kh??t v?? l?? c??c qu???c gia m?? Trung Qu???c coi l?? thi???t y???u trong vi???c duy tr?? s??? ???n ?????nh an ninh t???i khu v???c ngo???i bi??n c???a m??nh. V?? v???y vi???c b???t k??? m???i quan h??? n??o tr??? n??n x???u ??i ?????i v???i Trung Qu???c ?????u l?? n???m ngo??i ?? mu???n.
Chi???n l?????c kinh t??? c???a Trung Qu???c
K??? t??? sau khi ti???n h??nh c???i c??ch v?? m??? c???a v??o cu???i th???p ni??n 1970, Trung Qu???c ???? d???a tr??n ho???t ?????ng trao ?????i kinh t??? nh???m th???c hi???n vi???c giao l??u v???i c??c n?????c nh??? ??? ch??u ??. B???n chi???n l?????c ngo???i giao th??? hi???n r?? c??ch ti???p c???n n??y ???? l?? ???Chi???n l?????c H???p t??c Nam-Nam??? (nan-nan hezou), ???Chi???n l?????c ??i ra ngo??i??? (zou chuqu zhanlue ??? Go out strategy), ???Chi???n s??ch L??ng gi???ng T???t??? (mulin youhao), v?? ???Kh??i ni???m An ninh M???i??? (xin anquan guan).
Vi???c l???p l???i Chi???n l?????c H???p t??c Nam ??? Nam c???a Trung Qu???c sau th???i k??? ?????i m???i v?? m??? c???a ???? ch??? r?? h?????ng ti???p c???n c???a Trung Qu???c ?????i v???i c??c qu???c gia ??ang ph??t tri???n v?? c?? nhi???u b???t l???i trong to??n c???u h??a. Trung Qu???c l?? ???ng?????i ????? x?????ng v?? ???ng h??? nhi???t th??nh??? c??c m???i quan h??? Nam-Nam, v?? tin t?????ng r???ng vi???c h???p t??c s??? ???mang l???i m???t vi???n c???nh r???ng l???n v?? ti???m n??ng kh???ng l???.???[2] ???y ban Qu???c gia c???a H???i ngh??? Ch??nh tr??? Hi???p th????ng Nh??n d??n Trung Qu???c x??c ?????nh vai tr?? c???a Trung Qu???c trong h???p t??c Nam-Nam l?? ???th???ng nh???t, l??nh ?????o v?? ??i???u ph???i??? c??c m???i quan h??? kinh t??? th??ng qua ?????u t?? v?? vi???n tr???.[3]
Chi???n s??ch L??ng gi???ng T???t, ???????c kh???i ?????u b???i Giang Tr???ch D??n, c??ng nh???n m???nh ?????nh hu???ng tr???ng t??m c???a vi???c trao ?????i kinh t??? l?? nh???ng m???i quan h??? nh?? n?????c t???t ?????p. V??? c??? th???, quan ??i???m n??y nh???n m???nh vi???c trao ?????i kinh t??? ????i b??n c??ng c?? l???i (win-win), ?????i t??c kinh t???, h???p t??c ph??t tri???n, v?? m??? r???ng th????ng m???i l?? c??c bi???n ph??p nh???m l??m s??u s???c th??m m???i quan h??? c???a Trung Qu???c v???i c??c qu???c gia ngo???i bi??n. Trung Qu???c t??i kh???ng ?????nh vi???c trung th??nh v???i Ch??nh s??ch L??ng gi???ng T???t trong trao ?????i kinh t??? v??o n??m 2012, trong m???t b??o c??o ?????i h???i ?????ng to??n qu???c l???n th??? 18 nh???m k??u g???i vi???c ti???p t???c v?? m??? r???ng h???p t??c kinh t??? v???i c??c qu???c gia ngo???i bi??n ????? ?????m b???o an ninh khu v???c.[4]
Chi???n l?????c ??i ra ngo??i, ???????c kh???i xu???ng n??m 1991, l?? c??ch Trung Qu???c khuy???n kh??ch c??c doanh nghi???p c???a m??nh ?????u t?? ra n?????c ngo??i. Li Lihui, ch??? t???ch Ng??n h??ng Trung Qu???c, m?? t??? ???? l?? ph????ng ph??p mang t??nh c?? b???n m?? qua ???? Trung Qu???c s??? d???ng to??n c???u h??a nh???m m??? r???ng xu???t kh???u, ph??t tri???n c??ng nghi???p, ?????m b???o ti???p c???n ???????c c??c ngu???n l???c n?????c ngo??i, v?? ???nh h?????ng ?????n vi???c chuy???n giao c??ng ngh???.[5] Ma Zhongpu, chuy??n gia ph??n t??ch c???a M???ng l?????i Quan h??? Th????ng M???i Trung Qu???c ?????ng ?? v???i Li ??? r???ng c??c doanh nghi???p Trung Qu???c s??? d???ng Chi???n l?????c ??i ra ngo??i nh?? l?? m???t s??? ch??? d???n ????? ti???p c???n v???i c??c ngu???n t??i nguy??n kho??ng s???n v?? th??? tr?????ng nu???c ngo??i trong ph???m vi ???g???n??? v?? ???xa??? ?????i v???i Trung Qu???c, trong khi l???i c?? th??? s??? d???ng c??c kho???n ?????u t?? v?? ngu???n lao ?????ng ????? gi??p c??c qu???c gia kh??c ?????t ???????c m???c ti??u kinh t??? c???a ch??nh c??c qu???c gia ????.
