07/07/1981: Sandra Day O???Connor ???????c ????? c??? v??o T???i cao Ph??p vi???n Hoa K???

Chủ nhật - 07/07/2019 20:40
T???ng th???ng Nga Vladimir Putin tuy??n b??? r???ng ?? t?????ng t??? do ???? ???l???i th???i???. Ch???ng c?? g?? ng???c nhi??n khi bi???t r???ng ch??ng t??i (The Economist) kh??ng ?????ng ?? v???i tuy??n b??? ????. Kh??ng ch??? b???i v?? Putin n??i v???i Th???i b??o T??i ch??nh r???ng ch??? ngh??a t??? do ch??? xoay quanh v???n ????? nh???p c??, ??a v??n h??a v?? ch??nh tr??? gi???i ??? m???t s??? hi???u nh???m ho??n to??n ??? m?? c??n v?? ??ng ta ???? ch???n sai m???c ti??u


Cu???c kh???ng ho???ng to??n c???u c???a ch??? ngh??a b???o th???

Ngu???n: ???The global crisis in conservatism???, The Economist, 04/07/2019.
Bi??n d???ch: Phan Nguy??n
T???ng th???ng Nga Vladimir Putin tuy??n b??? r???ng ?? t?????ng t??? do ???? ???l???i th???i???. Ch???ng c?? g?? ng???c nhi??n khi bi???t r???ng ch??ng t??i (The Economist) kh??ng ?????ng ?? v???i tuy??n b??? ????. Kh??ng ch??? b???i v?? Putin n??i v???i Th???i b??o T??i ch??nh r???ng ch??? ngh??a t??? do ch??? xoay quanh v???n ????? nh???p c??, ??a v??n h??a v?? ch??nh tr??? gi???i ??? m???t s??? hi???u nh???m ho??n to??n ??? m?? c??n v?? ??ng ta ???? ch???n sai m???c ti??u. ?? t?????ng b??? ??e d???a nhi???u nh???t ??? ph????ng T??y ch??nh l?? ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? (conservatism). V?? b???n kh??ng c???n ph???i l?? ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? m???i nh???n th???y ??i???u ???? ????ng ng???i nh?? th??? n??o.
Trong c??c h??? th???ng hai ?????ng, nh?? Hoa K??? v?? (n??i chung) l?? Anh, phe h???u ??ang n???m quy???n, nh??ng ch??? b???ng c??ch v???t b??? c??c gi?? tr??? v???n t???ng ?????nh h??nh b???n s???c c???a h???. ??? c??c qu???c gia c?? nhi???u ?????ng ph??i, phe trung h???u ??ang b??? x??i m??n, nh?? ??? ?????c v?? T??y Ban Nha, ho???c b??? ????nh b???t, nh?? ??? Ph??p v?? ??. C??n ??? nh???ng n??i kh??c, nh?? Hungary, n??i c?? truy???n th???ng d??n ch??? ng???n h??n, phe h???u ???? ??i th???ng t???i ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y m?? kh??ng c???n th??? ch??? ngh??a b???o th???.
Ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? kh??ng h???n l?? m???t tri???t l?? m?? l?? m???t khuynh h?????ng. Nh?? tri???t h???c Michael Oakeshott ???? mi??u t??? hay nh???t: ???B???o th??? ngh??a l?? th??ch nh???ng g?? th??n quen h??n b???t ?????nh, th??ch th??? nh???ng ??i???u ???? ???????c th??? h??n l?? nh???ng g?? ch??a ???????c th???, th???c t??? h??n l?? b?? ???n, th???c t???i h??n l?? kh??? n??ng, b??? gi???i h???n h??n l?? kh??ng r??ng bu???c, kho???ng c??ch g???n h??n l?? s??? xa x??i???. Gi???ng nh?? ch??? ngh??a t??? do c??? ??i???n, ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? l?? m???t ?????a con c???a th???i k??? Khai s??ng. C??c nh?? t??? do cho r???ng tr???t t??? x?? h???i xu???t hi???n t??? ph??t t??? nh???ng c?? nh??n h??nh ?????ng t??? do, nh??ng nh???ng ng?????i b???o th??? tin r???ng tr???t t??? x?? h???i ph???i c?? tr?????c, t???o ??i???u ki???n cho t??? do. Ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? tr??ng ch??? v??o th???m quy???n c???a gia ????nh, gi??o h???i, truy???n th???ng v?? c??c h???i ??o??n ?????a ph????ng ????? ki???m so??t v?? l??m ch???m s??? thay ?????i. N???u b???n qu??t s???ch c??c th??? ch??? th?? ph???i ch???p nh???n nguy hi???m. Tuy nhi??n, m???t s??? ph?? h???y nh?? v???y ??ang x???y ra v???i ch??nh ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? ??? v?? ??i???u ???? xu???t ph??t t??? phe h???u.
Phong tr??o t??n h???u kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t s??? ti???n h??a c???a ch??? ngh??a b???o th???, m?? l?? m???t s??? ph??? nh???n n??. Nh???ng k??? t??n h???u ti???m quy???n ???? b???t m??n v?? b???c t???c. H??? l?? nh???ng ng?????i bi quan v?? ph???n ?????ng. H??? nh??n v??o th??? gi???i v?? th???y nh???ng g?? m?? T???ng th???ng Donald Trump t???ng g???i l?? m???t ???cu???c t??n s??t???.
H??y xem c??ch h??? ??ang ph?? v??? t??? truy???n th???ng b???o th??? n??y ?????n truy???n th???ng b???o th??? kh??c. Ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? r???t th???c d???ng, nh??ng phe t??n h???u qu?? n???ng v??? c???m x??c v?? ?? th???c h???, trong khi xem nh??? s??? th???t. Australia ??ang ch???u h???n h??n c??ng c??c v??ng bi???n n??i san h?? b??? t???y tr???ng h??ng lo???t, nh??ng phe h???u v???a gi??nh chi???n th???ng trong m???t cu???c b???u c??? d?????i  tay m???t ?????ng m?? nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a h??? ???? ph??t bi???u tr?????c qu???c h???i khi c???m trong tay m???t c???c than ???? nh?? th??? ???? l?? m???t th??nh t??ch. T???i ??, Matteo Salvini, l??nh ?????o c???a Li??n ??o??n ph????ng B???c, ???? th??c ?????y phong tr??o ch???ng ti??m vaccine. ?????i v???i ??ng Trump, c??c ???th???c t?????? (facts) ch??? l?? nh???ng c??ng c??? ????? th???i ph???ng h??nh ???nh c???a ??ng ho???c nh???ng kh???u hi???u ???????c thi???t k??? ????? khu???y ?????ng s??? ph???n n??? v?? l??ng trung th??nh phe nh??m.
Nh???ng ng?????i b???o th??? th???n tr???ng tr?????c c??c thay ?????i, nh??ng phe h???u b??y gi??? l???i h??o h???ng ngh?? v??? c??c cu???c c??ch m???ng. ?????ng S??? Thay th??? cho n?????c ?????c ???? b??ng gi?? v??? m???t cu???c tr??ng c???u d??n ?? v??? t?? c??ch th??nh vi??n khu v???c ?????ng euro c???a ?????c. N???u ??ng Trump th???c hi???n l???i ??e d???a r??t kh???i NATO c???a m??nh, ??i???u ???? s??? ch???m d???t s??? c??n b???ng quy???n l???c. M???t Brexit m?? kh??ng c?? th???a thu???n s??? l?? m???t c?? tr?????t d??i v??o s??? b???t ?????nh, nh??ng ?????ng B???o th??? l???i khao kh??t ??i???u ????, ngay c??? khi m???t vi???n c???nh nh?? v???y s??? ph?? h???y s??? li??n k???t v???i Scotland v?? B???c Ireland.
