V?? sao ng?????i Do Th??i gi???i l??m kinh t???

Chủ nhật - 04/08/2019 02:39
Ai c??ng bi???t ng?????i Do Th??i t??? x??a ?????n nay ?????u r???t gi???i l??m kinh t???. N???u kh??ng th?? h??? kh??ng th??? n??o t???n t???i n???i trong su???t 2.000 n??m b??? tr???c xu???t ra kh???i t??? qu???c m??nh, ph???i s???ng l??u vong kh???p th??? gi???i, ph???n l???n ??i t???i ????u c??ng b??? h???t h???i, xua ??u???i th???m ch?? h??m h???i, t??n s??t, b??? c???m s??? h???u b???t c??? t??i s???n c??? ?????nh n??o nh?? nh?? ?????t, t??i nguy??n thi??n nhi??n (kho??ng s???n, nguy??n v???t li???u ???). Cho t???i n??m 1948 d??n t???c l??u vong n??y m???i ???????c Li??n H???p Qu???c ch??? ?????nh cho m???t ???m???nh ?????t c???m d??i??? r???ng 20.770 km2 ??? t???c n?????c Israel hi???n nay, n??i t???p trung kho???ng 43% trong t???ng s??? 13,9 tri???u ng?????i Do Th??i tr??n to??n th??? gi???i.
V?? sao ng?????i Do Th??i gi???i l??m kinh t???

V?? sao ng?????i Do Th??i gi???i l??m kinh t????

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T??c gi???: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

Gi???i th???c h??nh v?? gi???i c??? l?? thuy???t kinh t???

Ai c??ng bi???t ng?????i Do Th??i t??? x??a ?????n nay ?????u r???t gi???i l??m kinh t???. N???u kh??ng th?? h??? kh??ng th??? n??o t???n t???i n???i trong su???t 2.000 n??m b??? tr???c xu???t ra kh???i t??? qu???c m??nh, ph???i s???ng l??u vong kh???p th??? gi???i, ph???n l???n ??i t???i ????u c??ng b??? h???t h???i, xua ??u???i th???m ch?? h??m h???i, t??n s??t, b??? c???m s??? h???u b???t c??? t??i s???n c??? ?????nh n??o nh?? nh?? ?????t, t??i nguy??n thi??n nhi??n (kho??ng s???n, nguy??n v???t li???u ???). Cho t???i n??m 1948 d??n t???c l??u vong n??y m???i ???????c Li??n H???p Qu???c ch??? ?????nh cho m???t ???m???nh ?????t c???m d??i??? r???ng 20.770 km2 ??? t???c n?????c Israel hi???n nay, n??i t???p trung kho???ng 43% trong t???ng s??? 13,9 tri???u ng?????i Do Th??i tr??n to??n th??? gi???i.

Israel ngh??o t??i nguy??n, thi???u c??? n?????c ng???t, l???i lu??n lu??n s???ng trong t??nh tr???ng b???t ???n do b??? c??c n?????c A R???p xung quanh ??e d???a chi???n tranh, nh??ng ng?????i d??n n?????c n??y ???? v?????t qua m???i kh?? kh??n x??y d???ng ???????c m???t n???n kinh t??? ph??t tri???n. GDP b??nh qu??n ?????u ng?????i n??m 2014 ?????t 32.700 USD, cao th??? 50 tr??n th??? gi???i, l?? n?????c c?? m???c s???ng cao ??? v??ng Trung ????ng v?? ch??u ??.[1] 

C???ng ?????ng Do Th??i ??? M??? c?? 5,7 tri???u ng?????i, chi???m 40% t???ng s??? ng?????i Do Th??i tr??n to??n th??? gi???i, l?? qu???n th??? d??n t???c thi???u s??? th??nh c??ng nh???t, c?? m???c s???ng b??nh qu??n cao h??n m???c trung b??nh c???a d??n M???. D?? ch??? chi???m kho???ng 1,7~2,6% s??? d??n n?????c M??? (s??? li???u 2012; t??y ?????nh ngh??a th??? n??o l?? ng?????i Do Th??i) nh??ng ng?????i Do Th??i chi???m kho???ng m???t n???a s??? doanh nh??n gi??u nh???t M???. H??? n???m gi??? ph???n l???n n???n kinh t??? t??i ch??nh n?????c n??y, t???i m???c ng?????i M??? c?? c??u n??i ???Ti???n n?????c M??? n???m trong t??i ng?????i Do Th??i???. Nh??? th??? tr??n v???n ????? Trung ????ng ch??nh ph??? M??? x??a nay lu??n b??nh v???c v?? vi???n tr??? Israel nh???ng kho???n ti???n kh???ng l???.[2]

Trong 50 ng?????i gi??u nh???t th??? gi???i hi???n nay do t???p ch?? Forbes ????a ra (3/2015) c?? t???i 10 ng?????i Do Th??i.[3] ???? l?? :

  • Larry Ellison, t??i s???n 54,2 t??? USD, nh?? s??ng l???p v?? CEO Oracle Corp., gi??u th??? 3 n?????c M???
  • Michael Bloomberg, 35,5 t??? USD
  • Mark Zuckerberg, 33,4 t??? USD, t??? ph?? tr??? nh???t th??? gi???i (sinh 1984)
  • Sheldon Adelson, 32,4 t??? USD, vua casino
  • Sergey Brin v?? Larry Page (29,2 v?? 29,7 t??? USD), ?????ng s??ng l???p Google
  • George Soros, 24,2 t??? USD, nh?? ?????u t?? v?? t??? thi???n
  • Carl Icahn, 23,5 t??? USD, nh?? ?????u t?? v?? t??? thi???n
  • Len Blavatnik, 20,2 t??? USD, ng?????i gi??u nh???t n?????c Anh (sinh t???i Li??n X?? c??),
  • Michael Dell, nh?? s??ng l???p Dell Computer Founder.

