Ch??nh s??ch b??nh ?????nh qua n??ng s??ng c???a M??? t???i Nam Vi???t Nam

Thứ hai - 19/08/2019 21:09
11.000 l??nh thi???t m???ng nh??ng kh??ng c?? th??nh t???u l???n n??o, khi nh??n l???i, 1967 th???t ra l?? m???t n??m ch???ng m???y t???t ?????p cho ng?????i M??? trong Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam. Nh??ng v??o l??c ???y, ng?????i ta v???n c??n r???t l???c quan. C??c chi???n d???ch t???n c??ng c???a M??? trong su???t n??m 1966 ???? ng??n ch???n b?????c ti???n c???a Qu??n ?????i Nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam v?? Qu??n Gi???i ph??ng Mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam (m?? ph??a M??? g???i l?? Vi???t C???ng)
Ch??nh s??ch b??nh ?????nh qua n??ng s??ng c???a M??? t???i Nam Vi???t Nam

Ch??nh s??ch b??nh ?????nh qua n??ng s??ng c???a M??? t???i Nam Vi???t Nam

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Ngu???n: Robert J. Thompson, ???Pacification, Through the Barrel of a Gun???, The New York Times, 10/03/2017.

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

11.000 l??nh thi???t m???ng nh??ng kh??ng c?? th??nh t???u l???n n??o, khi nh??n l???i, 1967 th???t ra l?? m???t n??m ch???ng m???y t???t ?????p cho ng?????i M??? trong Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam. Nh??ng v??o l??c ???y, ng?????i ta v???n c??n r???t l???c quan. C??c chi???n d???ch t???n c??ng c???a M??? trong su???t n??m 1966 ???? ng??n ch???n b?????c ti???n c???a Qu??n ?????i Nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam v?? Qu??n Gi???i ph??ng Mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam (m?? ph??a M??? g???i l?? Vi???t C???ng). Nh???ng b?????c ti???n ????, k???t h???p v???i nh???ng n??? l???c ???b??nh ?????nh??? th?????ng d??n, d?????ng nh?? l?? con ???????ng d???n ?????n chi???n th???ng ??? n???u kh??ng ph???i v??o n??m 1967, th?? c??ng l?? ngay sau ????.

N??? l???c b??nh ?????nh c???a M??? bao g???m m???t lo???t c??c chi???n l?????c kh??c nhau ????? lo???i b??? ???nh h?????ng c???a C???ng s???n kh???i n??ng th??n Nam Vi???t Nam. V?? tr??n m???t phuong di???n n??o ????, ????y ch??nh l?? trung t??m th???c s??? trong nh???ng n??? l???c c???a M??? ??? n??i n??y: D?? c??i m?? ch??ng ta nh??? nh???t v??? cu???c chi???n n??y l?? c??c tr???n ????nh, nh??ng nh???ng tr???n ????nh ???y th?????ng l?? ????? m??? ???????ng cho c??c ?????i b??nh ?????nh th???c hi???n c??ng vi???c c???a h???.

???Chi???n tranh ????n v??? l???n??? (big unit war) c???a T?????ng William C. Westmoreland c??ng t???p trung ????ng k??? v??o b??nh ?????nh. ???T??m v?? di???t??? (search and destroy) ??? ph????ng ph??p m?? c??c ????n v??? Qu??n ?????i Hoa K??? s??? d???ng ????? giao chi???n v???i k??? ?????ch ??? ???????c xem nh?? m???t h??nh th???c b??nh ?????nh. Th???t v???y, b??nh ?????nh ????i h???i ph???i c???i thi???n an ninh ??? m???t nhi???m v??? m?? t??m v?? di???t c?? th??? l??m ???????c.

M???t b??o c??o t??? c??c c??? v???n c???a Qu??n ?????i v?? C?? quan Ph??t tri???n Qu???c t??? (Agency for International Development) ????ng t???i t???nh Ph?? Y??n, d???c b??? bi???n Vi???t Nam, v??o n??m 1966, cho bi???t: ???S???c m???nh qu??n s??? ???????c t??ng c?????ng v?? khu v???c ho???t ?????ng ???????c m??? r???ng ??ang t???o ??i???u ki???n cho ph??p m??? r???ng [c??c ch????ng tr??nh ki???u n??y] v??o nh???ng khu v???c tr?????c ????y kh??ng ???????c coi l?? ????? an to??n ????? ?????t ???????c ti???n b??? th???a ????ng.??? V?? ch?? ??t l?? tr??n gi???y t???, c??c chi???n d???ch qu??n s??? ??? Ph?? Y??n ??? v???i m???t danh nh?? Van Buren, Fillmore v?? John Paul Jones??? ???? t???o ra m???t khu v???c c?? an ninh t???t h??n r?? r???t so v???i t??nh h??nh ??? S??i G??n tr?????c khi ng?????i M??? cho tri???n khai l???c l?????ng t??c chi???n.

Trong m???t cu???c h???p n??m 1966 gi???a c??c quan ch???c M??? v?? Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a t???i Honolulu, b??nh ?????nh ti???p t???c nh???n ???????c nhi???u ch?? ?? h??n, v?? ???? gi??p c???i thi???n vi???c h???p t??c gi???a c??c c??? v???n d??n s??? v?? qu??n s???. Sau khi c??n nh???c trong kho???ng gi???a th??ng hai v?? th??ng ba, M??? cu???i c??ng ???? c??ng b??? th??nh l???p m???t t??? ch???c t?? v???n qu??n s???-d??n s??? m???i: Ho???t ?????ng D??n s??? v?? H??? tr??? Ph??t tri???n C??ch m???ng (Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support, th?????ng ???????c g???i t???t l?? Cords).

D?? c??c nh??m c??? v???n tr?????c ????y c??ng ???? gi??p mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam c???i thi???n qu???n tr??? v?? ki???m so??t v??ng n??ng th??n, ph???i ?????n khi c?? Cords th?? c??c nh??n vi??n d??n s??? v?? qu??n s??? v???i ???????c t???p h???p l???i v???i nhau trong m???t t??? ch???c. ?????n n??m 1967, Cords ???? x??y d???ng v?? ??i???u h??nh c??c ?????i c??? v???n ??? m???i t???nh c???a Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a. ???????c giao nhi???m v??? gi??p ????? c??c ?????i t??c mi???n Nam c???i thi???n kh??? n??ng qu???n tr??? c???a t???nh, s??? xu???t hi???n c???a c??c nh??m c??? v???n ???? g??y ???n t?????ng sai l???m r???ng cu???c chi???n gi??? ????y ???? b?????c v??o giai ??o???n h??a b??nh h??n, ??t t??n ph?? h??n.

