Chi???n tranh Vi???t-Trung 1979: Di???n bi???n v?? h???u qu???

Chủ nhật - 14/07/2019 08:45
Cu???c t???n c??ng ???????c b???t ?????u v??o 3 gi??? s??ng ng??y 17/2/1979. Trung Qu???c b???t ng??? ????a qu??n tr??n qua bi??n gi???i, ?????ng lo???t t???n c??ng 6 t???nh bi??n gi???i l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam t??? Pa N???m C??m (Lai Ch??u) ?????n P?? H??n (Qu???ng Ninh) v???i chi???u d??i 1.200 km. T??? ????m 16/2, c??c t??? th??m b??o Trung Qu???c ???? mang theo b???c ph?? lu???n s??u v??o n???i ?????a Vi???t Nam m??c n???i v???i ???l???c l?????ng th??? n??m??? b?? m???t c???t c??c ???????ng d??y ??i???n tho???i, ph???c s???n c??c ng?? ba ???????ng, b??? su???i, c??y c???u, khai qu???t c??c h???m v?? kh?? ???? ???????c ch??n l???p chu???n b??? tr?????c.
Chi???n tranh Vi???t-Trung 1979: Di???n bi???n v?? h???u qu???

Chi???n tranh Vi???t-Trung 1979: Di???n bi???n v?? h???u qu???

T??c gi???: Vi???t Long
Di???n bi???n chi???n tranh 1979
Cu???c t???n c??ng ???????c b???t ?????u v??o 3 gi??? s??ng ng??y 17/2/1979. Trung Qu???c b???t ng??? ????a qu??n tr??n qua bi??n gi???i, ?????ng lo???t t???n c??ng 6 t???nh bi??n gi???i l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam t??? Pa N???m C??m (Lai Ch??u) ?????n P?? H??n (Qu???ng Ninh) v???i chi???u d??i 1.200 km. T??? ????m 16/2, c??c t??? th??m b??o Trung Qu???c ???? mang theo b???c ph?? lu???n s??u v??o n???i ?????a Vi???t Nam m??c n???i v???i ???l???c l?????ng th??? n??m??? b?? m???t c???t c??c ???????ng d??y ??i???n tho???i, ph???c s???n c??c ng?? ba ???????ng, b??? su???i, c??y c???u, khai qu???t c??c h???m v?? kh?? ???? ???????c ch??n l???p chu???n b??? tr?????c. ???????c s??? d???n ???????ng c???a l??nh s??n c?????c v?? ?????o qu??n th??? n??m, qu??n Trung Qu???c v??ng qua c??c v??? tr?? ?????n c??ng an v?? trang Vi???t Nam, th???c s??u, ????nh chi???m c??c v??? tr?? huy???n l??? quan tr???ng.[1] C?? th??? n??i Trung Qu???c ???? ho??n to??n gi??? ???????c y???u t??? b???t ng??? v?? ch??? ?????ng trong d???ng binh.
T???i 17/2/1979, Th??ng t???n x?? Vi???t Nam k??u g???i Li??n X?? v?? c??c n?????c anh em gi??p ????? b???o v??? Vi???t Nam ch???ng l???i cu???c chi???n tranh x??m l?????c c???a Trung Qu???c. B??? Ngo???i giao Vi???t Nam c??ng g???i ngay C??ng h??m cho Li??n H???p Qu???c k??u g???i Trung Qu???c ng???ng ngay cu???c chi???n x??m l?????c.
Ng??y 18/2/1979, Li??n X?? ra tuy??n b??? ???ng h??? cu???c chi???n ?????u c???a Vi???t Nam; ???Nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam anh h??ng, l???i v???a tr??? th??nh n???n nh??n c???a cu???c x??m l?????c h??m nay, c?? ????? kh??? n??ng ????? qu???t kh???i cho ch??nh h??? m???t l???n n???a, v?? h??n th??? h??? c?? nh???ng ng?????i b???n tin c???y ???????c. Li??n X?? s??? nghi??m ch???nh t??n tr???ng nh???ng cam k???t theo Hi???p ?????c H???u ngh??? v?? H???p t??c gi???a Li??n bang CHXHCN X?? vi???t v?? CHXHCN Vi???t Nam???.[2] Li??n X?? c??ng c???nh b??o Trung Qu???c b???ng vi???c ?????t c??c l???c l?????ng v?? trang Li??n X?? ??? Siberia v??o t??nh tr???ng b??o ?????ng ?????ng th???i cung c???p cho Vi???t Nam m???t s??? th??ng tin qu??n s??? thu ???????c t??? v??? tinh do th??m. Ng??y 19/2/1979, m???t nh??m c??c c??? v???n qu??n s??? c???a Li??n X?? do ?????i t?????ng Gennady Obaturov d???n ?????u t???i H?? N???i.[3] Trong giai ??o???n t??? khi cu???c xung ?????t b???t ?????u (gi???a th??ng 2) ?????n cu???i th??ng 3/1979, b???ng ???????ng th???y, Li??n X?? ???? h??? tr??? cho Vi???t Nam h??n 400 xe t??ng v?? xe b???c th??p, xe ch??? qu??n, 400 c??? ph??o v?? s??ng ph??ng l???u, 50 d??n ph??ng ?????n ph???n l???c 40 n??ng, c??? 122 mm ???Grad???, h??n 100 c??? ph??o cao x???, 400 ?????ng b??? cao x??? di ?????ng c??ng h??ng ng??n t??n l???a ??i theo, 800 s??ng ch???ng t??ng c???a b??? binh, 20 m??y bay ti??m k??ch.[4]Hai ho???t ?????ng tr??? gi??p qu??n s??? ????ng k??? nh???t c???a Li??n X?? l?? gi??p h??? tr??? v???n chuy???n h??ng kh??ng qu??n ?????i Vi???t Nam t??? bi??n gi???i T??y Nam v??? B???c v?? tri???n khai m???t s??? t??u chi???n ng??n ch???n t??u M??? ??? Bi???n ????ng v??o nh???ng tu???n ?????u th??ng 3. Li??n X?? c??ng tri???n khai m???t cu???c t???p tr???n t??? ng??y 12 ?????n 26 th??ng 3 n??m 1979 tr??n l??nh th??? M??ng C??? v?? tr??n bi???n Th??i B??nh D????ng.[5] Ph???n ???ng ngo???i giao v?? qu??n s??? c???a Li??n X?? cho th???y h??? s??? kh??ng can thi???p khi cu???c xung ?????t ch??? ??? m???c ????? h???n ch???.[6] Li??n X?? kh??ng c?? ?? ?????nh ?????ng binh ??? m???t quy m?? l???n nguy hi???m v???i Trung Qu???c ch??? ????? c???u Vi???t Nam. Trong c??ng th???i gian, c??c cu???c ????m ph??n bi??n gi???i X?? ??? Trung v???n ???????c ti???n h??nh v?? ?????t ???????c m???t s??? th???a thu???n v??? h???i h??nh tr??n s??ng bi??n gi???i.[7]
Nghi??n c???u c???a Trung Qu???c chia cu???c chi???n 29 ng??y th??nh hai giai ??o???n: cu???c chi???n ph???n k??ch t??? v??? (17/2-5/3) v?? cu???c r??t lui (5/3-16/3).