R???t nhi???u nh?? l?? thuy???t kinh t??? h??ng ?????u th??? gi???i l?? ng?????i Do Th??i, c??c l?? thuy???t h??? x??y d???ng n??n ???? ???nh h?????ng to l???n n???u kh??ng n??i l?? quy???t ?????nh t???i ti???n tr??nh ti???n h??a c???a nh??n lo???i:

  • Karl Marx[4] ng?????i x??y d???ng h???c thuy???t kinh t??? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n s??? thay th??? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, ???????c g???i l?? m???t trong hai ng?????i Do Th??i l??m ?????o l???n c??? th??? gi???i (ng?????i kia l?? Jesus Christ);
  • Trong t???ng s??? 74 ch??? nh??n gi???i Nobel kinh t??? th???i gian 1969-2014, c?? 22 l?? ng?????i Do Th??i, chi???m t??? l??? g???n 30%, d?? ng?????i Do Th??i ch??? chi???m 0,19 % s??? d??n to??n c???u. Ch???ng h???n Paul Samuelson (1970), Milton Friedman (1976) v?? Paul Krugman (2008)??? l?? nh???ng t??n tu???i quen thu???c trong gi???i kinh t??? th??? gi???i hi???n nay, c??c l?? thuy???t c???a h??? ???????c c??? th??? gi???i th???a nh???n v?? h???c t???p, ??p d???ng???
  • T??? n??m 1987 t???i nay c?? ba ng?????i Do Th??i k??? ti???p nhau l??m Ch??? t???ch C???c D??? tr??? Li??n bang M??? (Fed, t???c Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng M???), c?? quan n???m quy???n sinh s??t trong gi???i t??i ch??nh M??? v?? th???ng tr??? l??nh v???c t??i ch??nh ti???n t??? to??n c???u. ???? l?? ??ng Alan Greenspan 19 n??m li???n (2/1987-2/2006) ???????c 4 ?????i T???ng th???ng M??? t??n nhi???m c??? v??o ch???c v??? n??y. Ti???p sau l?? ??ng Ben Bernanke (nhi???m k??? 2/2006-2/2014) v?? b?? Janet Yellen (t??? 2/2014 t???i nay).
  • Paul Wolfowitz c??ng ng?????i ti???n nhi???m James D. Wolfensohn, hai c???u ch??? t???ch Ng??n h??ng Th??? gi???i, t??? ch???c t??i ch??nh c?? t??c d???ng r???t l???n ?????i v???i c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n, ?????u l?? ng?????i Do Th??i.

Nhi???u nh?? gi??u n???i ti???ng th??? gi???i t???ng t??c ?????ng kh??ng nh??? t???i ch??nh tr???, kinh t??? n?????c M??? v?? th??? gi???i l?? ng?????i Do Th??i. ????n c??? v??i ng?????i:

  • Jacob Schiff (1847-1920), ch??? nh?? b??ng ??? ?????c, sau sang M??? ?????nh c??; n??m 1904 do c??m gh??t ch??nh quy???n Sa Ho??ng gi???t h???i h??ng tr??m ngh??n d??n Do Th??i ??? Nga, ??ng ???? cho ch??nh ph??? Nh???t vay 200 tri???u USD (m???t s??? ti???n c???c k??? l???n h???i ???y) ????? x??y d???ng h???i qu??n, nh??? ???? Nh???t th???ng Nga trong tr???n h???i chi???n Nh???t-Nga n??m 1905. Nh??? ??n n??y, trong Th??? chi???n II ph??t x??t Nh???t ???? kh??ng gi???t h???i ng?????i Do Th??i s???ng ??? Trung Qu???c, tuy ?????ng minh s??? m???t c???a Nh???t l?? ph??t x??t ?????c c?? nh??? Nh???t ???l??m h?????? chuy???n ???y. Schiff l?? ng?????i n?????c ngo??i ?????u ti??n ???????c Nh???t Ho??ng Minh Tr??? ti???p ki???n t???i Ho??ng cung Nh???t.
  • George Soros, n???i ti???ng v??? ?? t?????ng ?????u t?? v?? l??m t??? thi???n quy m?? l???n, t???ng l??m chao ?????o th??? tr?????ng t??i ch??nh to??n c???u.
  • Michael Blooomberg, s??ng l???p v?? s??? h???u 88% Bloomberg L.P., m???t c??ng ty truy???n th??ng v??? tin t???c t??i ch??nh v?? d???ch v??? th??ng tin. Blooomberg t???ng tr??ng c??? li???n 3 kh??a th??? tr?????ng th??nh ph??? New York (2002-2013) v???i m???c l????ng t?????ng tr??ng m???i n??m 1 USD v?? l?? ch??? k??nh truy???n h??nh Bloomberg n???i ti???ng trong gi???i kinh t??? th??? gi???i.

Nguy??n nh??n s??u xa

V?? sao ng?????i Do Th??i l???i gi???i l??m kinh t???, t??i ch??nh tr??n c??? hai m???t l?? thuy???t v?? th???c h??nh nh?? v???y?

L???ch s??? cho th???y y???u t??? quy???t ?????nh th??nh c??ng c???a m???t d??n t???c b???t ngu???n t??? truy???n th???ng v??n h??a c???a h???.