N??m 1965, Qu??n ?????i Nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam v?? Qu??n Gi???i ph??ng ???? c?? nh???ng b?????c ti???n ????ng k??? ??? Ph?? Y??n, c?? l???p th??nh c??ng th??? ph??? c???a t???nh l?? th??nh ph??? Tuy H??a v?? ki???m so??t ph???n l???n v??? thu ho???ch l??a quan tr???ng. Tuy nhi??n, ho???t ?????ng c???a c??c ????n v??? M???, H??n Qu???c v?? Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a trong n??m 1966 ???? ?????y C???ng s???n l??i s??u v??o v??ng n???i ?????a mi???n n??i.

Trong khi l??ng l???c t??m ki???m qu??n B???c Vi???t v?? Vi???t C???ng, ng?????i M??? c??ng nh???n ra vai tr?? m???u ch???t c???a vi???c ki???m so??t v??? thu ho???ch l??a ?????i v???i kh??? n??ng ki???m so??t to??n t???nh c???a ch??nh quy???n S??i G??n. Qua c??c ho???t ?????ng qu??n s??? th??ng th?????ng, M??? ti???p t???c ch????ng tr??nh b??nh ?????nh v??o n??m 1966 b???ng c??ch gi??? c??c c??nh ?????ng l??a kh???i tay C???ng s???n.

C??c ho???t ?????ng b???o v??? thu ho???ch l??a ???? ???????c ti???p t???c v??o n??m 1967 qua Chi???n d???ch Adams, di???n ra t??? th??ng 10/1966 ?????n th??ng 04/1967. C??c ????n v??? t??? S?? ??o??n 4 B??? binh Hoa K??? ???? t??m c??ch ????nh b???y v?? ti??u di???t l???c l?????ng C???ng s???n khi nh???ng ng?????i n??y c??? g???ng tho??t kh???i thung l??ng Tuy H??a m??u m???. ??i???u ???? t???o ??i???u ki???n cho ch??nh ph??? Nam Vi???t Nam kh???ng ?????nh quy???n ki???m so??t s???n xu???t l??a g???o ??? v?? do ???? c???ng c??? l??ng trung th??nh c???a n??ng d??n khu v???c ??? ?????ng th???i c?? th??m l???i ??ch l?? kh??ng ????? nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ???????c hu???n luy???n t???t nh???t c???a ?????ch c?? g???o ??n.

Chi???n d???ch Adams ???? th??nh c??ng, ch?? ??t l?? ??? giai ??o???n ?????u. Nhi???u ????n v??? C???ng s???n r??t lui v??? c??c khu v???c c??n c??? ??? v??ng s??u v??ng xa c???a Ph?? Y??n. Nh??ng ngay c??? khi nh?? th??? th?? c??ng kh??ng c?? ngh??a l?? phe C???ng s???n ???? b??? r??i thung l??ng Tuy H??a. Ng??y 09/03/1967, m???t l???c l?????ng C???ng s???n kh?? l???n ???? ????nh b???i m???t trung ?????i M???. ????p l???i, m???t tu???n sau, ng?????i M??? ph??t ?????ng m???t cu???c t???n c??ng b???ng tr???c th??ng v??o khu v???c b??? nghi ng??? l?? c??n c??? C???ng s???n, v?? ????nh l???i h??? ba ng??y sau ????. Trong con m???t c???a S?? ??o??n 4 B??? binh, hai tr???n ????nh n??y ???? gi??p b???o v??? thung l??ng Tuy H??a. Th???t v???y, ???khu v???c n??y l?? m???t trong nh???ng n??i b??? k??? th?? t??n ph?? t???i t??? nh???t v?? b??y gi??? n?? l?? khu an to??n nh???t,??? b???n b??o c??o t??m t???t Chi???n d???ch Adams ???? vi???t nh?? v???y. Tuy nhi??n, nh???ng ti???n b??? ki???u n??y ch??? t???n t???i ch???ng n??o chi???n d???ch qu??n s??? c??n ti???p t???c.

Ng??y 17/09/1967, c??c th??nh vi??n L??? ??o??n Kh??ng v???n 173 ???? b???t ?????u m???t n??? l???c kh??c, Chi???n d???ch Bolling, ????? b???o v??? v??? thu ho???ch l??a m??a thu. Gi???ng nh?? Adams, Bolling t???p trung v??o vi???c b???o v??? an to??n cho v??? thu ho???ch l??a v?? ng??n ch???n Trung ??o??n 95 c???a B???c Vi???t ti???n v??o thung l??ng Tuy H??a. Chi???n d???ch l???n n??y s??? d???ng ??t qu??n h??n, nh??ng v???n t???p trung v??o vi???c b???o v??? n??ng d??n trong su???t v??? thu ho???ch, c??ng nh?? s??? d???ng ph????ng ph??p t??m v?? di???t. Tuy nhi??n, kh??c v???i b???t k??? n??? l???c n??o tr?????c ????y ??? Ph?? Y??n, Bolling ???? cho th???y gi???i h???n c???a chi???n tranh th??ng th?????ng ch??nh l?? vi???c b??nh ?????nh.

Trong khi c??c ti???u ??o??n c???a L??? ??o??n Kh??ng v???n 173 c??n qu??t thung l??ng Tuy H??a, l???c l?????ng C???ng s???n ch??? ????n gi???n t??m c??ch tr??nh ?????i ?????u. Thay v??o ????, h??? ??m th???m chi???m c??c ???p, v?? ti???n h??nh m???t chi???n d???ch tuy??n truy???n hi???u qu??? trong ???? n??i r???ng ?????i th??? c???a S??i G??n (t???c l???c l?????ng C???ng s???n) ???? ???s???ng s??t??? sau nhi???u n??? l???c c???a ng?????i M??? nh???m lo???i b??? h??? kh???i Ph?? Y??n. C??c h???m tr?? ???n, ???????ng h???m c??ng nh?? kho th???c ph???m v?? v?? kh?? ???????c t??m th???y b???i S?? ??o??n Thi???t gi??p 16 trong thung l??ng Tuy H??a l?? minh ch???ng r?? r??ng r???ng chi???n tranh c??n l??u m???i ??i t???i h???i k???t.