Phe b???o th??? tin v??o t?? c??ch ?????o ?????c, b???i v?? ch??nh tr??? li??n quan ?????n s??? ph??n x??t c??ng nh?? l?? tr??. H??? nghi ng??? s??? thu h??t c???a c?? nh??n hay n???n t??n s??ng l??nh t???. Nh??ng ??? M???, nhi???u ?????ng vi??n C???ng h??a, nh???ng ng?????i bi???t nhi???u th??ng tin, l???i ???ng h??? ??ng Trump m???c d?? Trump ???? b??? bu???c t???i m???t c??ch ????ng tin c???y b???i 16 ph??? n??? kh??c nhau v??? h??nh vi sai tr??i t??nh d???c. Ng?????i Brazil ???? b???u cho Jair Bolsonaro, ng?????i th??ch h???i t?????ng v??? th???i ?????c t??i qu??n s???. M???t Boris Johnson l??i cu???n ??ang l?? ???ng vi??n y??u th??ch ????? tr??? th??nh th??? t?????ng ti???p theo c???a Anh d?? kh??ng ???????c c??c ngh??? s?? tin t?????ng, b???i v?? ??ng ???????c v?? nh?? l?? m???t ?????ng vi??n B???o th??? ???Heineken???, ng?????i m??, gi???ng nh?? nh??n hi???u bia, c?? kh??? n??ng l??m t????i m???i m??t l???nh nh???ng ??i???u m?? c??c l??nh ?????o b???o th??? kh??c kh??ng th??? ti???p c???n.
Phe b???o th??? th?????ng t??n tr???ng gi???i kinh doanh v?? l?? ng?????i ph???ng s??? n???n kinh t???, b???i v?? s??? th???nh v?????ng l?? n???n t???ng cho m???i th???. Th??? t?????ng Hungary Viktor Orban t??? coi m??nh l?? m???t ng?????i b???o th??? kinh t??? mu???n thu??? th???p, nh??ng l???i l??m suy y???u n???n ph??p quy???n m?? c??c doanh nghi???p c???n. Trump l?? ng?????i ph??t ?????ng c??c cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i. H??n 60% s??? th??nh vi??n ?????ng B???o th??? Anh s???n s??ng g??y ra ???thi???t h???i nghi??m tr???ng??? cho n???n kinh t??? ????? ?????t ???????c Brexit. ??? ??, Li??n ??o??n ph????ng B???c ??ang l??m th??? tr?????ng kinh s??? b???ng c??ch ph??t h??nh c??c gi???y t??? ch??nh ph??? c?? vai tr?? nh?? m???t lo???i ti???n t??? song song v???i ?????ng euro. T???i Ba Lan, ?????ng Lu???t ph??p v?? C??ng l?? ???? vung tay chi cho ph??c l???i. ??? Ph??p, trong chi???n d???ch tranh c??? v??o Ngh??? vi???n ch??u ??u, m???t ?????ng C???ng h??a h???n lo???n ???? ????a ra nhi???u tuy??n b??? gi???t g??n v??? ???g???c r??? Do Th??i ??? Thi??n ch??a gi??o??? c???a Ch??u ??u h??n l?? v??? qu???n l?? kinh t??? th???n tr???ng.
Cu???i c??ng, c??nh h???u ??ang thay ?????i nh???ng ?? ngh??a c???a s??? thu???c v???. ??? Hungary v?? Ba Lan, phe h???u tung h?? ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c ???m??u v?? ?????t??? mang t??nh lo???i tr??? v?? ph??n bi???t ?????i x???. Vox, m???t th??? l???c m???i ??? T??y Ban Nha, v???ng t?????ng v??? th???i k??? Reconquista (T??i chinh ph???c), khi c??c Kit?? h???u xua ??u???i ng?????i H???i gi??o. M???t ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c ?????y gi???n d???, ph???n ?????ng s??? l??m d???y l??n s??? nghi ng???, th?? h???n v?? chia r???. ??i???u ???? ??i ng?????c l???i quan ??i???m c???a ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? r???ng vi???c thu???c v??? m???t qu???c gia, m???t gi??o h???i hay c???ng ?????ng ?????a ph????ng c?? th??? gi??p ??o??n k???t m???i ng?????i v?? th??c ?????y h??? h??nh ?????ng v?? l???i ??ch chung.
Ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? ???? b??? c???c ??oan h??a v?? nhi???u l?? do. M???t l?? s??? suy gi???m c???a c??i m?? Edmund Burke g???i l?? c??c ???trung ?????i nh?????? m?? n?? ph??? thu???c v??o, ch???ng h???n nh?? t??n gi??o, c??c ??o??n th??? v?? gia ????nh. M???t ??i???u n???a l?? c??c ?????ng ph??i c?? ??? c??? b??n t??? h???u ???? b??? m???t uy t??n b???i cu???c kh???ng ho???ng t??i ch??nh, ch??nh s??ch th???t l??ng bu???c b???ng v?? c??c cu???c chi???n d??i ??? Iraq v?? Afghanistan. B??n ngo??i c??c th??nh ph???, ng?????i d??n c???m th???y nh?? b??? ch??? nh???o b???i nh???ng k??? th??nh th??? ??ch k???, tham lam. M???t s??? ??t ???? b??? t???n th????ng b???i tinh th???n b??i ngo???i c???a c??c con bu??n ch??nh tr???. M???t s??? ng?????i tin r???ng s??? s???p ????? c???a Li??n X?? c??ng ???? n???i l???ng ch???t keo k???t d??nh m???t li??n minh g???m nh???ng ng?????i hi???u chi???n v??? ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i, nh???ng ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a t??? do v?? nh???ng ng?????i b???o th??? v??? v??n h??a v?? ???ng h??? doanh nghi???p. Kh??ng xu h?????ng n??o trong s??? n??y s??? d??? b??? ?????o ng?????c.
H?????ng ??i ????ng
??i???u ???? kh??ng c?? ngh??a l?? m???i th??? ?????u s??? di???n ra theo c??ch c???a c??c ?????ng t??n h???u. ??t nh???t l?? ??? Anh v?? M???, t??nh h??nh nh??n kh???u h???c ??ang ch???ng l???i h???. C??? tri trung th??nh c???a h??? l?? ng?????i da tr???ng v?? t????ng ?????i l???n tu???i. C??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c l?? nh???ng khu v???c m?? c??nh h???u kh??ng t???n t???i. M???t cu???c kh???o s??t c???a Pew n??m ngo??i cho th???y 59% s??? c??? tri thu???c th??? h??? thi??n ni??n k??? (t???c nh???ng ng?????i ?????t tu???i tr?????ng th??nh v??o ?????u th??? k??? 21 ??? ND) t???i M??? theo ?????ng D??n ch??? ho???c ???ng h??? ?????ng D??n ch???; t??? l??? t????ng ???ng c???a ?????ng C???ng h??a ch??? l?? 32%. Trong s??? ???th??? h??? im l???ng???, t???c nh???ng ng?????i sinh trong c??c n??m 1928-45, t??? l??? ???ng h??? ?????ng D??n ch??? l?? 43% v?? ?????ng C???ng h??a 52%. Kh??ng r?? li???u nh???ng ng?????i tr??? c?? tr??i v??? c??nh h???u khi h??? gi?? ??i ????? l???p ?????y kho???ng tr???ng hay kh??ng.