Trong nh???ng ng??y ?????u ti??n, qu??n Trung Qu???c ???? ti???n s??u v??o l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam c?? ch??? ?????n 15-20 km.[8] D?? b??? b???t ng??? song ch??? v???i l???c l?????ng c??ng an v?? trang v?? d??n qu??n ?????a ph????ng, Vi???t Nam ???? qu??? c???m ch???n ????nh, gh??m ch??n qu??n Trung Qu???c nhi???u ng??y. Trung Qu???c ch??? v??o ???????c L???ng S??n ng??y 5/3[9] tr?????c khi tuy??n b??? r??t qu??n. ??? h?????ng Cao B???ng,hai qu??n ??o??n t??ng c?????ng c???a Trung Qu???c h??nh th??nh hai c??nh qu??n l???n t??? ph??a t??y b???c theo ???????ng Th??ng N??ng ????nh xu???ng v?? t??? ph??a ????ng b???c qua Th???ch An, Qu???ng H??a ????nh l??n ???? kh??ng ?????t ???????c m???c ti??u h???p ??i???m ??? th??? x?? Cao B???ng. M???t l???c l?????ng nh??? b??? ?????i Vi???t Nam v?? d??n qu??n t??? v??? ???? ki??n c?????ng ch???n ?????ng b?????c ti???n c???a qu??n ??o??n Trung Qu???c t???i ????o Khau Ch???a, thu???c ?????a ph???n th??? tr???n H??a Thu???n (Ph???c H??a, Cao B???ng), Trung Qu???c bu???c ph???i ????a th??m xe t??ng, xe b???c th??p v?? l???c l?????ng d??? b??? v??o v??ng chi???n. T???i c??c tuy???n Ho??ng Li??n S??n, Lai Ch??u, H?? Tuy??n, Qu???ng Ninh, qu??n Trung Qu???c c??ng ch???u nh???ng t???n th???t n???ng n???.
Ng??y 5/3/1979, Ch??? t???ch n?????c CHXHCN Vi???t Nam T??n ?????c Th???ng ra l???nh t???ng ?????ng vi??n to??n qu???c.[10] C??ng ng??y, Trung Qu???c tuy??n b??? ???ho??n th??nh m???c ti??u chi???n tranh??? v?? r??t qu??n. Tuy??n b??? r??t qu??n c?? ??o???n: ???Qu??n ?????i bi??n ph??ng Trung Hoa sau khi ?????t ???????c nh???ng m???c ????ch ????? ra v?? bu???c ph???i m??? cu???c ph???n c??ng t??? v??? ng??y 17 th??ng 2 ch???ng l???i nh???ng cu???c x??m l???n v?? x??m l?????c c?? v?? trang kh??ng d???t c???a qu??n x??m l?????c Vi???t Nam ch???ng Trung Hoa, nay Ch??nh ph??? Trung Hoa tuy??n b??? k??? t??? ng??y 5/3 t???t c??? c??c qu??n bi??n gi???i Trung Hoa s??? r??t lui v??? l??nh th??? Trung Hoa. Ch??nh ph??? Trung Hoa nh???n m???nh r???ng ch??ng t??i kh??ng mu???n m???t ph??n ?????t c???a Vi???t Nam nh??ng ch??ng t??i c??ng kh??ng ch???u ???????c nh???ng cu???c x??m nh???p ph?? ho???i v??o trong l??nh th??? Trung Hoa. T???t c??? nh???ng g?? m?? ch??ng t??i mu???n l?? m???t ???????ng bi??n gi???i h??a b??nh v?? b???n v???ng??????.[11] Trung Qu???c c??ng k??u g???i n???i l???i c??c cu???c ????m ph??n m?? ngay t??? ?????u chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam ???? t???ng ????? ngh??? nh??ng kh??ng ???????c ????p ???ng. ?????ng Ti???u B??nh ph??t bi???u qu??n ?????i Trung Qu???c c?? th??? ????nh th???ng ?????n H?? N???i n???u mu???n song chi???m ????ng th??? ???? Vi???t Nam kh??ng ph?? h???p v???i m???c ti??u cu???c ???ph???n k??ch t??? v?????? c???a Trung Qu???c.[12] Qu??n gi???i ph??ng Trung Hoa ???? ????nh b???i hoang t?????ng b???t kh??? chi???n b???i v?? ?????i qu??n m???nh th??? ba th??? gi???i c???a Vi???t Nam. Trung Qu???c ???? ch???ng t??? Vi???t Nam kh??ng m???nh nh?? h??? t?????ng.[13]
C??c t??c gi??? Trung Qu???c coi ????y l?? 16 ng??y g??y s???c cho th??? gi???i[14] v?? h??nh vi d???y cho Vi???t Nam m???t b??i h???c t??? Trung Qu???c, hai n?????c anh em XHCN. D?? t???ng tuy??n b??? v??? ?? ?????nh tr???ng ph???t tr?????c ????, cu???c t???n c??ng c???a Trung Qu???c v???n b???t ng??? v???i Vi???t Nam v?? c??? th??? gi???i.[15] C??c n?????c ?????u ch??m ch?? theo d??i v???i quan ng???i cu???c chi???n c?? th??? k??o theo s??? can thi???p c???a c??c c?????ng qu???c kh??c nh?? Li??n X?? v?? M???. T??? ph??a kh??c, ????y ????ng l?? nh???ng ng??y g??y s???c v??:
  1. T??nh ch???t ??c li???t c???a chi???n tranh v?? s???c chi???n ?????u ki??n c?????ng c???a d??n qu??n t??? v???, b??? ?????i ?????a ph????ng Vi???t Nam ???? l??m ph?? s???n nhanh ch??ng k??? ho???ch ????nh nhanh th???ng nhanh c???a ?????i qu??n m???nh h??n g???p 10 l???n. S???c chi???n ?????u v?? l??ng y??u n?????c c???a nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam ???? l??m ng???c nhi??n th??? gi???i trong ??i???u ki???n kh??ng c?? gi??p ????? v???t ch???t t??? n?????c kh??c, ngo??i c??c tuy??n b??? l??n ??n chi???n tranh, ???ng h??? Vi???t Nam t??? c??c n?????c XHCN v?? nh??n lo???i ti???n b???. [16]
