31/07/1975: Nh?? l??nh ?????o nghi???p ??o??n Jimmy Hoffa m???t t??ch

Thứ tư - 31/07/2019 07:24
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1975, James Riddle Hoffa, m???t trong nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o lao ?????ng c?? ???nh h?????ng nh???t c???a Hoa K??? trong th??? k??? 20, ???? m???t t??ch ??? Detroit, Michigan, kh??ng bao gi??? ???????c nghe t???i n???a. M???c d?? ??ng ???????c cho l?? n???n nh??n c???a m???t v??? t???n c??ng c???a mafia, nh??ng b???ng ch???ng thuy???t ph???c ch??a bao gi??? ???????c t??m th???y,
31/07/1975: Nh?? l??nh ?????o nghi???p ??o??n Jimmy Hoffa m???t t??ch

31/07/1975: Nh?? l??nh ?????o nghi???p ??o??n Jimmy Hoffa m???t t??ch

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Ngu???n: Jimmy Hoffa disappearsHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1975, James Riddle Hoffa, m???t trong nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o lao ?????ng c?? ???nh h?????ng nh???t c???a Hoa K??? trong th??? k??? 20, ???? m???t t??ch ??? Detroit, Michigan, kh??ng bao gi??? ???????c nghe t???i n???a. M???c d?? ??ng ???????c cho l?? n???n nh??n c???a m???t v??? t???n c??ng c???a mafia, nh??ng b???ng ch???ng thuy???t ph???c ch??a bao gi??? ???????c t??m th???y, v?? c??i ch???t c???a Hoffa v???n c??n l?? ??i???u b?? ???n cho ?????n ng??y nay.

Sinh n??m 1913 trong m???t gia ????nh c??ng nh??n khai th??c than ngh??o ??? Brazil, Indiana, Jimmy Hoffa ???? ch???ng t??? l?? m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o b???m sinh t??? khi c??n tr???. ??? tu???i 20, ??ng ???? gi??p t??? ch???c m???t cu???c ????nh c??ng ??? Detroit, v?? lu??n l?? ng?????i ???ng h??? cho nh???ng ng?????i lao ?????ng b??? ??p b???c trong su???t qu??ng ?????i c??n l???i.

S??? cu???n h??t v?? t??i n??ng c???a Hoffa v???i t?? c??ch l?? m???t ng?????i t??? ch???c nghi???p ??o??n ?????a ph????ng nhanh ch??ng gi??p ??ng gi??nh ???????c s??? ch?? ?? c???a li??n ??o??n lao ?????ng Teamsters v?? gi??p ??ng th??ng ti???n trong h??ng ng?? c???a h???. Khi ????, c??n l?? m???t li??n minh nh??? nh??ng ??ang ph??t tri???n nhanh ch??ng, Teamsters ???? t???p h???p c??c t??i x??? xe t???i tr??n kh???p ?????t n?????c, v?? th??ng qua vi???c s??? d???ng c??c cu???c ????nh c??ng, t???y chay v?? m???t s??? ph????ng ph??p ph???n kh??ng m???nh m??? h??n d?? k??m h???p ph??p, h??? ???? gi??nh ???????c c??c l???i ??ch h???p ?????ng cho c??c c??ng nh??n.

Hoffa tr??? th??nh ch??? t???ch c???a Teamsters v??o n??m 1957, khi c???u l??nh ?????o c???a t??? ch???c n??y b??? c???m t?? v?? h???i l???. V???i t?? c??ch l?? ng?????i ?????ng ?????u, Hoffa ???????c ca ng???i v?? ???? l??m vi???c kh??ng m???t m???i ????? m??? r???ng li??n minh, v?? v?? s??? c???ng hi???n kh??ng ng???ng ngh??? c???a ??ng cho ngay c??? nh???ng th??nh vi??n ??t quy???n l???c nh???t c???a t??? ch???c. S??? quan t??m v?? kh??? n??ng d??? ti???p c???n c???a ??ng ???????c ghi l???i trong m???t c??u n??i n???i ti???ng ???????c cho l?? c???a ??ng: ???B???n c?? g???p v???n ????? g?? kh??ng? H??y go??i cho t??i. Ch??? c???n nh???c ??i???n tho???i l??n.???

