L???ch s??? Vi???t Nam th???i t??? ch???: L?? Th??i T??? kh???i nghi???p

Thứ bảy - 24/08/2019 21:39
L???ch s??? l?? b??? m??n khoa h???c x?? h???i, thi???t t?????ng n??n d??ng khoa h???c ????? l?? gi???i. D?????i th???i L?? Long ????nh t??n ??c, v?? ?????o, d??n s???ng trong c???nh d???u s??i l???a b???ng. Nh??n v??o n??m 1009 Long ????nh m???t, ?????t n?????c c???n m???t v??? l??nh ?????o s??ng su???t ?????c ?????, gi???ng nh?? c???nh tr???i h???n h??n c???u m??a. B???y gi??? L?? C??ng U???n [t??n h??y Vua L?? Th??i T???] l?? v??? quan n???i ti???ng trung tr???c, t???ng c??? gan ??m x??c vua c?? l?? Trung T??ng kh??c, khi vua b??? h??nh th??ch;
L???ch s??? Vi???t Nam th???i t??? ch???: L?? Th??i T??? kh???i nghi???p

L???ch s??? Vi???t Nam th???i t??? ch???: L?? Th??i T??? kh???i nghi???p

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T??c gi???: H??? B???ch Th???o

Ni??n hi???u: Thu???n Thi??n:1010-1027      

G???t ra ngo??i nh???ng l???i s???m k?? v??? vi???c vua L?? Th??i T??? thay h??? L?? l??n ng??i:

???Th??? c??n di???u di???u,/  M???c bi???u thanh thanh./ H??a ??ao m???c l???c, / Th???p t??? th??nh???..???

(G???c r??? n?????c Nam s??u s??u th???m; /C??nh l?? xanh t???t;/ C??y L??  [??? = chi???t t???: h??a???+??ao???+m???c???]  r??i ?????; / Ch???i L?? [???= th???p ???+b??t???+t??? ???] m???c l??n???.???)

?? ch??? m???nh tr???i ????? vua L?? Th??i T??? l??n ng??i.

L???ch s??? l?? b??? m??n khoa h???c x?? h???i, thi???t t?????ng n??n d??ng khoa h???c ????? l?? gi???i. D?????i th???i L?? Long ????nh t??n ??c, v?? ?????o, d??n s???ng trong c???nh d???u s??i l???a b???ng. Nh??n v??o n??m 1009 Long ????nh m???t, ?????t n?????c c???n m???t v??? l??nh ?????o s??ng su???t ?????c ?????, gi???ng nh?? c???nh tr???i h???n h??n c???u m??a. B???y gi??? L?? C??ng U???n [t??n h??y Vua L?? Th??i T???] l?? v??? quan n???i ti???ng trung tr???c, t???ng c??? gan ??m x??c vua c?? l?? Trung T??ng kh??c, khi vua b??? h??nh th??ch; l???i ??????ng ch???c ??i???n ti???n ch??? huy s??? s???n quy???n l???c trong tay; n??n ng?????i ng?????i ?????u mong ??ng l??n ng??i. M???t vi??n quan ?????ng li??u l?? ????o Cam M???c khuy???n kh??ch L?? C??ng U???n r???ng:

???G???n ????y ch??a th?????ng [L?? Long ????nh] ngu t???i b???o ng?????c, l??m nhi???u vi???c b???t ngh??a, tr???i ch??n gh??t n??n kh??ng cho h???t th???, con n???i d??i th?? ???u, kh??ng kham n???i nhi???u kh?? kh??n. M???i vi???c phi???n nhi???u, th???n linh kh??ng ??a, d??n ch??ng nhao nh??c, mong t??m ch??n ch??a. Sao Th??n v??? [L?? C??ng U???n] kh??ng nh??n l??c n??y ngh?? ra m??u cao, quy???t ??o??n s??ng su???t, xa xem d???u c?? c???a Thang, V??; g???n xem vi???c l??m c???a ??inh, L??, tr??n thu???n l??ng tr???i, d?????i theo ?? d??n, m?? c??? mu???n kh?? kh?? gi??? ti???u ti???t l??m g??!???[1]

C??ng U???n c??n ch???n ch???, Cam M???c l???i b??n th??m:

???Th??n V??? l?? ng?????i khoan th???, nh??n t???, l??ng ng?????i ch???u theo. Hi???n nay tr??m h??? m???i m???t ki???t qu???, d??n kh??ng ch???u n???i, Th??n v??? n??n nh??n ???? l???y ??n ?????c m?? v??? v???, th?? ng?????i ta t???t x?? nhau k??o v??? nh?? n?????c ch???y ch??? th???p, c?? ai ng??n ???????c!???.

Cam M???c bi???t vi???c c???n k??p, s??? sinh bi???n, m???i n??i chuy???n v???i khanh s?? v?? c??c quan, ai c??ng vui theo. Ngay ng??y h??m ???y, ??i???u h???p c??? ??? trong tri???u, b??n r???ng:

??? Hi???n nay, d??n ch??ng ???c tri???u kh??c l??ng, tr??n d?????i l??a b???, m???i ng?????i ch??n gh??t ti??n ????? h?? kh???c b???o ng?????c, kh??ng mu???n theo v??? vua n???i ng??i, m?? ?????u c?? l??ng suy t??n quan Th??n v???, b???n ta kh??ng nh??n l??c n??y c??ng nhau s??ch l???p Th??n v??? l??m thi??n t???, l??? b???i r???i c?? x???y ra tai bi???n g??, li???u ch??ng ta c?? gi??? ???????c c??i ?????u hay kh??ng????.