Tuy nhi??n, s??? th??nh c??ng r?? r??ng c???a c??c l???c l?????ng t??c chi???n th??ng th?????ng khi giao chi???n v???i C???ng s???n khi???n ng?????i ta tin r???ng b??nh ?????nh ??ang ph??t huy hi???u qu???. Sang m??a thu, qu??n M??? ti???n v??o thung l??ng K??? L??? xa x??i v?? giao chi???n v???i Trung ??o??n 95 c???a Qu??n ?????i Nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam. Nh??ng m???i b?????c ti???n l???i nh?? th??? d???n t???i m???t b?????c l??i: Ng??y 27/12, c??c ????n v??? qu??n ?????i M??? v?? qu??n ch??nh quy B???c Vi???t ???? c?? m???t tr???n ????nh d??? d???i ??? c??ch th??nh ph??? Tuy H??a v???n v???n 35 d???m, ngay thung l??ng K??? L???. L??nh B???c Vi???t cu???i c??ng ???? r??t lui ??? nh??ng sau ???? nhanh ch??ng quay tr??? l???i ????? x??y d???ng l???i l???c l?????ng ngay khi ng?????i M??? r???i ??i.

B??nh ?????nh d???a tr??n chi???n tranh th??ng th?????ng l??m cho cu???c chi???n ??? Vi???t Nam tr??ng c?? v??? ????n gi???n v?? d??? chi???n th???ng. Th??ng qua t??m v?? di???t, c??c ????n v??? qu??n ?????i ???? ?????m b???o vi???c thu ho???ch l??a ??? thung l??ng Tuy H??a v?? t??? ???? ti???n t???i m???c ti??u b??nh ?????nh ??? ngay c??? khi n?? l??m lu m??? nh???ng ph???n c???ng r???n, phi qu??n s??? trong chi???n l?????c.

N?? c??ng l??m lu m??? m???t ??i???u kh??c. Chi???n tranh th??ng th?????ng khi???n Ph?? Y??n c?? v??? an to??n h??n so v???i n??m 1965. Nh??n l???i, c??c d???u hi???u ho???t ?????ng c???a B???c Vi???t ti???p t???c ch???ng minh r???ng h??? ch??a h??? b??? ????nh b???i ??? ?????ng th???i c??ng ti???t l??? k??? ho???ch c???a C???ng s???n nh???m l???t ????? quy???n ki???m so??t c???a S??i G??n ?????i v???i Ph?? Y??n. Th???t v???y, T???ng T???n c??ng T???t M???u Th??n n??m 1968 s??? l??m ?????o ng?????c ph???n l???n th??nh qu??? t??? ch??nh s??ch b??nh ?????nh c???a c??c l???c l?????ng M??? v?? Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a, bao g???m c??? t???nh Ph?? Y??n.

Robert J. Thomp 
 

S??? l??n ng??i c???a c??c ch??nh s??ch ti???n t??? tr??i l???

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monetary-policy

Ngu???n: Nouriel Roubini, ???An Unconventional Truth???, Project Syndicate, 01/02/2015.

Bi??n d???ch: Ninh Th??? Thanh H?? | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Ai ngh?? r???ng s??u n??m sau cu???c kh???ng ho???ng t??i ch??nh to??n c???u, ph???n l???n c??c n???n kinh t??? ph??t tri???n v???n s??? b??i trong n???i s??p ch??? c??i c??c ch??nh s??ch ti???n t??? tr??i l??? ??? ZIRP, QE, CE, FG, NDR v?? U-FX Int? Tr?????c n??m 2008, kh??ng c?? ng??n h??ng trung ????ng n??o c??n nh???c ?????n b???t k??? bi???n ph??p n??o nh?? v???y: ZIRP ??? zero interest rate policy (ch??nh s??ch l??i su???t 0%), QE ??? quantitative easing (n???i l???ng ?????nh l?????ng), CE ??? credit easing (n???i l???ng t??n d???ng), FG ??? forward guidance (?????nh h?????ng th??? tr?????ng ti???n t???), NDR ??? negative deposit rate (l??i su???t ti???n g???i ??m), U-FX Int ??? unlimited foreign exchange intervention (can thi???p kh??ng h???n ch??? v??o t??? gi?? h???i ??o??i). Ng??y nay, nh???ng bi???n ph??p n??y l???i tr??? th??nh ph???n ch??? y???u trong b??? c??ng c??? c???a ng?????i l??m ch??nh s??ch.

Ch??? trong v??ng m???t n??m r?????i v???a qua, Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng ch??u ??u (ECB) ???? thi h??nh phi??n b???n FG c???a ch??nh h???, sau ???? chuy???n sang ZIRP, r???i CE, tr?????c khi quy???t ?????nh ??p d???ng NDR. V??o th??ng 1, h??? ???? ho??n to??n ??p d???ng QE. Cho t???i gi???, C???c D??? tr??? Li??n bang Hoa K??? (Fed), Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng Anh, Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng Nh???t B???n, ECB, v?? m???t lo???t ng??n h??ng trung ????ng c???a c??c n???n kinh t??? ph??t tri???n nh??? h??n, nh?? l?? Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng Th???y S??, ?????u ???? d???a v??o nh???ng ch??nh s??ch tr??i l??? n??y.

H??? qu??? c???a s??? k??ch ho???t ch??nh s??ch ti???n t??? tr??n quy m?? to??n c???u n??y l?? s??? n???i lo???n (ph???n ?????i) c???a nh???ng ng?????i nghi??n c???u kinh t??? v?? nh???ng ng?????i ??ang ki???m ti???n t??? th??? tr?????ng trong nh???ng n??m g???n ????y. C??c nh?? kinh t??? h???c theo tr?????ng ph??i ?????o???, nh???ng ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a ti???n t??? c???p ti???n, kinh doanh v??ng, hay t??n ????? bitcoin ???? li??n t???c c???nh b??o vi???c t??ng quy m?? l???n c???a thanh kho???n to??n c???u c?? th??? d???n t???i si??u l???m ph??t, s??? s???p ????? c???a ?????ng ???? la M???, gi?? v??ng cao ng???t ng?????ng, v?? s??? s???p ????? cu???i c??ng c???a ti???n ?????nh danh d?????i tay ti???n ???o.