S??? c???ng hi???n c???a Hoffa cho gi???i c??ng nh??n v?? nh???ng b??i di???n v??n c??ng c???ng ?????y nhi???t huy???t khi???n ??ng tr??? n??n h???t s???c n???i ti???ng, c??? trong gi???i c??ng nh??n c??ng nh?? c??c ch??nh tr??? gia v?? doanh nh??n m?? ??ng ????m ph??n c??ng. Tuy nhi??n, b???t ch???p t???t c??? c??c tr???n chi???n m?? ??ng ???? chi???n ?????u v?? chi???n th???ng thay m???t cho nh???ng ng?????i t??i x??? Hoa K???, ??ng c??ng c?? m???t m???t t???i. Trong nhi???m k??? c???a Hoffa, nhi???u nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a Teamster ???? h???p t??c v???i mafia ????? t???ng ti???n v?? tham ??. B???n th??n Hoffa c??ng c?? quan h??? v???i nh???ng t??n t???i ph???m c???p cao, v?? ??ng tr??? th??nh m???c ti??u c???a m???t s??? cu???c ??i???u tra c???a ch??nh ph??? trong su???t nh???ng n??m 1960. N??m 1967, ??ng b??? k???t t???i h???i l??? v?? b??? k???t ??n 13 n??m t??.

D?? ??? trong t??, Hoffa kh??ng bao gi??? t??? b??? v??? tr?? c???a m??nh, v?? khi Richard Nixon ??n x?? cho ??ng v??o n??m 1971, ??ng ???? s???n s??ng quay tr??? l???i. ???????c th??? ra v???i ??i???u ki???n kh??ng ???????c tham gia c??c ho???t ?????ng c??ng ??o??n trong 10 n??m, Hoffa ??ang chu???n b??? k??? ho???ch ch???ng l???i s??? h???n ch??? n??y tr?????c t??a th?? ??ng bi???n m???t v??o ng??y 31 th??ng 07 n??m 1975, t???i b??i ?????u xe c???a m???t nh?? h??ng ??? Detroit, c??ch kh??ng xa n??i ??ng b???t ?????u s??? nghi???p t??? ch???c nghi???p ??o??n c???a m??nh. M???t s??? thuy???t ??m m??u ???? ???????c ????a ra ????? gi???i th??ch cho s??? m???t t??ch c???a Hoffa v?? v??? tr?? x??c c???a ??ng, nh??ng s??? th???t v???n c??n l?? m???t ??i???u b?? ???n.
 

17/04/1790: Benjamin Franklin qua ?????i

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Ngu???n: Benjamin Franklin dies, History.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1790, ch??nh kh??ch, th??? in, nh?? khoa h???c v?? t??c gi??? ng?????i M???, Benjamin Franklin, ???? qua ?????i t???i Philadelphia, th??? 84 tu???i.

Sinh ra t???i Boston v??o n??m 1706. L??n 12 tu???i, Franklin theo h???c vi???c v???i ng?????i anh c??ng cha kh??c m??? ??? James, m???t th??? in v?? nh?? xu???t b???n. ??ng ???? h???c ngh??? in, v?? sau ???? v??o n??m 1723 th?? chuy???n ?????n Philadelphia l??m vi???c sau khi x???y ra tranh ch???p v???i anh trai. Sau m???t th???i gian l??u tr?? t???i London, ??ng b???t ?????u in ???n v?? xu???t b???n b??o ch?? c??ng v???i m???t ng?????i b???n v??o n??m 1728. N??m 1729, c??ng ty c???a Franklin gi??nh ???????c h???p ?????ng xu???t b???n ti???n gi???y c???a Pennsylvania v?? c??ng b???t ?????u xu???t b???n t??? C??ng b??o Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania Gazette) ??? m???t trong nh???ng t??? b??o n???i ti???ng t???i thu???c ?????a.