Th??? r???i c??ng nhau d??u C??ng U???n l??n ch??nh ??i???n, l???p l??m Thi??n t???, l??n ng??i Ho??ng ?????. Tr??m quan ?????u l???y r???p d?????i s??n, trong ngo??i ?????u h?? ???v???n tu??????, vang d???y c??? trong tri???u.??? To??n Th??, B???n K???, quy???n 2.

Ri??ng c??c b??? s??? Trung Qu???c[2] ?????u ch??p th??m r???ng sau khi L?? Long ????nh m???t, 2 ng?????i em l?? Minh ?????, Minh X?????ng d??ng binh tranh ng??i, b??? ?????i hi???u L?? C??ng U???n gi???t; r???i l??n ng??i; nh??ng Vua T???ng b??? qua, v???n ti???p t???c phong t?????c cho C??ng U???n; n???i dung xin tr??ch d???n qua hai v??n b???n d?????i ????y:

???Tr?????ng Bi??n, quy???n 73. N??m ?????i Trung T?????ng Ph?? th??? 3 [1010]

Th??ng 2, Chuy???n v???n s??? Qu???ng T??y H?? L?????ng t??u:

???L?? Ch?? Trung Giao Ch??u, cai tr??? h?? ng?????c kh??ng theo ph??p t???c, n??n l??ng d??n chia l??a. L??c m???t con trai m???i 10 tu???i; em l?? Minh ?????, Minh S?????ng d??ng binh tranh ng??i; ?????i hi???u L?? C??ng U???n ?????c su???t d??n trong n?????c ????nh ??u???i v?? gi???t ???????c. C??ng U???n tu???i m???i 26, l?? ng?????i th??n c???n c???a Ch?? Trung, Trung t???ng ???????c l???nh ?????i sang h??? L??; nay t??? l??nh vi???c ch??u, x??ng l?? An Nam T??nh h???i qu??n quy???n l??u h???u. L???i g???i v??n th?? xin mang s???n v???t ?????a ph????ng ph???ng c???ng, xin gi??ng ch??? m???nh.???

Thi??n t??? ban:

??? Ch?? Trung b???t ngh??a m?? ???????c n?????c, C??ng U???n l???i b???t ch?????c theo, c??ng ????ng gh??t.???

R???i b???o L?????ng v??? v??? y??n d??n bi??n gi???i, quan s??t s??? vi???c b??o l??n. Tr?????c ???? Ch?? Trung [L?? Long ????nh] sai S??? ph???ng c???ng c??n t???i kinh s??, Thi??n t??? ra l???nh ??em th???c tr???ng b??o cho bi???t, n???u mu???n v??? c??ng ch???p thu???n; S??? gi??? nghe tin ch??? bi???t che m???t kh??c.???[3]

 ???Tr?????ng Bi??n, quy???n 73. Th??ng 3, N??m ?????i Trung T?????ng Ph?? th??? 3 [1010] L?? C??ng U???n sai S??? ?????n c???ng. Thi??n t??? cho r???ng man di kh??ng ????ng ????? tr??ch c???; theo l??? c?? L?? Ho??n ban cho C??ng U???n T??nh H???i ti???t ????? s???, phong Giao Ch??? qu???n v????ng, ban  y ph???c d??y ??ai, ti???n v?? kh?? v???t.???[4]

V???a m???i l??n ng??i, vua th???y kinh ???? c?? th??nh Hoa L?? t???i Ninh B??nh ch???t h???p, b??n  cho d???i ???? ?????n th??nh ?????i La, r???i ?????i t??n l?? Th??ng Long, t???c  H?? N???i hi???n nay. ????y l?? vi???c l??m s??ng su???t, v?? H?? N???i l?? trung t??m giao l??u c???a c??? n?????c; su???t m???t ng??n n??m, ngo???i tr??? tri???u Nguy???n, c??c tri???u ?????i kh??c ?????u ch???n n??i n??y l??m kinh ????. T???ng ???????c t???n m???t xem c??c v???t li???u kh???o c??? d?????i ch??n th??nh Th??ng Long; th???y c??c ?????i L??, Tr???n, L??, Nguy???n, Ph??p thu???c, c?? nh???ng ki???n tr??c, v???t li???u ?????c th??; c?? th??? n??i ch??n th??nh Th??ng Long l?? m???t b??? s??? v???t th???, g??p ph???n ki???m ch???ng v?? cung c???p t?? li???u cho l???ch s??? n?????c nh??. Qua Chi???u ch??? d???i ????, Vua L?? Th??i T??? c?? nh???ng l???i ti??n tri nh?? sau:

???Hu???ng chi th??nh ?????i La, ???? c?? c???a Cao V????ng,[5] ??? gi???a khu v???c tr???i ?????t, ???????c th??? r???ng cu???n h??? ng???i, ch??nh gi???a nam b???c ????ng t??y, ti???n nghi n??i s??ng sau tr?????c. V??ng n??y m???t ?????t r???ng m?? b???ng ph???ng, th??? ?????t cao m?? s??ng s???a, d??n c?? kh??ng kh??? th???p tr??ng t???i t??m, mu??n v???t h???t s???c t????i t???t ph???n th???nh. Xem kh???p n?????c Vi???t ???? l?? n??i th???ng ?????a, th???c l?? ch??? t??? h???i quan y???u c???a b???n ph????ng, ????ng l?? n??i th?????ng ???? kinh s?? m??i mu??n ?????i. Tr???m mu???n nh??n ?????a l???i ???y m?? ?????nh n??i ???, c??c khanh ngh?? th??? n??o???? To??n Th??, Ch??nh Bi??n, quy???n 2.