????? t??m hi???u truy???n th???ng v??n h??a c???a d??n t???c n??y c?? l??? ta c???n t??m hi???u c??c nguy??n t???c ch??nh c???a ?????o Do Th??i(Judaism), t??n gi??o l??u ?????i nh???t th??? gi???i c??n t???n t???i t???i ng??y nay v?? l?? ch???t keo b???n ch???c g???n b?? c???ng ?????ng, khi???n d??n t???c n??y gi??? g??n ???????c nguy??n v???n n??i gi???ng, ng??n ng???, truy???n th???ng v??n h??a m???c d?? ph???i s???ng ph??n t??n, l??u vong v?? b??? k??? th???, xua ??u???i, h??m h???i, t??n s??t d?? man trong su???t 2.000 n??m qua. C?? th??? n??i, n???u kh??ng c?? ch???t keo ???y th?? t??? l??u d??n t???c Do Th??i ???? b??? ti??u di???t ho???c ?????ng h??a v?? bi???n m???t kh???i l???ch s???. ?????o Do Th??i l?? t??n gi??o duy nh???t th??nh c??ng tr??n c??? hai m???t: gi??? ???????c s??? t???n t???i c???a d??n t???c v?? h??n n???a ????a h??? v????n l??n h??ng ?????u th??? gi???i tr??n h???u h???t c??c l??nh v???c tr?? tu???.

Mu???n v???y, ta th??? ??i???m qua v??i n??t v??? Kinh th??nh c???a ng?????i Do Th??i (Hebrew Bible) ??? h??n 10 th??? k??? sau kinh ??i???n n??y ???????c ?????o Ki-t?? l???y nguy??n v??n l??m ph???n ?????u Kinh Th??nh c???a h??? v?? g???i l?? C???u ?????c, nh???m ph??n bi???t v???i T??n ?????c do c??c nh?? s??ng l???p Ki-t?? gi??o vi???t. C??ng c???n xem x??t m???t kinh ??i???n n???a c???a ?????o Do Th??i l?? Kinh Talmud, quan tr???ng h??n c??? C???u ?????c, c?? ????a ra nhi???u nguy??n t???c c??? th??? cho t???i nay v???n c??n gi?? tr??? v??? kinh doanh, bu??n b??n.

Tr?????c h???t ng?????i Do Th??i c?? truy???n th???ng coi ki???n th???c tr?? tu??? l?? th??? qu?? nh???t c???a con ng?????i. Kinh Talmud vi???t: T??i s???n c?? th??? b??? m???t, ch??? c?? tri th???c v?? tr?? tu??? th?? m??i m??i kh??ng m???t ??i ????u ???????c. C??c ??ng b??? b?? m??? Do Th??i d???y con: C???a c???i, ti???n b???c c???a ch??ng ta ?????u c?? th??? b??? k??? kh??c t?????c ??o???t nh??ng ki???n th???c, tr?? tu??? trong ?????u ??c ta th?? kh??ng ai c?? th??? c?????p n???i. V???i ph????ng ch??m ????, h??? ?????c bi???t coi tr???ng vi???c gi??o d???c, d?? kh?? kh??n ?????n ????u c??ng t??m c??ch cho con h???c h??nh. Ngo??i ra h??? ch?? tr???ng truy???n cho nhau c??c kinh nghi???m l??m ??n, kh??ng bao gi??? gi???u ngh???. Ng?????i Do Th??i c?? tr??nh ????? gi??o d???c t???t nh???t trong c??c c???ng ?????ng thi???u s??? ??? M???.

Th??? hai, ?????o Do Th??i ?????c bi???t coi tr???ng t??i s???n v?? ti???n b???c. ????y l?? m???t ??i???m ?????c ????o kh??c h???n quan ??i???m c???a ?????o Ki-t??, ?????o Ph???t, ?????o Kh???ng, ta c???n ph??n t??ch th??m.

C?? l??? s??? h???u t??i s???n l?? m???t trong c??c v???n ????? quan tr???ng nh???t c???a ?????i s???ng lo??i ng?????i, l?? nguy??n nh??n c???a cu???c ?????u tranh gi???a con ng?????i v???i nhau v?? chi???n tranh gi???a c??c qu???c gia. Hegel, ?????i di???n n???i ti???ng nh???t c???a tri???t h???c c??? ??i???n ?????c t???ng n??i: ???Nh??n quy???n n??i cho t???i c??ng l?? quy???n v??? t??i s???n.??? R?? r??ng, ch??? khi n??o m???i ng?????i ?????u c?? t??i s???n, ?????u gi??u c?? th?? khi ???y m???i c?? s??? b??nh ?????ng ????ch th???c, to??n d??n m???i c?? nh??n quy???n. M???t x?? h???i c?? ph??n h??a gi??u ngh??o th?? ch??a th??? c?? b??nh ?????ng th???c s???. ?????o Do Th??i r???t ch?? tr???ng nguy??n t???c l??m cho m???i ng?????i c??ng c?? t??i s???n, ti???n b???c, c??ng gi??u c??, t???c c??ng c?? nh??n quy???n v?? th???c s??? b??nh ?????ng v???i nhau.

Tri???t gia Max Weber vi???t: ????????o Ki-t?? kh??ng l??m t???t b???ng ?????o Do Th??i, v?? h??? k???t t???i s??? gi??u c??.??? Qu??? v???y, Ch??a Jesus t???ng n??i: ???L???c ???? chui qua l??? kim c??n d??? h??n ng?????i gi??u v??o n?????c Ch??a??? (T??n ?????c, Mathew 19:24), ?? n??i ai gi??u th?? kh?? l??n thi??n ???????ng, ai ngh??o th?? d??? l??n thi??n ???????ng h??n ??? qua ???? c?? th??? suy ra ?????o Ki-t?? th??n c???n v???i ng?????i ngh??o kh???, l?? t??n gi??o c???a ng?????i ngh??o. Kh???ng gi??o v?? ?????o Ph???t l???i c??ng khinh th?????ng t??i s???n, ti???n b???c, coi ngh??o l?? trong s???ch, gi??u l?? b???n th???u.

Ng?????c l???i C???u ?????c ngay t??? ?????u ???? vi???t: ???V??ng ??? x??? n??y r???t qu????? (Genesis 2:12). ?? t?????ng qu?? v??ng b???c, coi tr???ng t??i s???n v???t ch???t ???? ???nh h?????ng l???n t???i ng?????i Do Th??i, h??? ?????u mu???n gi??u c??.