Kh??ng m???t d??? b??o th???m kh???c n??o nh?? v???y tr??? th??nh hi???n th???c. L???m ph??t th???p v?? ??ang ???? gi???m ??? h???u h???t c??c n???n kinh t??? ph??t tri???n; th???c t???, t???t c??? ng??n h??ng trung ????ng c???a c??c n???n kinh t??? ph??t tri???n ??ang kh??ng th??? th???c hi???n ???????c ??? m???t c??ch r?? r??ng hay kh??ng r?? r??ng ??? ch??? ti??u l???m ph??t 2% c???a h???, m???t v??i ng??n h??ng trung ????ng c??n ??ang v???t l???n t??m c??ch tr??nh gi???m ph??t. Th??m v??o ????, gi?? tr??? ?????ng ???? la ???? t??ng v???t so v???i ?????ng y??n, euro, v?? h???u h???t ?????ng ti???n c???a c??c n???n kinh t??? m???i n???i. Gi?? v??ng th?? gi???m m???nh t??? 1.900 ???? la M??? 1 ounce xu???ng c??n kho???ng 1.200 ???? la M??? k??? t??? m??a thu n??m 2013. V?? Bitcoin l?? ?????ng ti???n t???i t??? nh???t n??m 2014 khi gi?? tr??? c???a n?? gi???m g???n 60%.

Ch???c ch???n r???ng, ph???n l???n nh???ng nh?? ti??n tri th???m h???a c?? r???t ??t ki???n th???c v??? kinh t??? h???c c?? b???n. Nh??ng vi???c ???? c??ng kh??ng ng??n quan ??i???m c???a h??? ???????c tranh lu???n r???ng r??i. Do ???? c???n ?????t ra c??u h???i t???i sao d??? ??o??n c???a h??? l???i c?? th??? sai m???t c??ch ngo???n m???c nh?? v???y.

Ngu???n g???c sai l???m c???a h??? n???m ??? s??? nh???m l???n nguy??n nh??n v?? h??? qu???. ??i???u khi???n c??c ng??n h??ng trung ????ng gia t??ng s??? d???ng c??c ch??nh s??ch ti???n t??? tr??i l??? l?? do s??? ph???c h???i sau 2008 qu?? y???u ???t. Nh???ng ch??nh s??ch nh?? th??? l?? c???n thi???t ????? ch???ng l???i ??p l???c gi???m ph??t g??y ra b???i y??u c???u ph???i tho??i n??? h???t s???c ??au ?????n trong khi l?????ng n??? c??ng v?? n??? t?? nh??n t??ch t??? ng??y c??ng l???n.

V?? d???, ??? h???u h???t c??c n???n kinh t??? ph??t tri???n, v???n c?? m???t kho???ng tr???ng l???n v??? s???n l?????ng, v???i l?????ng cung v?? l?????ng c???u ??? d?????i m???c ti???m n??ng; v?? v???y, nh?? s???n xu???t c?? quy???n ?????nh gi?? r???t h???n ch???. Th??? tr?????ng lao ?????ng c??ng sa s??t ????ng k???: Qu?? nhi???u ng?????i th???t nghi???p ??ang  theo ??u???i s??? vi???c l??m ??t ???i, trong khi th????ng m???i v?? to??n c???u h??a, c??ng v???i c???i ti???n c??ng ngh??? ti???t ki???m s???c lao ?????ng, ??ang ng??y c??ng co h???p thu nh???p v?? vi???c l??m c???a ng?????i lao ?????ng, l??m cho l?????ng c???u c??ng c??ch xa l?????ng cung.

Th??m v??o ????, c??c th??? tr?????ng b???t ?????ng s???n ???? qua giai ??o???n b??ng n??? (t???i M???, Anh, T??y Ban Nha, Ireland, Iceland v?? Dubai) th?? v???n sa s??t. V?? bong b??ng t???i c??c th??? tr?????ng kh??c (nh?? Trung Qu???c, Hong Kong, Singapore, Canada, Th???y S??, Ph??p, Th???y ??i???n, Na uy, ??c, New Zealand) l???i t???o ra r???i ro m???i, v?? s??? s???p ????? c???a c??c th??? tr?????ng n??y s??? k??o gi?? nh?? xu???ng.

Th??? tr?????ng h??ng h??a c?? b???n c??ng ???? tr??? th??nh m???t nguy??n nh??n gi???m ph??t. Cu???c c??ch m???ng n??ng l?????ng ???? phi???n c???a M??? ???? l??m gi???m gi?? d???u v?? kh??, trong khi suy tho??i ??? Trung Qu???c ???? l??m gi???m c???u ?????i v???i h??ng lo???t h??ng h??a c?? b???n, bao g???m qu???ng s???t, ?????ng v?? c??c kim lo???i c??ng nghi???p kh??c, nh???ng h??ng h??a ??ang c?? l?????ng cung l???n do nhi???u n??m gi?? cao ???? k??ch th??ch ?????u t?? m???i v??o n??ng l???c s???n xu???t.

Suy tho??i c???a Trung Qu???c, h??? qu??? c???a nhi???u n??m ?????u t?? qu?? m???c v??o b???t ?????ng s???n v?? c?? s??? h??? t???ng, c??ng g??y n??n d?? th???a to??n c???u v??? h??ng h??a s???n xu???t v?? c??ng nghi???p. V???i l?????ng c???u n???i ?????a ??? nh???ng l??nh v???c n??y gi???m m???nh, d?? th???a n??ng l???c s???n xu???t ??? v?? d??? nh?? trong ng??nh th??p v?? xi m??ng c???a Trung Qu???c ??? ???? ti???p th??m cho ??p l???c gi???m ph??t c???a th??? tr?????ng c??ng nghi???p to??n c???u.

T??ng b???t b??nh ?????ng thu nh???p, th??ng qua vi???c ph??n ph???i l???i thu nh???p t??? nh???ng ng?????i ti??u d??ng nhi???u h??n sang nh???ng ng?????i ti???t ki???m nhi???u h??n, ???? l??m tr???m tr???ng h??n s??? thi???u h???t c???u. Do v???y m?? c?? s??? ??i???u ch???nh b???t ?????i x???ng gi???a c??c n???n kinh t??? ch??? n??? ti???t ki???m qu?? nhi???u m?? kh??ng ?????i m???t v???i ??p l???c th??? tr?????ng ph???i chi ti??u nhi???u h??n, v?? c??c n???n kinh t??? ??i vay chi ti??u qu?? nhi???u nh??ng ph???i ?????i m???t v???i ??p l???c th??? tr?????ng v?? bu???c ph???i ti???t ki???m nhi???u h??n.