Tr??i v???i Chi???n l?????c H???p t??c Nam-Nam, Ch??nh s??ch L??ng Gi???ng t???t v?? Chi???n l?????c ??i ra ngo??i, Kh??i ni???m An ninh M???i, ???????c gi???i thi???u l???n ?????u ti??n v??o n??m 1996, k???t n???i kinh t??? tr???c ti???p v???i v???n ????? an ninh. Kh??i ni???m An ninh M???i cho r???ng trong th??? gi???i th???i k??? h???u Chi???n tranh L???nh, c??c qu???c gia c???n t??ng c?????ng an ninh th??ng qua c??c ti???p x??c v??? m???t ngo???i giao v?? kinh t???, h??n l?? th??ng qua ?????i ?????u v?? ?????i kh??ng nh?? trong th???i Chi???n tranh L???nh. B??? Ngo???i giao c??ng cho r???ng s??? ph??? thu???c l???n nhau v??? m???t kinh t??? l?? m???t y???u t??? k???t n???i c???a an ninh khu v???c, v?? r???ng Trung Qu???c s??? th??c ?????y h??n n???a vi???c h???p t??c kinh t??? ????? ?????m b???o s??? ph??t tri???n c???a an ninh khu v???c.[6] C??ch ti???p c???n v???n ????? an ninh th??ng qua kinh t??? ???????c ????? ra trong Kh??i ni???m An Ninh M???i ph?? h???p h??n v???i c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n h??n l?? v???i c??c n?????c ph??t tri???n, khi n?? ch??? ra r???ng k??m ph??t tri???n l?? ngu???n g???c c???a s??? b???t ???n n???i b??? qu???c gia v?? khu v???c. M???t b???n c??o b???ch 2011 v??? Kh??i ni???m An ninh M???i ph??t h??nh b???i Qu???c v??? vi???n nh???n m???nh r???ng Trung Qu???c ph???i ?????c bi???t h??? tr??? c??c n?????c nh??? trong ph???m vi d???n d???t c???a Kh??i ni???m nh???m t???o ra m???t m??i tr?????ng an ninh c?? l???i ??? ch??u ??.[7]
Th??ng qua vi???c quan s??t nh???ng quan ??i???m ch??nh s??ch ngo???i giao quan tr???ng n??y, c?? th??? th???y r?? r??ng r???ng Trung Qu???c xem b???n th??n m??nh nh?? m???t ?????i t??c t???t ?????i v???i c??c n?????c nh??? t???i ch??u ??. Nh?? Yang Jiang c???a Tr?????ng Kinh doanh Copenhagen ch??? ra, B???c kinh th???t s??? xem m???i quan h??? v???i c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n ??? ch??u ?? theo c??ch c???a ???m???t n?????c l???n??? (dagou fenfan), ho???c theo c??ch m?? trong ???? Trung Qu???c h??nh ?????ng nh?? m???t ???l??nh ?????o nh??n t???.???[8] Tuy nhi??n, vi???c xem x??t s??u h??n m???i quan h??? kinh t??? c???a Trung Qu???c v???i c??c n?????c nh??? ??? khu v???c ngo???i bi??n l???i m??u thu???n v???i nh???ng nh???n th???c n??y c???a Trung Qu???c.