Kh??i ni???m t??i s???n xu???t hi???n ngay t??? c??ch ????y h??n 3.000 n??m khi vua Ai C???p b???i th?????ng cho Abraham v??? t??? ph??? c???a b??? l???c Do Th??i, khi???n ??ng n??y ???c?? r???t nhi???u s??c v???t, v??ng b???c??? (Genesis 13:2). Th?????ng ????? y??u c???u Abraham ph???i gi??u ????? c?? c??i m?? th??? c??ng Ng??i.

Th?????ng ????? Jehovah cho r???ng s??? gi??u c?? s??? gi??p ch???m d???t n???n ch??m gi???t nhau. Khi Moses d???n d??n Do Th??i ??i kh???i Ai C???p c??ng mang theo r???t nhi???u s??c v???t. Nh???ng ng?????i xu???t th??n gia ????nh gi??u c?? h???i ???y nh?? Jacob, Saul, David ??? ?????u ???????c C???u ?????c ca ng???i l?? c?? nhi???u ph???m ch???t t???t, l???m t??i n??ng, l???p ???????c c??ng tr???ng l???n cho c???ng ?????ng d??n t???c v?? ?????u tr??? th??nh l??nh ?????o, vua ch??a.

Ng?????c l???i, v??n h??a ph????ng ????ng th?????ng ca ng???i ph???m ch???t c???a nh???ng ng?????i ngh??o.

Tr???ng ti???n b???c l?? ?????c ??i???m n???i b???t ??? ng?????i Do Th??i. H??? coi ???? l?? ph????ng ti???n t???t nh???t ????? b???o v??? m??nh v?? b???o v??? d??n t???c h???. Qu??? v???y, kh??ng c?? ti???n th?? h??? l??m sao t???n t???i n???i ??? nh???ng qu???c gia v?? ?????a ph????ng h??? s???ng nh??? ??? ?????, n??i ch??nh quy???n v?? d??n b???n ?????a lu??n ch??n ??p, g??y kh?? kh??n. Ho??n c???nh ???y khi???n h??? s??ng t???o ra nhi???u bi???n ph??p l??m gi??u r???t kh??n ngoan. Th?? d??? c???a hi???u c???m ????? v?? cho vay l??i l?? s??ng t???o ?????c ????o c???a ng?????i Do Th??i c??? ?????i ??? v??? sau g???i l?? h??? th???ng ng??n h??ng. Bu??n b??n c??ng l?? m???t bi???n ph??p t???n t???i khi trong tay kh??ng c?? t??i s???n c??? ?????nh n??o.

Ng?????i ta n??i d??n Do Th??i c?? hai b???n n??ng: th??? nh???t l?? b???n n??ng ki???m ti???n; th??? hai l?? b???n n??ng l??m cho ti???n ????? ra ti???n ??? h??? l?? cha ????? c???a thuy???t l??u th??ng ti???n t??? ng??y nay m?? ch??ng ta ?????u ??p d???ng v???i quy m?? l???n.

Tuy v???y, s??? qu?? g???n b?? v???i ti???n b???c l?? m???t l?? do khi???n ng?????i Do Th??i b??? ch?? bai. Ai t???ng ?????c ti???u thuy???t Ai-van-h?? (Ivanhoe) c???a Walter Scott ch???c c??n nh??? m??i h??nh ???nh ??ng l??o Do Th??i Isaac (I-s???c) ????ng th????ng, b??? c???a n??ng Rebecca xinh ?????p v?? th??nh thi???n, l??c n??o c??ng kh?? kh?? gi??? t??i ti???n v?? b??? hi???p s?? ?????u B?? nh???o b??ng khinh b??? th???m t???. C??c v??? k???ch c???a Shakespear ????a ra nhi???u h??nh ???nh khi???n ng?????i ta c?? c???m gi??c ng?????i Do Th??i b???n ti???n, ??ch k???, x???o tr??. T???p qu??n cho vay l??i c???a ng?????i Do Th??i b??? nhi???u n??i l??n ??n. H??? th???ng c???a hi???u c???a ng?????i Do Th??i ??? ?????c l?? ?????i t?????ng b??? b???n Qu???c X?? Hitler ?????p ph?? ?????u ti??n h???i th???p ni??n 1930. Ng?????i ?????c c?? c??u ng???n ng??? ???Ch???ng con d?? n??o kh??ng c?? r??u, ch???ng ng?????i Do Th??i n??o kh??ng c?? ti???n ????? d??nh.???

Karl Marx xu???t th??n gia ????nh kh?? gi???, v??? ??ng c??ng l?? con nh?? qu?? t???c, nh??ng ??ng kh??ng coi tr???ng ?????ng ti???n. Marx t???ng n??i: ?????ng ti???n l?? con ???? c???a lo??i ng?????i.[5] Trong b??i vi???t ???V??? v???n ????? Do Th??i??? c??ng b??? n??m 1843, ??ng m???nh m??? c??ng k??ch d??n t???c Do Th??i: ???S??? s??ng b??i c?? nh??n c???a ng?????i Do Th??i l?? g??? L???a ?????o. ?????c Ch??a Tr???i c???a h??? l?? g??? Ti???n!???.[6] ??ng cho r???ng ti???n b???c l?? v??? th???n g???n b?? v???i ng?????i Do Th??i; x??a b??? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n s??? k??o theo s??? x??a b??? ch??? ngh??a Do Th??i. Nh?? v???y ngh??a l?? Marx ???? th???a nh???n ng?????i Do Th??i tham d??? s??ng l???p ra ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, m???t ch??? ????? x?? h???i m???i thay th??? ch??? ????? phong ki???n v?? l??m n??n ph???n ch??? y???u trong c???ng ?????ng qu???c t??? hi???n nay. Qu??? th???t, ng?????i Do Th??i c?? ????ng g??p r???t l???n v??? l?? thuy???t v?? th???c h??nh trong vi???c x??y d???ng n???n kinh t??? t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a.

