Ho??ng V???n L??: Nh?? khoa h???c Trung Qu???c d??m n??i th???t

Thứ hai - 15/07/2019 01:45
N???u c??c nh?? khoa h???c thu??? l???i Trung Qu???c h???i nh???ng n??m 1950 ?????u d??m n??i th???t th?? ch???c ch???n nh??n d??n hai b??? s??ng Ho??ng H?? s??? kh??ng ph???i g??nh ch???u m???t tai ho??? ??? h??? n?????c Tam M??n Hi???p,[1] m???t c??ng tr??nh x??y d???ng sai l???m l??m cho ?????i s???ng nh??n d??n c??c v??ng li??n quan ??i??u ?????ng kh??? s??? m???y ch???c n??m qua v?? kh??ng bi???t c??n bao l??u n???a m???i h???t.
Ho??ng V???n L??: Nh?? khoa h???c Trung Qu???c d??m n??i th???t

Ho??ng V???n L??: Nh?? khoa h???c Trung Qu???c d??m n??i th???t

T??c gi???: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh
N???u c??c nh?? khoa h???c thu??? l???i Trung Qu???c h???i nh???ng n??m 1950 ?????u d??m n??i th???t th?? ch???c ch???n nh??n d??n hai b??? s??ng Ho??ng H?? s??? kh??ng ph???i g??nh ch???u m???t tai ho??? ??? h??? n?????c Tam M??n Hi???p,[1] m???t c??ng tr??nh x??y d???ng sai l???m l??m cho ?????i s???ng nh??n d??n c??c v??ng li??n quan ??i??u ?????ng kh??? s??? m???y ch???c n??m qua v?? kh??ng bi???t c??n bao l??u n???a m???i h???t.
Nh???ng n??m g???n ????y, vi???c Trung Qu???c th???a nh???n th???t b???i c???a c??ng tr??nh thu??? l???i Tam M??n Hi???p tr??n s??ng Ho??ng ???? l??m cho ng?????i Trung Qu???c bi???t ?????n c??i t??n Ho??ng V???n L?? (Huang Wanli, ?????????, 1911-2001), ???????c ????nh gi?? l?? m???t trong s??? kh??ng nhi???u nh?? khoa h???c ch??n ch??nh c???a Trung Qu???c. S??? v?? ?????i c???a Ho??ng V???n L?? kh??ng ph???i ??? ch??? ??ng d??? ki???n ???????c c??ng tr??nh Tam M??n Hi???p s??? th???t b???i, m?? l?? ??? ch??? trong khi t???p th??? chuy??n gia thu??? l???i Trung Qu???c ?????u ????nh m???t l???p tr?????ng ????ng ?????n, th?? m???t m??nh ??ng d??m b???o v??? ch??n l?? v?? l????ng t??m c???a m??nh, d??m ch???ng l???i ????? d??n??? v?? ?? ki???n c???a l??nh ?????o cao nh???t.
Th???t b???i l???n nh???t trong l???ch s??? x??y d???ng c???a Trung Qu???c
Ho??ng V???n L?? l?? chuy??n gia thu??? l???i, thu??? v??n c?? ???nh h?????ng l???n nh???t ??? Trung Qu???c, gi??o s?? tr?????ng ?????i h???c Thanh Hoa. ??ng l?? con trai c??? Ho??ng Vi??m B???i, nh?? gi??o d???c v?? nh??n s?? d??n ch??? y??u n?????c n???i ti???ng trong l???ch s??? Trung Qu???c. D?? nhi??n, khi nh?? n?????c ?????t v???n ????? x??y d???ng c??ng tr??nh thu??? l???i Tam M??n Hi???p, ??ng l?? ng?????i ?????u ti??n ???????c tham gia.
N??m 1952, Ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c m???i Li??n X?? gi??p l???p d??? ??n tr??? thu??? Ho??ng H??, con s??ng th?????ng xuy??n g??y n???n l???t l???n trong l???ch s??? Trung Qu???c. Th??ng 10/1954, d?????i s??? ch??? ?????o c???a ??o??n chuy??n gia Li??n X??, U??? ban Quy ho???ch Ho??ng H?? (do B??? Thu??? l???i v?? B??? C??ng nghi???p nhi??n li???u Trung Qu???c l?? l???c l?????ng ch??nh) ho??n th??nh b???n ???Quy ho???ch l???i d???ng t???ng h???p Ho??ng H?????.