  2. N??ng l???c chi???n ?????u c???a Qu??n gi???i ph??ng Trung Hoa kh??ng nh?? ????nh gi??. C??c t?????ng Trung Qu???c tin r???ng Vi???t Nam s??? ????? g???c ngay t??? c?? ????nh ?????u ti??n v?? h??? s??? d??? d??ng b??? qu??t s???ch. Th???c t??? qu??n ?????i Trung Qu???c ???? b??? t???n th???t n???ng n???. Qu??n Vi???t Nam c??ng th???c hi???n nh???ng c?? gi??ng tr??? ngay v??o h???u ph????ng Trung Qu???c. Ng??y 1/3/1979, AFP v?? T??n Hoa X?? ?????u x??c nh???n c?? m???t cu???c ?????t k??ch ???c???m t?????? v??o phi tr?????ng Ninh Minh (Ningming) trong t???nh Qu???ng T??y, c??ch xa bi??n gi???i b???n m????i c??y s???.
  3. Tuy??n b??? r??t qu??n nhanh ch??ng c???a ?????ng Ti???u B??nh khi Trung Qu???c th??ng b??o ???? chi???m ???????c L???ng S??n m??? toang c??nh c???a v??o H?? N???i. Ngo??i s???c chi???n ?????u kh??ng ng??? t???i c???a qu??n ?????a ph????ng Vi???t Nam, l?? do Qu??n gi???i ph??ng Trung Qu???c ph???i r??t c??n do nh???ng tr??? ng???i kh?? kh???c ph???c v??? h???u c???n v?? kh??? n??ng ?????ng ????? l???n v???i qu??n ch??? l???c Vi???t Nam ???????c ??i???u ?????ng t??? chi???n tr?????ng T??y Nam ra B???c. M???t l?? do kh??c l?? nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ?????o ??? hai b??n chi???n tuy???n ???? qu?? hi???u nhau. ?????ng Ti???u B??nh v?? L?? Du???n ???? c?? nhi???u l???n g???p m???t v?? ?????u l?? nh???ng ng?????i quy???t ??o??n. Trong b??i ph??t bi???u c???a m??nh sau chi???n tranh 1979, L?? Du???n ???? kh??i qu??t: ???Trung Qu???c hi???n nay c?? m???t ?????i qu??n ba tri???u r?????i ng?????i nh??ng h??? ph???i ????? l???i m???t n???a tr??n bi??n gi???i Trung ??? X?? ????? ph??ng ng???a Li??n X??. V?? l?? do ???? n???u h??? c?? mang m???t ho???c hai tri???u qu??n sang ????nh ta, ch??ng ta c??ng kh??ng h??? s??? h??i g?? c???. Ch??ng ta ch??? c?? s??u tr??m ng??n qu??n ???ng chi???n v?? n???u s???p t???i ch??ng ta ph???i ????nh v???i hai tri???u qu??n th?? c??ng kh??ng c?? v???n ????? g?? c???. Ch??ng ta kh??ng s??? v?? ch??ng ta ???? bi???t c??ch chi???n ?????u. N???u h??? mang v??o m???t tri???u qu??n th?? h??? c??ng ch??? ?????t ???????c ch??n ??? ph??a B???c. ???Ph???i ?????i m???t v???i nh???ng l??ng m???c, th??nh ph???, nh??n d??n v?? c??ng t??c ph??ng ng???, kh??ng ai c?? th??? th???c hi???n m???t cu???c ti???n c??ng hi???u qu??? ch???ng l???i t???ng ng?????i d??n. Th???m ch?? c?? ph???i ????nh nhau hai, ba n??m ho???c b???n n??m, h??? c??ng kh??ng th??? ti???n v??o ???????c. ???M???i huy???n l?? m???t ph??o ????i, m???i t???nh l?? m???t chi???n tr?????ng. Ch??ng ta s??? chi???n ?????u v?? h??? s??? kh??ng th??? x??m nh???p v??o ???????c???.[17] L?? do th??? t??, Trung Qu???c ch??? ?????ng r??t qu??n theo k??? ho???ch khi m???c ti??u h???p th???c h??a c??c tranh ch???p l??nh th??? ???? ?????t ???????c v?? Trung Qu???c t??nh to??n ????? ????? v???n ????? kh??ng b??? ????a ra tr?????c H???i ?????ng B???o an Li??n H???p Qu???c, kh??ng g??y c??? cho s??? can thi???p n???u c?? t??? ph??a Li??n X?? hay kh?? x??? cho M???, n?????c ng???m ???ng h??? cu???c chi???n tranh. Tuy??n b??? r??t qu??n ???????c ????a ra v??i gi??? tr?????c khi Ch??? t???ch T??n ?????c Th???ng ban h??nh l???nh t???ng ?????ng vi??n. Khi ???? ho??n to??n l?? m???t cu???c chi???n tranh x??m l?????c, ??e d???a h??a b??nh v?? an ninh qu???c t???, bu???c H???i ?????ng B???o an ph???i xem x??t. ?????ng Ti???u B??nh hi???u r?? quy???t t??m c???a Vi???t Nam v?? s??? l???i h???i c???a chi???n tranh du k??ch. Tuy??n b??? r??t qu??n c???a ??ng ???? ???????c t??nh to??n k??? song n?? g??y s???c cho c??ng ch??ng, nh???ng ng?????i ch??a hi???u r?? th??? m???nh chi???n tranh du k??ch c???a Vi???t Nam. L???ch s??? nhi???u l???n ch???ng minh c??c cu???c t???n c??ng th???n t???c t??? ph????ng B???c cu???i c??ng ?????u b??? ????nh b???i khi ti???n s??u v??o ?????ng b???ng B???c B???.
