Gi??o d???c ph???i l?? qu???c s??ch h??ng ?????u

Thứ năm - 03/10/2019 19:31
GI??O D???C PH???I L?? QU???C S??CH H??NG ?????U

Ho??ng Qu???c H???i

N???n gi??o d???c Vi???t Nam ?????n nay v???a tr??n 75 n??m, b???ng tu???i th??? trung b??nh cao c???a m???t ?????i ng?????i.
Trong 75 n??m qua, x?? h???i Vi???t Nam ???? th??u nh???n ???????c nh???ng g?? t??? n???n gi??o d???c ???? ??em l???i.
Gi??o d???c ph???i l?? qu???c s??ch h??ng ?????u

GI??O D???C PH???I L?? QU???C S??CH H??NG ?????U

Ho??ng Qu???c H???i

N???n gi??o d???c Vi???t Nam ?????n nay v???a tr??n 75 n??m, b???ng tu???i th??? trung b??nh cao c???a m???t ?????i ng?????i.
Trong 75 n??m qua, x?? h???i Vi???t Nam ???? th??u nh???n ???????c nh???ng g?? t??? n???n gi??o d???c ???? ??em l???i.
Giang s??n m?? n?????c Vi???t Nam D??n ch??? C???ng h??a c?? ???????c t??? n??m 1945, th???t l?? th?? th???m. N?? v???a tr???i qua n???n ????i thi??n ni??n k???, l??m ch???t h??n 2 tri???u ng?????i ??? ngay ch??nh v???a l??a ?????ng b???ng B???c B???. ???? l?? t???i ??c gh?? t???m c???a th???c d??n Ph??p v?? ph??t x??t Nh???t.
C??? d??n t???c ch??a ho??n h???n, ???? ph???i nh???n 20 v???n qu??n T??u T?????ng (th???c ch???t l?? ?????i qu??n ???m ????i) r???i su???t n???a n?????c ta, v???i s??? m???nh do ?????ng minh sai v??o t?????c kh?? gi???i c???a 5 v???n qu??n Nh???t ???? ?????u h??ng.
?????i qu??n n??y nh??ng nhi???u kh??ng gi???i h???n. Ch??ng c?????p c???a d??n t??? m??? rau, c??? t???i, con g??, qu??? tr???ng cho t???i c???a c???i qu?? hi???m. Ngh??a l?? ch??ng kh??ng t??? m???t th??? g??. Ch??ng l?? ?????i qu??n ????i kh??t ????ng ngh??a. C?? khi ch??? qua m???t b???a ??n, c??? ?????i ?????i ch???t t???i qu?? n???a v?? b???i th???c.
Tuy nhi??n, b???n t?????ng l??nh cao c???p c???a ?????i qu??n n??y, c?? ??m m??u mu???n ??? l???i l??m l???c l?????ng chi???m ????ng.
Trong khi ????, 5 v???n qu??n Ph??p ??ang r???p r??nh ngo??i kh??i H???i Ph??ng, l??m le ????? qu??n v??o c??ng v???i ??m m??u x??m l?????c n?????c ta.
M???t b???t h???nh n???a, l?? v???i ch??nh s??ch cai tr??? ngu d??n c???a th???c d??n Ph??p, khi???n tr??n 90% d??n s??? Vi???t Nam b??? m?? ch???.
N??n nh???, c??? ????ng D????ng g???m Vi???t Nam, L??o, Campuchia, ch??nh quy???n th???c d??n Ph??p ch??? cho m??? m???t tr?????ng c???p III, t???c tr?????ng B?????i, nay l?? tr?????ng Chu V??n An. V?? sau ????, c??ng ch??? c?? m???t tr?????ng ?????i h???c.
Nhi???m v??? n???ng n??? c???a ng??nh gi??o d???c l??c n??y ???????c Nh?? n?????c giao cho, l?? ph???i mau ch??ng x??a n???n m?? ch???, ????? khai d??n tr??.
Tr?????c mu??n v??n kh?? kh??n,nh??ng Nh?? n?????c x??c ?????nh c?? ba th??? ??ang v??y b???a, ???????c xem nh?? 3 lo???i gi???c.???? l??: - gi???c ????i - gi???c d???t - gi???c ngo???i x??m.
