Drew Gilpin Faust: N??? Hi???u tr?????ng ?????u ti??n c???a ?????i h???c Harvard

Thứ năm - 01/08/2019 21:06
Ng??y 11/02/2007, b?? Catherine Drew Gilpin Faust ???????c ch??nh th???c b??? nhi???m l??m Hi???u tr?????ng (president) th??? 28 c???a ?????i h???c Harvard. ????y l?? m???t ng??y quan tr???ng m?? ng?????i Harvard kh??ng th??? qu??n, v?? n?? ????nh d???u s??? ch???m d???t l???ch s??? 370 n??m c??nh ????n ??ng ?????c quy???n n???m gi??? c????ng v??? cao qu?? n??i tr??n su???t t??? ng??y Harvard ra ?????i.
Drew Gilpin Faust: N??? Hi???u tr?????ng ?????u ti??n c???a ?????i h???c Harvard


T??c gi???: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh
Ng??y 11/02/2007, b?? Catherine Drew Gilpin Faust ???????c ch??nh th???c b??? nhi???m l??m Hi???u tr?????ng (president) th??? 28 c???a ?????i h???c Harvard. ????y l?? m???t ng??y quan tr???ng m?? ng?????i Harvard kh??ng th??? qu??n, v?? n?? ????nh d???u s??? ch???m d???t l???ch s??? 370 n??m c??nh ????n ??ng ?????c quy???n n???m gi??? c????ng v??? cao qu?? n??i tr??n su???t t??? ng??y Harvard ra ?????i.
???Harvard t??? n??m 1636 ???? ch??? ?????i ng??y n??y??? ??? b?? Patricia Albjerg Graham nguy??n hi???u tr?????ng Tr?????ng Cao h???c v??? Gi??o d???c c???a Harvard x??c ?????ng n??i. B?? nh??? l???i: N??m 1972 khi ?????n Harvard l??m nghi??n c???u sau ti???n s??, b?? kh??ng ???????c tr?????ng n??y cho v??o ??n t???i ph??ng l???n c???a nh?? ??n, l?? do ch??? v?? b?? l?? ph??? n???.
???????y l?? m???t ng??y c???c k??? quan tr???ng, m???t ng??y c?? ?? ngh??a l???ch s??? ?????i v???i ??H Harvard??? ??? ??ng James R.Houghton ?????ng ?????u ???y ban tuy???n ch???n Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard v?? l?? th??nh vi??n l??u n??m trong ban l??nh ?????o Harvard Corporation tuy??n b???. Faust ???v???a c?? h???c v???n uy??n b??c l???i c?? n??ng l???c l??nh ?????o m???nh, ?????ng th???i c?? th??? kh??ch l??? m???i ng?????i c??? g???ng l??m t???t c??ng vi???c m???t c??ch xu???t s???c nh???t???, b?? l?? ???m???t nh?? khoa h???c ??u t??, m???t nh?? gi??o chuy??n t??m, m???t ng?????i c???c t???t.???
B?? Catherine Hill, Gi??m ?????c nghi??n c???u c???a H???i Ph??? n??? c??c tr?????ng ??H M???[1] n??i: vi???c b??? nhi???m Faust l??m Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard c?? ????? ngh??a t?????ng tr??ng quan tr???ng???.
Bruce Mann gi??o s?? tr?????ng Lu???t Harvard, m???t ?????ng nghi???p l??u n??m c???a Faust nh???n x??t Drew Faust r???t th??ch h???p l??nh ?????o Harvard, m???t ???tr?????ng ??H n???i ti???ng v?? kh?? l??nh ?????o???.
Vi???c b??? nhi???m n??i tr??n c??ng ???????c truy???n th??ng M??? v?? th??? gi???i ????a tin, b??nh lu???n.
V???y Drew Faust c?? g?? kh??c v???i c??c v??? Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard tr?????c ????y?
Tr?????c h???t, b?? l?? ph??? n???; sau ????, b?? l?? ng?????i th??? hai ch??a t???ng h???c t???i Harvard. Cu???i c??ng, vi???c b??? nhi???m b?? ????nh d???u s??? ch???m d???t th???i k??? su???t t??? n??m 1953 t???i nay Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard ch??? l?? m???y v??? nh??n s?? c?? ti???ng t??m, t???ng l?? ch??nh kh??ch, quan ch???c ho???c cao th??? c?? t??i quy??n ti???n thi??n h??? ch??? kh??ng ph???i l?? nh?? khoa h???c thu???n t??y.