Kinh Talmud vi???t: M???i ng?????i ph???i y??u Th?????ng ????? v???i to??n b??? tr??i tim, cu???c ?????i v?? c???a c???i c???a m??nh; m???i ng?????i ?????u ph???i quan t??m t???i t??i s???n; kh??ng ai ???????c ph??p d??ng t??i s???n c???a m??nh ????? l??m h???i k??? kh??c v?? kh??ng ai ???????c tr???m c???p t??i s???n ng?????i kh??c; t??i s???n c???a m???t ng?????i nh??ng kh??ng ph???i ch??? l?? c???a ng?????i ???? m?? ph???i d??ng n?? ????? gi??p k??? kh??c ??? C?? th??? hi???u ???Y??u Th?????ng ????? v???i to??n b??? t??i s???n c???a m??nh??? ngh??a l?? ph???i s??? d???ng t??i s???n ri??ng c???a m??nh theo l???nh Th?????ng ?????, ngh??a l?? ph???i chia b???t cho ng?????i ngh??o. Quy ?????c n??y ???? ?????t n???n m??ng cho t?? t?????ng nh??n ??i, b??nh ?????ng c???a v??n minh ph????ng T??y. T??? ???? ta d??? hi???u v?? sao c???ng ?????ng Do Th??i ??? ????u c??ng gi??p ????? nhau ????? t???t c??? c??ng gi??u l??n, kh??ng c?? ai ngh??o kh???.

?????o Do Th??i coi l??m gi??u l?? b???n ph???n n???ng n??? c???a con ng?????i; n??i ???n???ng n?????? v?? ng?????i gi??u c?? tr??ch nhi???m to l???n ?????i v???i x?? h???i: h??? kh??ng ???????c b??c l???t ng?????i ngh??o m?? ph???i chia m???t ph???n t??i s???n c???a m??nh ????? l??m t??? thi???n. Nh???ng ng?????i Do Th??i gi??u c?? lu??n s???ng r???t gi???n d???, ti???t ki???m v?? n??ng l??m t??? thi???n. Soros t???ng g??p 4 t??? USD (trong t???ng t??i s???n 7 t??? khi ???y) cho c??ng t??c t??? thi???n. Kh??ng m???t nh?? gi??u Do Th??i n??o kh??ng c?? qu??? t??? thi???n c???a m??nh. T??? ????y c?? th??? hi???u ???????c t???i sao c???ng ?????ng Do Th??i l???i c??ng gi??u c?? nh?? th???.

Ng?????i Do Th??i lu??n ngh?? r???ng Th?????ng ????? giao cho h??? ngh??a v??? v?? quy???n l??m gi??u. ????y l?? ?????ng l???c ch??? y???u khi???n h??? ??? ????u c??ng lo l??m gi??u, kh??ng bao gi??? ch???u ngh??o kh???. Hai ngh??n n??m qua, d?? s???ng l??u vong ??n nh??? ??? ????? c??c qu???c gia kh??c v?? ??? ????u c??ng b??? c???m s??? h???u m???i t??i s???n c??? ?????nh nh??ng d??n t???c n??y v???n ngh?? ra nhi???u c??ch kinh doanh h???u hi???u b???ng c??c d???ch v??? nh?? bu??n b??n, d??nh d???m ti???n ????? cho vay l??i ???

Mu???n l??m gi??u, ??i???u c?? b???n l?? x?? h???i ph???i th???a nh???n quy???n t?? h???u t??i s???n.

Kinh Talmud vi???t: Ai n??i ???C???a t??i l?? c???a t??i, c???a anh l?? c???a anh??? (mine is mine and yours is yours) th?? l?? ng?????i b??nh th?????ng (average); n??i ???C???a t??i l?? c???a anh, c???a anh l?? c???a t??i??? th?? l?? k??? ngu ng???c; n??i ???C???a t??i l?? c???a anh v?? c???a anh l?? c???a anh??? th?? l?? ngoan ?????o (godly); ai n??i ???C???a anh l?? c???a t??i v?? c???a t??i l?? c???a t??i??? l?? k??? x???u (evil). Ngh??a l?? h??? th???a nh???n quy???n t?? h???u t??i s???n l?? ch??nh ????ng, kh??ng ai ???????c x??m ph???m t??i s???n c???a ng?????i kh??c.

Tuy th???a nh???n quy???n s??? h???u t??i s???n v?? lu???t ph??p b???o v??? quy???n ????, nh??ng ?????o Do Th??i kh??ng th???a nh???n quy???n s??? h???u t??i s???n tuy???t ?????i v?? v?? h???n, cho r???ng t???t c??? c???a c???i ?????u kh??ng thu???c v??? c?? nh??n m?? thu???c v??? Th?????ng ?????, m???i ng?????i ?????u ch??? l?? k??? qu???n l?? ho???c k??? ???????c ???y th??c c???a c???i ????. T??i nguy??n thi??n nhi??n do Th?????ng ????? t???o ra l?? ????? ban cho t???t c??? m???i ng?????i, kh??ng ai c?? quy???n coi l?? c???a ri??ng m??nh. ????y l?? m???t quan ni???m c???c k??? ti???n b??? v?? c?? gi?? tr??? hi???n th???c cho t???i ng??y nay: t??i nguy??n thi??n nhi??n, s??? gi??u c?? c???a ?????t n?????c l?? t??i s???n c???a to??n d??n, tuy???t ?????i kh??ng ???????c coi l?? c???a m???t s??? nh??m l???i ??ch ho???c c?? nh??n.