Nh??ng r?? r??ng phong tr??o t??n h???u ??ang chi???n th???ng trong cu???c chi???n ch???ng l???i ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? truy???n th???ng th???i Khai s??ng. ?????i v???i nh???ng ng?????i t??? do c??? ??i???n, nh?? t??? The Economist n??y, ???? l?? ??i???u ????ng ti???c. Nh???ng ng?????i b???o th??? v?? t??? do b???t ?????ng v??? nhi???u th???, ch???ng h???n nh?? v??? v???n ????? ma t??y v?? t??? do t??nh d???c. Nh??ng h??? th?????ng l?? ?????ng minh. C??? hai ?????u ph???n ?????i mong mu???n kh??ng t?????ng r???ng c?? th??? t??m ra gi???i ph??p ch??nh ph??? cho m???i sai tr??i. C??? hai ?????u ch???ng l???i vi???c l???p k??? ho???ch c???a nh?? n?????c v?? thu??? cao. Xu h?????ng b???o th??? v??? ?????o ?????c ???????c b?? ?????p l???i b???i s??? b???o v??? t??? do ng??n lu???n v?? th??c ?????y t??? do d??n ch??? tr??n to??n th??? gi???i. Th???t v???y, nh???ng ng?????i b???o th??? v?? t??? do th?????ng b??? tr??? cho nhau nh???ng ??i???u t???t ?????p nh???t. Nh???ng ng?????i b???o th??? gi??p ki???m ch??? b???t nhi???t t??nh t??? do; c??n nh???ng ng?????i t??? do gi??p x?? h??i s??? t??? m??n c???a nh???ng ng?????i b???o th???.
Ng?????c l???i, phe t??n h???u l???i th?? ?????ch v???i nh???ng ng?????i t??? do c??? ??i???n. R???i ro ??? ????y l?? nh???ng ng?????i ??n h??a s??? b??? ?????y ra ngo??i khi hai b??n t??? ??? h???u ?????t n??ng kh??ng kh?? ch??nh tr??? v?? k??ch ?????ng nhau chuy???n sang hai c???c. C??c c??? tri c?? th??? kh??ng c??n l???a ch???n n??o kh??c. Nh???m ch???ng l???i ??ng Trump, ?????ng D??n ch??? ???? d???ch chuy???n v??? c??nh  t??? trong c??c v???n ????? nh???p c?? h??n so v???i c??c c??? tri b??nh th?????ng. Ng?????i Anh, v???i hai ?????ng l???n, c?? th??? s??? ph???i ch???n gi???a Jeremy Corbyn, nh?? l??nh ?????o c???c t??? c???a C??ng ?????ng, v?? m???t ?????ng B???o th??? c???c ??oan h??a d?????i th???i Johnson. Ngay c??? khi b???n c?? th??? b??? phi???u cho phe trung dung, nh?? tr?????ng h???p Emmanuel Macron ??? Ph??p, m???t ?????ng duy nh???t s??? gi??nh chi???n th???ng li??n t???c theo m???c ?????nh, ??i???u v??? l??u d??i kh??ng c?? l???i cho n???n d??n ch???.
Trong th???i k??? t???t ?????p nh???t, ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? c?? th??? l?? m???t l???c l?????ng g??y ???nh h?????ng ???n ?????nh. Tr?????ng ph??i n??y h???p l?? v?? kh??n ngoan; coi tr???ng n??ng l???c; v?? kh??ng v???i v??ng. Nh???ng ng??y ???? ???? qua. Ng??y nay, c??nh h???u ??ang r???c ch??y v?? ??i???u ???? r???t nguy hi???m.
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o.
04/07/1826: Thomas Jefferson v?? John Adams c??ng qua ?????i

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1826, hai c???u T???ng th???ng M???, Thomas Jefferson v?? John Adams, nh???ng ng?????i t???ng l?? b???n b?? trong nh??m ??i Qu???c (Patriot) v?? sau ???? tr??? th??nh k??? th?? c???a nhau, ???? qua ?????i trong c??ng m???t ng??y, ch??? c??ch nhau n??m gi???.