  4. M???c ????? t??n ??c c???a qu??n Trung Qu???c khi th???c hi???n l???nh c???a H???a Th??? H???u ???s??t c??ch v?? lu???n???, b???t k??? l?? g???p ng?????i Vi???t Nam n??o d?? gi?? hay tr???, nam hay n??? ?????u l?? k??? ?????ch v?? ph???i gi???t h???t[18].???Ng??y 22/2/1979, l??nh Trung Qu???c th??? h??i ?????c v??o ph??o ????i ?????ng ????ng gi???t h???i h??n 400 d??n v?? th????ng binh; ng??y 9/3/1979, trong v??? th???m s??t ??? th??n T???ng Ch??p, x?? H??ng ?????o, TP. Cao B???ng, l??nh Trung Qu???c tr??n ???????ng r??t qu??n v??? n?????c ???? d??ng g???y, cu???c ?????p s??? 43 ng?????i, ph???n l???n l?? ph??? n???, tr??? em v?? qu???ng t???t c??? thi th??? xu???ng gi???ng c???.
Ng??y 7/3, th??? hi???n thi???n ch?? h??a b??nh, Vi???t Nam tuy??n b??? cho ph??p Trung Qu???c r??t qu??n. Tuy??n b??? c???a B??? Ngo???i giao Vi???t Nam n??u r??: ???Nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam t??n tr???ng nh??n d??n Trung Hoa, c??? g???ng duy tr?? t??nh h???u ngh?? b???n v???ng v?? mong mu???n l???p l???i h??a b??nh trong khu v???c ????ng Nam ??. ???N???u vi???c tri???t tho??i l?? m???t ??m m??u che ?????y ch??nh s??ch x??m l?????c th?? nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam s??? ????nh tr???. L???nh t???ng ?????ng vi??n ???? c?? hi???u l???c v?? nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam s??? ????p ???ng l???i k??u g???i ????? s???n s??ng chi???n ?????u.???[19] C??c cu???c ????m ph??n ??? c???p Th??? tr?????ng ngo???i giao s??? ???????c ti???n h??nh v???i ??i???u ki???n qu??n Trung Qu???c ph???i r??t h???t v??? n?????c. Qu??n ?????i Vi???t Nam thi h??nh ch??nh s??ch nh??n ?????o ???tr???i th???m ???????? cho qu??n Trung Qu???c r??t lui m?? kh??ng t??? ch???c c??c cu???c truy k??ch. Ng?????c l???i, cu???c r??t qu??n c???a Trung Qu???c v???i ch??nh s??ch t???n di???t ???? mang l???i bi???t bao ??au th????ng, thi???t h???i cho Vi???t Nam. C??c th??? x?? L??o Cai, Cao B???ng, H?? Giang, L???ng S??n v?? m???t s??? th??? tr???n kh??c b??? san ph???ng. C??c nh?? b??o n?????c ngo??i ????a tin qu??n Trung Qu???c tr??n ???????ng r??t ???? c?????p b??c, t??n s??t v?? ph?? ho???i, ?????t ph?? nh?? c???a c???a d??n ch??ng Vi???t Nam.[20] Chi???n d???ch t??n ph?? n??y ???????c l??nh Trung Qu???c g???i l?? ???n??? h??n t??? bi???t???.
Ng??y 15/3/1979, B??? Ngo???i giao CHXHCN Vi???t Nam ra m???t ???B??? vong l???c???, t??? c??o Trung Qu???c:
  1. x??m canh, x??m c??, x??m l?????c l???n ?????t;
  2. l???i d???ng c??c c??ng tr??nh h???u ngh??? ????? di chuy???n nh???ng tr??? m???c;
  3. ????n ph????ng x??y d???ng c??c c??ng tr??nh bi??n gi???i l???n v??o l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam;
  4. ???m?????n ?????t Vi???t Nam ????? l???n v??o l??nh th???;???