G???p th???i?
Vi???c b??? nhi???m Faust c?? li??n quan t???i s??? ra ??i c???a ng?????i ti???n nhi???m l?? Lawrence Summers, nh?? kinh t??? n???i ti???ng, nguy??n B??? tr?????ng T??i ch??nh th???i T???ng th???ng Clinton. ??ng n??y c?? t??i, c?? t???m nh??n nh??ng h???i l??m Hi???u tr?????ng (2001-2006) l???i t??? ra thi???u khi??m t???n, n??i n??ng thi???u gi??? g??n n??n k??m thu ph???c nh??n t??m. N??m 2005, t???i m???t h???i ngh??? b??n v??? kinh t???, Summers n??i: Trong c??c m??n khoa h???c t??? nhi??n, to??n h???c v?? c??ng tr??nh, ph??? n??? kh??ng c?? t??i n??ng nh?? nam gi???i. Ph??t ng??n n??y b??? ph???n ???ng m???nh, m???t n??? gi??o s?? l???p t???c b??? h???p ????? t??? ?? ph???n ?????i. ???y ban N??? gi??o s?? Harvard c??ng khai tuy??n b???: ???H??nh vi c???a ng??i ???? g??y thi???t h???i nghi??m tr???ng cho thanh danh c???a ??H Harvard.???
Qu??? th???, kh??ng ??t n??? gi??o s?? sau ???? ???? t???c gi???n t??? ch???c; n??? gi???i c??? n?????c l??n ??n Summers. ????? d???p y??n d?? lu???n, ??ng n??y b??n l???p nh??m c??ng t??c n??? gi??o s?? nh???m c???i ti???n vi???c tuy???n d???ng v?? ????? b???t h???. H???i ???y b?? Faust ??ang l?? Gi??m ?????c Vi???n nghi??n c???u c???p cao Radcliffe.[2] Summers nh??? Faust gi??p ph??? tr??ch hai ti???u ban h???c thu???t ??ng m???i l???p nh???m t??ng c?? h???i tuy???n d???ng, ????? b???t n??? gi??o s?? trong c??c l??nh v???c to??n h???c, c??ng tr??nh v?? khoa h???c t??? nhi??n.
Tuy ???? c??? g???ng c???u v??n t??nh h??nh, nh??ng s???c ??p d?? lu???n v???n ng??y m???t t??ng, cu???i c??ng th??ng 2/2006 Summers ph???i t??? ch???c Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard. C?? ng?????i n??i, n???u kh??ng x???y ra s??? vi???c n??y th?? ch??a ch???c Harvard ???? ch???n m???t ph??? n??? v??o ch???c v??? ????.
Ai d??m l??m Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard?
Trong t??nh h??nh ????, Harvard Corporation t???m th???i m???i c???u Hi???u tr?????ng th???i gian 1971-1991 l?? ??ng Derek Bok l??m quy???n Hi???u tr?????ng, ?????ng th???i g???p r??t t??m ch???n Hi???u tr?????ng m???i.
Sau m???y th??ng s?? tuy???n, cu???i 2006, ???y ban tuy???n ch???n Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard g???m 7 th??nh vi??n c??ng b??? danh s??ch ng?????i ???????c ch???n m???t g???i v??ng. T??? Harvard c?? b?? Elena Kagan, Hi???u tr?????ng tr?????ng Lu???t; b?? Drew Faust nh?? s??? h???c; ??ng Steven Haiman Hi???u ph?? ph??? tr??ch gi??o v??? (provost) ??? T??? c??c n??i kh??c c?? ??ng Steven Chu ch??? nh??n gi???i Nobel v???t l?? 1997 v?? m???t s??? nh?? khoa h???c. D?? nhi??n, th??nh ph???n n??? ???????c ch?? tr???ng nh???m ????? c???u v??n thanh danh Harvard sau khi ph??t bi???u coi th?????ng n??? gi???i c???a c???u Hi???u tr?????ng Summers g??y s??ng gi?? d?? lu???n.
Tr??n th???c t??? kh??ng ??t ng?????i ???????c ????a v??o danh s??ch tr??n ???? t??? ch???i s??? ????? c???.