Thomas Jefferson v?? John Adams l?? nh???ng th??nh vi??n cu???i c??ng c??n s???ng trong s??? c??c nh?? c??ch m???ng M??? ?????u ti??n ?????ng l??n ch???ng l???i ????? qu???c Anh v?? t???o n??n m???t h??? th???ng ch??nh tr??? m???i ??? c??c thu???c ?????a. Tuy nhi??n, d?? c??? hai ?????u tin v??o d??n ch??? v?? quy???n s???ng, t??? do v?? m??u c???u h???nh ph??c, quan ??i???m c???a h??? v??? c??ch ?????t ???????c nh???ng l?? t?????ng n??y ???? b??? thay ?????i theo th???i gian.
Adams l??n l??m T???ng th???ng tr?????c Jefferson (1797-1800); ch??nh trong th???i gian n??y, nh???ng ?? t?????ng c???a h??? v??? ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch ???? d???n b???c l??? n??t kh??c bi???t nh?? t??nh c??ch c???a hai ng?????i. Adams n??ng t??nh v?? hay gi???n d???, l?? ng?????i tin t?????ng v???ng ch???c v??o m???t ch??nh ph??? t???p trung m???nh m???, trong khi ????, Jefferson uy??n b??c v?? hi???n l??nh, tin r???ng ch??nh ph??? li??n bang n??n c?? c??ch ti???p c???n nh??? nh??ng h??n v?? b???o v??? quy???n c???a t???ng ti???u bang.
V???i t?? c??ch l?? Ph?? T???ng th???ng d?????i th???i Adams, Jefferson ???? r???t lo ng???i tr?????c nh???ng g?? ??ng coi l?? h??nh ?????ng l???m d???ng quy???n l???c c???a T???ng th???ng, ?????c bi???t l?? vi???c Adams th??ng qua ?????o lu???t Ch???ng N???i lo???n v?? H???n ch??? Ng?????i N?????c ngo??i (Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798) v?? ??ng ???? quy???t ?????nh t??? b??? Adams v?? Washington ????? quay v??? t?? gia t???i Monticello. ??? ????, ??ng t??m c??ch ????a phe C???ng h??a c???a m??nh tr??? l???i n???m quy???n trong cu???c b???u c??? T???ng th???ng n??m 1800. Sau m???t chi???n d???ch ?????c bi???t c??ng th???ng, trong ???? c??? hai ?????ng ?????u c??? g???ng vu kh???ng l???n nhau, Jefferson cu???i c??ng ???? chi???n th???ng v?? nh???ng ng?????i b???n c?? nay tr??? th??nh k??? th?? v??nh vi???n.
Sau khi ph???c v??? hai nhi???m k??? t???ng th???ng (1801-1809), Jefferson v?? Adams ?????u t???ng b??y t??? v???i c??c b??n th??? ba r???ng h??? t??n tr???ng nhau v?? mong mu???n n???i l???i t??nh b???n. Adams l?? ng?????i ?????u ti??n ph?? v??? s??? im l???ng; ??ng ???? g???i cho Jefferson m???t l?? th?? ????? ng??y 01/01/1812, trong ???? ??ng ch??c Jefferson th??m nhi???u n??m m???i h???nh ph??c. Jefferson h???i ????p b???ng m???t l?? th?? vi???t r???ng ??ng th??ch nh??? l???i th???i k??? khi h??? l?? nh???ng ng?????i b???n c??ng l??m vi???c v?? m???t l?? t?????ng. Hai nh?? c??ch m???ng ???? n???i l???i t??nh b???n v???i 14 n??m tr?? chuy???n th?? t??? trong th???i ho??ng kim c???a h???.
Ng??y 04/07/1826, ??? tu???i 90, Adams h???p h???i tr??n gi?????ng trong khi c??? ?????t n?????c k??? ni???m Ng??y Qu???c kh??nh. L???i tr??n tr???i c???a ??ng l?? ???Thomas Jefferson v???n c??n s???ng s??t.??? Ti???c thay ??ng ???? nh???m: Jefferson ???? qua ?????i n??m gi??? tr?????c ???? t???i Monticello ??? tu???i 82.
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o

07/07/1981: Sandra Day O???Connor ???????c ????? c??? v??o T???i cao Ph??p vi???n Hoa K???