S??ch Vi???t S??? L?????c [?????????] m?? t??? th??nh Th??ng Long th???i L?? nh?? sau:

???Trong kinh th??nh Th??ng Long x??y ??i???n Tri???u Nguy??n, b??n tr??i ??i???n T???p Hi???n, b??n ph???i ??i???n Gi???ng V??; ph??a tr??i m??? c???a Long M??n, ph??a ph???i m??? c???a ??an Ph?????ng. Ch??nh d????ng x??y Cao ??i???n, giai g???i l?? Long Tr??, quanh co h???i chuy???n, b???n ph??a trang ho??ng. Sau ??i???n C??n Nguy??n x??y 2 ??i???n Long An, Long Th???y; b??n tr??i x??y ??i???n Nh???t Quang, b??n ph???i Nguy???t Minh, ph??a sau c?? cung Th??y Hoa. B???n ph??a th??nh x??y 4 c???a, ph??a ????ng l?? c???a T?????ng Ph??, ph??a t??y Qu???ng Ph??c, nam ?????i H??ng, b???c Di???u ?????c; t???i th??nh n???i l???i x??y ch??a H??ng Thi??n, l???u Ng?? Ph?????ng Tinh, h?????ng nam [ly ph????ng] th??nh, l???p ch??a Th???ng Nghi??m.???[6] Vi???t S??? L?????c, quy???n trung.

Nh?? Vua l???i b???t tay lo ch???n ch???nh qu??n ?????i, r???i mang qu??n ??i d???p d??n t???c thi???u s??? m??n C??? Long,[7] n???i d???y t???i huy???n C???m Th???y, Thanh H??a. Lo???n C??? Long d???y l??n t??? th???i ??inh, Ti???n L??; n??m 1001 Vua L?? ?????i H??nh mang qu??n ??i ????nh, tuy c?? th???ng l???i nh??ng vua c?? ??inh To??n t??? tr???n t???i ????y; ?????n nay vua L?? Th??i T??? m???i d???p ???????c:

???Thu???n Thi??n n??m th??? 2 [1011]. M??a xu??n, th??ng gi??ng, ?????t qu??n t??? h???u t??c xa,[8] m???i ?????i ?????u 500 ng?????i. Th??ng hai, vua th???y gi???c C??? Long ??? ??i Ch??u hung h??ng d??? t???n, tr???i hai tri???u ??inh, L?? kh??ng ????nh n???i, ?????n nay c??ng d???, m???i ??em s??u qu??n ??i ????nh, ?????t b??? l???c, b???t k??? ?????u s??? ??em v???, gi???c ???y b??n tan.??? To??n Th??, B???n K???, quy???n 2.

B???y gi??? v??ng Thanh Ngh???, n??i Chi??m Th??nh t???ng ra v??o c?????p ph?? n??n l??ng ng?????i ch??a ???n ?????nh, m???i lo???n th?????ng n???i l??n, khi???n ph???i mang qu??n ??i ????nh d???p; nh??ng Vua t??? ra th??nh kh???n, t???ng th???p h????ng c??o v???i tr???i ?????t, coi ???? l?? vi???c b???t ?????c d??:

???Th??ng ch???p n??m Thu???n Thi??n th??? 3 [1012] Vua th??n ??i ????nh Di???n Ch??u. Khi v??? ?????n V??ng Bi???n[9] g???p l??c tr???i ?????t t???i s???m, gi?? s???m d??? d???i, vua ?????t h????ng kh???n tr???i r???ng:

???T??i l?? ng?????i ??t ?????c, l???m ??? tr??n d??n, n??m n???p lo s??? nh?? s???p sa xu???ng v???c s??u, kh??ng d??m c???y binh uy m?? ??i ????nh d???p c??n b???y. Ch??? v?? ng?????i Di???n Ch??u kh??ng theo gi??o h??a, ngu b???o l??m c??n, t??n ng?????c ch??ng d??n, t???i ??c ch???ng ch???t, ?????n nay kh??ng th??? dung tha kh??ng ????nh. C??n nh?? trong khi ????nh nhau, ho???c gi???t oan k??? trung hi???u, ho???c h???i l???m k??? hi???n l????ng, ?????n n???i ho??ng thi??n n???i gi???n ph???i t??? cho bi???t l???i l???m, d???u g???p t???n h???i c??ng kh??ng d??m o??n tr??ch. ?????n nh?? s??u qu??n[10] th?? t???i l???i c?? th??? dung th???, xin l??ng tr???i soi x??t???.

Kh???n xong, gi?? s???m ?????u y??n l???ng.???To??n Th??, B???n k???, quy???n 2.

L??c cu???i ?????i, Vua L?? Th??i T??? l???i ph???i sai thu???c h??? ??i ????nh gi???c t???i Di???n Ch??u m???t l???n n???a:

???N??m Thu???n Thi??n] th??? 17 [1026], xu???ng chi???u cho Khai Thi??n V????ng ??i ????nh gi???c ??? Di???n Ch??u.??? To??n Th??, B???n K???, quy???n 2.

V??? ph??a t??y b???c c?? lo???n t???i Phong Ch??u [V??nh Ph??c], ???? Kim;[11] nh?? Vua b??n sai Th??i t??? Ph???t M??, Khai qu???c B??? ??i ????nh d???p:

???M??a xu??n n??m Thu???n Thi??n th??? 15 [1024]; xu???ng chi???u cho Khai Thi??n V????ng [Ph???t M??] ??i ????nh Phong Ch??u, Khai Qu???c V????ng [B???] ??i ????nh ch??u ???? Kim.??? To??n Th??, B???n K???, quy???n 2.