Ai c??ng bi???t, Hi???u tr?????ng ??H Harvard l?? m???t ch???c v??? c?? vinh d??? r???t cao nh??ng l???i v?? c??ng kh?? g??nh v??c. Harvard t???ng g???i l???i m???i v??o ch???c v??? n??y ?????n nhi???u v??? l??nh ?????o c??c tr?????ng ??H n???i ti???ng ho???c c??c nh?? khoa h???c l???ng danh tr??n th??? gi???i, song ph???n l???n h??? ?????u r??t ra kh???i cu???c c???nh tranh nh???m t???i chi???c gh??? ????. ??ng Alison Richard ph?? Hi???u tr?????ng ??H Cambridge (Anh Qu???c) khi ???????c ???l???t v??o t???m ng???m??? ???? t??? ?? s??? ??? l???i Cambridge m?? kh??ng c?? ?? ?????nh tr??? th??nh ???ng vi??n c???a Harvard. Gay go nh???t l?? ngay c??? c??c nh??n v???t h??ng ?????u m???t s??? ??H ??? M??? c??ng kh??ng quan t??m t???i ch???c v??? n??y. John Etchemendy, Hi???u ph?? ph??? tr??ch gi??o v??? ??H Stanford, vi???t trong th?? g???i ???y ban n??i tr??n: ??ng ch???ng nh???ng ???kh??ng coi m??nh l?? m???t ???ng vi??n, h??n n???a c??ng tin r???ng m??nh s??? kh??ng ph???i l?? ???ng vi??n trong con m???t qu?? ???y ban???. B?? Amy Gutmann Hi???u tr?????ng ??H Pennsylvania th?? n??i th???ng: ???T??i kh???ng ?????nh s??? ?????m nhi???m ch???c Hi???u tr?????ng ??H Pennsylvania m?? kh??ng quan t??m t???i ?????a v??? Hi???u tr?????ng c??c tr?????ng ??H kh??c.???
??H Pennsylvania l?? m???t tr?????ng l???n thu???c Ivy League[3] n??n d?? lu???n cho r???ng Gutmann r???t hi???u l??nh ?????o Harvard l?? m???t nhi???m v??? c???c k??? n???ng n???. T??i s???n l???c quy??n ???????c[4] c???a ??H Harvard h??ng n??m l??n t???i c??? 20-30 t??? USD, t????ng ??????ng ng??n s??ch m???t qu???c gia trung b??nh, tuy r???t ????ng ng?????ng m??? nh??ng c??ng c?? ngh??a l?? Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard ph???i v???t v??? b??n ba v?? c?? uy t??n nh?? th??? n??o m???i b???o ?????m ???ch???y??? ???????c ngu???n t??i s???n t????ng ??????ng nh?? v???y.
Ngo??i ra th??? l???c c???a Harvard Corporation r???t m???nh, c??c ????n v??? ?????c l???p trong tr?????ng c???nh tranh v???i nhau r???t quy???t li???t, l??nh ?????o m???t nh?? tr?????ng nh?? v???y th???t kh?? kh??n.
Sau g???n m???t n??m s??ng l???c, cu???i c??ng ???y ban tuy???n ch???n n??i tr??n ????a ra quy???t ?????nh b??? nhi???m s??? gia n???i ti???ng Catherine Drew Gilpin Faust 59 tu???i (sinh n??m 1947) l??m Hi???u tr?????ng th??? 128 c???a ??H Harvard k??? t??? th??ng 2 n??m 2007.