S??? ho??i nghi c???a c??c nh?? ph??n t??ch Trung Qu???c v?? d??? nh?? v??? th??nh c??ng c???a Ch??nh s??ch L??ng gi???ng T???t ??ang l???n d???n l??n. Zhu Feng c???a tr?????ng ?????i h???c B???c Kinh cho r???ng Trung qu???c ???? b??? xa l??nh b???i nhi???u qu???c gia nh??? ??? ch??u ?? b???i vi???c t???p trung m???t c??ch thi???n c???n v??o thu??ng m???i m?? kh??ng quan t??m ?????n c??c v???n ????? v??? nh??n quy???n, nguy??n t???c th?????ng t??n ph??p lu???t, hay b???o v??? m??i tr?????ng.[9] B???n ch???t ????i b??n c??ng c?? l???i trong Chi???n l?????c ??i ra ngo??i c???a Trung Qu???c ???? b???  ph???n b??c v???i c??c b??o c??o v??? c??c s??? ph???n kh??ng ??? c??? c???p ????? nh?? n?????c v?? x?? h???i. Zhang Xizhen t??? tr?????ng ?????i h???c B???c Kinh cho r???ng ph???n nhi???u trong vi???c b???t b??nh gia t??ng ?????i v???i c??c kho???n ?????u t?? c???a Trung Qu???c ??? c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n ?????n t??? th??i ????? thi???u s???n s??ng c???a B???c Kinh trong vi???c ??i???u ti???t c??c ng??nh c??ng nghi???p m?? h??? ??ang khuy???n kh??ch ?????i ra ngo??i???.[10] Chen Fengying, Gi??m ?????c Vi???n Kinh t??? Th??? gi???i thu???c Vi???n Quan h??? Qu???c t??? ??????ng ?????i Trung Qu???c (CICIR), nh???n m???nh r???ng k???t qu??? ti??u c???c c???a c??c ho???t ?????ng kinh t??? c???a Trung Qu???c ??? nu???c ngo??i, nh?? vi???c l??m gi???m s??t ch???t l?????ng m??i tr?????ng hay c??ng th???ng gi???a lao ?????ng Trung Qu???c v?? c???ng ?????ng d??n c?? b???n ?????a, ???? g??p ph???n v??o t??nh tr???ng m???t an ninh ??? c??c nu???c nh??? v?? ??ang ph??t tri???n.[11]
C??c h???c gi??? ?????u c??ng ???? ph???n b??c kh???ng ?????nh c???a Trung Qu???c r???ng s??? ph??? thu???c l???n nhau v??? kinh t??? trong khu v???c l?? ngu???n g???c c???a s??? ???n ?????nh, v?? ?????t ra c??u h???i v??? c??c m???c ????ch kinh t??? ?????ng sau Kh??i ni???m An ninh M???i. Michael Yahuda c???a tr?????ng Kinh t??? Lu??n ????n cho r???ng s??? ph??? thu???c kinh t??? l???n nhau c???a Trung Qu???c v?? c??c n?????c nh??? ??? ch??u ?? v???n ch??a mang l???i s??? ???n ?????nh l???n h??n, v?? c??c v???n ????? ch??nh tr??? mang t??nh l???ch s??? c??ng nh?? ??????ng ?????i v???n mang t??nh ch???t quy???t ?????nh trong nh???ng m???i quan h??? n??y.[12] Daniel Dreznet c???a tr?????ng ?????i h???c Tufts b??c b??? ?? t?????ng hoang ???????ng r???ng s??? ph??? thu???c v??? kinh t??? s??? mang l???i h??a b??nh cho ch??u ??, v?? nh???n m???nh r???ng Trung Qu???c ???? t???ng s??? d???ng ????n b???y kinh t??? ????? ?????t ???????c c??c m???c ti??u v??? ngo???i giao ?????i v???i c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n ??? ch??u ?? trong qu?? kh???.