????y l?? m???t c??ng tr??nh quy m?? v?? ?????i: tr??n d??ng ch??nh c???a s??ng Ho??ng s??? x??y d???ng 46 ?????p n?????c l???n, t???ng c??ng su???t m??y ph??t ??i???n c???a c??c ?????p n??y l?? 23 tri???u KW, b??nh qu??n h??ng n??m s???n xu???t 110 t??? KWH, g???p 10 l???n s???n l?????ng ??i???n to??n Trung Qu???c n??m 1954, di???n t??ch ?????t ???????c t?????i n?????c s??? t??? 16,59 tri???u m???u Trung Qu???c t??ng l??n 116 tri???u m???u, x?? lan 500 t???n c?? th??? ch???y t??? bi???n v??o ?????n t???n Lan Ch??u. Trong ????, ?????p Tam M??n Hi???p l???n nh???t v?? quan tr???ng nh???t; ch??nh vi???c x??y ?????p n??y ???? g??y h???u qu??? l?? trong 40 n??m ti???p theo h??ng tr??m ngh??n n??ng d??n Trung Qu???c ph???i r???i b??? ru???ng ?????t m???u m??? ??? qu?? h????ng c?? c???a m??nh ????? d???i ?????n c??c v??ng ?????t c???n c???i ??? xa v?? s??u, m???t s??? d??n ph???i di d???i nhi???u l???n m???t s???ch c?? nghi???p. Nh??n d??n Nh???t b??o ng??y 16/02/2006 ????a tin: n??m 2005 d??n quanh h??? ph???i d???i nh?? 2 l???n do n?????c d??ng l??n v??o m??a m??a ; 9 trong 10 n??m qua b??? h???n h??n; thu nh???p b??nh qu??n n??m c???a nh??n d??n v??ng hai b??? s??ng ph??a th?????ng l??u n??m 2004 c?? 1172 Yuan (k??m 1164 Yuan so v???i m???c trung b??nh c??? n?????c); 297 ngh??n d??n thu???c di???n ngh??o, trong ???? 114 ngh??n ngh??o tuy???t ?????i; nhi???u h??? t??i s???n c???ng l???i ch??a qu?? 200 Yuan (24USD). T??m l???i n??ng d??n b??? thi???t h???i qu?? nhi???u t??? c??ng tr??nh thu??? ??i???n, thu??? l???i n??y. Khi ??o??n c??n b??? c???p cao c???a Ch??nh ph??? ?????n n??i quan s??t, c??c v??? n??y ai c??ng kh??c v?? n??i Nh?? n?????c th???t c?? l???i v???i n??ng d??n.
V???y v???n ????? l?? do ????u? Ngay t??? ?????u, Ho??ng V???n L?? ???? ph??t bi???u: Li??n X?? c?? nhi???u kinh nghi???m x??y d???ng thu??? ??i???n, nh??ng h??? ch??a hi???u v???n ????? c???a Ho??ng H??. Kh??c h???n c??c con s??ng ??? Li??n X??, s??ng Ho??ng ??? Trung Qu???c c?? r???t nhi???u ph?? sa v?? ch??nh ??i???u ???? sau n??y s??? l?? ngu???n g???c g??y tai ho???. ????ng ti???c l?? ??o??n chuy??n gia Li??n X?? n??y g???m to??n chuy??n gia c??ng tr??nh thu??? ch??? kh??ng ph???i chuy??n gia thu??? l???i.
Th??? nh??ng h???i ???y m???i ng?????i Trung Qu???c, t??? chuy??n gia cho ?????n c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ?????ng, Ch??nh ph???, ai n???y ?????u ch??? nghe theo ?? ki???n c???a chuy??n gia Li??n X??, kh??ng m???t ai d??m c??ng khai ph???n ?????i c??ng tr??nh n??y, tr??? Ho??ng V???n L??. L??nh ?????o nh?? n?????c l???i c??ng ?????ng t??m nh???t tr?? v???i gi???c m?? ???Th??nh nh??n xu???t, Ho??ng H?? thanh??? t???c Th??nh nh??n xu???t hi???n th?? n?????c s??ng Ho??ng H?? s??? trong v???t.