Kinh Talmud vi???t nhi???u quy t???c h???u d???ng v??? kinh doanh. Ch???ng h???n: ??? Vay m???t qu??? tr???ng, bi???n th??nh m???t tr???i ???p g??;  ??? M???t ti???n ch??? l?? m???t n???a ?????i ng?????i, m???t l??ng tin (t??n d???ng) l?? m???t t???t c???;  ??? Ngh??o th?? ????ng s??? h??n 50 lo???i tai n???n;  ??? Gi??p ng?????i th?? s??? l??m t??ng t??i s???n; ki bo ch??? l??m ngh??o ??i;  ??? Ch??? l???y ??i th??? g?? ???? tr??? ????? ti???n cho ng?????i ta;  ??? Bi???t ki???m ti???n th?? ph???i bi???t ti??u ti???n;  v.v???

So s??nh C???u ?????c v?? Talmud v???i T??n ?????c, c?? th??? th???y ?????o Do Th??i l?? t??n gi??o c???a ng?????i mu???n l??m gi??u, c??n ?????o Ki-t?? l?? t??n gi??o c???a ng?????i ngh??o. Kh??c bi???t c??n b???n ???y l?? m???t trong c??c l?? do khi???n Gi??o h???i Ki-t?? ng??y x??a khinh gh??t ng?????i Do Th??i (hy v???ng trong m???t d???p kh??c ch??ng t??i s??? tr??nh b??y v??? v???n ????? n??y).

T??? s??? ph??n t??ch s?? qua v??? quan ??i???m ?????i v???i t??i s???n v?? ti???n b???c n??i tr??n, c?? th??? th???y h??? th???ng t?? t?????ng c???a ?????o Do Th??i r???t ph?? h???p v???i quy lu???t ti???n h??a c???a nh??n lo???i v?? ch??nh v?? th??? n?? t???o d???ng n??n truy???n th???ng v??n h??a b???t h??? c???a d??n t???c Do Th??i ??? n???n m??ng v???ng ch???c l??m cho d??n t???c n??y d?? ph???i s???ng l??u vong kh??ng t??? qu???c h??ng ngh??n n??m nh??ng cu???i c??ng v???n l?? d??n t???c th??nh c??ng nh???t tr??n h???u h???t c??c ho???t ?????ng c???a lo??i ng?????i.

?????ng th???i c??c nguy??n l?? ch??nh c???a ?????o Do Th??i ???? t??c ?????ng kh??ng nh??? t???i gi??o l?? ?????o Ki-t?? v?? ?????o Islam; hai t??n gi??o l???n n??y ?????u c?? ngu???n g???c t??? ?????o Do Th??i.

Cu???i c??ng, nh??? c?? nh???ng ??i???m ?????c ????o n??i tr??n, v??n minh Do Th??i c???a ph????ng ????ng trong qu?? tr??nh giao l??u k???t h???p v???i v??n minh Hy-l???p c???a ph????ng T??y ???? sinh ra m???t n???n v??n minh m???i ??? v??n minh Ki-t?? gi??o, cu???i c??ng tr??? th??nh n???n v??n minh ph????ng T??y r???c r??? m???y ngh??n n??m nay. C?? l??? ????y l?? th??nh t???u ????ng k??? nh???t m?? n???n v??n minh Hebrew ???? ????ng g??p cho nh??n lo???i. ??i???u ????ng n??i l??, do c??c nguy??n nh??n l???ch s??? ph???c t???p, l??u nay ng?????i ta ???? coi nh??? n???n v??n minh ???y, v?? b??y gi??? ???? ?????n l??c lo??i ng?????i n??n xem l???i quan ??i???m n??y./.

Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh l?? d???ch gi??? v?? nh?? nghi??n c???u t??? do hi???n s???ng t???i H?? N???i.

Xem th??m: Gi???i m?? s??? th??nh c??ng c???a Israel v?? ng?????i Do Th??i

?????????????????????

[1] Theo The CIA World Factbook.

[2] Tham kh???o: http://www.wrmea.org/2013-october-november/congress-watch-a-conservative-estimate-of-total-u.s.-direct-aid-to-israel-more-than-$130-billion.html

[3] Theo http://www.timesofisrael.com/10-jews-in-forbes-top-50-billionaires/  March 3, 2015

[4] K. Marx l?? m???t trong hai l??nh t??? c???ng s???n ng?????i Do Th??i ph??? nh???n ngu???n g???c n??y c???a m??nh [ng?????i kia l?? Lev Davidovich Trotsky, t???c ?????? ?????????????????? ????????????????, 1879-1940, l??nh t??? ?????ng C???ng s???n B??n-s??-vich Nga]. Cha v?? m??? Marx ?????u l?? ng?????i Do Th??i. Cha ??ng c?? ngu???n g???c nhi???u ?????i l?? gi??o s?? Do th??i, v??? sau ???? c???i ?????o sang Tin L??nh v?? n???u kh??ng s??? kh??ng ???????c h??nh ngh??? lu???t s?? (??? n?????c Ph???).

[5] Theo http://vanhoanghean.com.vn/chuyen-muc-goc-nhin-van-hoa/nhung-goc-nhin-van-hoa/con-di-cua-nhan-loai-da-ngu-tri-trai-dat-ra-sao

[6] Theo http://nghiencuuquocte.net/2014/05/20/marx-chong-lai-chu-nghia-tu-ban-p1/
 

H???u qu??? t??? n???n cai tr??? b??? c?? nh??n h??a c???a Trung Qu???c

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Ngu???n: Carl Minzner, ???Is China authoritanism decaying into personalised rule????, East Asia Forum, 24/04/2016.

Bi??n d???ch: Tr???n V??n Th???ng | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Trung Qu???c ??ang tr???i qua m???t cu???c ????n ??p ch??nh tr??? trong n?????c k??o d??i nh???t k??? t??? sau s??? ki???n Qu???ng tr?????ng Thi??n An M??n. Nhi???u s??? quan t??m ???? ???????c d??nh cho t??nh tr???ng ????n ??p ng??y c??ng t??ng c???a nh?? n?????c nh???m v??o c??c lu???t s??, c??c nh?? b??o v?? c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng x?? h???i d??n s???. Tuy nhi??n, c??n c?? m???t m???i quan ng???i ri??ng bi???t v?? c?? b???n h??n.

