???????ng ti???n qu??n c???a k??? th?? ph????ng B???c khi x??m l??ng n?????c ta

Thứ ba - 17/09/2019 10:03
M???t n??ng d??n s???ng n??i h???o l??nh, th?????ng b??? tr???m c?????p vi???ng th??m, ???t ph???i ngh?? c??ch r??o d???u v?????n nh??, ????? ph??ng c???n m???t. M???t n?????c tr???i qua m???y ng??n n??m l???ch s??? b??? k??? th?? truy???n ki???p ti???p t???c d??m ng?? x??m l??ng, th?? nh???ng ng?????i lo vi???c qu??n s??? ho???c thi???t tha v???i ti???n ????? ?????t n?????c c???n ph???i bi???t trong qu?? tr??nh l???ch s??? qu??n gi???c
???????ng ti???n qu??n c???a k??? th?? ph????ng B???c khi x??m l??ng n?????c ta
???????ng ti???n qu??n c???a k??? th?? ph????ng B???c khi x??m l??ng n?????c ta
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TQ-VN

T??c gi???: H??? B???ch Th???o

M???t n??ng d??n s???ng n??i h???o l??nh, th?????ng b??? tr???m c?????p vi???ng th??m, ???t ph???i ngh?? c??ch r??o d???u v?????n nh??, ????? ph??ng c???n m???t. M???t n?????c tr???i qua m???y ng??n n??m l???ch s??? b??? k??? th?? truy???n ki???p ti???p t???c d??m ng?? x??m l??ng, th?? nh???ng ng?????i lo vi???c qu??n s??? ho???c thi???t tha v???i ti???n ????? ?????t n?????c c???n ph???i bi???t trong qu?? tr??nh l???ch s??? qu??n gi???c ???? t??? ng?? ng??ch n??o t???i. Nh???m ??n chuy???n c?? ????? bi???t vi???c hi???n t???i, b??i vi???t n??y ????? c???p ?????n nh???ng ??i???u thi???t y???u, m?? nh???ng ng?????i c?? tr??ch nhi???m kh??ng th??? kh??ng quan t??m.

Qua l???ch s???, ph???n l???n c??c cu???c ti???n c??ng x??m l??ng n?????c ta ?????u s??? d???ng con ???????ng d???ch tr???m chi???n l?????c ???????c Tr????ng Ph??? m?? t??? khi t??u l??n vua Minh Th??nh T???, nh??n ????nh th???ng nh?? H??? mang qu??n kh???i ho??n v??? n?????c:

Ng??y 11 th??ng 6 n??m V??nh L???c th??? 6 [4/7/1408]

T??n Th??nh h???u Tr????ng Ph??? t??u r???ng th???i gian b??nh ?????nh Giao Ch??? c??c nha m??n ???????c thi???t l???p, tri???u ????nh sai s??? ?????n, c??ng c??c ty t???u b??o ?????u qua d???ch tr???m. T???i c??c ph??? Qu??? L??m, Li???u Ch??u, Nam Ninh, Th??i B??nh thu???c t???nh Qu???ng T??y n??n l???p th??m 19 tr???m d???ch b???ng ng???a v?? ???????ng th???y. T??? tr???m ????ng Giang ph??? Qu??? L??m ?????n huy???n B???ng T?????ng ph??? T?? Minh, c??c tr???m d???ch b???ng ng???a tr?????c sau c?? t???t c??? 31 tr???m; ch??? n??o ???????ng xa n??n l???p trung tr???m; t??? ph??? Nam Ninh ?????n Long Ch??u ???????ng th???y d??i, n??n t??ng tr???m d???ch cho thuy???n, c??ng ?????t s??? v???n chuy???n??? [1]

Nh???m d??? hi???u, h??y d??ng t??n ?????t v?? ????n v??? ??o l?????ng ng??y nay ????? m?? t??? con ???????ng n??y:

Xu???t ph??t t??? Qu??? L??m c??ch bi??n gi???i n?????c ta kho???ng 500 km, ??i xu???ng ph??a t??y nam 150 km ?????n Li???u Ch??u, n??i m???t c???a v??n h??o n???i ti???ng ?????i ???????ng, Li???u T??ng Nguy??n; ti???p t???c theo h?????ng t??y nam 200 km ?????n Nam Ninh (Ung Ch??u), th??? ph??? t???nh Qu???ng T??y. T???i n??i n??y c??ch bi??n gi???i kho???ng 150 km, v??? tr?? g???n nh?? t??m v??ng tr??n, m?? bi??n gi???i Cao B???ng, L???ng S??n, Qu???ng Ninh l?? cung c???a v??ng tr??n; n??n c?? th??? s??? d???ng nhi???u ???????ng x??m nh???p v??o n?????c ta [2] :