Trong kh??ng kh?? c???c ??oan m???t chi???u nh?? th???, c??c chuy??n gia h???u tr??ch ?????u kh??ng d??m ki??n tr?? quan ??i???m c???a m??nh, c?? bi???t c??n c?? ng?????i xuy??n t???c s??? th???t, a dua v??o h??a ????? th???a d???p th??ng ti???n. Trong cu???c h???p l???n ?????u ti??n v??? quy ho???ch Ho??ng H??, nhi???u chuy??n gia Trung Qu???c h???t l???i ca ng???i b???n quy ho???ch c???a ??o??n chuy??n gia Li??n X??.
Duy nh???t Ho??ng V???n L?? n??i: ???C??c v??? ?????u n??i Th??nh nh??n xu???t, Ho??ng H?? thanh. T??i b???o: Ho??ng H?? kh??ng th??? thanh [trong] ???????c. Ho??ng H?? thanh kh??ng ph???i l?? c??ng m?? l?? t???i.???
Ng??y 10/6/1957, h???i ngh??? b??n v??? Khu ?????u m???i thu??? l???i Tam M??n Hi???p h???p t???i B???c Kinh; l??c ???y c??ng tr??nh n??y ???? b???t ?????u chu???n b??? x??y d???ng. Trong h???i ngh??? di???n ra cu???c tranh lu???n gay g???t gi???a ph??i ?????ng ?? v???i ph??i ph???n ?????i ch??? c?? m???t ng?????i l?? Ho??ng V???n L??. Ph??i ?????ng ?? v??? n??n b???c tranh ho??nh tr??ng: x??y ?????p cao, ng??n n?????c l??, t??ch c??t l???i, l??m cho n?????c ch???y t??? h??? ra s??? l?? n?????c trong kh??ng c?? ph?? sa. Ri??ng Ho??ng V???n L?? n??i: Kh??ng th??? ?????p ?????p tr??n ??o???n s??ng c?? tr???m t??ch; n???u kh??ng, n???n l???t ??? h??? l??u Ho??ng H?? s??? chuy???n d???ch ?????n ??o???n trung l??u ??? ?????ng b???ng Quan Trung. ??ng cho r???ng ph?? sa trong n?????c s??ng c?? t??c d???ng t??? nhi??n chia c???t th?????ng l??u, t???o l???c ?????a h??? l??u, x??y ?????p ng??n s??ng l??m trong n?????c Ho??ng H?? l?? ??i ng?????c quy lu???t thi??n nhi??n, l?? kh??ng hi???n th???c, hu???ng h??? n?????c trong ra kh???i h??? ch???a l?? kh??ng c?? l???i cho l??ng s??ng ph??a h??? l??u. ??ng n??i: sau khi ?????p ?????p th?? s??? ng???p ru???ng, g??y ra thi???t h???i cho c??c th??nh ph??? g???n h???.
??a s??? c??c chuy??n gia d??? h???p ?????u ?????ng ?? v???i thi???t k??? c???a chuy??n gia Li??n X??, cu???c tranh c??i k??o d??i 7 ng??y d???n ?????n th???t b???i c???a Ho??ng V???n L??. Cu???i c??ng ??ng ????nh ph???i r??t lui v?? ch??? ????? xu???t: N???u nh???t ?????nh ph???i ?????p ?????p th?? ki???n ngh??? ch??? n??n b???t k??n 6 h???m tho??t n?????c ????? sau n??y c?? th??? ?????t c???ng x??? c??t. Quan ??i???m n??y ???????c to??n th??? h???i ngh??? th??ng qua. Nh??ng khi thi c??ng, c??c chuy??n gia Li??n X?? gi??? nguy??n thi???t k??? c?? b???t k??n c??? 6 c???ng ng???m. ?????n nh???ng n??m 1970, Trung Qu???c ph???i b??? ra 10 tri???u Yuan (1,2 tri???u USD) ????? m??? l???i c??c c???ng n??y.