  5. x?? d???ch m???c bi??n gi???i v?? xuy??n t???c lu???t ph??p ????? l???n ?????t;
  6. L??m ???????ng bi??n gi???i l???n sang Vi???t Nam;
  7. L???i d???ng vi???c v??? b???n ????? cho Vi???t Nam ????? s???a bi??n gi???i;
  8. D??ng l???c l?????ng v?? trang ????? ????ng ?????n, l???n ?????t;
  9. Chi???m Ho??ng Sa c???a Vi???t Nam, nh??ng nhai ??i nhai l???i lu???n ??i???m ???Trung Qu???c kh??ng th??m m???t t???c ?????t c???a Vi???t Nam.???[21]
Ng??y 16/3/1979, B???c Kinh tuy??n b??? ???? ho??n t???t vi???c r??t qu??n, v?? k??u g???i Vi???t Nam tri???t tho??i kh???i Campuchia.
Tuy nhi??n, m???t s??? t??i li???u ch??a ???????c ki???m ch???ng cho bi???t ng??y 22/3/1979, Trung Qu???c huy ?????ng th??m qu??n, chi???m 30 ??i???m tr??n l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam, d???i 6 c???t m???c bi??n gi???i ??? L???ng S??n; 10 ??? Ho??ng Li??n S??n; 10 ??? H?? Tuy??n. L??? Minh, ?????i bi???n Trung Qu???c ??? H?? N???i, tuy??n b??? qu??n Trung Qu???c ch??? chi???m l???i l??nh th??? Trung Hoa. Th???c s??? cho ?????n cu???i n??m 1988, Trung Qu???c ???? kh??ng r??t h???t qu??n nh?? tuy??n b???. Su???t h??n 10 n??m (1979-1990), chi???n s??? v???n ti???p di???n, cao ??i???m nh???t l?? n??m 1984-1985. Chi???n s??? t???p trung ??? nh???ng khu v???c kh??ng ???????c bi???t ?????n, xa ???????ng giao th??ng, c???a kh???u qu???c t??? nh???m h??? th???p s??? ch?? ?? c???a d?? lu???n qu???c t???. Nhi???u ????n v??? qu??n ?????i c???a Trung Qu???c ???? ???????c lu??n chuy???n t???i bi??n gi???i, bi???n bi??n gi???i B???c Vi???t Nam th??nh thao tr?????ng.
Vi???t Nam v?? th??? bu???c ph???i th?????ng xuy??n duy tr?? m???t l???c l?????ng qu??n s??? l???n d???c bi??n gi???i.
H???u qu??? chi???n tranh
Ho??n C???u Th???i b??o b???n ??i???n t??? ng??y 2/3/2015 d???n ngu???n Trung Qu???c vi???t r???ng: ???Trong cu???c ph???n k??ch t??? v??? n??y, qu??n ta ???? chi???m ???????c Cao B???ng, L???ng S??n, Ho??ng Li??n S??n, Lai Ch??u, Qu???ng Ninh, H?? Tuy??n v?? 21 huy???n, th??? tr???n kh??c nhau c???a Vi???t Nam; ti??u di???t 4 s?? ??o??n, 7 trung ??o??n, 25 ti???u ??o??n c???a Vi???t Nam. T???ng s??? binh l??nh Vi???t Nam b??? ti??u di???t l?? h??n 50.000 ng?????i; 2.173 l??nh ?????u h??ng; thu gi??? 916 kh???u ph??o c??c lo???i; 16.000 s??ng, h???a ti???n; 236 xe ?? t??. Qu??n ta c??ng ph?? h???y nhi???u ph??o, xe t??ng, xe thi???t gi??p, thu ???????c th???ng l???i huy ho??ng???.[22] H?? N???i cho r???ng ch??? c?? d??n qu??n v?? c??c l???c l?????ng ?????a ph????ng ???? tham gia v??o cu???c xung ?????t, v?? kh??ng ??p d???ng m???t chi???n thu???t ph??ng th??? n??o nh??ng ???? t???n c??ng li??n t???c, g??y th????ng vong v?? thi???t h???i n???ng n??? cho ?????i ph????ng. Theo VNExpress ng??y 17/2/2015, c??c th??? x?? L???ng S??n, Cao B???ng, th??? tr???n Cam ???????ng b??? h???y di???t ho??n to??n, h??ng ch???c ngh??n ng?????i thi???t m???ng trong ???? c?? nhi???u ph??? n??? v?? tr??? nh???; 400.000 gia s??c b??? gi???t v?? b??? c?????p; h??ng ch???c ngh??n ha hoa m??u b??? t??n ph??. Kho???ng m???t n???a trong s??? 3,5 tri???u d??n c??c t???nh bi??n gi???i ph??a B???c b??? m???t nh?? c???a, t??i s???n.[23] H???u h???t c??c th??? x??, th??? tr???n m?? Trung Qu???c chi???m ???????c ?????u b??? ph?? h???y m???t c??ch c?? h??? th???ng. T???i th??? x?? Cao B???ng, qu??n Trung Qu???c d??ng thu???c n??? ph?? s???p b???t c??? c??ng tr??nh g?? t??? c??ng s??? ?????n b??u ??i???n, t??? b???nh vi???n ?????n tr?????ng h???c, t??? ch??? ?????n c???u. T???i th??? x?? Cam ???????ng tr??n b??? s??ng H???ng, c??ch bi??n gi???i kho???ng 10km, ngo??i vi???c ph?? h???y th??? x??, qu??n Trung Qu???c c??n cho ?????t c??? m??? apatit. Nh???ng ho???t ?????ng n??y m???t ph???n n???m trong c??c ph?? ho???i c?? k??? ho???ch v?? t??? ch???c v???i m???c ????ch ????nh v??o n???n kinh t??? Vi???t Nam, m???t ph???n do binh l??nh Trung Qu???c sang Vi???t Nam b??? s???c v?? s??? kh???c li???t, s???c kh??ng c??? c???a qu??n ?????i Vi???t Nam c??ng nh?? s??? b???t h???p t??c, xa l??nh, ch???ng ?????i c???a d??n b???n x???. Gi??o s?? s??? h???c Edward C. O???dowd t???ng k???t ???ng?????i Vi???t Nam r???t y??u n?????c, th???m nhu???n t?? t?????ng ch??nh tr???, gi???i ch???u ?????ng, kh??ng d??? b??? lung l???c,??????.[24]