Gi??u tinh th???n ph???n kh??ng
Trong m???t l???n tr??? l???i nh?? b??o m???i ????y, b?? Faust n??i b??? m??? b?? mu???n b?? ???tr??? th??nh v??? c???a m???t ??ng ch???ng gi??u c??.??? Nguy???n v???ng ???y ng??y nay r?? r??ng l?? l???i th???i, nh??ng v???i ho??n c???nh gia ????nh Faust th?? ????ng nh?? th???. B?? xu???t th??n t??? m???t gia ????nh kh?? gi??? v?? l???n l??n trong trang tr???i ch??n nu??i c???a ??ng b??? t???i m???t th??? tr???n nh??? ??? Clarke, bang Virginia c??ch Washington ch???ng 100 km. M??? b?? l?? m???t ??i???n h??nh ph??? n??? su???t ?????i ch??? lo n???i tr??? v?? lu??n d???y con g??i bi???t s???ng an ph???n n??? nhi v?? ph???i hi???u ???????c th??? gi???i n??y l?? c???a ????n ??ng. Faust lu??n ???????c nh???c nh??? ??i ?????ng ??n n??i ph???i ????ng ph??p t???c, th?? d??? ??n xong ph???i x???p th??a n??a th??? n??o, khi ??i c??ng gia ????nh ra ngo??i ph???i ch?? ?? th??? t??? tr?????c sau, ph???i bi???t c??ch ??n n??i kh??c nhau v???i ng?????i da tr???ng, ng?????i da ??en??? M???t l???n thay th???y gi??o gi???ng Kinh Th??nh cho l???p c???a con g??i, ??ng b??? Faust n??i: ???Ch??? bao gi??? tin ????n b??.??? Trong c??c cu???c b??n c??i gia ????nh, ??ng th?????ng k???t lu???n: ???C??c con y??u qu??, h??y nh??? r???ng ????y l?? th??? gi???i c???a ????n ??ng, hi???u ???????c ??i???u ???? c??ng s???m c??ng t???t.???
B???u kh??ng kh?? ng???t ng???t ???y ???? th???c t???nh tinh th???n ???ph???n kh??ng??? ??? c?? b??. Sau n??y Faust nh??? l???i: ???M??? t??i lu??n b???o t??i th??? gi???i n??y l?? c???a ????n ??ng, con ph???i ti???p nh???n s??? th???t ????. May m???n h??n m???, t??i s???ng trong m???t th???i ?????i c?? th??? ch???ng minh k???t lu???n ???y c???a m??? l?? sai.??? ???T??i l?? k??? ph???n kh??ng, ch???ng nh???ng ra ???????ng bi???u t??nh ch???ng chi???n tranh ??? Vi???t Nam m?? c??n lu??n tranh c??i v???i m???, kh??ng ti???p nh???n quan ??i???m c???a b?? cho r???ng ????y l?? th??? gi???i c???a ????n ??ng ??????
T??? nh??? Faust ???? t??? ch???i l??m c??c c??ng vi???c kh??u v?? m?? ch???y ??i cho b?? ng???a ??n nh?? con trai. N??m 9 tu???i, nghe ????i n??i ??? Virginia ??ang c?? tranh c??i v??? v???n ????? ph??n bi???t m??u da, Faust gi???u b??? m??? vi???t th?? ????? ngh??? T???ng th???ng Eisenhower gi???i quy???t v??? n??y: ???Th??a T???ng th???ng k??nh m???n, ch??u ng?????i da tr???ng, n??m nay 9 tu???i v?? c?? nhi???u suy ngh?? v??? chuy???n ph??n bi???t ch???ng t???c ??? Cho t???i b??y gi??? ch??u m???i ????? ?? th???y h???c sinh tr?????ng ti???u h???c c???a ch??u to??n l?? ng?????i da tr???ng, v?? ch??u hi???u ra ??i???u n??y ho??n to??n kh??ng ng???u nhi??n ??? N???u ch??u b??i ??en m???t m??nh th?? s??? ch???ng m???t tr?????ng c??ng n??o cho ch??u v??o h???c, tuy r???ng ch??u ch???ng c?? thay ?????i g?? ngo??i m??u da m?? th??i ?????? Kh??ng ch??? k??u g???i thanh to??n n???n ph??n bi???t ch???ng t???c, Faust c??n tham gia cu???c bi???u t??nh c???a phong tr??o nh??n quy???n.
Sau khi tr??? th??nh nh?? s??? h???c, Faust th???y c???n ??i t??m tung t??ch b???c th?? n??i tr??n v?? b?? ???? th???y n?? t???i Th?? vi???n T???ng th???ng Eisenhower ??? bang Kansas. B???c th?? vi???t ng??y 02/12/1957 t???i m???t tr?????ng ti???u h???c n??ng th??n ???y ???????c Faust nhi???u l???n nh???c t???i, coi n?? l?? m???m m???ng ?????u ti??n c???a b???n n??ng ch???ng ?????i c??c t???p t???c. B???n n??ng ???y khi???n Faust ?????ng v??o h??ng ng?? nh???ng ng?????i M??? ?????u ti??n ph???n ?????i chi???n tranh Iraq.