C??c nguy??n t???c chuy??n ch??? c???a ch??? ????? v???n th???ng tr??? t??? bu???i ?????u c???a th???i k??? c???i c??ch hi???n ?????i ??ang d???n s???p ?????. B???t ch???p t???t c??? nh???ng v???n ????? li??n quan t???i h??? th???ng ch??? ngh??a chuy??n ch??? hi???n t???i c???a Trung Qu???c, nh???ng h???u qu??? th???m ch?? c??n t???i t??? h??n s??? n???i l??n khi nh???ng nguy??n t???c n??y phai nh???t.

K??? t??? khi T???p C???n B??nh l??n n???m quy???n n??m 2012, ???? c?? m???t d??ng quan ??i???m l???p lu???n r???ng ??ng T???p ??ang c???ng c??? h??? th???ng chuy??n ch??? hi???n c?? c???a Trung Qu???c. Nh???ng ng?????i trung th??nh v???i quan ??i???m n??y th???a nh???n r???ng ??ng T???p c???ng r???n. R???ng ??ng kh???c nghi???t. V?? r???ng ??ng ??ang ch?? ?????p l??n nh?? n?????c c??ng nh?? x?? h???i v???i m???t chi???n d???ch ch???ng tham nh??ng c???ng r???n v?? c??c bi???n ph??p ????n ??p ch??nh tr???. Tuy nhi??n, c??ng theo nh?? ph??n t??ch n??y, nh???ng th???i k??? kh?? kh??n ????i h???i m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o m???nh m???. H??? l???p lu???n r???ng ??ng T???p ??ang gi???i quy???t t??nh tr???ng y???u k??m v?? k??m hi???u qu??? nguy hi???m ?????c tr??ng cho ch??nh quy???n th???i k??? H??? C???m ????o. ??ng ??ang t???p trung h??a quy???n l???c. V?? ??ng ??ang x??y d???ng c??c th??? ch??? m???i ????? cai tr??? Trung Qu???c. ??????ng nhi??n, ????y s??? l?? nh???ng th??? ch??? mang t??nh phi t??? do cao ????? v?? mang t??nh chuy??n ch??? ng??y m???t gia t??ng.

C??c xu h?????ng nh?? v???y ???????c cho l?? ph???n ??nh m???t s??? ?????i m???i c???a nh?? n?????c chuy??n ch??? Trung Qu???c. Nh???ng l???p lu???n n??y kh??ng ph???i ho??n to??n v?? c??n c???. V?? d???, ?????i v???i b??? m??y k??? lu???t c???a ?????ng, ng?????i ta c?? th??? d???n ra nh???ng n??? l???c g???n ????y nh???m c???ng c??? quy???n l???c c???a c??c c?? quan k??? lu???t trung ????ng b???ng c??ch thi???t l???p c??c b??? ph???n gi??m s??t k??? lu???t ??? t???t c??? c??c c?? quan c???p trung ????ng c???a ?????ng v?? c??c doanh nghi???p nh?? n?????c, v?? vi???c t??ng c?????ng s??? ki???m so??t ?????i v???i c??c l??nh ?????o c?? quan gi??m s??t k??? lu???t c???p t???nh, l?? d???u hi???u cho th???y ??ng T???p ??ang th??c ?????y c??c t??? ch???c chuy??n ch??? c???a Trung Qu???c. ?????i v???i ng??nh t?? ph??p ??? Trung Qu???c, ng?????i ta c?? th??? ch??? ra nh???ng n??? l???c g???n ????y nh???m th??nh l???p c??c t??a l??u ?????ng c???a T??a ??n Nh??n d??n T???i cao ??? nh???ng th??nh ph??? trung t??m khu v???c nh?? Th??m Quy???n v?? Th???m D????ng, v?? trao cho c??c t??a ??n c???p t???nh quy???n ki???m so??t ?????i v???i ng??n s??ch v?? c??c quy???t ?????nh nh??n s??? c???a c??c t??a ??n ?????a ph????ng.

Ng?????i ta c?? th??? l???p lu???n r???ng nh???ng di???n ti???n n??y ph???n ??nh s??? ti???n h??a c???a h??? th???ng qu???n tr??? Trung Qu???c sang m???t n???n chuy??n ch??? t???p trung h??n v?? th??? ch??? h??a h??n. Tuy nhi??n, ??i???u n??y c?? l??? kh??ng ????ng. Qu??? ?????o m???i c???a n???n qu???n tr??? Trung Qu???c v??? c?? b???n ???? thay ?????i, ?????i di???n cho m???t s??? ph?? v??? c??c th??ng l??? sau n??m 1978.

Nhi???u xu h?????ng t???p trung h??a c???a Trung Qu???c kh??ng th???c s??? li??n quan t???i vi???c x??y d???ng th??? ch???. Thay v??o ????, ch??ng h?????ng v??o n???m gi??? quy???n ki???m so??t c??c b??? m??y quan li??u nh???m th???c hi???n nguy??n t???c l??nh ?????o c?? nh??n h??a. Vi???c t???p trung quy???n l???c v??o tay c???a m???t c?? nh??n duy nh???t kh??ng n??n b??? nh???m l???n v???i vi???c th??? ch??? h??a n???n cai tr??? chuy??n ch???.

An ninh trong n?????c l?? m???t v?? d???. ???y ban An ninh Qu???c gia m???i kh??ng tr???c ti???p ch???u tr??ch nhi???m ?????i v???i c??c t??? ch???c ?????ng hi???n c??, nh?? ???y ban Th?????ng v??? B??? Ch??nh tr???, m?? ch???u tr??ch nhi???m tr???c ti???p tr?????c ??ng T???p th??ng qua M???nh Ki???n Tr??? (Meng Jianzhu). K??? t??? n??m 2012, vi???c ki???m so??t b??? m??y ki???m tra k??? lu???t c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c ???? ???????c t???p trung h??a t????ng t??? v??o tay T???p C???n B??nh v?? V????ng K??? S??n.