C??c d??? ki???n v?? ph??n t??ch c???a Ho??ng V???n L?? v??? c??ng tr??nh thu??? l???i Tam M??n Hi???p ???????c ch???ng t??? l?? ????ng ngay t??? khi c??ng tr??nh x??y d???ng xong. Th??ng 9/1960 h??? ch???a n?????c Tam M??n Hi???p ho??n th??nh. T??? n??m th??? hai, ??o???n s??ng Ho??ng v?? s??ng V??? t??? ?????ng Quan tr??? l??n ?????u b??? n???n ng???p ?????ng. 800 ngh??n m???u ru???ng l??a hai b??? s??ng ?????u b??? ng???p, ph???i di d???i c??? m???t huy???n; th??nh ph??? T??y An b??? ??e do??? nghi??m tr???ng. Ng??y nay thu??? th??? l??u v???c Ho??ng H?? ng??y c??ng t???i t???, n?????c s??ng ph??a h??? l??u h???u nh?? ch???ng c??n l???i bao nhi??u. T??? n??m 1972, Ho??ng H?? b???t ?????u ?????t d??ng ch???y, nh???ng n??m 1990 h??ng n??m b??nh qu??n d??ng ch???y b??? ng???t h??n 100 ng??y kh??ng c?? n?????c.
K??? s?? thu??? l???i V????ng Duy L???c ?????nh c?? ??? ?????c trong b??i vi???t ???K??? ni???m 40 n??m ho??n th??nh x??y d???ng c??ng tr??nh Tam M??n Hi???p??? cho bi???t ch?? ph?? c??ng tr??nh n??y t????ng ??????ng gi?? th??nh l??m 40 c??y c???u Tr?????ng giang V?? H??n; c??c ph?? t???n c???i t???o sau ???? v?? thi???t h???i kinh t??? do c??ng tr??nh n??y g??y ra cho c??c v??ng ch???u tai ho??? l???n t???i m???c kh??ng th??? n??o t??nh n???i. Theo Nh??n d??n Nh???t b??o ng??y 16/02/2006, ??i???u tra c???a Tr?????ng ?????ng Trung ????ng Trung Qu???c cho bi???t v???n ?????u t?? cho 13 nh?? m??y thu??? ??i???n (c??ng su???t ph??t ??i???n 11,72 tri???u KW) tr??n Ho??ng H?? h???t 50 t??? Yuan (6 t??? USD).
Ch??? v?? n??i th???t m?? 22 n??m b??? ch???p m?? ???ph??i h???u???
L??? ra s??? b???t ?????ng v???i ?? ki???n c???a chuy??n gia Li??n X?? ch??? l?? m???t v???n ????? k??? thu???t, th??? nh??ng trong t??nh h??nh ng??y ???y l???i b??? coi l?? m???t v???n ????? ch??nh tr??? l???n. Ngo??i ra, trong phong tr??o ???Tr??m hoa ??ua n???, tr??m nh?? ??ua ti???ng???, Ho??ng V???n L?? c?? vi???t m???t b??i b??o h??n 3000 ch??? ????ng tr??n t???p ch?? c???a tr?????ng ??H Thanh Hoa, nh??n vi???c x??c ?????nh ph????ng ??n thi???t k??? Tam M??n Hi???p ????? xu???t s??? c???n thi???t m??? r???ng d??n ch??? ????? nh??n d??n gi??m s??t v?? g??p ?? cho c??c quy???t s??ch c???a nh?? n?????c.
Sau khi ?????c b??i n??y, Mao Tr???ch ????ng t???c gi???n b???o c??? Ho??ng Vi??m B???i: Nh?? c??? th??? l?? c??ng chia ra l??m 3 ph??i t???, trung, h???u r???i ?????y; b??i b??o c???a Ho??ng V???n L?? vi???t g?? (m?? b???y b???) th??? !
Ti???p ???? Nh??n d??n Nh???t b??o ????ng b??i ph?? ph??n Ho??ng V???n L??, b???t ?????u 22 n??m ?????y ???i c???c kh??? c???a nh?? khoa h???c. N??m 1958, Ho??ng V???n L?? ch??nh th???c b??? quy ?????nh l?? ph???n t??? ???ph??i h???u???, ti???n l????ng b??? gi???m t??? gi??o s?? b???c 2 xu???ng gi??o s?? b???c 4. D?? b??? tr?? d???p nh?? th???, ??ng v???n kh??ng n??i c??u n??o t??? ra h???i c???i. Sau n??y, khi c??c tai ho??? c???a c??ng tr??nh Tam M??n Hi???p ???? l??? r??, l??nh ?????o Ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c n??i qua c??? Ho??ng Vi??m B???i g???i ?? cho Ho??ng V???n L?? bi???t n???u ??ng ch???u l??m ki???m th???o th?? s??? th??o m?? ???ph??i h???u??? cho ??ng. Ho??ng V???n L?? ch???ng nh???ng kh??ng vi???t ki???m ??i???m m?? c??n c??n v???n l??nh ?????o: ???Nh?? n?????c nu??i tr?? th???c bao l??u nay l?? ????? l??m g??????