T??? n??m 1732 ?????n n??m 1757, ??ng vi???t v?? xu???t b???n Almanack c???a Richard Ngh??o (Poor Richard???s Almanack) ??? m???t t???p ch?? tr??o ph??ng m?? trong ???? Franklin ???? t???o ra nh???ng c??u t???c ng??? M??? nh?? ???Ch??a gi??p nh???ng k??? t??? gi??p m??nh??? v?? ???Ng??? s???m v?? d???y s???m s??? l??m cho m???t ng?????i kh???e m???nh, gi??u c?? v?? kh??n ngoan.??? (God helps those who help themselves; Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.)

Khi t??i s???n v?? uy t??n c???a ??ng t??ng l??n, Franklin d???n nh???n tr??ch nhi???m c??ng d??n l???n h??n ??? Philadelphia. ??ng ???? gi??p th??nh l???p th?? vi???n, l???c l?????ng c???nh s??t, l???c l?????ng c???u h???a t??nh nguy???n ?????u ti??n c???a th??nh ph???, ?????ng th???i c??n th??nh l???p h???c vi???n ti???n th??n c???a ?????i h???c Pennsylvania. T??? n??m 1737 ?????n n??m 1753, ??ng l?? ng?????i qu???n l?? b??u ??i???n Philadelphia, v?? c??n l?? th?? k?? c???a c?? quan l???p ph??p Pennsylvania. N??m 1753, ??ng tr??? th??nh Ph?? gi??m ?????c b??u ??i???n B???c M??? (Deputy Postmaster General) ph??? tr??ch th?? t??n ??? t???t c??? c??c bang thu???c ?????a mi???n B???c.

Quan t??m s??u s???c ?????n khoa h???c v?? c??ng ngh???, ??ng ???? ph??t minh ra b???p l?? Franklin (v???n ???????c s???n xu???t t???i t???n ng??y nay) v?? k??nh hai tr??ng, c??ng nhi???u ph??t minh th???c ti???n kh??c. N??m 1748, ??ng nh?????ng l???i doanh nghi???p in ???n cho ?????i t??c c???a m??nh ????? c?? th??m th???i gian cho c??ng vi???c th?? nghi???m. Hi???n t?????ng ??i???n ???? l??m ??ng say m??. Trong m???t th?? nghi???m, Franklin ???? th??? di???u gi???a m???t c??n gi??ng ????? ch???ng minh r???ng s??t l?? s??? ph??ng ??i???n, sau ???? ??ng ph??t minh ra c???t thu l??i. Nhi???u thu???t ng??? d??ng ????? th???o lu???n v??? ??i???n, bao g???m ??i???n d????ng, ??i???n ??m, pin v?? d??y d???n, ?????u l?? do Franklin ?????t ra trong c??c b??i b??o khoa h???c c???a m??nh. ??ng l?? nh?? khoa h???c M??? ?????u ti??n ???????c ????nh gi?? cao trong gi???i khoa h???c ch??u ??u.