[13] V?? d??? ti??u bi???u c???a vi???c s??? d???ng ????n b???y kinh t??? l?? vi???c Trung Qu???c d??ng ngu???n d??? tr??? ngo???i t??? m???nh c???a m??nh ????? khuy???n kh??ch c??c qu???c gia ??ang ph??t tri???n ng???ng c??ng nh???n ????i Loan, v?? quy???t ?????nh c???a Trung Qu???c v??? vi???c t??ng c?????ng c??c r??o c???n ?????i v???i hoa qu??? nh???p kh???u t??? Philippines trong n??m 2012 ????? ????p l???i c??ng th???ng gi???a hai qu???c gia v??? ch??? quy???n khu v???c b??i c???n Scarborough. Jia Qingguo c???a tr?????ng ?????i h???c B???c Kinh cho r???ng s??? ph??? thu???c l???n nhau v??? kinh t??? kh??ng th??? ?????m b???o nh???ng m???i quan h??? t???t ?????p gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? c??c n?????c nh??? n???u c??c n?????c n??y kh??ng tin t?????ng v??o c??c m???c ????ch ch??nh s??ch ngo???i giao c???a Trung Qu???c, v?? tr??n th???c t??? l?? c?? nhi???u n?????c nh?? v???y.[14]
B???n n?????c l??ng gi???ng
B??? Th????ng m???i Trung Qu???c (MOFCOM) x??c ?????nh M??ng C???, Campuchia, L??o v?? Myanmar l?? c??c ????ch ?????n c???a ?????u t?? v?? th????ng m???i trong ???M???c l???c H?????ng d???n v??? c??c Qu???c gia v?? ng??nh C??ng nghi???p nh???m Ph??t tri???n ra N?????c ngo??i.???[15] MOFCOM x??c ?????nh m???t s??? c??c ng??nh c??ng nghi???p c??? th??? l?? tr???ng t??m c???a ?????u t?? v?? ph??t tri???n, v?? d??? nh?? khai th??c g??? (L??o, Myanmar v?? Campuchia), d???u v?? kh?? thi??n nhi??n (Myanmar), hang h??a c?? b???n (M??ng C???), v?? ng??nh c??ng nghi???p d???t may (Campuchia v?? M??ng C???). M???c d?? c?? th??? xem c??c ??u ti??n ?????u t?? c???a MOFCOM l?? ho??n to??n v?? m???c ti??u th????ng m???i, nh??ng l??m nh?? v???y l?? thi???u ??i c??i nh??n t???ng th???. MOFCOM kh??ng ch??? l?? c?? quan ch???u tr??ch nhi???m v??? c??c ch??nh s??ch ngo???i giao li??n quan ?????n th????ng m???i, m?? c??c ch??nh s??ch c???a n?? c??n tr???c ti???p ph???c v??? cho c??c ch????ng tr??nh ch??nh s??ch ngo???i giao l???n h??n, v?? d??? nh?? th??c ?????y h??n n???a H???p t??c Nam-Nam, Ch??nh s??ch L??ng gi???ng T???t, Chi???n l?????c ??i ra ngo??i v?? Kh??i ni???m An ninh m???i.[16]
V????n ra b??n ngo??i
S??? hi???n di???n c???a Trung Qu???c ??? b???n n?????c n??y ???????c ?????i di???n b???i c??c doanh nghi???p qu???c doanh (SOEs), c??c doanh nghi???p b??n t?? nh??n (c??c doanh nghi???p t?? nh??n c?? li??n h??? v???i ch??nh ph???), v?? c??c doanh nghi???p t?? nh??n Trung Qu???c. Trong khi c??? ba lo???i h??nh doanh nghi???p n??y ?????u v???n h??nh v???i m???t m???c ????? t??? ch??? nh???t ?????nh v?? c?? th??? ph???n ???ng theo c??c logic th????ng m???i, MOFCOM v???n duy tr?? qu???n l?? nh???ng ho???t ?????ng c???a h??? th??ng qua c??c t??? ch???c th????ng m???i b??n ch??nh th???c. Vi???c gi??m s??t n??y, c??ng v???i vi???c ??u ti??n ???????c d??nh cho m???i quan h??? t???t ?????p v???i c??c qu???c gia ngo???i bi??n ??ang ph??t tri???n, cho th???y c?? m???t m???c ????? ??i???u ph???i c???a ch??nh ph??? ?????i v???i c??c th???c th??? kinh doanh ho???t ?????ng t???i c??c qu???c gia ????. V?? th???, c??ng kh??ng ph???i l?? thi???u ch??nh x??c khi coi nh???ng th???c th??? kinh doanh ??a d???ng n??y ch??nh l?? ho???t ?????ng kinh t??? ???Trung Qu???c ch??nh th???c??? ??? n?????c ????. Ph???n c??n l???i c???a b??i vi???t n??y s??? ti???p t???c l??m s??ng t??? nh???n ?????nh n??y.