T??? Nam Ninh theo h?????ng t??y nam ?????n S??ng T??? (th??? ph??? Th??i B??nh), qua Ninh Minh (ph??? T?? Minh c??), B???ng T?????ng; nh???m x??m nh???p c??c ???i C???p L??nh, Nam Quan;
T??? Nam Ninh theo ???????ng b??? d???c s??ng T??? Giang ?????n Long Ch??u, t??? ???? x??m nh???p t???nh Cao B???ng;
T??? Nam Ninh ??i ???????ng th???y theo s??ng T??? Giang ?????n Long Ch??u, n??i n??y d??ng s??ng r??? l??m hai. Nh??nh b??n tr??i x??m nh???p v??o t???nh L???ng S??n n?????c ta qua c???a ???i B??nh Nhi; nh??nh b??n ph???i ?????n c???a ???i Th???y Kh???u, s??ng n??y t???i n?????c ta c?? t??n l?? s??ng B???ng, ng?????c d??ng d???n ?????n t???nh l??? Cao B???ng;
D??ng ???????ng th???y ho???c b??? ?????n Ph??ng Th??nh, Qu???ng T??y; t??? ???? c?? th??? v??o t???nh Qu???ng Ninh b???ng hai ???????ng th???y, b???.
D???a v??o l???ch s???, c?? th??? ph??n ra nh???ng h?????ng x??m nh???p v??o n?????c, ta qua c??c th???i nh?? sau:

1. H?????ng L???ng S??n

Th???i vua L?? ?????i H??nh [980], nh?? T???ng sai vi??n Tri Ung Ch??u (Nam Ninh) H???ng Nh??n B???o l??m Giao Ch??u l???c l??? th???y l??? Chuy???n v???n S??? mang qu??n sang ????nh n?????c ta; th??ng 3 c??nh qu??n c???a Nh??n B???o v??o L???ng S??n [3] .
Th???i vua L?? Nh??n T??ng [1076] nh?? T???ng sai Qu??ch Qu?? ph???n c??ng ?????o qu??n c???a L?? Th?????ng Ki???t; ?????i qu??n c???a Qu??ch Qu?? t??? T?? Minh, B???ng T?????ng v?????t qua bi??n gi???i n?????c ta, theo ???????ng c???a ???i Nam Quan [4] .
Th???i nh?? Tr???n, Tho??t Hoan hai l???n ?????n x??m l??ng n?????c ta qua ng??? L???ng S??n, l???n th??? nh???t [1284] ti???n v??o Kh??u ??n, C???p L??nh. L???n th??? hai [1287] ????a Tr???n ??ch T???c tr??? v??? n?????c, qu??n b??? t???i L???c Ch??u; l??c r??t lui b??? qu??n nh?? Tr???n ch???n c???a ???i, ph???i nh??? ng?????i d???n ???????ng theo l???i t???t tho??t ra kh???i n?????c [5] .
Nh?? Minh 5 l???n mang ?????i qu??n v??o n?????c ta theo h?????ng L???ng S??n [6] .
L???n th??? nh???t [1406] Chu N??ng l??m T???ng Binh b??? b???nh m???t t???i Long Ch??u, Tr????ng Ph??? thay th??? mang qu??n t??? B???ng T?????ng v??o ???i Pha Lu??? (Nam Quan).
L???n th??? hai [1409] Tr????ng Ph??? mang qu??n sang c???u M???c Th???nh. L??c n??y b???n Th???nh thua to b???i qu??n kh???i ngh??a c???a Gi???n ?????nh ?????. Qu??n Tr????ng Ph??? ti???n theo h?????ng L???ng S??n, r???i ????ng qu??n t???i huy???n Ti??n Du, t???nh B???c Giang, ch???t g??? ????ng thuy???n ????? chu???n b??? th???y chi???n.
L???n th??? ba: sau khi ????nh d???p xong Gi???n ?????nh ?????, mang qu??n v??? ?????n Nam Ninh [1411]; Tr????ng Ph??? l???i xin mang qu??n tr??? l???i ????nh d???p qu??n c???a Tr???n Qu?? Kho??ch.
L???n th??? t??: V????ng Th??ng mang qu??n sang ti???p vi???n cho b???n Tr???n Tr?? [1426] b??? sa l???y b???i ngh??a qu??n L?? L???i.
L???n th??? n??m: Li???u Th??ng mang ?????i qu??n ti???p vi???n cho V????ng Th??ng [1427] b??? ph???c k??ch ch???t t???i ???i Chi L??ng, L???ng S??n.
Vua C??n Long nh?? Thanh [1788] sai T??n S?? Ngh??? mang qu??n sang x??m l??ng n?????c ta, qu??n t??? h?????ng Qu???ng T??y x??m nh???p c???a ???i L???ng S??n [7] .
2. H?????ng Cao B???ng