N??i m???t c??ch ????n gi???n, ch??ng ta ??ang s???ng trong m???t th??? gi???i n??i l?????ng cung qu?? l???n c??n l?????ng c???u qu??? nh???. H??? qu??? c???a n?? l?? ??p l???c gi???m l???m ph??t, ho???c gi???m ph??t, dai d???ng b???t ch???p c??c bi???n ph??p n???i l???ng ti???n t??? t??ch c???c.

S??? b???t l???c c???a nh???ng ch??nh s??ch ti???n t??? tr??i l??? trong vi???c ng??n ch???n gi???m ph??t ho??n to??n ph???n n??o ph???n ??nh m???t th???c t??? l?? nh???ng ch??nh s??ch ???? t??m c??ch l??m suy y???u ?????ng ti???n nh???m c???i thi???n xu???t kh???u r??ng v?? t??ng l???m ph??t. Tuy nhi??n, vi???c n??y l?? m???t tr?? ch??i c?? t???ng b???ng kh??ng khi ch??? ????n thu???n chuy???n gi???m ph??t v?? suy tho??i sang c??c n???n kinh t??? kh??c.

Quan tr???ng h??n c?? l??? l?? s??? kh??ng t????ng th??ch s??u s???c (c???a ch??nh s??ch ti???n t???) v???i ch??nh s??ch t??i kh??a. ????? hi???u qu???, c??c k??ch th??ch ti???n t??? c???n ???????c ??i k??m v???i k??ch th??ch t??i kh??a t???m th???i, ??i???u c??n thi???u ??? t???t c??? c??c n???n kinh t??? l???n. Th???t v???y, khu v???c ?????ng euro, Anh, M??? v?? Nh???t B???n ?????u ??ang theo ??u???i ch??nh s??ch t??i kh??a th???t l??ng bu???c b???ng v?? thu h???p ??? c??c m???c ????? kh??c nhau.

Ngay c??? Qu??? Ti???n t??? Qu???c t??? c??ng ch??? ra ch??nh x??c r???ng m???t ph???n c???a gi???i ph??p cho m???t th??? gi???i v???i qu?? nhi???u cung v?? qu?? ??t c???u c???n ph???i l?? ?????u t?? c??ng v??o c?? s??? h??? t???ng, th??? ??ang thi???u ??? ho???c v???n v??? ??? ??? h???u h???t c??c n???n kinh t??? ph??t tri???n v?? c??c th??? tr?????ng m???i n???i (tr??? Trung Qu???c). V???i l??i su???t d??i h???n g???n b???ng 0 t???i ph???n l???n c??c n???n kinh t??? ph??t tri???n (v?? t???i m???t s??? n?????c c??n ??m), th?? chi ti??u cho c?? s??? h??? t???ng l?? h???p l??. Nh??ng m???t lo???t c??c r??ng bu???c ch??nh tr??? ??? nh???t l?? th???c t??? r???ng c??c n???n kinh t??? c?? t??i kh??a eo h???p ph???i gi???m ?????u t?? c?? s??? h??? t???ng tr?????c khi c???t l????ng ??? khu v???c c??ng, tr??? c???p, v?? c??c kho???n chi ti??u th?????ng xuy??n kh??c ??? ??ang tr?? ho??n cu???c b??ng n??? v??? c?? s??? h??? t???ng c???n thi???t.

T???t c??? nh???ng ??i???u n??y t???o n??n m???t c??ng th???c cho s??? t??ng tr?????ng ti???p t???c ch???m ch???p, tr?? tr???, l???m ph??t xu???ng th???p v?? k??? c??? gi???m ph??t. ???? l?? l?? do khi kh??ng c?? nh???ng ch??nh s??ch t??i kh??a ph?? h???p ????? gi???i quy???t t???ng c???u thi???u h???t, c??c ch??nh s??ch ti???n t??? tr??i l??? s??? v???n l?? ?????c th?? c???a b???i c???nh kinh t??? v?? m??.

Nouriel Roubini l?? gi??o s?? t???i Tr?????ng Kinh doanh Stern thu???c ?????i h???c New York, ch??? t???ch c???a Roubini Global Economics. ??ng t???ng l??m vi???c cho Qu??? Ti???n t??? Qu???c t???, C???c D??? tr??? Li??n bang M???, v?? Ng??n h??ng Th??? gi???i.
 

M??? t???ng gi??p Trung Qu???c ????o t???o nh??n t??i nh?? th??? n??o?

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T??c gi???: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

Kho???n b???i th?????ng n??m Canh T??

Cu???i th??? k??? 19, do kh??ng ch???u n???i ??ch ??p b???c b??c l???t d?? man c???a phong ki???n M??n Thanh, n??ng d??n m???t s??? t???nh ??? Trung Qu???c ???? n???i d???y ch???ng tri???u ????nh. Phong tr??o n??y m???i ?????u c?? t??n Ngh??a Ho?? Quy???n; t??? 1899 ?????i t??n l?? Ngh??a Ho?? ??o??n, chuy???n m???c ti??u sang ch??? y???u ch???ng ????? qu???c ph????ng T??y.

N??m Canh T?? (1900), Ngh??a Ho?? ??o??n chi???m B???c Kinh v?? m???t s??? th??nh ph???. Tri???u ????nh nh?? Thanh c???a T??? Hy Th??i h???u ch???y l??n T??y An, b??? ng??? B???c Kinh. Qu??n Ngh??a Ho?? ??o??n m???c s???c h??m h???i gi??o s??, ki???u d??n n?????c ngo??i, c?????p ph?? t??i s???n c???a h??? v?? c??c s??? qu??n. Tr?????c t??nh h??nh ????, l???y danh ngh??a b???o v??? ki???u d??n v?? s??? qu??n, qu??n ?????i 8 n?????c Anh, M???, ?????c, Ph??p, Nga, Nh???t, ?? v?? ????? qu???c ??o-Hung li??n k???t nhau ti???n v??o B???c Kinh v?? c??c th??nh ph??? b??? chi???m. Phong tr??o Ngh??a Ho?? ??o??n b??? d???p t???t.