Trung Qu???c ???? t???ng s??? d???ng m???t s??? bi???n ph??p kh??c nhau ????? m??? r???ng s??? hi???n di???n kinh t??? c???a m??nh ??? M??ng C???, Campuchia, L??o v?? Myanmar. Nh???ng bi???n ph??p n??y bao g???m ?????u t?? tr???c ti???p n?????c ngo??i (FDI), vi???n tr??? ph??t tri???n n?????c ngo??i v?? c??c khoan cho vay. FDI t??? Trung Qu???c l?? th???c s??? ????ng k??? ??? Trung Qu???c l?? n?????c ?????u t?? nhi???u FDI nh???t t???i M??ng C???, Campuchia v?? Myanmar, v?? l?? n?????c l???n th??? hai t???i L??o (sau Vi???t Nam). ??? b???n qu???c gia n??y, FDI Trung Qu???c h??ng n??m ?????u t??ng l??n theo c???p s??? nh??n trong th???p k??? v???a qua. V?? d??? nh?? FDI c???a Trung Qu???c ?????u t?? v??o M??ng C??? chi???m t???i h??n 50 ph???n tr??m t???ng s??? v???n FDI v??o ?????t n?????c n??y (596,7 tri???u ???? la M??? n??m 2010). V?? ????? so s??nh t????ng quan, c??c n?????c ?????u t?? FDI th??? hai v?? th??? ba ??? Canada v?? H?? Lan ??? ?????u ch??? chi???m l???n l?????t 8 v?? 6 ph???n tr??m t???ng s??? FDI.[17] ??? Campuchia, FDI t??? Trung Qu???c t??ng t??? 717 tri???u ???? la M??? n??m 2006 l??n t???i 1,1 t??? ???? la M??? v??o n??m 2010. T???ng c???ng t??? n??m 1994, Trung Qu???c ???? ?????u t?? v??o Campuchia 8,9 t??? ???? la M???, nhi???u h??n hai l???n t???ng gi?? tr??? FDI t??? nh?? ?????u t?? l???n th??? hai, H??n Qu???c.[18] T????ng t???, Trung Qu???c c??ng l?? nh?? ?????u t?? FDI l???n nh???t v??o Myanmar t??? tr?????c t???i nay: t??? 20 tri???u ???? la M??? n??m 2004 ?????n g???n 2 t??? ???? la M??? trong n??m 2010 (t??ng 9.542 ph???n tr??m).[19] V?? con s??? n??y v???n ti???p t???c t??ng l??n, ch??? t??nh ri??ng trong n??m 2010, Trung Qu???c cam k???t ?????u t?? 20 t??? FDI v??o Myanmar trong c??c d??? ??n ???? ???????c ph?? duy???t.[20] D?? Trung Qu???c m???i ???ch?????? l?? nh?? ?????u t?? FDI l???n th??? hai t???i L??o, v???i h??n 3,3 t??? ???? la M??? trong 551 d??? ??n k??? t??? n??m 1988, nh??ng n?????c ??ang t??ch c???c t??ng c?????ng ?????u t??.[21]
V??? th????ng m???i, Trung Qu???c l?? ?????i t??c l???n nh???t cho ba qu???c gia, v???i ngo???i l??? l???n n???a l?? L??o. Trung Qu???c nh???n h??n 90 ph???n tr??m xu???t kh???u c???a M??ng C??? trong khi chi???m t???i 32 ph???n tr??m t???ng nh???p kh???u c???a n?????c n??y.[22] Trong n??m 2011, Trung Qu???c ???? v?????t Nga tr??? th??nh nh?? cung c???p l???n nh???t c???a M??ng C???, m???t xu h?????ng cho th???y ho???t ?????ng th????ng m???i s??u s???c h??n gi???a hai qu???c gia trong t????ng lai. Trung Qu???c c??ng l?? ?????i t??c th????ng m???i l???n nh???t c???a Campuchia, chi???m t???i h??n 32 ph???n tr??m t???ng kim ng???ch th????ng m???i c???a Campuchia. Tr??i l???i, n?????c x???p h???ng th??? hai, Hoa K???, ch??? chi???m 20 ph???n tr??m. M???t xu h?????ng ????ng ch?? ?? trong m???i quan h??? th????ng m???i gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? Campuchia ???? l?? s??? t??ng tr?????ng nh???y v???t 73,4 ph???n tr??m t??? 2010 ?????n 2011.[23] D?? L??o l?? ngo???i l??? trong s??? 4 b???n qu???c gia v?? ?????i t??c th????ng m???i quan tr???ng nh???t c???a L??o l?? Th??i Lan ch??? kh??ng ph???i Trung Qu???c, nh??ng 34 ph???n tr??m xu???t kh???u c???a L??o n??m 2010 l?? t???i th??? tr?????ng Trung Qu???c, t??ng t??? 2,9 ph???n tr??m trong n??m 2001, v?? Trung Qu???c cung c???p t???i 23 ph???n tr??m gi?? tr??? nh???p kh???u c???a L??o.[24] Trung Qu???c l?? ?????i t??c th????ng m???i quan tr???ng nh???t c???a Myanmar, cung c???p t???i 65 ph???n tr??m t???ng gi?? tr??? nh???p kh???u v?? nh???n t???i 16 ph???n tr??m t???ng xu???t kh???u trong n??m 2010. C??ng gi???ng nh?? M??ng C???, Campuchia v?? L??o, t??? l??? ph???n tr??m thu??ng m???i v???i Trung Qu???c c???a Myanmar c??ng ??ang t??ng l??n, t??? ch??? 4,1 ph???n tr??m t???ng gi?? tr??? xu???t kh???u trong 2001 l??n t???i 16 ph???n tr??m trong 2010, v?? 39 ph???n tr??m t???ng gi?? tr??? nh???p kh???u trong 2001 l??n t???i 65 ph???n tr??m trong 2010.[25]