Tr?????c khi Qu??ch Qu?? mang ?????i qu??n v??o L???ng S??n [1706], vi??n t?????ng n??y c???n th???n ????? ph??ng L?? Th?????ng Ki???t d??ng qu??n t??? Cao B???ng ????nh ngang h??ng; n??n sai Ph?? t?????ng Y??n ?????t mang m???t c??nh qu??n t??? Qu???ng T??y v??o ????nh chi???m Qu???ng Nguy??n, thu???c t???nh Cao B???ng [8] .
C??ng th???i gian T??n S?? Ngh??? mang qu??n v??o L???ng S??n [1788], Tri ph??? S???m Nghi ?????ng xu???t qu??n t??? ??i???n Ch??u (v??? tr?? t???i s??ng H???u Giang, thu???c huy???n ??i???n D????ng ng??y nay) xu???ng ph??a nam b??ng qua bi??n gi???i ?????n M???c M?? Cao B???ng, qua Th??i Nguy??n, r???i c??ng c??nh qu??n T??n S?? Ngh??? ti???n ?????n th??nh nh?? L?? [H?? N???i] [9] .
3. H?????ng H?? Giang

C??ng ph???i h???p v???i ?????o qu??n T??n S?? Ngh??? theo th??? ??? d???c, c??nh qu??n V??n Nam do ?? ?????i Kinh ch??? huy v??o bi??n gi???i n?????c ta [1788] qua x??? ???? Long, r???i t??? th?????ng ngu???n s??ng L??, tr??n ???????ng ti???n ?????n th??nh nh?? L?? [H?? N???i].

4. H?????ng L??o Cai

T??? th???i nh?? T???ng tr??? v??? tr?????c, t???nh V??n Nam thu???c n?????c ?????i L??. ?????n ?????i Nguy??n, qu??n M??ng C??? b??ng qua t???nh T??? Xuy??n, chi???m n?????c ?????i L??, r???i ?????n bi??n gi???i n?????c ta [1257] t???i t???nh L??o Cai, ????i m?????n ???????ng ????? ????nh qu??n Nam T???ng t???i c??c ch??u Ung, Qu??? (ph??? Nam Ninh, Qu??? L??m thu???c t???nh Qu???ng T??y). Vua Tr???n Th??i T??ng kh?????c t???, qu??n Nguy??n theo ng??? L??o Cai x??m l??ng n?????c, nh??ng cu???i c??ng b??? th???t b???i [10] .
Song song v???i vi???c nh?? Minh 5 l???n mang qu??n sang ????nh n?????c ta theo h?????ng L???ng S??n, t???i V??n Nam M???c Th???nh c??ng ???????c l???nh mang qu??n ?????n n?????c ta ba l???n theo h?????ng L??o Cai [11] :
L???n th??? nh???t [1407]: Ph???i h???p v???i c??nh qu??n Tr????ng Ph??? ti???n c??ng theo h?????ng L???ng S??n, qu??n V??n Nam xu???t ph??t t??? M??ng T???, L??m An, theo d??ng s??ng Thao (H???ng H??) x??m nh???p n?????c ta. Hai c??nh qu??n h???p l???i, ????? chu???n b??? t???n c??ng th??nh ??a Bang.
L???n th??? hai [1408]: Qu??n Minh t???i n?????c ta kh??ng ch???ng n???i qu??n kh???i ngh??a c???a Gi???n ?????nh ?????, vua Minh Th??nh T??? sai M???c Th???nh mang qu??n theo ng??? L??o Cai sang t??ng c?????ng.
L???n th??? ba [1427]: M???c Th???nh c??ng Li???u Th??ng ???????c l???nh mang qu??n sang c???u V????ng Th??ng. Qu??n M???c Th???nh ?????n ch??u Th???y V??? , ch???n ch??? kh??ng ch???u ti???n, cu???i c??ng b??? qu??n vua L?? L???i ????nh thua.
5. H?????ng ???????ng bi???n t???nh Qu???ng Ninh