T???i cao Ph??p vi???n Hoa K???


Ngu???n: O???Connor nominated to Supreme CourtHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1981, T???ng th???ng Ronald Reagan ???? ????? c??? Sandra Day O???Connor, m???t th???m ph??n t??a ph??c th???m ??? Arizona, tr??? th??nh ng?????i ph??? n??? ?????u ti??n tham gia T???i cao Ph??p vi???n trong l???ch s??? n?????c M???. Ng??y 21/09, Th?????ng vi???n nh???t tr?? ph?? chu???n vi???c b??? nhi???m b?? v??o t??a ??n c???p cao nh???t c???a qu???c gia, v?? ng??y 25/09, b?? ???? tuy??n th??? nh???m ch???c trong bu???i l??? ???????c ch??? tr?? b???i Ch??nh ??n Warren Burger.
Sandra Day ???????c sinh ra ??? El Paso, Texas, n??m 1930. B?? l???n l??n trong trang tr???i ch??n gia s??c c???a gia ????nh ??? ph??a ????ng nam Arizona, sau ???? theo h???c chuy??n ng??nh kinh t??? t???i ?????i h???c Stanford. M???t tranh ch???p ph??p l?? li??n quan ?????n trang tr???i c???a gia ????nh ???? kh??i ngu???n cho quan t??m c???a Sarah ?????i v???i lu???t ph??p; n??m 1950, b?? ????ng k?? v??o Tr?????ng Lu???t thu???c ?????i h???c Stanford. B?? ch??? m???t hai n??m ????? nh???n ???????c b???ng lu???t v?? ???????c x???p h???ng trong t???p ?????u l???p. Sau khi t???t nghi???p, b?? k???t h??n v???i John Jay O???Connor III, m???t anh b???n c??ng l???p.
B???i b?? l?? ph??? n??? n??n kh??ng m???t c??ng ty lu???t n??o m?? Sarah n???p ????n xin vi???c ch???p nh???n cho b?? l??m m???t v??? tr?? t????ng x???ng, v?? v???y b?? quy???t ?????nh chuy???n sang l??nh v???c c??ng v?? ???? tr??? th??nh ph?? ch?????ng l?? qu???n t???i San Mateo, California. N??m 1953, ch???ng b?? ???????c nh???n v??o Qu??n ?????i Hoa K??? v???i t?? c??ch l?? m???t th???m ph??n, v?? nh?? O???Connors ?????n s???ng ba n??m ??? T??y ?????c, n??i Sandra l??m lu???t s?? d??n s??? cho qu??n ?????i. N??m 1957, h??? tr??? v??? M??? v?? ?????nh c?? t???i Phoenix, Arizona, n??i hai v??? ch???ng c?? v???i nhau ba ?????a con trong s??u n??m ti???p theo. Trong th???i gian n??y, O???Connor b???t ?????u th??nh l???p c??ng ty lu???t t?? nh??n c??ng m???t ?????i t??c v?? tham gia v??o nhi???u ho???t ?????ng t??nh nguy???n.
N??m 1965, b?? tr??? th??nh tr??? l?? T???ng Ch?????ng l?? t???i Arizona v?? n??m 1969 ???????c b??? nhi???m v??o Th?????ng vi???n bang Arizona ????? gi??nh m???t gh??? tr???ng. Sau khi ???????c b???u v?? t??i ?????c c???, b?? tr??? th??nh ph??? n??? ?????u ti??n trong l???ch s??? M??? gi??? v??? tr?? l??nh ?????o phe ??a s??? trong m???t th?????ng vi???n ti???u bang. N??m 1974, b?? ???????c b???u l??m Th???m ph??n T??a ??n C???p cao t???i H???t Maricopa v?? n??m 1979 ???????c Th???ng ?????c Bruce Babbitt, m???t th??nh vi??n ?????ng D??n ch???, b??? nhi???m v??o T??a ph??c th???m Arizona.