Franklin c??ng ho???t ?????ng t??ch c???c trong c??c v???n ????? thu???c ?????a. N??m 1754, ??ng ????? xu???t m???t li??n minh thu???c ?????a nh??ng b??? ng?????i Anh b??c b???. N??m 1757, ??ng t???i London ????? tranh lu???n v??? quy???n ???????c ????nh thu??? c??c t??i s???n kh???ng l??? c???a d??ng h??? Penn ??? Pennsylvania. N??m 1764, ??ng ti???p t???c sang Anh ????? xin m???t ??i???u l??? m???i cho Pennsylvania. Franklin ???? ??? Anh khi Ngh??? vi???n th??ng qua ?????o lu???t Tem (Stamp Act) ??? m???t lu???t thu??? nh???m t??ng doanh thu cho qu??n Anh t???i M???. Th???t b???i c???a ??ng trong vi???c ph???n ?????i ?????o lu???t g??y tranh c??i n??y l?? nguy??n nh??n c???a nhi???u ch??? tr??ch s??u s???c t???i thu???c ?????a, nh??ng Franklin ???? nhanh ch??ng t??? chu???c l???i b???ng c??ch b???o v??? c??c quy???n c???a M??? tr?????c H??? vi???n Anh. Khi c??ng th???ng gi???a thu???c ?????a v?? ch??nh qu???c gia t??ng, ??ng ti???p t???c ??? l???i London v?? tr??? th??nh ?????i di???n cho m???t s??? thu???c ?????a.

Franklin quay l???i M??? v??o n??m 1775, khi C??ch m???ng M??? ?????n g???n v?? tr??? th??nh m???t th??nh vi??n c???a Qu???c H???i L???c ?????a. N??m 1776, ??ng ???? gi??p so???n th???o Tuy??n ng??n ?????c l???p, v?? sang th??ng 07 th?? l?? ng?????i k?? k???t v??n ki???n cu???i c??ng. Tr??? tr??u thay, c??ng l??c ???y, con trai ngo??i gi?? th?? c???a Franklin, William Franklin, ng?????i m?? ??ng v?? v??? ???? nu??i n???ng, l???i n???i l??n nh?? l?? m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a phe Loyalists (nh???ng ng?????i trung th??nh v???i ????? qu???c Anh.) N??m 1776, Qu???c H???i ???? c??? Benjamin Franklin, m???t trong nh???ng nh?? ch??nh tr??? n???i b???t nh???t c???a M???, sang Ph??p l??m nh?? ngo???i giao. ???????c ????n ti???p m???t c??ch nhi???t t??nh, n??m 1778, ??ng ???? th??nh c??ng trong vi???c ?????m b???o hai hi???p ?????c cung c???p cho M??? s??? tr??? gi??p qu??n s??? v?? kinh t??? ????ng k???. N??m 1781, v???i s??? gi??p ????? c???a Ph??p, ng?????i Anh ???? b??? ????nh b???i. C??ng John Jay v?? John Adams, Franklin ???? th????ng l?????ng Hi???p ?????c Paris v???i Anh, ???????c k?? n??m 1783.

N??m 1785, Franklin tr??? v??? M???. Trong l???n ph???c v??? cu???i c??ng c???a m??nh, ??ng l?? m???t ?????i bi???u c???a H???i ngh??? Hi???n ph??p (Constitutional Convention of 1787) v?? ???? l??m vi???c ch??m ch??? ????? v??n ki???n ???????c ph?? chu???n. Sau khi ??ng qua ?????i n??m 1790, Philadelphia ???? t??? ch???c cho ??ng ????m tang l???n nh???t trong l???ch s??? th??nh ph???.
 

Hatshepsut ??? N??? pharaoh Ai C???p tr??? v?? l??u nh???t

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Hatshepsut-queen-mummy

Ngu???n: 100 Leaders (truy c???p ng??y 28/8/2015)

Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Ph???m H???ng Anh

L?? con g??i c???a pharaoh (pha-ra-??ng) Thutmose I, Hatshepsut tr??? th??nh v??? pharaoh th??? n??m c???a Ai C???p thu???c tri???u ?????i th??? m?????i t??m. Trong su???t h??n 20 n??m tr??? v??, b?? d???n d???t Ai C???p g??y d???ng l???i ng??nh th????ng m???i v???n t??n l???i t??? nh???ng cu???c chi???n tranh tr?????c ????. B?? c??ng cho x??y d???ng r???t nhi???u c??ng tr??nh, c??c t??c ph???m ??i??u kh???c v???n c??n t???n t???i ?????n ng??y nay. M???c d?? b?? kh??ng ph???i l?? ng?????i ph??? n??? ?????u ti??n tr??? v?? Ai C???p nh??ng v???n c?? th??? xem b?? l?? n??? pharaoh v?? ?????i ?????u ti??n.