M???t v??? ph???n lo???n kh??c x???y ra t???i th?????ng ngu???n s??ng L??, nay thu???c t???nh Tuy??n Quang, do n?????c Nam Chi???u t???i V??n Nam y???m tr???. Nguy??n do ng?????i Man Nam Chi???u th?????ng x??m nh???p v??o n?????c ta bu??n l???u ng???a, b??? nh?? Vua sai ng?????i ?????n b???t:

???N??m Thu???n Thi??n th??? 3 [1012]; n??m ???y ng?????i Man sang qu?? c???t ?????ng, ?????n b???n Kim Hoa v?? ch??u V??? Long [huy???n Chi??m H??a, Tuy??n Quang] ????? bu??n b??n. Vua sai ng?????i b???t ???????c ng?????i Man v?? h??n 1 v???n con ng???a.??? To??n Th??, B???n K???, quy???n 2.

N??m sau, vi??n T?? tr?????ng ?????a ph????ng l?? H?? ??n Tu???n n???i l??n l??m ph???n, khi???n nh?? Vua ph???i th??n chinh ??i ????nh:

??? N??m Thu???n Thi??n th??? 4 [1013]; m??a ????ng, th??ng 10, ch??u V??? Long l??m ph???n, h??a theo ng?????i Man [Nam Chi???u]. Vua th??n ??i ????nh. Th??? l??nh l?? H?? ??n Tu???n s???, ??em ????? ?????ng tr???n v??o r???ng n??i.??? To??n Th??, B???n K???, quy???n 2.

Lo???n n??y ch??a d???p xong, l???i ti???p n??m sau Nam Chi???u mang ?????i qu??n t??? V??n Nam v?????t bi??n gi???i sang c?????p ph?? n?????c ta, nh???m c???u k???t v???i d?? ?????ng H?? ??n Tu???n, Vua sai D???c Th??nh V????ng mang qu??n ????nh, ch??m ?????u ?????n h??ng v???n; sau khi chi???n th???ng ??em h??ng tr??m con ng???a sang bi???u nh?? T???ng, khi???n vua T???ng r???t n??? tr???ng:

??? N??m Thu???n Thi??n th??? 5 [1014]. M??a xu??n, th??ng Gi??ng, t?????ng c???a ng?????i Man l?? D????ng Tr?????ng Hu??? v?? ??o??n K??nh Ch?? ??em 20 v???n ng?????i Man v??o c?????p, ????ng ?????n ??? b???n Kim Hoa, d??n qu??n ????ng tr???i g???i l?? tr???i Ng?? Hoa. Ch??u m???c ch??u B??nh L??m[12] l?? Ho??ng ??n Vinh ??em vi???c t??u l??n. Vua sai D???c Th??nh V????ng ??em qu??n ??i ????nh, ch??m ?????u k??? h??ng v???n, b???t s???ng ???????c qu??n l??nh v?? ng???a kh??ng k??? xi???t. Xu???ng chi???u cho vi??n ngo???i lang l?? Ph??ng Ch??n v?? L?? Th???c ??em m???t tr??m con ng???a b???t ???????c c???a ng?????i Man sang bi???u nh?? T???ng. Vua T???ng xu???ng chi???u cho quan s??? t???i sai s??? th???n ????n ti???p, c??ng ??i ?????n c???a khuy???t, m???i kho???n cung ?????n d???c ???????ng ?????u ???????c chu c???p ?????y ?????. Khi ?????n, vua T???ng g???i b???n Ch??n v??o ra m???t ??? ??i???n S??ng ?????c, ban cho m??, ??ai, ????? d??ng, ti???n b???c theo th??? b???c kh??c nhauTo??n Th??, B???n K???, quy???n 2.

S??? Trung Qu???c x??c nh???n vi???c n??y, cho bi???t s??? l?????ng qu??n Nam Chi???u b??? gi???t ?????n v??i v???n ng?????i,  v??n b???n ghi chi???n tr?????ng x???y ra t???i ch??u Ph????ng L??m, ch???c l?? ch??u B??nh L??m ???? n??u trong s??? Vi???t:

???Tr?????ng Bi??n, quy???n 83. N??m ?????i Trung T?????ng Ph?? th??? 7 [1014].Ng??y T??n S???u th??ng 7 [15/8/1014], L?? C??ng U???n Giao Ch??u ????nh b???i man H???c Ch?? [Nam Chi???u, V??n Nam] t???i ch??u Ph????ng L??m; ch??m v??i v???n, b???t ???????c ch??? huy D????ng Tr????ng Hu???. C??ng U???n sai S??? c???ng s???n v???t ?????a ph????ng c??ng b??o tin chi???n th???ng.???[13]

Tri???u ????nh T???ng r???t n??? tr???ng chi???n th???ng n??y, v?? d??n t???c Nam Chi???u  tr?????c khi b??? qu??n Nguy??n th??n t??nh l???p th??nh t???nh V??n Nam l?? m???i lo h??ng ng??n n??m c???a Trung Qu???c. H??y nghi??n c???u th??m s??? Trung Qu???c ????? hi???u t???m quan tr???ng c???a chi???n th???ng:

D?????i th???i Tam Qu???c, Gia C??t L?????ng ch??? tr????ng b???c ph???t d???p T??o Ng???y; nh??ng ch??? lo qu??n Nam Chi???u d?????i quy???n M???nh Ho???ch ????nh v??ng h???u ph????ng T??? Xuy??n t???i ph??a sau l??ng, khi???n kh??ng c?? ???????ng tr??? v???. N??n d???ng c??ng ????nh M???nh Ho???ch 7 l???n, tha 7 l???n [th???t c???m, th???t t??ng];[14] khi???n M???nh Ho???ch ho??n to??n tin ph???c, r???i m???i c???t qu??n l??n ph????ng b???c:          

???T?? Tr??? Th??ng Gi??m, quy???n 70. Ng???y V??n Ho??ng ????? n??m Ho??ng S?? th??? 6 [225]

Th??ng 7 [8/225], Gia C??t L?????ng nh?? H??n mang qu??n ?????n Nam Trung, chi???n th???ng n??i n??y, r???i ti???n v??o Vi???t Tuy???n [T??y X????ng th???, T??? Xuy??n] ch??m Ung Kh???i v?? Cao ?????nh; sai L?? Kh??i, ng?????i ?????n h??ng ?????c ??ch Ch??u, t??? ??ch Ch??u [Th??nh ????, T??? Xuy??n] v??o; M??n h??? ?????c Ba T??y M?? Trung t??? T?????ng Kha [Qu?? D????ng th???, Qu?? Ch??u] v??o; ????nh ph?? c??c huy???n, c??ng v???i qu??n L?????ng h???p l???i. M???nh Ho???ch thu qu??n c??n l???i c???a Kh???i, nh???m ch???ng l???i L?????ng. Ho???ch v???n l?? d??n Di, b??? qu??n H??n b???t s???ng, L?????ng cho xem qu??n doanh b??? tr??, r???i h???i:

???Qu??n ta b??? tr?? ra sao.???

Ho???ch n??i:

???Tr?????c ????y kh??ng bi???t r?? h?? th???c n??n thua, nay ???????c xem qu??n b??? tr??, n???u ch??? c?? v???y th??i, th?? nh???t ?????nh d??? th???ng!???

L?????ng c?????i, th??? ra r???i ????nh ti???p; 7 l???n tha, 7 l???n b???t; cu???i c??ng Ho???ch d???ng l???i kh??ng ??i n???a, n??i r???ng:

?????ng c?? uy tr???i, ng?????i ph????ng nam kh??ng d??m ph???n n???a.???

L?????ng b??n mang qu??n t???i ??i???n Tr?? [h??? C??n Minh, V??n Nam].

B???n qu???n ??ch Ch??u, V??nh X????ng, T?????ng Kha, Vi???t Tuy???n ?????u ???????c b??nh ?????nh; L?????ng ?????t nh???ng c??? so??i ?????a ph????ng coi s??c. C?? k??? can gi??n vi???c n??y; L?????ng n??i:

???N???u d??ng t?????ng so??i ngo??i d??n ?????a ph????ng th?? ph???i l??u binh gi???; binh ????ng kh??ng c?? g?? ??n, ???? l?? ??i???u kh?? th??? nh???t. H??n n???a d??n di m???i b??? ????nh ph??, cha anh b??? gi???t; d??ng ng?????i ngo??i d??n ?????a ph????ng m?? kh??ng l??u binh ???t s??? g??y h???a ho???n, ???? l?? ??i???u kh?? th??? hai. Di m???y l???n b??? ????nh gi???t, s??? hi???m th?? c??n n???ng, n???u ????? ng?????i ngo??i cai tr???, s??? kh??ng tin nhau, ???? l?? ??i???u kh?? th??? ba. Nay ta ch???n kh??ng l??u binh, kh??ng v???n l????ng; k??? c????ng c?? th???  ?????i kh??i ?????nh, Di H??n c?? th??? ?????i kh??i y??n.???

L?????ng b??n d??ng nh???ng ng?????i gi???i c???a M???nh Ho???ch cho l??m quan d?????i quy???n; ??em ti???n b???c, s??n, thu???c cao ????n, tr??u c??y, ng???a chi???n cho d??n t???c n??y d??ng; t??? ???? su???t ?????i L?????ng d??n Di kh??ng ph???n n???a.???[15]

?????i ???????ng ph???i b??? ra r???t nhi???u ti???n b???c, ????? nu??i d???y h??ng ng??n con em ng?????i Nam Chi???u ?????n h???c nh?? du h???c sinh ng??y nay; ?????n l??c qu?? t???n k??m cung ?????n kh??ng xu???, th?? Nam Chi???u sinh ra o??n gi???n l??m lo???n:

???T?? Tr??? Th??ng Gi??m, quy???n 249, th??ng 12 ???????ng Tuy??n T??ng n??m ?????i Trung th??? 13 [859]. Tr?????c ????y H??n Cao t???i T??y Xuy??n [T??? Xuy??n], m??? ???????ng t???i Thanh Kh?? ????? th??ng v???i c??c man, khi???n s??? Do ?????c v??o c???ng. L???i ch???n con ch??u c??c man, t??? t???p t???i Th??nh ????, d???y cho th?? s???;[16] nh???m an ???i ky my. Khi h???c xong th?? v???, l???i cho ????m kh??c ?????n h???c, ti???p t???c nh?? v???y ?????n 50 n??m. Con ch??u ????? t??? c??c man h???c t???i Th??nh ???? c?? ?????n h??ng ng??n; quan ph??? ch??n n???n v??? vi???c cung c???p. L???i th??m vi???c man S??? v??o c???ng, ???????c h?????ng l???i ban cho, n??n s??? ng?????i ?????n c??ng ????ng. ????? T??ng l??m Ti???t ????? s??? T??y Xuy??n, t??u xin ti???t gi???m s??? l?????ng, nh???n ???????c chi???u ch???p thu???n. Phong H???u vua Nam Chi???u gi???n, sai S??? gi??? H??? ????ng v??o c???ng, ????a bi???u v??n t???i Tuy???n Ch??u r???i tr??? v???. L???i y??u c???u cho con em ???????c h???c t???p, g???i bi???u v??n l???i l??? kh??ng t??? t???n; t??? ???? v??o c???ng kh??ng ?????nh k???, m???y l???n qu???y nhi???u bi??n gi???i. V??o l??c vua Tuy??n T??ng m???t, sai Trung s??? c??o ai; l??c b???y gi??? Phong H???u Nam Chi???u m???i m???t, con l?? T?? Long l??n thay, y gi???n b???o r???ng:

???N?????c ta c??ng c?? tang, tri???u ????nh sao kh??ng ?????n ??i???u t???; l???i ch??? g???i chi???u th?? cho V????ng ???? m???t.???

R???i cho S??? gi??? ??? qu??n ngo??i, l??? nghi r???t b???c b???o; S??? gi??? v???, t??u r?? t??nh tr???ng. Vua cho r???ng T?? Long kh??ng sai S??? ?????n c??o tang, t??n y l???i g???n tr??ng t??n h??y c???a vua Huy???n T??ng, n??n kh??ng thi h??nh l??? s??ch phong. T?? Long b??n t??? x??ng Ho??ng ?????, qu???c hi???u ?????i L???, c???i ni??n hi???u Ki???n C???c, sai qu??n ????nh B?? Ch??u[17].???[18]

Th???i cu???i ???????ng qu??n Nam Chi???u t???ng ????nh chi???m An Nam ???? h??? ph???, b??n sai Cao Bi???n mang ?????i qu??n tranh gi??nh, l???i chi???m ph??a nam t???nh Qu???ng T??y, trong ???? c?? Ung Ch??u t???c Nam Ninh ng??y nay:

???T?? tr??? Th??ng Gi??m, quy???n 250. Th??ng 7 m??a thu, n??m H??m Th??ng th??? 2 [861]; man Nam Chi???u ????nh Ung Ch??u, chi???m ???????c. Tr?????c ???? 3 ?????o Qu???ng, Qu???, Dung mang 3 ng??n qu??n ?????n ????ng t???i Ung ch??u, 3 n??m m???t l???n thay ?????i. Kinh l?????c s??? ??o??n V??n S??? xin l???y y ph???c v?? l????ng th???c c???a 3 ng??n ng?????i ??em m??? l??nh ?????a ph????ng thay th???, tri???u ????nh ch???p nh???n. s??? m??? ???????c ch??? m???i ???????c kho???ng 500 t??n. L??c V??n S??? v??o tri???u l??m Kim ng?? t?????ng qu??n, Kinh l?????c s??? L?? M??ng l???i d???ng vi???c thi???u ng???ch y ph???c v?? l????ng th???c, b??i qu??n l??nh c???a 3 ?????o, d???ng vi???c m??? binh ph??ng, T??? Giang, H???u Giang, gi???m ?????n 7,8 ph???n 10. B???y gi??? L?? M??ng ???? m???t, Kinh l?????c s??? L?? Ho???ng Nguy??n m???i ?????n tr???n gi??? ???????c 10 ng??y, kh??ng c?? qu??n ????? ch???ng c???, Ho???ng Nguy??n c??ng Gi??m qu??n tho??t th??n ch???y ?????n Man Ch??u. H??n 20 ng??y sau, man Nam Chi???u r??t, b??n tr??? v??? nhi???m s???; Ho???ng Nguy??n b??? bi???m tr??ch Ty h??? Ki???n ch??u. V??n S??? l??c b???y gi??? l??m ??i???n trung gi??m, l???i ???????c tr??? l???i l??m Kinh l?????c s??? Ung qu???n. ?????n n??i, th??nh ???p d??n c?? ti??u ??i???u, m?????i kh??ng c??n m???t.???[19]

Chi???n th???ng d?????i tri???u L?? n?????c ta, l??m suy y???u  qu??n Nam Chi???u; khi???n Trung Qu???c b???t v??i ??i m???t g??nh n???ng. C?? th??? n??i nh?? T???ng gi??n ti???p nh???n ??n l???n t??? n?????c ta, b???i v???y m???y l???n Vua L?? Th??i T??? cho mang qu??n ????nh ph?? c??c ch??u Kh??m Li??m, l?? do v?? x??ch m??ch bi??n gi???i; ho???c tr???ng ph???t vi???c che ch??? nh???ng ng?????i Vi???t c?? h??nh ?????ng tr??i ph??p lu???t v?????t bi??n, ???????c nh?? c???m quy???n ?????a ph????ng T???ng bao che; ho???c ch???ng ????nh ng?????i T???ng t??? t???p c?????p ph??; nh??ng tr?????c sau tri???u T???ng gi???i quy???t vi???c bi??n gi???i m???t c??ch h??a b??nh; s??? li???u t??? c??c ngu???n thu th???p nh?? sau:

??? Tr?????ng Bi??n, quy???n 83; th??ng 9 n??m ?????i Trung T?????ng Ph?? th??? 7 [1014]. Chuy???n v???n s??? Qu???ng Nam T??y L??? Cao Hu??? Li??n t??u gi???c Giao Ch??u mang thuy???n ?????n ?????u t???i c???a s??ng tr???n Nh?? H???ng;[20]???? gi???i nghi??m tu???n ki???m Ung Ch??u, T??n Ch??u[21] ph??ng b??? bi??n c???nh. Chi???u ban ch??? ph??ng b??? t???i bi??n gi???i, kh??ng ???????c sinh s???.???[22]