Th??ng 9/1901, tri???u ????nh nh?? Thanh ph???i ????m ph??n v???i 11 n?????c ph????ng T??y v?? k?? ??i???u ?????c T??n S???u g???m 12 ??i???u kho???n; trong ???? ??i???u kho???n nh???n b???i th?????ng to??n b??? ph?? t???n v?? thi???t h???i c???a c??c n?????c n??y do vi???c Ngh??a Ho?? ??o??n ch???ng l???i h??? (c??c n?????c t??? khai ph?? t???n v?? thi???t h???i).

Kho???n b???i th?????ng ???? g???i l?? Kho???n b???i th?????ng Canh T??(KBTCT), quy ?????nh b???ng 450 tri???u l???ng b???c, t???c m???i ng?????i Trung Qu???c tr??? 1 l???ng b???c. ???????c b???i th?????ng nhi???u nh???t l?? Nga (28,97%), ?????c (20,02%), Ph??p, Anh, Nh???t, M??? (7,32% ho???c 24,4 tri???u USD), ??, B???, ????? qu???c ??o-Hung, H?? Lan??? Theo quy ?????nh, KBTCT ???????c tr??? d???n trong 39 n??m, l??i su???t m???i n??m 4%, t???ng c???ng c??? v???n l???n l??i s??? l?? 982 tri???u l???ng b???c. S??? ti???n n??y v?????t qu?? kh??? n??ng chi tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c.

??i???u ?????c T??n S???u r?? r??ng l?? b???t c??ng, l?? n???i s??? nh???c c???a Trung Qu???c. Trong 11 n?????c ph????ng T??y n??i tr??n, M??? l?? n?????c duy nh???t c?? ch??nh quy???n d??n c??? v?? ??ang mu???n ????ng vai tr?? d???n ?????u phong tr??o d??n ch??? th??? gi???i; v?? v???y ch??nh ph??? M??? v???i ?????i di???n l?? T???ng th???ng William McKinley v?? B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao John Hay c?? quan ??i???m t????ng ?????i c??ng b???ng, ???? ????? ngh??? c??c n?????c ph????ng T??y b???o ?????m to??n v???n l??nh th??? c???a Trung Qu???c v?? gi???m kho???n b???i th?????ng.

Cu???i 1904, M??? tuy??n b???: qua ??i???u tra th???y ph?? t???n v?? thi???t h???i c???a M??? ch??a ?????n 24,4 tri???u USD v?? M??? s??? tr??? l???i Trung Qu???c ph???n d??i ra. Cu???i 1908, M??? c??ng b??? l???nh tr??? l???i Trung Qu???c 28,9 tri???u USD trong t???ng s??? ti???n b???i th?????ng 53,35 tri???u USD Trung Qu???c ph???i tr??? (c??? v???n l???n l??i).

H??nh ?????ng c???a M??? tr??? l???i kho???n b???i th?????ng Canh T?? cho Trung Qu???c ???????c c??c n?????c kh??c noi theo (Anh, Ph??p: 1920; Nh???t: 1923; H?? Lan: 1926; ??: 1933) v???i quy m?? ho??n tr??? kh??c nhau. Nh??? ???? v?? nh??? c??c l?? do kh??c, cu???i c??ng Trung Qu???c ch??? ph???i tr??? 58% t???ng s??? ti???n quy ?????nh trong ??i???u ?????c T??n S???u v?? c?? c?? h???i ????a nhi???u ng?????i sang ??u M??? du h???c.

H???c b???ng Kho???n B???i th?????ng Canh T??

N??m 1906, Edmund J. James hi???u tr?????ng ?????i h???c Illinois ????? ngh??? T???ng th???ng T. Roosevelt c??? ng?????i sang Trung Qu???c kh???o s??t t??nh h??nh gi??o d???c v?? t??m c??ch thu h??t h???c sinh n?????c n??y sang M??? h???c nh???m ????o t???o m???t t???ng l???p tr?? th???c c?? th??? t??c ?????ng t???i c??c l??nh t??? Trung Qu???c. Nh?? truy???n gi??o Arthur Henderson Smith c??ng thuy???t ph???c T???ng th???ng M??? m??? tr?????ng h???c ??? Trung Qu???c v?? ????a h???c sinh n?????c n??y sang M??? h???c; ????y l?? ???c??ch t???t nh???t ????? Trung Qu???c v?? M??? g???n b?? v???i nhau v??? kinh t??? v?? ch??nh tr?????? ??? ??ng n??i.

Cu???i 1907, T???ng th???ng T. Roosevelt n??i n??n gi??p Trung Qu???c v??? gi??o d???c v?? khuy???n kh??ch h???c sinh n?????c n??y ?????n M??? h???c. N??m 1908, Qu???c h???i M??? th??ng qua ????? ??n tr??? l???i Trung Qu???c m???t n???a s??? ti???n b???i th?????ng quy ?????nh (11,6 tri???u USD) v?? giao cho T???ng th???ng t??? ch???c th???c hi???n.

Ch??nh quy???n Trung Qu???c tuy??n b??? c???m ??n M???. ????? t??? l??ng tri ??n, h??? l???y t??n T???ng th???ng M??? ?????t cho Cung Th??? thao ??? ?????i h???c Thanh Hoa (Roosevelt Memorial Gymnasium), c?? t???c t?????ng Roosevelt (sau 1949 t?????ng n??y b??? ph??).

Hai b??n tho??? thu???n s??? d??ng s??? ti???n ho??n tr??? n??y ????? l??m h???c b???ng cho h???c sinh Trung Qu???c sang M??? du h???c, g???i l?? H???c b???ng Kho???n B???i th?????ng Canh T??. Ph??a Trung Qu???c d??? ?????nh m???i n??m c??? 100 ng?????i, t??? n??m th??? 5 tr??? ??i m???i n??m 50 ng?????i, cho ?????n khi d??ng h???t s??? ti???n tr??? l???i. Hai b??n th???ng nh???t: 80% h???c sinh s??? h???c c??c ng??nh n??ng nghi???p, kho??ng s???n, v???t l??, ho?? h???c, c??ng tr??nh ???????ng s???t, c?? kh??, ng??n h??ng; 20% h???c c??c ng??nh ch??nh tr???, ph??p lu???t, t??i ch??nh, kinh t??? v?? s?? ph???m. Vi???c t??? ch???c tuy???n ch???n du h???c sinh do Trung Qu???c t??? l??m, ph??a M??? kh??ng tham gia.