Tr?????ng th??nh v?? c???ng hi???n
Faust b???t ?????u s???ng xa gia ????nh t??? h???i ??i h???c m???t tr?????ng trung h???c k?? t??c ??? New England. Ti???p ???? b?? h???c t???i H???c vi???n d??? b??? Concord Academy ??? Massachusetts, r???i t???t nghi???p ng??nh l???ch s??? t???i H???c vi???n n??? Bryn Mawr (Bryn Mawr College).
???T??? khi h???c d??? b???, em g??i t??i b???t ?????u ??i con ???????ng ri??ng c???a m??nh,??? ng?????i anh c???a Faust sau n??y k??? l???i, ???T??i c???m th???y em t??i r???t hi???u con ???????ng m??nh s??? ??i, c?? ???y lu??n b???ng b???ng kh?? th??? mu???n l??m ???????c m???t c??i g?? ????.???
M???i ?????u Faust r???t mu???n v??o ??H Princeton, n??i ??ng b???, hai ??ng ch?? v?? nhi???u h??? h??ng t???ng theo h???c, nh??ng b?? th???t v???ng ch??? v?? h???i gi???a th???p ni??n 1960 Princeton kh??ng nh???n n??? sinh.
T???i Bryn Mawr College, Faust ch??? y???u h???c l???ch s???. N??m 1968, Faust 21 tu???i t???t nghi???p H???c vi???n n??y v???i th??nh t??ch xu???t s???c. Sau ???? b?? l??m nghi??n c???u sinh t???i ??H Pennsylvania v?? n??m 1975 l???y b???ng ti???n s?? s??? h???c chuy??n ng??nh v??n minh ch??u M???. B?? ??? l???i tr?????ng n??y gi???ng d???y 25 n??m v???i c????ng v??? gi??o s??, trong ???? 5 n??m l??m Ch??? nhi???m Khoa V??n minh ch??u M???; ngo??i ra c??n l??m Ch??? nhi???m ???D??? ??n nghi??n c???u ph??? n?????? trong 4 n??m.
N??m 2000, gi??o s?? s??? h???c Faust v??? l??m vi???c t???i Vi???n Nghi??n c???u c???p cao Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. N??m sau b?? ???????c c??? l??m Gi??m ?????c (Dean) Vi???n n??y. Ti???n th??n c???a n?? l?? Radcliffe College, m???t h???c vi???n n??? ?????c l???p tr?????c ng??y Harvard nh???n c??? nam l???n n??? sinh (nh??ng n??? sinh c???a h??? c?? th??? nghe gi???ng t???i Harvard). N??m 1999, Radcliffe College nh???p v??o ??H Harvard, ?????i th??nh Vi???n Nghi??n c???u; v?? th??? Faust tr??? th??nh ng?????i c???a Harvard. Tr??n c????ng v??? m???i, b?? m???nh d???n ti???n h??nh ch???nh ?????n v?? c???i c??ch, gi???m chi ti??u h??nh ch??nh, gi???m 1/4 bi??n ch???, m???i nhi???u h???c gi??? c?? uy t??n trong phong tr??o n??? quy???n l??m c??n b??? nghi??n c???u, ??em l???i s???c s???ng m???i cho Vi???n, bi???n n?? th??nh m???t c?? quan nghi??n c???u qu???c t??? c?? ti???ng. T??? ???? t??n tu???i Faust b???t ?????u n???i l??n t???i Harvard.
Th??? h??? s??? gia m???i c???a n?????c M???
Faust l?? chuy??n gia l???ng danh v??? nghi??n c???u l???ch s??? mi???n nam n?????c M??? v?? l???ch s??? cu???c n???i chi???n M???, l?? chi???n s?? h??ng h??i b???o v??? n??? quy???n. B?? ???? xu???t b???n 6 cu???n s??ch, trong ???? cu???n Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (Nh???ng b?? m??? c???a s??ng t???o: ph??? n??? t???i mi???n Nam duy tr?? ch??? ????? n?? l??? trong N???i chi???n M???; xu???t b???n 1996) ???????c H???i S??? h???c M??? t???ng gi???i th?????ng s??ch hay nh???t thu???c th??? lo???i phi ti???u thuy???t (nonfiction). Cu???n This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War (N???n c???ng h??a ??au kh???: s??? ch???t ch??c v?? cu???c N???i chi???n M???; xu???t b???n 2008) n??i v??? 620 ngh??n binh s?? M??? ng?? xu???ng trong 4 n??m N???i chi???n ch??? ????? d???n ?????n k???t c???c ??em l???i n???n c???ng h??a, ???????c b??o New York Times ch???n l?? 1 trong 10 s??ch hay nh???t n??m 2008 v?? ???????c ??H Columbia t???ng gi???i Bancroft 2009. Con s??? 620 ngh??n ng?????i ch???t  ???y t????ng ??????ng v???i to??n b??? binh s?? M??? ???? ch???t trong t???t c??? c??c cu???c chi???n tranh kh??c n?????c M??? t???ng tham gia t??? Chi???n tranh C??ch m???ng cho t???i chi???n tranh Tri???u Ti??n. Th???t l?? m???t s??? l??ng ph?? t??n nh???n.
Quan ??i???m c???a b?? v??? chi???n tranh r???t ????ng ch?? ??. Trong m???t b??i vi???t n??m 2004, khi ph??n t??ch v???n ????? t???i sao chi???n tranh l?? ????? t??i c?? s???c cu???n h??t nh???t trong l???ch s???, b?? vi???t: Chi???n tranh ??em l???i cho ng?????i ta s??? tr???i nghi???m ch??n th???c v?? m??nh li???t, khi ?????n th???i ??i???m s???ng ch???t ai n???y ?????u t??? h???i: r???t cu???c ??i???u g?? quan tr???ng nh???t? C???n h??nh ?????ng th??? n??o? ??? C??c s??? gia ???? nhi???u l???n ph??n t??ch nguy??n nh??n v?? h???u qu??? c???a chi???n tranh, nh??ng s??? ph??n t??ch tr???u t?????ng ???? kh??ng quan tr???ng ?????i v???i nh???ng ng?????i b??nh th?????ng; chi???n tranh ?????y r???y s??? k??ch th??ch v?? s??? h??i, s??? ch???t ch??c v?? bi k???ch c???a nh???ng ng?????i b??? h???i, n?? t??c ?????ng to l???n t???i m???i ng?????i??? C??c t??c ph???m c???a b?? ???? th??? hi???n quan ??i???m t?? duy n???ng t??nh nh??n v??n, ph?? h???p th???i ?????i ng??y nay c???a th??? h??? s??? gia m???i trong vi???c ph??n t??ch c??c s??? ki???n l???ch s???.
Phong c??ch l??nh ?????o ?????c ????o
Faust chan h??a v???i m???i ng?????i, kh??o l??o tranh th??? ???????c s??? h???p t??c c???a h???, c?? l??? ????y l?? m???t nguy??n nh??n quan tr???ng b?? ???????c ch???n l??m Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard. B?? Judith Rodin[5] Ch??? t???ch Qu??? Rockefeller  nh???n x??t: ???B?? ???y k???t h???p v?? c??ng kh??o l??o tr??nh ????? h???c thu???t l???i l???c v???i n??ng l???c qu???n l?? si??u ph??m.??? ??ng Francis Sheldon Hackney, Hi???u tr?????ng ??H Pennsylvania th???i k??? 1981-1993, m???t s??? gia chuy??n v??? l???ch s??? mi???n nam n?????c M??? v?? t???ng c???ng t??c ch???t ch??? v???i Faust nh???n x??t: C??c ?????ng nghi???p c???a Faust th?????ng vui l??ng nh??? b?? gi??p v?? h??? th???y quan ??i???m s??? h???c c???a b?? c?? ????? tin c???y cao; Faust l??m vi???c r???t ch???c ch???n v?? c?? n??? n???p, ki??n ngh??? nh??ng l???i hay h??i h?????c, ???????c m???i ng?????i t??n nhi???m.