???Tr?????ng Bi??n, quy???n 83; th??ng Ch???p, n??m ?????i Trung T?????ng Ph?? th??? 7 [1014]. Tr?????c ???? Tr????ng B?? Kh??n thu???c d??n Y??u Li??u Giao Ch??u, tr???n t???i ???????c Tri Kh??m ch??u m???c Tr???ng D??nh che ch???; ???? tu???n ki???m Tang T??? ra l???nh tr???i Nh?? H???ng khao tr??u r?????u. Giao Ch??u trinh s??t bi???t ???????c vi???c n??y, b??n b???t Y??u Li??u c??ng c?????p ph?? tr???i Nh?? H???ng, b???t ng?????i v?? s??c v???t r???t nhi???u. Ty Chuy???n v???n g???i th??ng ??i???p cho Giao Ch??u truy b???t v?? b??o cho bi???t. Chi???u th??c d???c L?? C??ng U???n h??? t???ng [ng?????i b??? b???t]; v???n r??n quan l???i t???i bi??n gi???i kh??ng ???????c chi??u d??? man Li??u r???i sinh s???.???[23]

???Tr?????ng Bi??n, quy???n 85. N??m ?????i Trung T?????ng Ph?? th??? 8 [1015]

Th??ng 12, Kh??m Ch??u t??u gi???c ch??u T?? M???u[24] c?????p ng?????i v?? s??c v???t thu???c huy???n An Vi???n;[25] chi???u ban Chuy???n v???n s??? s??? t???i ng??n ph??ng.???[26]

S??? n?????c ta, ?????i Vi???t S??? K?? To??n Th?? c??ng ch??p th??m v??? vi???c ????nh tr???i Nh?? H???ng, ch??u Kh??m nh?? sau:

???N??m Thu???n Thi??n] th??? 13 [1022, xu???ng chi???u cho D???c Th??nh V????ng ??i ????nh ?????i Nguy??n L???ch. Qu??n ta ??i s??u v??o tr???i Nh?? H???ngtrong ?????t T???ng, ?????t kho ?????n ??? ???? r???i v???.??? To??n Th??, B???n K???, quy???n 2

Ngo??i ra c??n c?? v??? tranh ch???p bi??n gi???i t???i t???nh L???ng S??n, ph??a ta gi??nh ???????c quy???n l??m ch??? ch??u Th???t Nguy??n, thu???c huy???n Tr??ng ?????nh hi???n nay:

???Thu???n Thi??n n??m th??? 18 [1027]; xu???ng chi???u cho Khai Thi??n V????ng [Th??i t??? Ph???t M??] ??i ????nh ch??u Th???t Nguy??n,[27] ????ng Chinh V????ng ??i ????nh V??n Ch??u.[28]

S??? Trung Qu???c x??c nh???n v??? cu???c tranh ch???p n??y nh?? sau:

???Tr?????ng Bi??n, quy???n 106. T???ng Nh??n T??ng n??m Thi??n Th??nh th??? 6 [1028]

Th??ng 4, quy???n tr???i ch??? ch??u Th???t Nguy??n, Ung Ch??u, Tam ban t?? ch???c L?? T??? giao chi???n v???i Giao Ch??? t??? tr???n; nay ????a ng?????i con l?? H??a l??m Tam ban t?? ch???c. L?? C??ng U???n tuy sai con l?? Hi???n ?????n c???ng, nh??ng l???i ra l???nh cho con em v?? r??? Th??n Th???a Qu?? mang qu??n ?????n c?????p ph??.???[29]

Th??ng sau, tri???u T???ng l???i g???i chi???u th?? ????i tr??? l???i nh???ng chi???n l???i ph???m b??? qu??n ta t???ch thu:           

???Tr?????ng Bi??n, quy???n 106; th??ng 5, Chuy???n v???n s??? Qu???ng Nam T??y L??? t??u Giao Ch??? v??o c?????p, ???? ra l???nh ???? ?????ng tu???n ki???m mang qu??n, c??ng ??i???u ?????ng d??n ??inh c??c khe ?????ng truy k??ch, ????i l???i nh???ng ????? v???t b??? c?????p c???a c??c nh??, chi???u th?? cho bi???t n???u nh?? kh??ng tr??? h???t nh???ng ????? b??? c?????p, t???t Tri Ung Ch??u s??? h???p binh th???o ph???t. L??c b???y gi??? V??n t?? s??? Ti??u Th??? Ti???t Tri Ung Ch??u, sai ng?????i ?????n Giao Ch??? d??? ??i???u l???i h???i; C??ng U???n d??ng t???u ch????ng t??? t???i.???[30]

V??? ph????ng nam, Vua L?? Th??i T??? t???ng ra l???nh cho Th??i t??? Ph???t M?? mang qu??n ??i ????nh Chi??m Th??nh t???i t???nh Qu???ng B??nh, ch??m gi???t r???t nhi???u:

???M??a ????ng, th??ng 12 Thu???n Thi??n n??m th??? 11 [1020], sai Khai Thi??n V????ng [Ph???t M??] v?? ????o Th???c Ph??? ??em qu??n ??i ????nh Chi??m Th??nh ??? tr???i B??? Ch??nh,[31] th???ng ?????n n??i Long T???,[32] ch??m ???????c t?????ng c???a ch??ng l?? B??? Linh t???i tr???n, ng?????i Chi??m  ch???t ?????n qu?? n???a.??? To??n Th??, B???n k???, quy???n 2.