Kh??ng gi???i quy???t ???????c n???n ????i c??n ??m ???, th?? d??n s??? ti???p t???c ch???t. Nh??ng n???u s???ng m?? d???t n??t th?? c?? kh??c g?? ???? ch???t. V?? v???y coi d???t n??t l?? m???t th??? gi???c, c???n ph???i thanh to??n c???p b??ch.
Ch??nh quy???n c??ch m???ng b???t ????ng m???ch c???a x?? h???i, ph?? h???p l??ng d??n. V?? ch??? c?? ch??? ngh??a m???i khai ???????c d??n tr??.
Khai tr?? l?? n??ng t???m nh???n th???c. T??? nh???n th???c ???? m???i ph??n bi???t ???????c ????ng sai, t???c l?? khai minh.
Cho n??n kho???ng cu???i 1945 sang 1946, t??? th??nh th??? t???i n??ng th??n, n??i n??i ?????u m???c l??n c??c l???p h???c ???B??nh d??n h???c v??????.Tr?????ng h???c, c??ng s???, ????nh ch??a v?? c??c gia ????nh c?? nh?? c???a r???ng r??i, ?????u bi???n th??nh l???p h???c.
C??ng s??? v???a h???t gi??? l??m vi???c, l?? b?? con ??a v??o h???c. T???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i bi???t ch??? ?????u tr??? th??nh th???y gi??o. Trong ????, t??? gi??o s??, gi??o vi??n, c??ng ch???c, vi??n ch???c, sinh vi??n, h???c sinh, b??? ?????i ... ?????u l?? gi??o vi??n ???B??nh d??n h???c v??????. L???p h???c m??? m???i l??c, m???i n??i. Ngay c??? khi cu???c kh??ng chi???n ch???ng x??m l?????c Ph??p b??ng n???, s??? nghi???p ???B??nh d??n h???c v?????? v???n kh??ng h??? gi??n ??o???n. V?? th??? trong th???i gian r???t ng???n, kho???ng 1950, t???i c??c v??ng do ch??nh quy???n c??ch m???ng ki???m so??t, h???u h???t c??c thanh ni??n nam n???, k??? c??? trung ni??n v?? m???t s??? ng?????i cao tu???i ?????u ???? bi???t ?????c, bi???t vi???t.
Vi???c nhi???u ng?????i bi???t ch???, ???? n??ng c??c th??nh t???u kh??ng chi???n l??n gh?? g???m. Cho t???i n??m 1960, th?? B??? gi??o d???c ???? c??ng b??? x??a xong n???n m?? ch??? trong c??? n?????c (th???c ch???t l?? mi???n B???c).
???? l?? th??nh t???u v?? ?????i c???a ng??nh gi??o d???c Vi???t Nam, kh??ng ph???i tr??n th??? gi???i ???? c?? nhi???u n?????c l??m ???????c vi???c n??y ch??? trong v??ng 15 n??m(trong ???? ???? c?? 8 n??m kh??ng chi???n).
Ng??nh gi??o d???c c??n m??? h??? ph??? th??ng c??c c???p t???i v??ng t??? do r???t s??i n???i. Nhi???u nh??n t??i ti???p n???i sau n??y, ?????u ???????c ????o t???o c?? b???n t??? ngu???n gi??o d???c ph??? th??ng th???i kh??ng chi???n.
Ng??nh gi??o d???c Vi???t Nam ???? c?? m???t kh???i ?????u t???t ?????p nh?? th???, t???i sao b??y gi??? n?? l???i r???i nh?? canh h??? v?? n??t nh?? t????ng B???n?
Ch???c ch???n c?? nhi???u nguy??n nh??n l??m cho n???n gi??o d???c Vi???t Nam suy tho??i, nh??ng n???u n??i cho s??t v???i th???c tr???ng, ph???i d??ng t??? ???Suy ?????i???.
??????ng nhi??n, c?? nhi???u nguy??n nh??n, song t??i t???m ????a ra hai nguy??n nh??n ch??nh:
1/ Ng??nh gi??o d???c Vi???t Nam ph??t tri???n qu?? n??ng.
2/ Ng??nh gi??o d???c Vi???t Nam ???? ??i ch???ch h?????ng.