Theo t?????ng Ng?? Tu Quy???n, Ph?? T???ng t?? l???nh Qu??n Gi???i ph??ng Nh??n d??n Trung Qu???c, Trung Qu???c c?? h??n 2 v???n chi???n binh t??? tr???n tr??n chi???n tr?????ng B???c Vi???t Nam.[25] Theo nh?? s??? h???c Gilles F??rier th?? c?? kho???ng 25.000 l??nh Trung Qu???c thi???t m???ng v?? g???n 500 xe b???c th??p ho???c ph??o b??? ph?? h???y.. Russell D. Howard th?? cho r???ng qu??n Trung Qu???c th????ng vong 6 v???n ng?????i, trong ???? s??? ch???t l?? 26.000. S??? gia M??? g???c Hoa King C. Chen n??i ph??a Trung Qu???c c?? 26.000 qu??n b??? ch???t v?? 37.000 ng?????i b??? th????ng. Tr????ng Hi???u Minh s??? d???ng con s??? n??y.[26] Ph??a Vi???t Nam c?? 30.000 binh s?? b??? ch???t v?? 32.000 ng?????i b??? th????ng; Ph??a Trung Qu???c ???? trao tr??? 1.638 t?? binh Vi???t Nam ?????i l???y 260 t?? binh Trung Qu???c.[27] T???p ch?? Time c???a M??? l???i ????a ra con s??? kh?? kh??c bi???t: ??t nh???t 20.000 l??nh Trung Qu???c thi???t m???ng, trong khi s??? b??? ?????i Vi???t Nam ch???t ch??a t???i 10.000.[28]
G???n ????y, ph??a Trung Qu???c ????a ra s??? li???u kh??c, gi???m t???n th???t, cho r???ng ch??? c?? 6.900 l??nh ch???t v?? 15.000 b??? th????ng, t???ng s??? th????ng vong l?? 21.000 trong t???ng s??? l???c l?????ng tham gia chi???n h??n 300.000 t???c ch??a t???i 1% (0.7%).[29]T???p ch?? Qu??n ?????i Nh??n d??n v?? T???p ch?? C???ng s???n c???a Vi???t Nam s??? th??ng 4 n??m 1979 cho bi???t Vi???t Nam ???? ti??u di???t v?? ????nh thi???t h???i n???ng 3 trung ??o??n, 18 ti???u ??o??n, b???n ch??y v?? ph?? h???y 280 xe t??ng v?? xe b???c th??p, 279 xe v???n t???i, ph?? h???y 115 kh???u ph??o v?? c???i h???ng n???ng, thu nhi???u v?? kh?? v?? ????? d??ng qu??n s???, b???t nhi???u t?? binh???[30] Con s??? ?????c l?????ng c???a Vi???t Nam v??? t???ng thi???t h???i v?? th????ng vong c???a qu??n Trung Qu???c l?? 62.500 ng?????i tr??n t???ng s??? 600.000 qu??n tham chi???n (chi???m 1.04%). ???? c?? c??? m???t ?????i ?????i s??n c?????c Trung Qu???c g???m c??? ph?? ch???nh ???y trung ??o??n ??i c??ng ra ?????u h??ng.[31]
D?? theo con s??? n??o th?? c??c nghi??n c???u n?????c ngo??i ?????u cho r???ng Vi???t Nam ???tr??n th???c t??? ???? chi???n ?????u t???t h??n??? qu??n Trung Qu???c v?? th????ng vong c???a Trung Qu???c trong cu???c chi???n tranh ng???n nh?? v???y l?? qu?? cao, trung b??nh m???t ng??y m???t m???t trung ??o??n, ph???n ??nh chi???n thu???t bi???n ng?????i c???a Qu??n Gi???i ph??ng Nh??n d??n Trung Qu???c, s???n s??ng th?? qu??n.[32] Henry Kissinger trong cu???n On China ???? ????a ra m???t so s??nh: ??????PLA ti???n qu??n r???t ch???m v?? ph???i tr??? gi?? ?????t. Theo th???ng k?? c???a m???t s??? nh?? ph??n t??ch, trong m???t th??ng giao tranh v???i Vi???t Nam, s??? thi???t m???ng c???a PLA ngang v???i s??? l??nh M??? b??? gi???t trong nh???ng n??m th??ng kh???c li???t nh???t c???a chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam???.[33] ??ng c??ng nh???n ?????nh: Cu???c chi???n ng???n ng??y ???? ti??u t???n c???a Trung Qu???c kho???ng 1,3 t??? USD v?? l??m ???nh h?????ng ti??u c???c ?????n qu?? tr??nh c???i c??ch kinh t???. Vi???t Nam c??ng b??? t???n h???i n???ng n??? v??? kinh t???, ch???u h???u qu??? b???i ch??nh s??ch bao v??y c???m v???n c???a M??? v?? Trung Qu???c. Hai n?????c c?? h??n 10 n??m c??ng th???ng trong quan h??? v?? xung ?????t v?? trang d???c bi??n gi???i, trong ???? Vi???t Nam b??? ???nh h?????ng n???ng h??n do bu???c ph???i th?????ng xuy??n duy tr?? m???t l???c l?????ng qu??n s??? kh???ng l??? d???c bi??n gi???i, g??y h???u qu??? m???t c??n ?????i, m???t c??n b???ng, t??c ?????ng x???u ?????n n???n kinh t???. Sinh ho???t v?? s???n xu???t c???a ng?????i d??n v??ng bi??n gi???i b??? ???nh h?????ng ti??u c???c.
???????????????????????????
[1]B??i h???c ??au ?????n t??? ????????i qu??n th??? 5??? c???a Trung Qu???c trong cu???c chi???n tranh 1979, Lao ?????ng, 18/2/2015.