Sinh ra trong v????ng tri???u Thutmose I, Hatshepsut k???t h??n v???i ng?????i anh c??ng cha kh??c m??? l?? Thutmose II (m???t t???p t???c ph??? bi???n th???i b???y gi???.) Sau khi cha qua ?????i, Hatshepsut v?? Thutmose II ?????ng tr??? v?? Ai C???p.

Hatshepsut tuy??n b??? m??nh l?? ng?????i k??? v??? ???????c vua cha ch??? ?????nh, v?? gi??? ch???c quan nhi???p ch??nh c??ng ng?????i k??? v??? tr??? tu???i Thutmose III ??? l?? con trai c???a ch???ng b?? v?? m???t ng?????i v??? kh??c. Ngay c??? khi Thutmose III ???? tr?????ng th??nh, Hatshepsut v???n ki???m so??t m???i th???, c??n Thutmose III ch??? ?????ng ??? v??? tr?? s??? hai. Nh???ng b???c t?????ng c???a b?? th?????ng kh???c h???a h??nh ???nh b?? trong trang ph???c c???a m???t v??? pharaoh (v?? th???m ch?? c?? c??? b??? r??u gi??? truy???n th???ng).

D?????i tri???u ?????i c???a m??nh, Hatshepsut d???n d???t Ai C???p thi???t l???p l???i nh???ng tuy???n ???????ng th????ng m???i v???n b??? gi??n ??o???n b???i nh???ng cu???c x??m l?????c tr?????c ????y. B?? c??? m???t ??o??n th????ng gia sang V????ng qu???c Punt (c?? l??? ??? ph??a ????ng nam Ai C???p), v?? h??? quay v??? mang theo 31 c??y m???c d?????c ???????c b???o qu???n c???n th???n.

Hatshepsut th??? hi???n kh??? n??ng l??nh ?????o c???a m??nh qua vi???c cho ti???n h??nh h??ng tr??m d??? ??n x??y d???ng kh???p ?????t n?????c Ai C???p. Nh???ng c??ng tr??nh c???a b?? kh??ng ch??? nhi???u m?? c??n h??ng v?? h??n nh???ng c??ng tr??nh tr?????c ????. D?????i s??? ch??? ?????o c???a b??, c??c c??ng nh??n ???? d???ng ???????c nh???ng c???t th??p obelisk cao nh???t tr??n th??? gi???i t???i c??c ?????n Karnack, ?????n Pakhet d?????i c??c m???m ???? ph??a ????ng d??ng s??ng Nile, v?? ?????n an t??ng c???a b?? ??? b??? t??y s??ng Nile. Nh???ng tri???u vua sau c??ng ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a b?? khi x??y d???ng Thung l??ng c???a c??c v??? Vua (Valley of the Kings).

Sau khi Hatshepsut qua ?????i, Thutmose III ti???n h??nh m???t chi???n d???ch l???n ????? x??a b??? ng?????i m??? k??? c???a m??nh ra kh???i s??? s??ch. M???c d?? b??? nh???ng tri???u ?????i sau h??? th???p, Hatshepsut v???n l?? m???t v??? l??nh ?????o h??ng m???nh trong b???i c???nh ph??? n??? kh??ng ???????c c??ng nh???n b???t c??? vai tr?? l??nh ?????o n??o, ch??? ch??a n??i ?????n c????ng v??? c???a m???t pharaoh. X??c ?????p c???a b?? ???????c Howard Carter t??m th???y v??o n??m 1903, nh??ng m??i t???i n??m 2008 m???i ???????c x??c nh???n.

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