N??m 1909, ch??nh quy???n l???p V??? Du h???c M??? ????? t??? ch???c th???c thi vi???c n??i tr??n. C??c t???nh ???????c ch???n ng?????i ????a l??n B???c Kinh d??? thi. Kho?? thi ?????u ti??n (8/1909) c?? 630 ng?????i ghi t??n; 68 ng?????i l???t qua v??ng s?? tuy???n (thi qu???c v??n v?? Anh v??n), r???i thi ti???p c??c m??n to??n, l??, ho??, l???ch s??? Anh, M???, Hy L???p, La M??. Sau 5 ?????t thi, k???t qu??? ch???n ???????c 47 ng?????i. Th??ng 10/1909 t???p h???c sinh ?????u ti??n ??i M??? du h???c. Vi???c thi c??? ti???n h??nh nghi??m ch???nh ch???t ch???, th?? sinh ph???i gi???i qu???c v??n, Anh v??n, v?? ph???i ?????t y??u c???u ???kho??? m???nh, ?????ng ?????n, t?????ng m???o kh??ng c?? khi???m khuy???t, l?? l???ch trong s???ch???. Kho?? thi n??m 1910 c?? 400 th?? sinh, ch???n ???????c 70. Kho?? thi n??m 1911 ch???n ???????c 63 ng?????i

Ch??nh quy???n c??n c???p ?????t v?? kinh ph?? l???y trong KBTCT ????? x??y d???ng Tr?????ng D??? b??? du h???c M???, n??m 1911 ?????i t??n l?? Thanh Hoa H???c ???????ng (n??m 1924 ?????i t??n l?? ?????i h???c Thanh Hoa), chia 2 khoa Trung h???c v?? Cao ?????ng, m???i khoa h???c 4 n??m, chuy??n ????o t???o h???c sinh ??i M??? du h???c. Th??ng 3/1911 Thanh Hoa H???c ???????ng khai gi???ng, g???m h??n 400 h???c sinh 12-20 tu???i ???? ???????c tuy???n ch???n nghi??m ng???t t??? c??c ?????a ph????ng. Nh??? c?? kinh ph?? l???n n??n tr?????ng n??y c?? c?? s??? v???t ch???t t???t nh???t trong c??c tr?????ng ??? Trung Qu???c. H???c sinh t???t nghi???p khoa Cao ?????ng c???a Thanh Hoa H???c ???????ng c?? th??? v??o th???ng n??m th??? 3 ?????i h???c M???.

Ngo??i ra t??? n??m 1917, M??? c??n d??ng KBTCT ????? x??y d???ng Y vi???n Hi???p Ho?? hi???n ?????i nh???t Trung Qu???c v?? H???c vi???n Y khoa Hi???p Ho??.

N??m 1924, Qu???c h???i M??? th??ng qua lu???t d??ng KBTCT c??n l???i (12,54 tri???u USD) l???p Qu??? X??c ti???n Trung Qu???c. Qu??? n??y ???? d??ng m???t ph???n kinh ph?? cho h???c sinh ??H Thanh Hoa du h???c M???.

Trong th???i gian v??? sau, do t??nh h??nh ch??nh tr??? trong n?????c kh??ng ???n ?????nh, vi???c thi tuy???n l??u h???c sinh ??i M??? kh??ng ti???n h??nh li??n t???c. T??? n??m 1932 b???t ?????u t??ng tr??? l???i, n??m 1935 s??? l??u h???c sinh l??n t???i 1.033 ng?????i. Th???i k??? kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Nh???t (1937-1945) vi???c ????a ng?????i ??i du h???c b??? ng???ng. N??m 1946 ti???p t???c t??? ch???c chi??u sinh d??? thi to??n qu???c ??i du h???c n?????c ngo??i, c?? 4.463 th?? sinh. Sau ???? do c?? cu???c chi???n tranh gi???i ph??ng n??n vi???c t??? ch???c du h???c n??i tr??n ch???m d???t. Qu??? X??c ti???n Trung Qu???c chuy???n sang ????i Loan v?? d??ng s??? ti???n c??n l???i th??nh l???p tr?????ng ??H Thanh Hoa t???i khu T??n Tr??c ??? ????i Loan.

K???t qu??? c???a Ch????ng tr??nh du h???c b???ng h???c b???ng KBTCT

Th???i gian 1909-1928, Trung Qu???c ????a ???????c h??n 1.000 ng?????i sang M??? du h???c; sau ???? v???n c??? ng?????i ??i ti???p, nh??ng kh??ng c?? s??? li???u th???ng k??. S??? ng?????i du h???c M??? ch??a nhi???u l???m, nh??ng ??i???u quan tr???ng nh???t l?? n?????c M??? ???? ????o t???o cho Trung Qu???c nhi???u nh?? khoa h???c gi???i, th???m ch?? h??ng ?????u th??? gi???i, v??? sau c?? ????ng g??p c???c k??? quan tr???ng cho s??? ph??t tri???n khoa h???c nh??n v??n v?? khoa h???c k??? thu???t c???a Trung Qu???c (h??n h???n s??? h??ng ch???c ngh??n l??u h???c sinh sau n??y ????o t???o t???i Li??n X?? v?? ????ng ??u). Ch???ng h???n nh??? ???? ch????ng tr??nh l??m bom nguy??n t??? v?? l??m t??n l???a, v??? tinh nh??n t???o c???a Trung Qu???c ho??n th??nh s???m ???????c ??t nh???t 20 n??m. C??c nh?? khoa h???c ch??? y???u trong ch????ng tr??nh n??y nh?? ?????ng Gia Ti??n, Ti???n H???c S??m ??? ?????u h???c ??? M??? v???.

D?????i ????y xin gi???i thi???u hai g????ng m???t ??i???n h??nh c???a s??? h???c sinh ??i M??? theo ch????ng tr??nh h???c b???ng kho???n b???i th?????ng n??m Canh T??.