V??o cu???i th???p ni??n 50 ?????u th???p ni??n 60 c???a th??? k??? tr?????c, Nh?? n?????c n??n n??ng ph??t tri???n gi??o d???c theo b??? r???ng, n??n thi???u gi??o vi??n tr???m tr???ng.
L??c ????, h???c sinh t???t nghi???p c???p II, v??o h???c tr?????ng s?? ph???m trung c???p, 18 th??ng sau ra tr?????ng, ???????c d???y to??n c???p II. Ho???c h???c sinh l???p 8, l???p 9 h???c m???t kh??a s?? ph???m c???p t???c trong d???p h?? ????? 2 th??ng c??ng ra d???y to??n c???p II. H???c sinh t???t nghi???p c???p III, h???c hai n??m ?????i h???c, h??? s?? ph???m ra d???y c???p III.
Ngo??i ra c??n l???y gi??o vi??n c???p I c???p II l??n d???y c??c n??m ?????u c???a c???p II, c???p III, r???i cho h???c b??? t??c qua v??i k??? h??,th??? l?? ????? ti??u chu???n d???y to??n c???p.
T???i n??m 1958, h??? th???ng tr?????ng t?? th???c b??? s??p nh???p v??o h??? c??ng l???p do Nh?? n?????c bao c???p. T???t c??? c??c gi??o vi??n t?? th???c v?? gi??o vi??n l??u d???ng d???y c??c m??n x?? h???i, ?????u ph???i chuy???n sang ng??nh kh??c.
V???y l?? ch???t l?????ng gi??o d???c c??? suy gi???m theo t???ng n??m. C??c th??? h??? th???y gi??o kh??ng ???????c ????o t???o b??i b???n, h???c sinh c???a h??? s??? tr??? th??nh nh???ng ?????a tr??? khi???m khuy???t v??? tri th???c. L???i ?????n l?????t h???c sinh khuy???t h??m v??? tri th???c ???y, tr??? th??nh c??c th???y c?? ?????ng l???p.
V?? t??? khi xu???t hi???n h??? b??? t??c v??n h??a c??c c???p h???c ph??? th??ng, v?? h??? ?????i h???c t???i ch???c. B???ng c???p c???a hai h??? n??y c?? gi?? tr??? nh?? b???ng c???p h???c h??? ch??nh quy, c??ng v???i vi???c ??u ti??n c???ng ??i???m cho c??c th?? sinh thu???c di???n ch??nh s??ch nh??: con em th????ng binh li???t s??, gia ????nh c?? c??ng v???i c??ch m???ng, h???c sinh mi???n n??i, h???c sinh l?? d??n t???c thi???u s??? v.v... L???i c?? nh???ng n??m b??? thi ?????i h???c, ch??? x??t tuy???n qua l?? l???ch v?? h???c b???.
T???i ????y th?? ch???t l?????ng ????o t???o c???a ng??nh gi??o d???c t??? ph??? th??ng ?????n ?????i h???c sa s??t h???t ph????ng c???u ch???a.
Ti???p ?????n th???i k??? m??? c???a, gi??o d???c c??ng l?? m???t h??ng kinh doanh b??o b???, th?? s??? sa s??t kh??ng ch??? l?? ch???t l?????ng tri th???c m?? lan sang c??? ph???n ph???m h???nh, ?????o ?????c nh?? gi??o.
Ng??nh gi??o d???c tr??? n??n hoang mang, k??? nh?? ???? m???t ph????ng h?????ng t??? ????y.Ch??nh s??? m???t ph????ng h?????ng n??y l?? h??? qu??? tr???c ti???p c???a s??? ph??t tri???n n??ng.M?? s??? ph??t tri???n n??ng l???i ch??nh l?? b???nh th??nh t??ch,b???nh duy ?? ch??.
Ch???ng bi???t c?? ph???i l?? tri???t l?? kh??ng, nh??ng v??o th???p ni??n 60 c???a th??? k??? 20, ng?????i ta hay nh???c t???i ph????ng ch??m gi??o d???c l?? ????o t???o con ng?????i to??n di???n g???m: Tr?? - ?????c - Th??? - M???.