Trung Qu???c c??ng l?? nh?? cung c???p l???n c??c kho???n h??? tr??? ph??t tri???n (ODA) v?? c??c kho???n cho vay. Trong khi ODA c???a Trung Qu???c t???i b???n qu???c gia n??y kh??ng l???n nh?? c??c kho???n ODA t??? c??c qu???c gia nh?? Nh???t B???n hay Hoa K???, nh??ng n???u t??nh c??ng v???i FDI v?? th????ng m???i, n?? s??? t???o th??nh m???t t???p h???p ba y???u t??? m?? trong ???? Trung Qu???c c?? v??? tr?? ??p ?????o. H??n n???a, c??ng v???i FDI v?? th????ng m???i, ODA trong khu v???c c???a Trung Qu???c c??ng t??ng l??n trong khi vi???n tr??? t??? c??c n?????c OECD l???i gi???m ??i.[26] C??ch Trung Qu???c ti???p c???n c??c qu???c gia trong vi???c c???p vi???n tr??? c??ng h???p d???n h??n ?????i v???i nhi???u qu???c gia ??? n?? ??i k??m v???i ??t ??i???u ki???n h??n so v???i c??c kho???n vi???n tr??? t??? c??c n?????c OECD. Trong nhi???u tr?????ng h???p, ??i???u ki???n duy nh???t m?? Trung Qu???c ??p d???ng cho c??c kho???n vi???n tr??? c???a m??nh ???? l?? n?? ph???i ???????c s??? d???ng cho ph??t tri???n c?? s??? h??? t???ng v?? s??? d???ng c??c doanh nghi???p Trung Qu???c. ?????i v???i nhi???u n?????c nh??? nh?? M??ng C???, Campuchia, L??o v?? Myanmar, nh???ng ??i???u ki???n nh?? v???y ?????u ph?? h???p v???i chi???n l?????c ph??t tri???n n???i b??? c???a h???.
C??c kho???n vi???n tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c d??nh cho c??c n?????c ch??u ?? ??ang ph??t tri???n c??ng kh??ng ph???i l?? nh???. V??o n??m 2010, Ch??? t???ch Trung Qu???c H??? C???m ????o tuy??n b??? r???ng Trung Qu???c ???? c???p 1,7 t??? ???? la M??? vi???n tr??? t???i c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n ch??u ?? bao g???m M??ng C???, Campuchia, L??o v?? Myanmar.[27] Kho???n vi???n tr??? n??y kh??ng bao g???m c??c kho???n cho vay, v???n c??ng r???t ????ng k??? trong nh???ng n??m g???n ????y. Trong n??m 2010, Trung Qu???c ???? ?????ng ?? c???p cho Myanmar m???t kho???n cho vay 2,4 t??? ???? la M???.[28] Trong n??m 2011, Trung Qu???c ????? ngh??? cho M??ng C??? vay 500 tri???u ???? la M???, v?? trong n??m 2012, cho Campuchia vay 436 tri???u ???? la M???.[29] Trong n??m 2012, Trung Qu???c ????? ngh??? cho L??o vay m???t kho???n l??n ?????n 7 t??? ???? la M??? ????? x??y d???ng ???????ng s???t cao t???c L??o-Trung Qu???c. Qu???c h???i L??o ???? ph?? chu???n d??? ??n n??y trong n??m 2012 v???i th???i gian b???t ?????u v?? k???t th??c d??? ??n ch??a ???????c x??c ?????nh.[30]
Ph???n ???ng d???i l???i
Khi s???c m???nh tr??? th??nh ??i???m y???u
Download ph???n c??n l???i c???a v??n b???n t???i ????y: Chien luoc can du kinh te do vo cua TQ.pdf
???-
[1] V??? v???n ????? n??y xem th??m Minxin Pei, ???The Bullies of Beijing: China???s Image Problem,??? The Diplomat, 15 th??ng 12, 2012,  http://thediplomat.com/2012/12/15/the-bullies-of-beijingchinas-image-problem/3/; Elizabeth C. Economy, ???China???s Not-So-Beautiful-Neighborhood,??? Council of Foreign Relations, 30 th??ng 11, 2012, http://blogs.cfr.org/asia/2012/11/30/chinas-not-so-beautiful-neighborhood/; ???2011 nian zhongguowaijiao huigu yu zhangwang zhuanti yantaohui huiyi zhibo??? [Bu???i g???p m???t tr???c ti???p v??? ch??? ????? ?????c bi???t v???  ???A review of China???s 2011 diplomacy???], Zhongguo Yatai yanjiu wang [M???ng Nghi??n c???u Trung Qu???c v??? Ch??u ?? ??? Th??i B??nh D????ng], 19 th??ng 12, 2011.