V??? khoa h???c nh??n v??n c?? H??? Th??ch (1891-1962), n??m 1910 ??i M??? du h???c t???i ?????i h???c Cornell, v??? n?????c 1917. ??ng l?? nh?? th??, s??? gia, tri???t gia, nh?? gi??o d???c, lu??n l?? h???c, nh?? t?? t?????ng???, m???t ?????i h???c gi??? c???a Trung Qu???c, t???ng ???????c t???ng 36 b???ng ti???n s?? danh d??? (ch??? y???u ??? M???), n???i ti???ng c?? nhi???u c???ng hi???n tr??n nhi???u l??nh v???c. Sau khi v??? n?????c ???? ????? x?????ng c??ch m???ng v??n h???c, tr??? th??nh m???t trong c??c l??nh t??? Phong tr??o T??n V??n ho??. T???ng l?? ?????i s??? Trung Hoa D??n qu???c t???i M??? (1938), hi???u tr?????ng ??H B???c Kinh (1946), Vi???n tr?????ng Vi???n Nghi??n c???u Trung ????ng (????i Loan, 1957, t???c Vi???n Khoa h???c). T??? 1949 ??? M??? v?? ????i Loan. H??? Th??ch l?? nh?? ti??n phong ch??? ngh??a t??? do ??? Trung Qu???c, ????? xu???t thuy???t ??i???u ho?? giai c???p, cho r???ng ch??? ngh??a Marx v?? thuy???t ?????u tranh giai c???p kh??ng th??ch h???p v???i Trung Qu???c. ??ng ch???u ???nh h?????ng s??u s???c tri???t h???c th???c d???ng c???a J. Dewey. H??? Th??ch c?? ???nh h?????ng r???t l???n ?????i v???i v??n ho?? Trung Qu???c; m???t th???i gian ??ng t???ng b??? ph?? ph??n, ph??? ?????nh, nh??ng v??? sau ???????c ????nh gi?? cao. ??ng l?? ng?????i ?????u ti??n ????? xu???t d??ng v??n B???ch tho???i, l???t ????? h??nh th???c v??n V??n ng??n t???ng th???ng tr??? n?????c n??y h??n 2.000 n??m. ??ng c??ng c?? nh???ng ?? ki???n c???c ??oan nh?? ch??? tr????ng Trung Qu???c n??n ph????ng T??y ho?? to??n b???, b??? ch??? H??n, d??ng k?? hi???u phi??n ??m La Tinh???

V??? KHKT c?? Ti???n H???c S??m (1911-2009, t??n La Tinh l?? Qian Xue-sen ho???c H.S.Tsien), ng?????i ???????c g???i l?? Cha ????? t??n l???a v?? du h??nh v?? tr??? Trung Qu???c. 1934 t???t nghi???p ??H Giao th??ng Th?????ng H???i, thi ????? v??o L???p h???c sinh du h???c M??? c???a ??H Thanh Hoa. 1935 sang M??? h???c t???i H???c vi???n C??ng ngh??? Massachusetts, l???y b???ng th???c s??, 1936 ?????n H???c vi???n C??ng ngh??? bang California (Caltech) l??m nghi??n c???u sinh ng??nh c?? kh?? h??ng kh??ng d?????i s??? h?????ng d???n c???a chuy??n gia c?? h???c n???i ti???ng Von Karman. N??m 1939 nh???n b???ng ti???n s??, ??? l???i tr?????ng gi???ng d???y v?? tham gia nh??m nghi??n c???u thi???t k??? t??n l???a. Cu???i 1942 ???????c Karman ????? c??? l??m c??ng t??c nghi??n c???u khoa h???c cho qu??n ?????i M???. T???ng tham gia D??? ??n Manhattan (l??m bom nguy??n t???) v?? ch????ng tr??nh ch??? t???o t??n l???a, ???????c phong h??m ?????i t??. L?? ng?????i n?????c ngo??i duy nh???t ???????c Karman ????? c??? v??o Nh??m C??? v???n khoa h???c cho Kh??ng qu??n M??? (Karman l??m Tr?????ng nh??m). 1947 ???????c Caltech ?????c c??ch phong h??m gi??o s?? su???t ?????i, v?? ???????c c??? l??m Gi??m ?????c Ph??ng Th?? nghi???m Ph???n l???c c???a Caltech v?? tr??? th??nh chuy??n gia k??? thu???t t??n l???a n???i ti???ng.

Sau khi n?????c CHND Trung Hoa th??nh l???p, Ti???n H???c S??m xin v??? n?????c nh??ng b??? ch??nh quy???n M??? t??? ch???i v?? s??? ti???t l??? b?? m???t qu??n s???. Ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c qua th????ng l?????ng v???i M???, ???? xin ???????c Ti???n H???c S??m v??? n?????c b???ng c??ch trao tr??? cho M??? m???t s??? phi c??ng M??? b??? Trung Qu???c b???t gi???. Sau 5 n??m b??? giam l???ng, n??m 1955 Ti???n H???c S??m ???????c tr??? v??? Trung Qu???c. ??ng ????? xu???t nhi???u ?? ki???n x??y d???ng ng??nh t??n l???a ??? h??ng kh??ng v?? th??m hi???m v?? tr???. T??? 1958 tr??? ??i l??nh ?????o c??ng t??c nghi??n c???u ch??? t???o t??n l???a v?? t??u v?? tr???. ??ng c??n ???????c c??? l??m Ph?? Ch??? t???ch Ch??nh Hi???p to??n qu???c, Ch??? t???ch H???i Ph??? bi???n KHKT to??n qu???c.

Do c?? c???ng hi???n ki???t xu???t trong l??nh ?????o nghi??n c???u thi???t k??? ch??? t???o t??n l???a v?? v??? tinh nh??n t???o, t??u v?? tr???, ??ng ???????c ch??nh ph??? t???ng nhi???u vinh d??? nh?? gi???i nh???t th??nh t???u khoa h???c t??? nhi??n (1957), gi???i ?????c bi???t ti???n b??? KHKT nh?? n?????c (1985), danh hi???u Nh?? khoa h???c c?? c???ng hi???n ki???t xu???t c???p nh?? n?????c v?? huy ch????ng anh h??ng lao ?????ng h???ng nh???t (1991), huy ch????ng c??ng hu??n ???L?????ng ?????n nh???t tinh??? (bom nguy??n t???, t??n l???a v?? v??? tinh) (1999), gi???i th?????ng danh d??? cao nh???t 50 n??m s??? nghi???p h??ng kh??ng v?? tr??? Trung Qu???c (2006), c??ng nhi???u vinh d??? kh??c, ti??u bi???u h??n c??? l?? danh hi???u Cha ????? t??n l???a v?? du h??nh v?? tr??? Trung Qu???c m?? d?? lu???n n?????c n??y d??nh cho ??ng.

Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh l?? d???ch gi??? v?? l?? nh?? nghi??n c???u t??? do hi???n s???ng t???i H?? N???i.

H??nh: Ti???n H???c S??m. Ngu???n: Theguardian.com

 

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