Sau n??y, kh??ng th???y ai nh???c l???i n???a. Nh??ng v???i hi???n tr???ng gi??o d???c khi???n to??n d??n hoang mang. V?? d?????ng nh?? kh??ng c??n m???y ai ?????t ni???m tin v??o n???n gi??o d???c n?????c nh?? n???a. C??c t???ng l???p trung l??u ???? t??m h?????ng kh??c cho con c??i h???c h??nh. T??? m???u gi??o ?????n c??c c???p I, II, III, h??? g???i con v??o c??c tr?????ng t?? th???c danh ti???ng ho???c tr?????ng qu???c t??? m??? t???i Vi???t Nam. C??n t???ng l???p gi??u c?? nh?? quan ch???c c???p cao ho???c th????ng gia, l???i g???i con du h???c t???n H??a K??? ho???c T??y ??u. C?? ngh??a l?? h??? ch???y tr???n kh???i n???n gi??o d???c n?????c nh??.
Hi???n nay, trong l??ng th??nh ph??? H?? N???i, c?? g???n 40 tr?????ng ph??? th??ng t?? th???c c??c c???p, t??? ch???i gi???ng d???y theo ch????ng tr??nh gi??o khoa c???a B??? gi??o d???c, m?? h??? gi???ng d???y b???ng ch????ng tr??nh gi??o khoa c???a c??c n?????c ti??n ti???n.V?? v???y thu h??t kh?? ????ng con em c??c nh?? kh??ng c?? kh??? n??ng cho con c??i ??i du h???c.
???? l?? th???t b???i nh??n ti???n ngay tr??n s??n nh??, ngay tr?????c c???a B??? gi??o d???c, ngay t???i trung t??m v??n h??a ti??u bi???u c???a c??? n?????c.
Nh???ng chuy??n gia gi??o d???c gi???i, c??? nh?? c??c gi??o s??: T??? Quang B???u, L?? V??n Thi??m, Ho??ng T???y, Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng, Tr???n ?????c Th???o, Ph???m Huy Th??ng, Ho??ng Xu??n S??nh v.v... tr??n th??? gi???i c??ng kh??ng c?? nhi???u ????u. Nh??ng h??? c??? b??? lo???i d???n ra kh???i ng??nh ho???c kh??ng ???????c s??? d???ng ????ng ch???c n??ng. V?? t???t c??? nh???ng ????? xu???t t??m huy???t c???a h??? cho c???i c??ch gi??o d???c, kh??ng ai th??m nh??n nh???n, ????? r???i c??ng vi???c l??nh ?????o ng??nh trao v??o tay nh???ng k??? b???t t??i, b???m m??p, v?? ?????o ?????c.
Nh???ng ai c??n ng???i tr??n gh??? c??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c ng??y nay, h???u h???t thu???c l???p con nh?? ngh??o ho???c c???n ngh??o. C??ng c?? m???t s??? ng?????i h???c gi???i, t???m n??n h???c n??m th??? nh???t, th??? hai t???i c??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c trong n?????c, ch??? s??n ???????c h???c b???ng n?????c ngo??i, s??? l???p t???c r???i kh???i x??? s??? m?? h??? v?? c??ng y??u m???n.
Suy cho c??ng th?? m???i ng?????i ?????u ph???i lo cho b???n th??n m??nh. V?? r???ng m???t ng?????i t???t nghi???p c??? nh??n, l?? ph???i h???c r??ng r?? ??t nh???t 15 n??m, c?? ng??nh t???i 17, 18 n??m. ????? r???i ra tr?????ng ??i xin vi???c, ph???i d???u nh???m t???m b???ng su???t ?????i m??nh ph???n ?????u gian nan v?? n??. B???i nh???ng n??i tuy???n d???ng lao ?????ng ho???c nh??n vi??n, ?????u y???t b???ng t??? ch???i ??? ??? ????y kh??ng tuy???n nh???ng ng?????i c?? b???ng c??? nh??n???.
C?? m???t th???c t??? ph?? ph??ng: c??c c??? nh??n kh??ng ???????c trang b??? m???t chuy??n m??n n??o kh??? d?? ????p ???ng y??u c???u c???a nh?? tuy???n d???ng. ????n gi???n, l?? ng?????i ta kh??ng ????o t???o ngh??? cho c??c c??? nh??n. H???u h???t c??c nh?? tuy???n d???ng, n???u nh???n c??c c??? nh??n v??o l??m vi???c, h??? ?????u ph???i ????o t???o l???i.
S??? th???t ??au l??ng n??y ???? k??o l?? th?? nhi???u ch???c n??m, nh??ng ng??nh gi??o d???c ????o t???o v???n c??? th???n nhi??n cho qua.
C???p ?????i h???c ???? v???y, c??n c???p ph??? th??ng l???i b??? qua nh???ng m??n ch??nh y???u ????? gi??o d???c con ng?????i tr??? th??nh con ng?????i c?? ?????o ?????c,bi???t y??u T??? qu???c m??nh; c?? khi???u n??ng m??? c???m, c?? kh??t v???ng v????n t???i c??i ?????p, bi???t s???ng v??? tha v?? cao th?????ng. ???? l?? hai m??n l???ch s??? v?? v??n h???c.
????ng ti???c, nh?? tr?????ng, m?? c??? th??? l?? ch????ng tr??nh gi??o khoa v?? c??ch truy???n ?????t tri th???c, ???? l??m con em ch??ng ta ch??n ng???y hai m??n h???c n??y.
V??? l???ch s???, c?? n??m c?? tr?????ng ch??? c?? v??i ba em ????ng k?? thi m??n l???ch s???. S??? ??i???m thi m??n l???ch s??? c?? n??m tr??n 80% ?????t d?????i m???c trung b??nh, ph???n l???n trong s??? n??y ch??? ?????t ??i???m 1, ??i???m 2.
B??o ch?? ph??n n??n, ??ng B??? tr?????ng B??? gi??o d???c ????o t???o l??c ???? l?? Ph???m V?? Lu???n, tr??? l???i h???t s???c nh??? nh??m: ??? Tr??n 80% s??? ??i???m thi m??n l???ch s??? d?????i trung b??nh l?? chuy???n b??nh th?????ng???.
Nh??n chuy???n n??y nh??? ??o???n ghi nh???t k?? n??m 1941 c???a nh?? v??n Nguy???n Huy T?????ng: ???Ng?????i kh??ng bi???t l???ch s??? n?????c m??nh, ch???ng kh??c m???t con tr??u ??i c???y; n?? c???y v???i b???t c??? ??ng ch??? n??o, tr??n b???t c??? th???a ru???ng n??o c??ng th??? th??i???.
L???i k??? thi n??m nay, ni??n kh??a 2018 - 2019, k???t qu??? m??n ng??? v??n c?? t???i 27,84% s??? b??i thi c?? ??i???m d?????i trung b??nh.V?? s??? ??i???m li???t m??n n??y chi???m 45% s??? ??i???m li???t trong to??n b??? 9 m??n thi; cao g???p 2,5 l???n n??m 2017, g???p 1,6 l???n n??m 2018.
V???y l?? hai m??n h???c, gi??p ng?????i ta bi???t y??u giang s??n, n??i gi???ng, y??u T??? qu???c m??nh v?? bi???t ?????c m??, bi???t nu??i kh??t v???ng v????n t???i ?????nh cao tr?? tu???, ?????u r??i v??o ??i???m li???t; h??n chi ?????o ?????c x?? h???i kh??ng xu???ng c???p tr???m tr???ng. Ti??u bi???u cho s??? xu???ng c???p n??y, ????ng bu???n nh???t n?? l???i di???n ra trong tr?????ng h???c.
Ta c??n nh??? n??m n??o, b??o ch?? l??n ti???ng gay g???t vi???c th???y S???m ?????c X????ng, Hi???u tr?????ng tr?????ng c???p III x?? Vi???t L??m, huy???n V??? Xuy??n t???nh H?? Giang, mua d??m h???c tr?? v??? th??nh ni??n, v?? m??i gi???i b??n d??m h???c sinh v??? th??nh ni??n c???a tr?????ng minh cho c???p tr??n. Vi???c m??i gi???i mua b??n d??m,sau T??a x??? k??n, b??c t??? c??o v?? kh??ng ????? ch???ng c???.
T??? h???i h??n l?? vi???c ??????ng kim B??? tr?????ng B??? gi??o d???c ????o t???o Ph??ng Xu??n Nh???, l???i ti??u chu???n h??a vi???c b??n d??m.Theo nh?? B??? tr?????ng n??i th??:???C??c n??? sinh vi??n ?????i h???c ch??? b??? k??? lu???t khi ???? b??n d??m t???i l???n th??? 3???.
C??n vi???c th???y tr?? gi???t nhau ngay trong tr?????ng h???c, ph??? huynh l??m nh???c th???y c?? gi??o kh??ng ph???i chuy???n hi???m.
Th??? h???i c?? ??? ????u tr??n th??? gian n??y, t???n t???i m???t n???n gi??o d???c v?? lu??n nh?? v???y?
Nguy??n nh??n n??o khi???n ng??nh gi??o d???c c???a ch??ng ta suy s???p? T???m n??u v??i nguy??n nh??n m?? ai ai c??ng nh??n th???y :
- Trong nhi???u ch???c n??m ng??nh gi??o d???c m???t d???n vai tr?? l?? qu???c s??ch h??ng ?????u.
- Kh??ng ?????t m???c ti??u ????o t???o c??? th??? cho t???ng c???p h???c, v?? kh??ng th?????ng xuy??n ki???m tra k???t qu??? ????o t???o.
- B???nh th??nh t??ch.V?? t??? b???nh n??y ????? ra b???nh d???i tr?? kinh ni??n.
- Nh???ng ng?????i qu???n l?? ng??nh ng???o m???n, kh??ng ch???u nghe s??? g??p ?? c???a c??c chuy??n gia gi??o d???c ?????u ng??nh, kh??ng ?????m x???a ?????n ph???n ???ng x?? h???i.
- Trong vi???c s???n xu???t b??? ????? luy???n thi ?????i h???c v?? xu???t b???n s??ch gi??o khoa, c??ng vi???c vi???n c??? t??i b???n h???ng n??m, g??y l??ng ph?? l???n cho x?? h???i v?? ??au kh??? cho ng?????i ngh??o,???? t???o ra l???i ??ch nh??m, t???o ti???n ????? x???u, khi???n k??m h??m s??? ph??t tri???n l??nh m???nh c???a ng??nh gi??o d???c.
- ?????t ng?????i kh??ng ????? chuy??n m??n, kh??ng c?? kh??? n??ng quy t??? nh??n t??i, kh??ng ????? ph???m h???nh c???a m???t nh?? s?? ph???m v??o v??? tr?? l??nh ?????o ng??nh gi??o d???c ????o t???o.
Do ????, h??? ch??? loay hoay c??ng vi???c x??? l?? n???i b???, v??? nh???ng v???n ????? v???n v???t, kh??ng ????? kh??? n??ng bao qu??t to??n ng??nh, kh??ng ????? tr??nh ????? nh??n ra th??? gi???i v?? ti???p th??? tinh hoa gi??o d???c c???a nh??n lo???i.
- T???i nay c???n ph???i ch???m d???t ngay n???n l???m thu c???a nh?? tr?????ng; n???n b???o l???c h???c ???????ng v?? n???n gian l???n trong thi c???.
-Sau r???t l?? l????ng gi??o vi??n qu?? th???p, kh??ng ????? chi tr??? cho m???c s???ng t???i thi???u,khi???n h??? ph???i l??m ????? c??c c??ng vi???c kh??c(k??? c??? bu??n l???u) ????? ?????p ?????i cho cu???c s???ng th?????ng ng??y.V?? v???y,h??? kh??ng c?? th?? gi??? t??? h???c ????? n??ng cao nghi???p v???,kh??ng c?? c?? h???i d?? r???ng r???t khi??m t???n,????? th??? hi???n vai tr?? s?? ph???m v?? g??n gi??? nh??n c??ch m???t ng?????i th???y.V.v???

Thi???t ngh??,n???u ta kh???c ph???c ???????c nh???ng l??? h???ng kh???ng l??? tr??n, c?? ngh??a l?? ta ???? b?????c ?????u t??m ra gi???i ph??p ?????i m???i tri???t ????? c??ng vi???c c???i c??ch gi??o d???c v??? th???c ch???t.

H?? n???i, ng??y 02 th??ng 9 n??m 2019
H.Q.H

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