[2] B??? Ngo???i Giao C???ng H??a Nh??n D??n Trung Hoa, ???nannan hezuo??? [H???p t??c Nam-Nam], http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/gxh/zlb/zcwj/t24777.htm; B??? Ngo???i Giao C???ng H??a Nh??n D??n Trung Hoa, ???China???s Stand on South???SouthCooperation,??? 18 th??ng 8, 2003, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjdt/wjzc/t24884.htm
[3] ???y ban Qu???c gia H???i Ngh??? Ch??nh Tr??? Hi???p Th????ng Nh??n D??n Trung Hoa, ???Dui zhongguo nan-nan hezuo fazhan zhanlue de sikao??? [Nghi??n c???u Chi???n l?????c Ph??t tri???n H???p t??c Nam-Nam], 20 th??ng 8, 2009, http://www.ctr.cc.gov.cn/2011/09/24/ARTI1316828751015203.shtml.
[4]???Kaichuang mulin youhao hezuo xin jumian??? [B???t ?????u m???t b?????c m???i c???a Ch??nh S??ch L??ng Gi???ng T???t], Xinhua, 10 th??ng, 2012, http://news.xinhuanet.com/comments/2012-12/10/c_113964759.htm.
[5] Qu???c v??? vi???n n?????c C???ng H??a Nh??n D??n Trung Hoa, ???Shiwu qijian zhongguo ???zou chuqu??? zhanlue youli tuidong duiwai jingji hezuo??? [Theo sau ?????i H???i ?????ng T??an qu???c l???n th??? 15, Chi???n l?????c ?????u t?? n?????c ng??ai c???a Trung Qu???c th??c ?????y h???p t??c kinh t??? n?????c ngo??i], 13 th??ng 2, 2006, http://www.gov.cn/gzdt/2006-02/13/content_187120.htm.
[6] B??? Ngo???i Giao C???ng H??a Nh??n D??n Trung Hoa, ???Zhongguo guanyu  xin anquan guan de lichang wenjian??? [T??i li???u v??? v??? tr?? c???a Trung Qu???c trong Kh??i ni???m An ninh M???i], 31 th??ng 7, 2002, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/gxh/zlb/zcwj/t4549.htm.
[7] Gao Xing, ???Baipishu: Zhongguo changdao huxin, huli, pingdeng, xiezuo de xin anquan guan??? [C??o B???ch: Kh??i ni???m An ninh M???i c???a Trung Qu???c th??c ?????y s??? tin t?????ng l???n nhau, c??ng c?? l???i v?? b??nh ?????ng], Xinhua, 6 th ??ng 9, 2011, htttr.olitics.people.com.cn/GB/1026/15600348.html.
[8] Yang Jiang, ???Great power style in China???s economic diplomacy,??? The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 6, s??? 1 (2011), tr.. 64.
[9] ???2011 nian zhongguo??? [Bu???i g???p tr???c ti???p v??? ch??? ????? ?????c bi???t v??? ???A review of China???s 2011 diplomacy???]. Xem th??m Men Honghua, ???Zhongguo jueqi yu dongya anquan  zhixu de biange??? [S??? tr???i d???y c???a Trung Qu???c v?? thay ?????i v??? v??? th??? an ninh c???a c??c qu???c gia ????ng ??] Guoji Guancha [Ng?????i Quan s??t To??n c???u], s???. 2 (2008).
[10] Antoaneta Bezlova, ???Backlash against Rouge Chinese Investors Alarms Beijing,??? InterPress Service, 3 th??ng 1, 2010, http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=49879.
[11]???2011 nian zhongguo??? [Bu???i g???p tr???c ti???p v??? ch??? ????? ?????c bi???t v??? ???A review of China???s 2011 diplomacy???].