[2]S??ng H???ng, Chi???n tranh bi??n gi???i Vi???t-Trung 1979, www.vietrade.net In t???i M???, 1999-2005
[3]C??c c??? v???n Li??n X?? v?? cu???c chi???n tranh 30 ng??y ??? Vi???t Nam, http://vietnamese.ruvr.ru/2011/02/17/44740573.html
http://soha.vn/quan-su/vi-dai-tuong-lien-xo-da-sat-canh-cung-viet-nam-nam-1979-la-ai-20160216171001044.htm ng??y 18/2/2016
[4]???Th??ng 2/1979: Li??n X?? c???nh c??o ???Kh??ng ???????c ?????ng ?????n Vi???t Nam???. http://soha.vn/quan-su/thang-21979-lien-xo-canh-cao-khong-duoc-dung-den-viet-nam-20140217022631312.htm ng??y 18/2/2016
[5] C??c cu???c di???n t???p quy m?? l???n nh???t di???n ra tr??n l??nh th??? M??ng C???, huy ?????ng t???i 6 s?? ??o??n b??? binh c?? gi???i v?? s?? ??o??n t??ng, trong ???? c?? 3 s?? ??o??n ???????c ??i???u ?????ng t???i M??ng C??? t??? Sibir v?? Zabaikal. Trong khu??n kh??? cu???c di???n t???p n??y c??n c?? s??? g??p m???t g???n 3 s?? ??o??n kh??ng qu??n, 2 l??? ??o??n ?????c l???p v?? m???t s??? li??n binh ??o??n v?? ????n v??? t??ng c?????ng. T???i bi???n ????ng, v?? bi???n Hoa ????ng, g???n 50 chi???n h???m c???a H???m ?????i Th??i B??nh D????ng, trong s??? ???? c?? 6 t??u ng???m ???? tr???c chi???n s???n s??ng chi???n ?????u v?? ti???n h??nh t???p tr???n ????nh ti??u di???t h???i qu??n ?????i ph????ng. ???Th??ng 2/1979: Li??n X?? c???nh c??o ???Kh??ng ???????c ?????ng ?????n Vi???t Nam???. http://soha.vn/quan-su/thang-21979-lien-xo-canh-cao-khong-duoc-dung-den-viet-nam-20140217022631312.htm ng??y 18/2/2016
[6]John Blodgett, ???Vietnam: Soviet Pawn or Regional Power???? in Rodney W. Jones and Steven A. Hildreth, eds., Emerging Powers Defense and Security in the Third World, New York, Praeger Publishers, 1986, 98
[7]Xinhua (T??n Hoa X??), 27 Th??ng Hai 1979.
[8] Edward C. O???Dowd (2007). Chinese Military Strategy in the Third Indochina War: The Last Maoist War. Routledge., p. 46
[9]Videoclip???T??i hi???n cu???c chi???n tranh t??? v??? ph???n k??ch Vi???t Nam???.????i ph??t thanh truy???n h??nh t???nh Li??u Ninh, Trung Qu???c th???c hi???n, B???n ??i???n t??? c???a Ho??n C???u th???i b??o ng??y 2/3/2015
[10] Quy???t ?????nh T???ng ?????ng vi??n c???a ???y ban Th?????ng v??? Qu???c h???i v?? L???nh T???ng ?????ng vi??n c???a Ch??? t???ch n?????c T??n ?????c Th???ng ng??y 5/3/1079, Nh??n D??n ng??y 6.3.1979
[11]New York Times, March 6, 1979.
[12] Henry Kisinger, On China, p. 501-503
[13]Li Man Kin, Sino-Vietnanese War, Kingsway International Publications, Hongkong 1981, ISBN 962-7051-02-2, p. 58.
[14]Li Man Kin, Sino-Vietnanese War, p. 56.
[15]Herbert S. Yee, The Sino-Vietnamese Border War: China???s Motives, Calculations and Strategies, China Report(New Delhi, India), Vol. 16, No 1, 1980, p. 15-32.
[16] Li??n X?? c?? y??u c???u g???i phi c??ng chi???n ?????u sang Vi???t Nam nh??ng H?? N???i ???? t??? ch???i. Laurent Cesari (1995). L???Indochine en guerres 1945-1993. Paris: Belin, 1995, p.266
[17] B??i ph??t bi???u c???a L?? Du???n.(T??i li???u l??u t???i th?? vi???n qu??n ?????i, H?? N???i. T??i li???u do Christopher E. Goscha ph??t hi???n v?? d???ch sang ti???ng Anh, Nh??m nghi??n c???u Vi???t Nam ??????ng ?????i, Tr?????ng Khoa h???c Ch??nh tr???, Paris. B??i Xu??n B??ch l???i chuy???n ng??? ng?????c l???i t??? Anh sang Vi???t
[18] Nh???ng t?? li???u qu?? v??? cu???c chi???n ch???ng b??nh tr?????ng B???c Kinh 1979, http://thcsbachthuan.vuthutb.edu.vn/tin-tuc-thong-bao/tai-nguyen/tu-lieu/nhung-tu-lieu-quy-ve-cuoc-chien-chong-banh-truong-bac-kinh-1.html
[19]Nh??n D??n, 7/3/1979.