(C??n ti???p)
 

21/05/1542: Nh?? th??m hi???m De Soto qua ?????i

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Ngu???n: De Soto dies in the American wildernessHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: L?? Th??? H???ng Loan | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1542, tr??n b??? s??ng Mississippi ??? khu v???c Louisiana ng??y nay, nh?? chinh ph???c ng?????i T??y Ban Nha Hernando de Soto ???? qua ?????i, k???t th??c cu???c h??nh tr??nh k??o d??i ba n??m ????? t??m ki???m v??ng v???n ???? ????a ??ng ??i qua m???t n???a ch???ng ???????ng xuy??n Hoa K??? ng??y nay. ????? gi???u kh??ng cho ng?????i da ????? bi???t v??? c??i ch???t c???a ??ng v?? t??? ???? b??c b??? nh???ng tuy??n b??? v??? s??? th???n th??nh (b???t t???) c???a de Soto, nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ???? ch??n x??c c???a ??ng d?????i d??ng s??ng Mississippi.

V??o cu???i th??ng 5 n??m 1539, de Soto ?????t ch??n l??n b??? bi???n ph??a t??y Florida v???i 600 binh s??, ng?????i h???u v?? nh??n vi??n, 200 con ng???a, v?? m???t ????n ch?? s??n. T??? ????, ?????i qu??n b???t ?????u vi???c chinh ph???c ng?????i b???n ?????a, thu gi??? b???t k??? v???t c?? gi?? tr??? n??o m?? h??? g???p ph???i, v?? chu???n b??? ????? v??ng ?????t n??y sau n??y tr??? th??nh thu???c ?????a c???a T??y Ban Nha.

??i qua Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, b??ng qua Appalachia, v?? tr??? v??? Alabama, de Soto ???? kh??ng th??? t??m th???y v??ng v?? b???c nh?? ??ng mong mu???n, nh??ng ??ng ???? chi???m ???????c m???t b??? s??u t???p ng???c trai c?? gi?? tr??? t???i Cofitachequi, thu???c Georgia ng??y nay. Ng?????i T??y Ban Nha c??ng kh??ng th??? ti???n h??nh c??c cu???c chinh ph???c mang t??nh quy???t ?????nh ??? ????y v?? v??ng ?????t tr??? th??nh Hoa K??? ng??y nay thi???u c??c n???n v??n minh l???n, t???p trung nh?? t???i Mexico v?? Peru.

C??ng gi???ng nh?? c??ch th???c chinh ph???c c???a T??y Ban Nha ??? nh???ng n??i kh??c t???i ch??u M???, de Soto ???? ?????i x??? t??? h???i v?? bi???n nh???ng ng?????i b???n ?????a m?? ??ng g???p tr??? th??nh n?? l???. T???i h???u h???t m???i n??i, c??c chi???n binh da ????? h??? g???p ???? b??? ??e d???a b???i nh???ng ng?????i T??y Ban Nha c?????i ng???a v?? ph???i gi??? kho???ng c??ch. Tuy nhi??n, v??o th??ng 10 n??m 1540, t??nh th??? ???? ?????o ng?????c khi m???t li??n minh ng?????i da ????? ???? t???n c??ng ng?????i T??y Ban Nha t???i th??? tr???n ???????c ph??ng th??? v???ng ch???c Mabila, g???n Mobile, Alabama ng??y nay. T???t c??? ng?????i da ????? ???? b??? gi???t ch???t, c??ng v???i 20 ng?????i c???a de Soto. H??ng tr??m ng?????i T??y Ban Nha b??? th????ng. Ngo??i ra, nh???ng ng?????i da ????? b??? ng?????i T??y Ban Nha b???t mang v??c h??ng h??a ???? ch???y tr???n c??ng v???i h??nh l??.

De Soto ???? c?? th??? h??nh qu??n v??? ph??a nam ????? h???p qu??n v???i c??c t??u c???a m??nh d???c theo B??? V???nh, nh??ng thay v??o ????, ??ng ra l???nh th???c hi???n chuy???n th??m hi???m v??? ph??a t??y b???c ????? t??m ki???m nh???ng kho b??u m?? h??? c???a ch??u M???. V??o th??ng 5 n??m 1541, ?????i qu??n ???? ?????n v?? v?????t s??ng Mississippi, c?? l??? h??? l?? nh???ng ng?????i ch??u ??u ?????u ti??n t???ng l??m ??i???u n??y. T??? ????, h??? ???? ??i qua Arkansas v?? Louisiana, nh??ng v???n t??m ???????c r???t ??t c???a c???i ????? ?????n ????p cho n??? l???c c???a m??nh. Quay tr??? l???i Mississippi, de Soto ch???t v?? m???t tr???n s???t tr??n b??? s??ng n??y v??o ng??y 21 th??ng 5 n??m 1542.

Ng?????i T??y Ban Nha, b??y gi??? d?????i quy???n ch??? huy c???a Luis de Moscoso, ??i v??? ph??a t??y m???t l???n n???a, v?????t qua ph??a b???c Texas tr?????c khi tr??? v??? Mississippi. V???i g???n m???t n???a s??? ng?????i trong ??o??n th??m hi???m ban ?????u ???? ch???t, nh???ng ng?????i T??y Ban Nha ???? d???ng b?? v?? ??i xu??i d??ng s??ng xu???ng bi???n, v?? sau ???? ??i d???c b??? bi???n Texas ?????n New Spain, cu???i c??ng ?????n Veracruz, Mexico, v??o cu???i n??m 1543

 

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