[12] Michael Yahuda, ???Chinese dilemmas in thinking about regional security architecture,??? The Pacific Review 16,s???. 2 (2003), tr. 195.
[13]  Daniel Drezner, ???Bad Debts: Assessing China???s Financial Influence in Great Power Politics,??? International Security 34, no. 2 (2009), pp. 10.
[14] ???Beijing daxue guoji guanxi xueyuan fu yuanzhang Jia Qingguo jiaoshou zhuzhi fayan shi lu??? [B??i n??i chuy???n c???a Ph?? ch??? t???ch tr?????ng Quan h??? Qu???c T??? ?????i h???c B???c Kinh Gi??o s?? Jia Qingguo], Chahaer xuehui [Vi???n nghi??n c???u Charhar], 29 th??ng 12, 2011.
[15] B??? Th????ng M???i v?? Ngo???i Giao Trung Qu???c, ???Duiwai touzi guo bie chanyue daoxiang mu lu??? [M???c l???c H?????ng d???n v??? c??c Qu???c gia v?? ng??nh C??ng nghi???p nh???m Ph??t Tri???n ra N?????c Ngo??i.], B???c Kinh, 2011.
[16] Linda Jacobson v?? Dean Knox, ???New Foreign Policy Actors in China,??? SIPRI Policy Paper, s???. 26 (Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2010), 10http://books.sipri.org/files/PP/SIPRIPP26.pdf.
[17]???Foreign Direct Investment, Net Inflows, Mongolia,??? World Bank, 3 th??ng 2, 2012, http://data.worldbank.org/country/mongolia.
[18] ???Investment Trend: FDI Trend,???Council for the Development of Cambodia, April 2012, http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh/investment-enviroment/investment-trend.html; Cambodia Development Research Institute, Annual Development Review (Phnom Phen: CDRI, 2012), tr. 7.
[19] Jared Bissinger, ???Behind Burma???s Rising FDI,??? The Diplomat, 31 th??ng 8, 2011, http://thediplomat.com/asean-beat/2011/08/31/behind-burmas-rising-fdi/.
[20] B??? Th????ng M???i Trung Qu???c, ???2010 Statistical Bulletin on China???s Outward Foreign Direct Investment,??? 16 th??ng 9, 2012, http://hzs.mofcom.gov.cn/accessory/201109/1316069658609.pdf.
[21] ???Zhongzi qiye 20 duonianlai zai Laowo touzi 33 yi meiyuan??? [Doanh nghi???p Trung Qu???c ???? ?????u t?? 3.3 t??? ???? la M??? v??o L??o trong 20 n??m qua], China???ASEAN Free Trade Area, 3 th??ng 6, 2012, http://www.cafta.org.cn/show.php?contentid=63915.
[22] V??n ph??ng Th???ng K?? Qu???c Gia M??ng C???, ???Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, November 2011???, th??ng 11 2011, http://www.nso.mn/v3/index2.php?page=menu&m_id=266&s_id=0.
[23] Nhuon Sovan, ???Cambodia???s Trade with China in 2011 up 73.5 pct,??? Cambodia Daily News, 10 th??ng 2, 2012.
[24] ???Laos,??? The Observatory of Economic Complexity, 20 th??ng 12, 2012, http://atlas.media.mit.edu/country/lao/.
[25] ???Myanmar,??? The Observatory of Economic Complexity, 20 th??ng 12, 2012, http://atlas.media.mit.edu/country/mmr/.
[26] Ch????ng tr??nh Ph??t tri???n Li??n H???p Qu???c, ???Towards Human Resilience: Sustaining MDG Progress in an Age of Economic Uncertainty,??? 13 th??ng 10, 2011, tr. 147-148, http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Poverty%20Reduction/Inclusive%20development/Towards%20Human%20Resilience/Towards_SustainingMDGProgress_Ch5.pdf.
[27] ???Hu Jintao: In the last 10 years, China has provided 1.7 billion in ODA,??? China News, 11 th??ng 12, 2011, http://www.chinanews.com/cj/2011/12-11/3523093.shtml.
[28] Juliet Shwe Gaung, ???Massive loan from China to fund gas investment,??? The Myanmar Times, 13 th??ng 12, 2010, http://www.mmtimes.com/2010/business/553/biz55301.html.
[29] ???China provides largest loan to Cambodia,??? The China Daily, 17 th??ng 7, 2012, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2012-07/17/content_15591814.htm.
[30] ???Laos???China rail link,??? Australia Network News, 21 th??ng 11, 2012, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-11-21/an-laos-china-rail-link/4384346.

 

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