C??c t??? ch???c n??y c??ng ??ang ???????c ??i???u h??nh theo c??c ?????nh h?????ng m???i. Trong su???t nh???ng n??m 1990 v?? ?????u nh???ng n??m 2000, c??c c?? quan k??? lu???t c???a ?????ng d???n ???????c chuy??n nghi???p h??a, t???p trung v??o c??ng t??c ch???ng tham nh??ng h??n l?? ch???n ch???nh c??c sai ph???m ch??nh tr???. K??? t??? n??m 2012, xu h?????ng n??y ???? b??? ?????o ng?????c, v???i vi???c ki???m tra k??? lu???t ng??y c??ng ???????c s??? d???ng ????? ch???ng l???i kh??ng ch??? tham nh??ng, m?? c??n l?? s??? l?????i bi???ng ch???m tr???, kh??ng h??nh ?????ng, kh??ng trung th??nh v???i l??nh ?????o t???i cao v?? vi???c ????a ra nh???ng b??nh lu???n ho???c c??c quan ??i???m ch??nh tr??? kh??ng ph?? h???p. ??i???u n??y ?????i di???n cho m???t s??? tho??i lui kh???i ch??? kh??ng ph???i ti???n t???i n???n qu???n tr??? ???????c th??? ch??? h??a.

Trung Qu???c c??ng ??ang ?????ng th???i ch???ng ki???n s??? s???p ????? c???a c??c th??ng l??? ch??nh tr??? c???a gi???i tinh hoa ???????c th??? ch??? h??a m???t ph???n trong th???i k??? c???i c??ch. V?? d???, v??? thanh tr???ng c???u tr??m an ninh Chu V??nh Khang l?? m???t s??? vi ph???m r?? r??ng c??c chu???n m???c ng???m cho ph??p mi???n truy t??? c??c ???y vi??n Th?????ng v??? B??? Ch??nh tr??? ??????ng ch???c hay ???? ngh??? h??u. C??c tin ?????n hi???n xo??y v??o c??c chu???n m???c v??? tu???i t??c v?? gi???i h???n nhi???m k??? v???n c?? kh??? n??ng b??? ph?? v??? ????? cho ph??p ??ng V????ng ho???c ??ng T???p ???????c t???i v??? l??u h??n, v?? ??i???u n??y cho th???y c??c chu???n m???c kh??c c??ng c?? kh??? n??ng s??? b??? ph?? v???. Wily Lam, nh?? quan s??t Trung Qu???c k??? c???u ph??t bi???u tr??n m???t b??i b??o g???n ????y r???ng ??i???u n??y s??? ???t???o n??n m???t c?? gi??ng m???nh v??o c??c c???i c??ch th??? ch??? m?? ?????ng Ti???u B??nh ???? ????? ra nh???m ng??n ch???n s??? quay tr??? l???i c???a c??c chu???n m???c th???i Mao Tr???ch ????ng???.

C??c c?? ch??? th???c t??? m?? th??ng qua ???? nh?? n?????c trung ????ng d??ng ????? n???m quy???n c??ng ??ang d???n ng??? v??? ph??a c??c k??nh phi th??? ch??? h??a. M???t l???n n???a, c??c c?? ch??? n??y ?????i di???n cho m???t s??? ph?? v??? c??c th??ng l??? sau n??m 1978, bao g???m: Vi???c nu??i d?????ng s??? s??ng b??i c?? nh??n v???a ch???m n??? xung quanh ??ng T???p v?? m???t s??? thay ?????i v??? ?? th???c h??? m???t c??ch v???ng ch???c t??? vi???c ???ng h??? ngu???n g???c c??ch m???ng x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a c???a ?????ng sang ???ng h??? ???Gi???c m???ng Trung Hoa???, s??? h???i sinh c???a ?? th???c h??? d??n t???c ??? qu???c gia ch??? ngh??a g???n li???n v???i l???ch s???, truy???n th???ng phong ki???n v?? ?????o Kh???ng, v?? s??? h???i sinh c???a c??c chi???n l?????c ???Cai tr??? b???ng s??? s??? h??i??? th???i k??? Mao Tr???ch ????ng bao g???m c??c l???i th?? t???i tr??n truy???n h??nh v?? nh???ng s??? m???t t??ch kh??ng ???????c th??ng b??o tr?????c c???a c??c quan ch???c nh?? n?????c c??ng nh?? c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng x?? h???i d??n s???.

N???i s??? h??i, truy???n th???ng v?? s??? h???p d???n c?? nh??n kh??ng ????ng g??p cho m???t n???n qu???n tr??? d???a tr??n th??? ch???. Max Weber ???? ch??? ra r???ng ch??ng th???c ra ??i ng?????c l???i s??? cai tr??? ???????c th??? ch??? h??a v?? d???a v??o b??? m??y quan li??u.

Nh???ng n??? l???c c???a nh?? n?????c trong k??? nguy??n c???i c??ch nh???m x??y d???ng c??c h??? th???ng qu???n tr??? ???????c th??? ch??? h??a cao h??n ??ang d???n b??? x??i m??n. S??? th???t b???i c???a B???c Kinh trong vi???c l??m s??u s???c th??m c??c c???i c??ch ch??nh tr??? khi c??c gi???i ch???c ?????ng c?? c?? h???i ????? l??m ??i???u ???? hi???n ??ang khi???n ?????ng ??i t???i ch??? h???y ho???i ch??nh m??nh.

Carl Minzner l?? Gi??o s?? Lu???t t???i ?????i h???c Lu???t Fordham.

Xem th??m:

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