S??? ghi nh???n M?? Vi???n l?? ng?????i ?????u ti??n mang qu??n theo ???????ng bi???n ?????n ????nh n?????c ta th???i Hai B?? Tr??ng kh???i ngh??a [42], nh??ng kh??ng ghi r?? theo d??ng s??ng n??o v??o n?????c ta [12] .
Th???i nh?? Ng?? [938] Ho???ng Thao ti???n qu??n v??o s??ng B???ch ?????ng t???i t???nh Qu???ng Ninh b??? ?????i b???i, Ho??ng Thao b??? qu??n Ng?? Quy???n b???t s???ng.
Th???i nh?? L?? [1077], trong khi qu??n T???ng do Qu??ch Qu??? ch??? huy c???m c??? v???i qu??n ta t???i ph??ng tuy???n s??ng C???u; H??a M??n v?? D????ng T??ng Ti??n mang th???y qu??n t??? Qu???ng ????ng ??i d???c theo s??ng ????ng K??nh (c?? l??? l?? c???a Ti??n Y??n, Qu???ng Ninh ng??y nay) ????? v??o s??ng B???ch ?????ng, ph???i h???p v???i qu??n Qu??ch Qu??; nh??ng b??? qu??n ta ????nh ch???n n??n hai ?????o qu??n kh??ng ti???p x??c v???i nhau ???????c.
Th???i nh?? Tr???n [1287] th???y qu??n nh?? Nguy??n v??o ????nh ph?? c???a V??n ?????n; ??o??n thuy???n l????ng theo sau b??? qu??n c???a Tr???n Kh??nh D?? ????nh tan.
6. H?????ng Chi??m Th??nh c??

Nguy??n so??i Toa ???? nh?? Nguy??n ??em qu??n t??? V??n Nam [1285] qua n?????c L??o Qua, th???ng ?????n Chi??m Th??nh, h???i qu??n t???i ??, L?? r???i ????nh ch??u Hoan, ch??u ??i (Thanh, Ngh??? T??nh). [13]
Nh???m gi??p Chi??m Th??nh ????nh nh?? H??? [1406], vua Minh Th??nh T??? sai ???? ty Qu???ng ????ng ??i???u m???t to??n qu??n v?????t bi???n, ph???i h???p v???i Chi??m Th??nh ????nh n?????c ta t??? ph????ng nam.
***

X??t v??? s??? th??? x??a nay, n??i s??ng ?????a h??nh tuy c?? b???i l??? l???ch d??ng, nh??ng v???n c??n ????; ri??ng ph????ng ti???n giao th??ng th?? ???? thay ?????i r???t nhi???u. Ng??y x??a ???????ng b??? t??nh b???ng ng??y ???????ng, nh???t k?? c???a Th?????ng th?? Ho??ng Ph??c sang l??m quan t???i n?????c ta d?????i th???i Minh thu???c, ghi v??? ??o???n ???????ng bi??n gi???i L???ng S??n nh?? sau:

S??ng s???m t??? ???i Pha L??y t???i bi??n gi???i ??i ng???a ?????n gi??? Ng??? ?????n ?????n Kh??u ??n.Ng??y h??m sau kh???i h??nh t??? s??ng t???i Kh??u ??n ?????n gi??? Ng??? ?????n ???I L??u, ti???p t???c ?????n chi???u ?????n ?????n K?? Linh [L??ng]. ??i ti???p 2 ng??y ?????n ?????n C???n Tr???m???

Qu??n M??ng C??? v??o c???a ???i n?????c ta t???i v??ng Lai Ch??u, d?? m???c n?????c n??ng s??u ????? phi ng???a v?????t s??ng, b???ng c??ch gi????ng cung, l???p t??n, b???n xu???ng n?????c; n???u t??n c???m xu???ng n?????c kh??ng n???i l??n, t???c m???c n?????c c???n; n???u t??n kh??ng xu???ng ???????c ?????n ????y n??n n???i b???nh l??n, t???c n?????c s??u. V??? vi???c ??i bi???n th?? ph???i ch??? th??ng gi?? m??a, c?? nh???ng l??c ?????ng gi??, thuy???n nh?? b??? m???c b???y gi???a ?????i d????ng, su???t ng??y n??y qua ng??y kh??c.

Ng??y nay ra kh???i bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Trung, ???????ng xe l???a, ???????ng cao t???c, t???c ????? 100km/gi???; t???i c??c ?????a danh ???? ???????c ????? c???p nh?? Nam Ninh, Long Ch??u v.v??? ?????u c?? phi tr?????ng l???n nh???; ngo??i bi???n, chi???n h???m v???i t???c ????? v??i ch???c h???i l?? gi???, khi???n Bi???n ????ng c?? h??? nh??? l???i nh?? m???t c??i ao!