C?? ng?????i n??i: n???u Ho??ng V???n L?? ch???u nghe l???i l??nh ?????o th?? c?? l??? cu???c ?????i ??ng ???? kh??c h???n. N??m 1935, ??ng t???t nghi???p th???c s?? khoa thu??? v??n ??? M???, n??m 1937 nh???n b???ng ti???n s?? x??y d???ng tr?????ng ?????i h???c Illinois, l?? ng?????i Trung Qu???c ?????u ti??n nh???n vinh d??? n??y, sau ???? th???c t???p t???i c??ng tr??nh Tennessee. 26 tu???i, ??ng v??? n?????c, l??m k??? s?? ch??nh thu??? l???i t???i U??? ban kinh t??? c???a Ch??nh ph??? Qu???c d??n, V??? tr?????ng V??? c??ng tr??nh, k??? s?? gi??m s??t B??? Thu??? l???i, C???c tr?????ng C???c Thu??? l???i t???nh Cam T??c ki??m T???ng c??ng tr??nh s??. C?? th??? n??i, d?? v??? h???c v??? hay v??? kinh nghi???m, t???i Trung Qu???c r???t ??t ng?????i ?????t ???????c tr??nh ????? nh?? Ho??ng V???n L??. Khi l??m c??ng t??c gi???ng d???y ??? ?????i h???c Thanh Hoa, ??ng c??ng th??? hi???n n??ng l???c nghi??n c???u khoa h???c r???t xu???t s???c. Th???i gian 1953-1957, ??ng vi???t 2 chuy??n kh???o ???T??nh to??n d??ng l????? v?? ???Thu??? v??n h???c c??ng tr??nh???, ???????c ????nh gi?? l?? 2 b??? s??ch ti??u bi???u r???t quan tr???ng v??? khoa h???c thu??? v??n th???p ni??n 1950.
Gi??o s?? Ho??ng V???n L?? qua ?????i n??m 2001. Trong nh???ng ng??y cu???i ?????i, ??ng c??ng k???ch li???t ph???n ?????i vi???c x??y d???ng c??ng tr??nh th???y l???i-th???y ??i???n Tam Hi???p tr??n s??ng Tr?????ng Giang.
Con ??ng n??i v??? ??ng nh?? sau: ???Cha t??i ch??? bi???t n??i th???t, kh??ng bao gi??? n??i d???i. ?????i v???i v???n ????? h???c thu???t hay quan ??i???m ch??nh tr??? c??ng v???y; ?????i v???i vi???c c?? l???i hay kh??ng c?? l???i cho m??nh c??ng v???y, bao gi???  ??ng c??ng ch??? n??i th???t.???
Thi???t t?????ng vi???c ??n l???i b??i h???c n??i tr??n l?? ??i???u c???n thi???t cho t???t c??? nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o ch??a bi???t th???c s??? t??n tr???ng khoa h???c v?? d??n ch???. M???t kh??c, c??c nh?? khoa h???c c??ng c???n hi???u r???ng s??? thi???u trung th???c c???a h??? c?? th??? g??y tai ho??? l???n ch???ng n??o.
???????????????
[1] ????y l?? n??i c??ng tr??nh x??y d???ng c??c ?????p n?????c t???i v??ng Tam M??n Hi???p tr??n s??ng Ho??ng H?? (?????????????????????, Yellow River Sanmenxia Dam), x??y d???ng 1957 ??? 1961. Xin ch??? nh???m v???i c??ng tr??nh ?????p Tam Hi???p tr??n s??ng Tr?????ng Giang (????????????, Three Gorges Dam), x??y d???ng 1994 ??? 2006, quy m?? l???n nh???t th??? gi???i.
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