Kh??ng ??t ng?????i cho r???ng Faust ???????c c??? l??m l??nh ?????o Harvard ch??? y???u v?? b?? l?? n???, nh??ng ???y ban tuy???n ch???n Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard ki??n tr?? tuy??n b???: gi???i t??nh kh??ng ph???i l?? nh??n t??? ch??? y???u nh???t khi???n h??? ch???n Faust, ??i???u quan tr???ng l?? t??nh c??ch v?? phong c??ch qu???n l?? c???a b??. Faust h??a nh?? ??i???m ?????m, c?? t??i c??n b???ng ?? ki???n c??c b??n, kh??c h???n ng?????i ti???n nhi???m. Ch??nh b?? t???ng n??i: ???T??i mong r???ng vi???c b??? nhi???m t??i c?? th??? t?????ng tr??ng cho s??? m??? ?????u nh???ng c?? h???i m?? th???m ch?? th??? h??? tr?????c kh??ng th??? t?????ng t?????ng n???i???,[6]  v?? nh???n m???nh ???T??i kh??ng ph???i l?? N??? Hi???u tr?????ng c???a Harvard, t??i l?? Hi???u tr?????ng c???a Harvard.???[7]
???Theo t??i, ????y l?? m???t m?? h??nh m???i c???a ng?????i l??nh ?????o, c?? l??? c??ng li??n quan t???i gi???i t??nh song kh??ng n??n ho??n to??n quy k???t cho gi???i t??nh??? ??? gi??o s?? Richard Chait chuy??n nghi??n c???u c??ng t??c qu???n l?? ng??nh ??H n??i v?? cho bi???t: c??c c??ng ty l???n c???a M??? g???n ????y c?? nh???ng thay ?????i v??? m???t qu???n l??, m???t trong s??? ???? l?? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???ng r???n ??ang ???????c thay b???ng nh???ng ng?????i ??i???m ?????m h??a nh??, c?? kh??? n??ng gi??nh ???????c s??? nh???t tr?? c???a m???i ng?????i. Faust gi???i g???i ?? cho ng?????i kh??c v?? t??m ???????c s??? ?????ng thu???n c???a h???, ??i???u ???y quan tr???ng h??n c??c chi ti???t qu???n l??.
?????ng tr?????c th??ch th???c
Kh??ng ch??? Harvard m?? v??? sau c??c ??H Pennsylvania, ??H Princeton, ??H Brown ?????u c?? n??? Hi???u tr?????ng, chi???m m???t n???a s??? ??H thu???c Ivy League. Trong t????ng lai, t??? l??? n??? Hi???u tr?????ng s??? c??n t??ng nhi???u, v?? n??m 2006 n??? ch??? m???i chi???m 23% s??? Hi???u tr?????ng tr?????ng cao ?????ng v?? ??H; ngo??i ra h??n m???t n???a c??c v??? n??y ???? ngo??i 60 tu???i, c???n c?? s??? thay th???. Khi c?? nhi???u n??? Hi???u tr?????ng th?? d?? nhi??n s??? xu???t hi???n s??? c???nh tranh gi???a h??? v???i nhau.
Drew Faust ?????ng tr?????c kh??ng ??t kh?? kh??n. ??H Harvard c?? uy t??n qu?? cao, n??i ????y t???ng l?? ???l?? ???p??? c???a 7 T???ng th???ng M???, trong s??? gi??o s?? c?? h??n 40 ng?????i l?? ch??? nh??n gi???i Nobel, ngu???n t??i s???n c?? th??? chi ph???i c???a nh?? tr?????ng l??n t???i h??ng ch???c t??? USD ??? B???i th??? Hi???u tr?????ng Harvard l?? nh??n v???t ???tr??n ??e d?????i b??a???, m???i h??nh ?????ng v?? l???i n??i ph???i h???t s???c th???n tr???ng.
Ph??i ph???n ?????i b??? nhi???m Faust th?????ng nh???n m???nh Faust thi???u hi???u bi???t v??? Harvard, v?? qu?? kh??? c???a b?? h???u h???t kh??ng li??n quan t???i Harvard, l???i thi???u kinh nghi???m c??ng t??c h??nh ch??nh, ch??a t???ng l??nh ?????o m???t tr?????ng l???n. ??H Harvard c?? t???i 25 ngh??n c??n b??? nh??n vi??n, ng??n s??ch h??ng n??m 3 t??? USD, c??n Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study b?? t???ng l??nh ?????o l???i l?? ????n v??? nh??? nh???t trong Harvard, ch??? c?? h??n 90 c??n b???, ng??n s??ch 16 tri???u USD, ch??a b???ng 1% c???a Harvard. Ngo??i thi???u kinh nghi???m qu???n l?? kinh ph??, Faust c??n thi???u kinh nghi???m qu???n l?? m???t c?? quan h???c thu???t c?? t??nh t???ng h???p nh?? Harvard. C??c Vi???n v?? H???c vi???n trong Harvard ?????u ?????c l???p v??? h??nh ch??nh, n??m x??a Summers t???ng l???c b???t t??ng t??m trong vi???c ??i???u ?????ng H???c vi???n V??n c?? l???c l?????ng m???nh nh???t Harvard. Cho n??n ng?????i ta lo ng???i li???u Faust c?? th??? t???n t???i ???????c trong m???t m??i tr?????ng l???i ??ch ph???c t???p, l???m phe ph??i n??y hay kh??ng.
Faust ph???i gi???i quy???t nhi???u c??ng vi???c nh?? l??nh ?????o cu???c c???i c??ch gi??o tr??nh l???n nh???t trong 30 n??m nay, ch??? tr?? d??? ??n m??? r???ng tr?????ng s??? v???i kinh ph?? m???y t??? USD; x??y d???ng c?? ng??i m???i t???i Boston ????? ti???n h??nh vi???c nghi??n c???u t??? b??o g???c??? B?? c??n ph???i gi???i quy???t t??nh tr???ng b???t b??nh ?????ng c??c n??? gi??o s?? M??? ??ang ph???i g??nh ch???u: t??? th???p ni??n 1970 t???i nay, l????ng c???a h??? v???n th???p h??n 19% so v???i ?????ng nghi???p nam gi???i.
Faust v???a nh???m ch???c ???????c h??n m???t n??m th?? cu???c kh???ng ho???ng kinh t??? to??n c???u n??? ra, ??em l???i nhi???u kh?? kh??n l???n v?? b???t ng???, th?? d??? l??m cho t??i s???n c???a Harvard n??m 2009 b??? gi???m 11 t??? USD khi???n vi???c chi ti??u ph???i th???t ch???t, d??? ??n Boston ph???i ho??n l???i??? Faust n??i: ???T??i ph???i l??nh ?????o nh?? tr?????ng trong b???i c???nh ?????y lo l???ng v?? b???t an ??????
Nh??ng ng?????i ????n b?? ki??n c?????ng ???y tr??n ?????y ni???m tin v??o t????ng lai. B?? kh???ng ?????nh: ???T???i M??? c??ng nh?? tr??n th??? gi???i ch??a m???t tr?????ng ??H n??o c?? l???ch s??? xu???t s???c nh?? Harvard; gi??? ????y ch??ng ta h?????ng t???i m???c ti??u l??m cho t????ng lai c???a Harvard c??ng xu???t s???c h??n.???.
V???i t??i n??ng v?? s??? c??? g???ng c???a m??nh, b?? Drew Faust ???? v???ng v??ng ?????m nhi???m c????ng v??? Hi???u tr?????ng ??H Harvard trong hai nhi???m k??? li???n (1/7/2007-30/6/2018).[8] N??m 2014, b?? ???????c t???p ch?? Forbes b??nh ch???n l?? ng?????i ph??? n??? quy???n l???c th??? 33 trong danh s??ch nh???ng ph??? n??? quy???n l???c nh???t tr??n th??? gi???i.
???????????????-
[1] American Association of University Women.
[2] Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, thu???c ??H Harvard.
[3] Ivy League, t??n g???i m???t nh??m ??H l??u ?????i, c?? tr??nh ????? h???c thu???t cao, uy t??n x?? h???i l???n ??? mi???n ????ng B???c n?????c M???. Theo The Oxford English Reference Dictionary, Ivy League g???m 4 tr?????ng: Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia; nh??ng theo Wikipedia th?? g???m 8 tr?????ng (th??m Brown Univ., Cornell Univ., Dartmouth College v?? Univ. of Pennsylvania).
[4] Theo The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2004: endowment assets n??m 2002 c???a ??H Harvard l?? 17,169 t??? USD; theo m???t ngu???n tin kh??c, t??i s???n c???a ??H Harvard l?? 26-36 t??? USD.
[5] Nguy??n Hi???u tr?????ng ??H Pennsylvania, ph??? n??? ?????u ti??n l??nh ?????o m???t tr?????ng ??H thu???c nh??m Ivy League.
[6] ???I hope that my own appointment can be one symbol of an opening of opportunities that would have been inconceivable even a generation ago???.
[7] ???I???m not the woman president of Harvard, I???m the president of Harvard.???
[8] Hi???u tr?????ng th??? 29 c???a ??H Harvard (t??? 1/7/2018) l?? ??ng Lawrence Bacow 66 tu???i

 

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