Hai n??m sau, v??o ng??y 07/07/1981, T???ng th???ng Reagan ???? ????? c??? b?? v??o T???i cao Ph??p vi???n, ?????m nh???n v??? tr?? b??? tr???ng c???a th???m ph??n v???a v??? h??u Stewart Potter, ng?????i ???????c b??? nhi???m b???i Eisenhower. Trong chi???n d???ch tranh c??? t???ng th???ng n??m 1980, Reagan ???? h???a s??? b??? nhi???m m???t ph??? n??? v??o T???i cao Ph??p vi???n khi c?? c?? h???i v?? ??ng ???? ch???n O???Connor, trong s??? h??n 20 ???ng c??? vi??n nam n???, l??m ????? c??? ?????u ti??n c???a m??nh.
???????c bi???t ?????n nh?? m???t ng?????i b???o th??? ??n h??a, Sarah ???? v???p ph???i s??? ph???n ?????i c???a c??c nh??m ch???ng ph?? thai, nh???ng ng?????i ch??? tr??ch l???i b??o ch???a c???a b?? v??? ph?? thai h???p ph??p trong nhi???u tr?????ng h???p. Nh???ng ng?????i theo phe t??? do th?? ??n m???ng vi???c m???t ph??? n??? ???????c b??? nhi???m v??o T???i cao Ph??p vi???n, nh??ng v???n ch??? tr??ch m???t s??? quan ??i???m c???a b??. Tuy nhi??n, v??o cu???i phi??n th???o lu???n v??? vi???c ????? c??? t???i Capitol Hill, Th?????ng vi???n ???? b??? phi???u nh???t tr?? t??n th??nh vi???c ????? c??? b??. Ng??y 25/09/1981, Sandra Day O???Connor tuy??n th??? nh???m ch???c tr??? th??nh Th???m ph??n th??? 102 ??? v?? l?? Th???m ph??n n??? ?????u ti??n trong l???ch s??? T???i cao Ph??p vi???n.
Ban ?????u ???????c coi l?? m???t th??nh vi??n c???a phe b???o th??? t???i t??a ??n, sau ???? b?? s???m tho??t kh???i c??i b??ng c???a William Rehnquist (Ch??nh ??n T???i cao Ph??p vi???n giai ??o???n 1986 ??? 2005), tr??? th??nh m???t ng?????i b???o th??? ??n h??a v?? th???c d???ng. V??? c??c v???n ????? x?? h???i, Sarah th?????ng c?? c??ng quan ??i???m v???i c??c th???m ph??n t??? do, v?? trong m???t s??? tr?????ng h???p, b?? c??n b???o l??u quy???n ph?? thai. Trong th???i gian ng???i tr??n gh??? th???m ph??n, b?? ???????c bi???t ?????n v???i nh???ng ?? ki???n c??ng t?? ph??n minh ???????c nghi??n c???u k??? l?????ng, v?? ???????c coi l?? m???t th???m ph??n n???i b???t v?? xu h?????ng ??n h??a gi???a m???t T???i cao Ph??p vi???n b??? chia r??? s??u s???c.
O???Connor tuy??n b??? ngh??? h??u t???i T???i cao Ph??p vi???n v??o ng??y 01/07/2005. Quy???t ?????nh c???a b?? ???? khi???n c??c nh??m ???ng h??? ph?? thai m???t tinh th???n, nh???ng ng?????i lo l???ng r???ng T???ng th???ng George W. Bush s??? ch???n th???m ph??n k??? nhi???m c?? kh??? n??ng l???t ????? ph??n quy???t Roe v. Wade, m???t ph??n quy???t n??m 1973 v???n gi??p ?????nh h??nh quy???n ph?? thai c???a ph??? n???. Sandra Day O???Connor ???????c thay th??? b???i Samuel Alito, ng?????i tr??? th??nh Th???m ph??n T???i cao th??? 110 v??o th??ng 01/2006.
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o
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