Tuy nhi??n trong s??? bi???n c??ng c?? th??? r??t ra nh???ng ??i???m chung. Qua ph???n l???n c??c cu???c chi???n tranh x??m l??ng n?????c ta t??? x??a ?????n nay, Trung Qu???c th?????ng d??ng Nam Ninh (ch??u Ung) l??m ??i???m t???p trung qu??n, kho d??? tr??? l????ng th???c. Th???i nh?? T???ng, T??? t?????ng V????ng An Th???ch sai vi??n Tri ch??u Th???m Kh???i hu???n luy???n qu??n man ?????ng, tu s???a thuy???n b?? chu???n b??? sang ????nh n?????c ta; t?????ng L?? Th?????ng Ki???t nh?? L?? ra tay tr?????c, v??y ????nh th??nh Ung h??n 40 ng??y, cu???i c??ng h??? ???????c. Nh??? vi??n Tri ch??u T?? Giam li???u ch???t t??? th???, n??n nh?? T???ng k???p th???i chu???n b???. ????? c???p ?????n v??? tr?? chi???n l?????c quan tr???ng c???a th??nh Ung [Nam Ninh]; vua Th???n T??ng nh?? T???ng, g???i con T?? Giam l?? Nguy??n ?????n an ???i t???i tri???u ??i???n, ???? ti???t l??? nh?? sau: ???N???u Ung ch??u kh??ng ???????c cha ng????i th??? ng???, ????? m???t nh?? hai ch??u Li??m, Kh??m, th?? gi???c c?? th??? th???a th???ng ??u???i d??i, c??c v??ng T??n, T?????ng, Qu??? (t???nh Qu???ng ????ng, Qu???ng T??y) kh??ng th??? n??o gi??? n???i.??? [14]

Ng??y nay h??y nh??n qua th??nh ph??? Nam Ninh (Ung Ch??u), v???n l?? n??i ???? h???i. Kh??ng k??? ?????n xe l???a v?? h??ng kh??ng, ???????ng cao t???c, xa l??? n??i ????y ch???ng ch???t; ph??a ????ng b???c ch???y ?????n H??? Nam, H??? B???c, B???c Kinh; ph??a ????ng ?????n Qu???ng Ch??u, H???ng K??ng; ph??a nam ?????n L???ng S??n, Cao B???ng; ph??a t??y ?????n V??n Nam, r???i ?????n L??o Cai, H?? Giang n?????c ta; ph??a t??y b???c ?????n Qu?? Ch??u, T??? Xuy??n. V??? ???????ng th???y th?? h??? l??u con s??ng t???i Nam Ninh ch???y xu???ng Qu???ng Ch??u, Ma Cao, H???ng K??ng; th?????ng l??u n???i s??ng T??? giang, ng???n ngu???n ?????n t???n c??c t???nh L???ng S??n, Cao B???ng n?????c ta. N???u chi???n tranh Trung ??? Vi???t x???y ra, Nam Ninh c??ch bi??n gi???i n?????c ta kho???ng 150 km, ngo??i t???m b???n c???a c??c lo???i ?????i ph??o; l?? n??i t???p trung an to??n cho l????ng th???c, qu??n ?????i, ????? thu???n ti???n ??i???u ??i c??c m???t tr???n; v??? m???t chi???n l?????c, n??i n??y v???n x???ng ????ng l?? m???t ?????i b???n doanh.

Ri??ng k??? ho???ch x??m l??ng n?????c ta t??? h?????ng nam ???? c?? t??? th???i nh?? T???ng. L??c b???y gi??? [1076] Qu??ch Qu?? mang ?????i qu??n xu???ng Ung ch??u (Nam Ninh) chu???n bi t???n c??ng bi??n gi???i ph??a b???c n?????c ta, l???i sai M??n H??a v?? D????ng T??ng Ti??n ??em qu??n theo ???????ng bi???n, nh???m h???p qu??n v???i Chi??m Th??nh ????? ????nh mi???n nam, nh??ng cu???i c??ng k??? ho???ch n??y b??? b??i b??? [15] . Nh?? ???? ????? c???p ??? ph???n tr??n, tr???i qua c??c ?????i Nguy??n, Minh; vi???c mang qu??n ????nh t??? Chi??m Th??nh ra B???c ???? ???????c ti???p t???c th???c hi???n. Ng??y nay h???i qu??n k??? thu???t h??n h???n ng??y x??a, th?? vi???c ????? b??? ????? chia c???t ph???n ???????n g??nh???, chi???u ngang d?????i 100 km thu???c mi???n Trung n?????c ta, ch???c v???n n???m trong s??? t??nh to??n c???a nh???ng nh?? c???m qu??n ?????i H??n!

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