King C. Chen, China???s War Against Vietnam: A Military Analysis, The Journal of East Asian Affairs, Vol. 3, Issue 1, 1983, p. 233-263. Ng?? B???c d???ch
[20]Linda Mathew, Los Angeles Times, March 7. 1979, p. 1 and 19
Henrry Kamm, New York Times, March 9, 1979
[21] Nguy???n Ng???c Minh, ???B???n b??nh tr?????ng v?? b?? quy???n n?????c l???n Trung Qu???c ph???m t???i ??c x??m l?????c, t???i ??c ch???ng h??a b??nh v?? an ninh qu???c t???;??? UBKHXHVN, Ph?? ph??n ch??? ngh??a b??nh tr?????ng v?? b?? quy???n n?????c l???n c???a gi???i c???m quy???n ph???n ?????ng B???c Kinh (H?? N???i: KHXH, 1979), tr. 134-135
[22]Videoclip???T??i hi???n cu???c chi???n tranh t??? v??? ph???n k??ch Vi???t Nam???.????i ph??t thanh truy???n h??nh t???nh Li??u Ninh, Trung Qu???c th???c hi???n, B???n ??i???n t??? c???a Ho??n C???u th???i b??o ng??y 2/3/2015
[23]35 n??m cu???c chi???n bi???n gi???i ph??a B???c, http://vnexpress.net/tin-tuc/thoi-su/35-nam-cuoc-chien-bien-gioi-phia-bac-2950346-p2.html ng??y truy c???p 27/7/2015
[24]Edward C. O???Dowd, Chinese Military Strategy In The Third Indochina War, The Last Maoist War, Routledge: New York, 2007, Chapter 4: The 1979 Campaign, p. 45-73; Chapter 5: The Battle of Lang Son, February ??? March 1979, p. 74-88; Chapter 10: Conclusion: the legacy of an ???incredible, shrinking war???, p. 159-166.Ng?? B???c d???ch
[25]Tr??? l???i ph???ng v???n c???a t?????ng Ng?? Tu Quy???nv???i nh?? b??o Ph??p AFP, 2 Th??ng N??m, 1979, trong Foreign Broadcast Information ServiceDaily Report, China (FBIS), S??? 80, c??c trang E1-E2.
Edward C. O???Dowd, Chinese Military Strategy In The Third Indochina War, The Last Maoist War, Routledge: New York, 2007, Chapter 4: The 1979 Campaign,p. 45-73; Ng?? B???c d???ch
[26] Xiaoming Zhang, ???China???s 1979 War with Vietnam: A Reassessment???, p. 866
[27]King C. Chen, China???s War With Vietnam, 1979: Issues, Decisions and Implications, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1987, p. 114. T??c gi??? Nayan Chanda t?????ng thu???t r???ng ph??a Trung Qu???c ???? b???t gi??? ???kho???ng 2,000 ng?????i Vi???t Nam??? trong khi Vi???t Nam b???t gi??? ?????t h??n 1,000 qu??n Trung Qu???c???. Xem, ???A Breather Between Rounds??? trong t??? Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER), 20 April, 1979, p.17.
[28] BBC Vietnamese, Trung Qu???c n??i v??? chi???n tranh bi??n gi???i 1979.htm ng??y 16/2/2012
[29]Xiaoming Zhang, ???China???s 1979 War with Vietnam: A Reassessment???
[30]Ch???ng ch??? ngh??a b??nh tr?????ng b?? quy???n Trung Qu???c (H?? N???i: 1982), tr. 20 [tr??ch ????ng ???X?? lu???n??? c???a T???p ch?? C???ng s???n(TCCS), 4/1979]
[31]Nguy???n Nguy??n B??nh, Chuy???n h???i cung ?????i ?????i t?? binh Trung Qu???c ra h??ng qu??n du l??ch ??? Cao B???ng th??ng 3/1979, http://nguoidongbang.blogspot.com/2014/08/hinh-anh-tam-ly-tu-binh-trung-quoc-o.html ???C??i ?????i ?????i ra h??ng ???? l?? thu???c trung ??o??n b??? binh 448, s?? ??o??n 150, qu??n ??o??n 50, qu??n khu Th??nh ????. ????n v??? c??n c?? ?????y ????? c??? b??? s???u: ?????i ?????i tr?????ng, ch??nh tr??? vi??n, c??? ban chi ???y, c??c trung ?????i tr?????ng???v?? ?????y ????? v?? kh?? trang b???. C??ng ??i v???i ?????i ?????i c??n c?? hai c??n b??? do trung ??o??n ph??i xu???ng ????? ?????c chi???n, m???t ???v??????l?? tham m??u ph?? trung ??o??n, ???v??????kia l?? ph?? ch??nh ???y trung ??o??n. C??? ?????i ?????i c??n ?????y ????? c??? tr??m con ng?????i. ????n v??? n??y thu???c th?? ?????i hai c???a chi???n d???ch, m???i ng?? ng??o ti???n v??o v??ng n??i Cao B???ng tr???p tr??ng b?? hi???m, b??? qu??n d??n ?????a ph????ng d???n ??u???i m???y ng??y, hoang mang qu??, kh??ng bi???t l??m th??? n??o, ???? b??n nhau(b??n trong chi ???y ?????ng CSTQ h???n hoi) k??o c??? tr???ng ra h??ng???. T?? li???u n??y c??ng ???????c ph??ng vi??n chi???n tr?????ng L?? B???o T???n x??c nh???n tr ong cu???n ti???u thuy???t V??ng hoa d?????i ch??n n??i do D????ng Danh Dy d???ch sang ti???ng Vi???t.
[32] Trong m???t th??ng giao tranh, qu??n Trung Qu???c thi???t h???i 62.500 ng?????i tr??n t??ng s??? 600.000 qu??n tham chi???n trong khi M??? ????a n???a tri???u qu??n v??o chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam, ch???u t???n th???t kho???ng 58.000 binh ch???t v?? h??n 305.000 ng?????i b??? th????ng trong v??ng 21 n??m d??nh l??u ?????n cu???c chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam. Xem Congressional Research Service, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics, January 2, 2015, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL32492.pdf
[33] Henry Kisinger, On China, p. 503.

Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o
P/v
 

Tổng số điểm của bài viết là: 0 trong 0 đánh giá

Click để đánh giá bài viết

  Ý kiến bạn đọc

Những tin mới hơn

Những tin cũ hơn

Thống kê
  • Đang truy cập16
  • Hôm nay5,492
  • Tháng hiện tại192,180
  • Tổng lượt truy cập5,056,135
Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây