????y m???i l?? cu???c chi???n th???c s??? c???a l??nh M??? ??? Vi???t Nam

Thứ tư - 31/07/2019 21:01
Chi???n d???ch Cedar Falls. Chi???n d???ch Junction City. Chi???n d???ch Scotland. V???i s??? hi???n di???n c???a g???n 500.000 l??nh M??? t??nh ?????n cu???i n??m, n??m 1967 th?????ng ???????c nh??? ?????n l?? th???i ??i???m m?? T?????ng William Westmoreland g??y ??p l???c chi???n tranh l??n k??? th?? th??ng qua c??c chi???n d???ch l???n kh???p mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam. T??? Chi???n khu C ?????n ????k T?? ?????n C???n Ti??
????y m???i l?? cu???c chi???n th???c s??? c???a l??nh M??? ??? Vi???t Nam

????y m???i l?? cu???c chi???n th???c s??? c???a l??nh M??? ??? Vi???t Nam

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Ngu???n: Andrew Wiest, ???Charlie Company and the Small-Unit War???, The New York Times, 16/05/2017.

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

Chi???n d???ch Cedar Falls. Chi???n d???ch Junction City. Chi???n d???ch Scotland. V???i s??? hi???n di???n c???a g???n 500.000 l??nh M??? t??nh ?????n cu???i n??m, n??m 1967 th?????ng ???????c nh??? ?????n l?? th???i ??i???m m?? T?????ng William Westmoreland g??y ??p l???c chi???n tranh l??n k??? th?? th??ng qua c??c chi???n d???ch l???n kh???p mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam. T??? Chi???n khu C ?????n ????k T?? ?????n C???n Ti??n, giao tranh ??c li???t trong c??c tr???n ????nh l???n ???? th???ng tr??? m???i trang nh???t b??o ch?? M???. N??m ???y, l???c l?????ng Hoa K??? c?? 9.377 ng?????i ch???t v?? 12.716 ng?????i b??? th????ng, g???n g???p ????i con s??? c???a n??m tr?????c ????.

Nh??ng th???c t??? Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam ?????i v???i h???u h???t l??nh M??? l???i ho??n to??n kh??c. ?????i v???i h???, chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam l?? m???t cu???c chi???n m?? ng?????i l??nh b??? ki???t s???c trong h??nh tr??nh dai d???ng t??m ki???m nh???ng k??? th?? kh??ng mu???n b??? ph??t hi???n, c??y x???i kh???p nh???ng ?????ng l??a, s???c s???o trong nh???ng khu r???ng r???m, nh???ng t??p l???u. Nh??ng th?????ng th?? c??c ?????t tu???n tra ????n thu???n ch??? l?? nh???ng ???cu???c ??i b??? d??i d?????i ??nh m???t tr???i n??ng n???c???, c?? th??? gi??p h??? b???t ???????c m???t s??? ng?????i t??nh nghi l?? Vi???t C???ng, nh??ng tuy???t nhi??n ch???ng c?? cu???c ?????i ?????u n??o. C??ng c?? th??? c?? nh???ng ng?????i l??nh b??? d??nh b???y, m???t m???t ch??n ch??? n??y, m???t ch??n ch??? n???. Hay c?? th??? l?? v??i v??? b???n t???a nho nh???.

C??n nh???ng tr???n chi???n th???c s??? l?? t????ng ?????i ??t, v?? n???u c?? x???y ra, ch??ng c??ng th?????ng kh?? nh???, ch??? kh??ng ph???i nh?? nh???ng g?? xu???t hi???n tr??n c??c trang tin t???c. T???t c??? t???o n??n chu???i ng??y ????n ??i???u c???a nh???ng ng?????i l??nh b??? binh t??c chi???n t???i Vi???t Nam. ?????i v???i h???u h???t c??c binh s??, Vi???t Nam l?? m???t cu???c chi???n tranh ????n v??? nh???, m???t cu???c chi???n lu???n qu???n, m???t cu???c chi???n ???????c hi???u r?? nh???t l?? ??? c???p ????? con ng?????i ??? c???p ????? m?? m???i cu???n s??ch v?? m???i b??? phim ch???ng th??? mi??u t??? tr???n v???n. ???? l?? m???t cu???c chi???n c???a c?? nh??n, trong ???? may r???i ngh??a v??? qu??n s??? khi???n nhi???u ng?????i tr??? ph???i ????nh ?????i m???ng s???ng, khi???n t????ng lai v??? v???n v?? ?????c m?? tan t??nh.

???? l?? c??u chuy???n c???a Don Peterson. Sinh n??m 1947 ??? Salinas, California, Don l?? ??i???n h??nh c???a th??? h??? Baby Boomer (sinh ra sau Th??? chi???n II). Cha anh, Pete, l??m vi???c trong ng??nh x??y d???ng v?? l?? m???t k??? nghi???n r?????u, nh??ng may m???n thay gia ????nh anh v???n thu???c t???ng l???p trung l??u. N???i ti???ng kh???p tr?????ng trung h???c v?? l?? ng??i sao trong ?????i tuy???n b??ng b???u d???c, Don m?? ?????c l???n l??n s??? tr??? th??nh m???t th??? s??n nh?? cha v?? c?? th??? b???t ?????u m???t gia ????nh c???a ri??ng m??nh.

Jacque McMullen trong l??? t???t nghi???p. C?? k???t h??n c??ng Don Peterson sau l??? t???t nghi???p, khi m???i 17 tu???i.

N??m th??? hai ??? tr?????ng trung h???c, Don nh???n ???????c l???i m???i ?????n v?? h???i Sadie Hawkins t??? Jacque McMullen, m???t c?? g??i anh g???n nh?? kh??ng quen bi???t. Jacque l?? m???t ng?????i ?????p t??c v??ng c???c k??? n???i ti???ng, v?? ??????ng nhi??n, Don h??o h???ng ch???p nh???n l???i m???i. Ch???ng m???y ch???c, c??? hai h???n h?? v?? c??ng nhau t???n h?????ng nh???ng chuy???n ??i d???o b??n b??? bi???n, l?????t s??ng, ch??o thuy???n trong l??c nghe nh???c Beatles v?? u???ng nh???ng chai bia m?? h??? ch??a ????? tu???i ????? mua. Sau khi t???t nghi???p, n??m Don 19 tu???i v?? Jacque 17 tu???i, h??? k???t h??n trong ng??i nh?? c???a ??ng b?? Don. Hai v??? ch???ng t??m ???????c m???t c??n h??? nh???, v?? v??o m??a xu??n n??m 1966, Jacque tr??? v??? nh?? t??? ph??ng kh??m v???i tin vui b???t ng??? r???ng m??nh ??ang mang thai, ch??? ????? r???i g???p Don ?????ng tr??n tr??n nh??n h???p th?? tr?????c c???a, kh??ng tin v??o m???t m??nh khi th???y t??? th??ng b??o ngh??a v??? qu??n s???.

Jacque theo Don ?????n Fort Riley, Kansas, n??i h??? ??? chung m???t ng??i nh?? nh??? v???i hai c???p v??? ch???ng kh??c t??? S?? ??o??n B??? binh s??? 9 m???i ???????c t??i ho???t ?????ng. M???c d?? ng??i nh?? nh??? ?????n m???c chi???c t??? qu???n ??o l???n c??ng ph???i chuy???n th??nh ch??? sinh ho???t, nh??ng ai n???y ?????u vui v???. Jacque ???????c tr???i nghi???m tr??? th??nh m???t b?? n???i tr??? v?? h???c c??c m???o n???u ??n t??? nh???ng ng?????i b???n c??ng ph??ng, trong khi kh??a hu???n luy???n c?? b???n gi??p Don c?? ???????c h??nh th??? t???t nh???t c???a m??nh.

Tuy nhi??n, Vi???t Nam ???? tr??? n??n qu?? th???t v??o c??i ng??y Don ????a Jacque v??? Montgomery, Alabama, s???ng c??ng v???i m??? v?? cha d?????ng, c??n b???n th??n th?? chu???n b??? l??n ???????ng. Con trai c???a h???, James, ???????c sinh ra trong nh???ng ng??y cu???i c??ng c???a k??? ngh??? Gi??ng sinh. N???ng t???m 4,1 kg, Jimmy l?? m???t ?????a b?? to kh???e, v?? Don ngay l???p t???c m?? v??? t????ng lai c???u th??? c???a c???u con trai. Nh??ng anh ch??? k???p b??? b?? tr??n tay m???t gi??? tr?????c khi ph???i b???t t??u ????? tr??? v??? Fort Riley. Khi ch???ng quay l??ng r???i ??i, Jacque r??i n?????c m???t: ???Anh ?????ng xung phong ch???y ra v?? c??? g???ng tr??? th??nh anh h??ng. H??y gi??? l???y m???ng s???ng m??nh. M??? con em c???n anh!???

Ng??y 15/05/1967, ????n v??? c???a Don ??? ?????i ?????i Charlie, Ti???u ??o??n 4, Trung ??o??n B??? binh 47 ??? ??ang tr???i qua m???t ng??y b??nh th?????ng nh?? bao ng??y, s??n l??ng Vi???t C???ng. Nh??ng h???n l?? Don ???? c?? linh c???m. Th?????ng th?? nh???ng l?? th?? anh g???i cho Jacque ch???ng c?? g?? ngo??i s??? l???c quan, v???i nh???ng c??u h???i v??? b?? Jimmy v?? nh???ng c??u chuy???n v??? b???n b?? trong doanh tr???i anh d??nh k??? cho v???. Nh??ng v??o ng??y 10/05, l?? th?? c???a Don r???t kh??c bi???t, kh??c bi???t ?????n ????ng ng???i. ???Anh ch???t m???t. H??y ????a anh ra kh???i ????y.???

Ng??y 15/05, ?????n l?????t nh??m c???a Don, Ti???u ?????i 2 c???a Trung ?????i 1, ??i tu???n ??? h??ng ?????u trong khi ?????i ?????i Charlie b??ng qua m???t c??nh ?????ng l??a ??? ?????ng b???ng S??ng C???u Long. M???t lo???t ?????n b???n t???a b???t ng??? xu???t hi???n. Charlie Nelson quay sang Don, ???T??i ng??? r???ng ????y l?? m???t c??i b???y???? Nh??ng ch???ng c??n c??ch n??o kh??c, Ti???u ?????i 2 v???n ph???i ti???n l??n l??m trinh s??t cho ???????ng h??nh qu??n c???a ?????i ?????i Charlie. Khi h??? ?????n gi???a c??nh ?????ng, khi c??ch xa ?????i ?????i v?? kh??ng c??n ???????c b???o v???, h???n lo???n x???y ?????n.

H???a l???c t???p trung b???t ?????u b???n ra t??? m???t ?????i ?????i Vi???t C???ng ??ang n???p d?????i boongke, t???o th??nh m???t v??? tr?? ph???c k??ch h??nh ch??? L. B??? ??p ?????o ho??n to??n, Ti???u ?????i 2 nhanh ch??ng t??m n??i ???n n???p, th????ng vong ngay l???p t???c x???y ?????n. Charlie Nelson b??? b???n xuy??n c???m, g??y x????ng b??nh ch??. Dave Jarczewski v???i v?? ?????n b??n c???nh ????? b??ng b?? v???t th????ng cho ?????ng ?????i, ch??? ????? r???i b??? tr??ng m???t vi??n ?????n v??o vai ??? n?? c???t qua th??n gi???a, ????m th???ng ph???i v?? l??m g??y n??m x????ng s?????n tr?????c khi tho??t ra kh???i l??ng anh. C??n Carl Cortright th?? b??? b???n xuy??n qua c???t s???ng v?? c??? n???m ???? t?? li???t.

Ph???n c??n l???i c???a ti???u ?????i c??? g???ng chi???n ?????u h???t s???c c?? th???, nh??ng h??? ???? b??? m???c b???y. V?? Don bi???t ??i???u ????. C?? l??? ???? l?? khi nh???ng l???i chia tay c???a Jacque v??ng v???ng b??n tai; ho???c c?? l??? ch??? ????n thu???n l?? b???n n??ng. Nh??ng Don ???? quy???t ?????nh h??nh ?????ng ????? c???u b???n b?? m??nh. Anh h??t l??n, ???C??c c???u ch???y ngay ??i, c?? t??i b???c h???u r???i.??? Don ngay l???p t???c ?????ng d???y, ch???y ?????n boongke c???a k??? th?? v???i kh???u M-16 ??? ch??? ????? li??n thanh. Nh???ng ng?????i ????n ??ng c??n l??nh l???n c???a Ti???u ?????i 2 li???n d??ng h???t s???c l???c ????? ch???y t??m ch??? an to??n, nh??ng ch??? v??i gi??y sau, Don ???? tr??ng ?????n. Anh ch??? k???p h??t l??n, ???Ng???c t??i! Ng???c t??i!??? r???i ????? g???c gi???a c??nh ?????ng.

Su???t ng??y h??m ???y, ph??a Vi???t C???ng v?? ph???n c??n l???i c???a ?????i ?????i Charlie ???? qu???n nhau ph??a tr??n v?? xung quanh nh???ng ng?????i l??nh th????ng vong c???a Ti???u ?????i 2. ?????i ?????i Charlie c?? t???ng c???ng 14 ng?????i b??? th????ng v?? m???t ng?????i ch???t v??o ng??y h??m ????, trong khi nh???ng ng?????i l??nh Vi???t C???ng n???m ch???t r???i r??c quanh khu v???c, c?? l??? v??o kho???ng 100 ng?????i ??? m???t c??i gi?? qu?? ?????t khi ?????i ?????u h???a l???c M???. Nh??n t??? b???t c??? g??c ????? n??o, ???? c??ng l?? m???t chi???n th???ng r?? r??ng cho ph??a ng?????i M???.

???? l?? m???t cu???c giao tranh qu?? nh??? ????? ???????c ghi nh???n, hay ???????c ????a tin tr??n b???t k??? t??? b??o n??o ??? qu?? nh??. Nh??ng khi c??c th??nh vi??n c???a ?????i ?????i Charlie t???p trung quanh thi th??? c???a Don Peterson ????m ????, chi???n tranh ???? tr??? n??n qu?? th???t. Don ???? lu??n l?? m???t s??? hi???n di???n v?? ?????i trong ????n v???. Anh l?? khu??n m???t t????i c?????i ???? mang m???i ng?????i x??ch l???i g???n nhau, l?? ng?????i l??nh li??n t???c v??? l??ng ?????ng ?????i m?? khoe b???c ???nh m???i nh???t c???a c???u nh??c Jimmy. Anh l?? ng?????i ????n ??ng c?? nhi???u l?? do ????? s???ng s??t nh???t trong ?????i ?????i Charlie, v?? gi??? anh ???? kh??ng c??n. Th??n x??c anh s??? ???????c ????a l??n m???t chi???c tr???c th??ng v?? ??i m??i. Ch???ng bao gi??? ???????c nh??n th???y m???t l???n n???a.

Th???i ??i???m m?? chi???c tr???c th??ng c???t c??nh c??ng l?? l??c ai n???y b???t ?????u d???n v???t. M???t v??i ng?????i c???m th???y t???i l???i. ????ng ra h??? ???? c?? th??? c???u anh? ????ng ra h??? n??n d??ng c???m b???n tr??? k??? th?? v?? c??? g???ng ?????n g???n ng?????i b???n ???? ng?? g???c? Nh???ng k??? kh??c l???i tr???i qua m???t c???m gi??c nh??? nh??m kh?? ch???u. Don ???? ch???t, nh??ng h??? v???n c??n. Th???t t??? r???ng Don ???? ra ??i, nh??ng ch?? ??t nh???t h??? v???n c??n s???ng s??t. D?? v???y, c?? r???t ??t th???i gian ????? suy ngh??. S??ng h??m sau h??? ???? ph???i x??ch ba l?? l??n v?? ??i ti???p. C?? hay kh??ng c?? Don Peterson, cu???c chi???n v???n ti???p t???c.

Ng??y 15/05/1967 ??? M??? ch??? l?? m???t ng??y b??nh th?????ng nh?? bao ng??y kh??c. Trong l???ch s??? Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam, n?? c??ng ch??? l?? m???t ng??y b??nh th?????ng. Nh??ng ?????i v???i m???t ????n v??? ??? ?????ng b???ng S??ng C???u Long th?? ???? l?? ng??y kh??ng th??? n??o qu??n. ???? l?? ng??y m?? m???i ng?????i m???t ??i m???t ng?????i b???n th??n. ???? l?? ng??y m?? nhi???u ng?????i ???????c g???i ?????n b???nh vi???n, v?? v??i trong s??? ???y ph???i m???t c??? ?????i ????? ph???c h???i. ???? l?? ng??y khi???n m???t s??? ng?????i ph???i v???t l???n v???i s??? th???t r???ng h??? ???? tr??? th??nh k??? gi???t ng?????i. ???? l?? ng??y kh??ng ????ng k??? v??? m???t chi???n l?????c, nh??ng ??? c???p ????? con ng?????i, ???? l?? ng??y c???a nh???ng m???nh ?????i b??? l??ng qu??n trong m???t cu???c chi???n ????n v??? nh??? ?????y tuy???t v???ng.

Andrew Wiest l?? gi??o s?? l???ch s??? t???i ?????i h???c Nam Mississippi v?? l?? t??c gi??? cu???n ???The Boys of ???67: Charlie Company???s War in Vietnam.???

H??nh: Don Peterson. Ngu???n: Jacque Peterson/NYT.

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