C?? Hannah

Thứ hai - 08/07/2019 22:05
T??n th???t l?? Tr???nh Th??? Ng???, nh??ng c?? t??? g???i m??nh l?? Thu H????ng, ???H????ng c???a m??a Thu.??? C??n ch??ng t??i g???i c?? l?? Hannah H?? N???i ??? gi???ng n??? ch??nh trong ch????ng tr??nh tuy??n truy???n c???a B???c Vi???t qua l??n s??ng ph??t thanh nh???m v??o qu??n nh??n M??? tr??n kh???p mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam,

S??? b?? ???n c???a n??ng ???Hannah H?? N???i???

a n??ng ???Hannah H?? N???i???


Ngu???n: Don North, ???The Mystery of Hanoi Hannah???, The New York Times, 28/02/2018.
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
T??n th???t l?? Tr???nh Th??? Ng???, nh??ng c?? t??? g???i m??nh l?? Thu H????ng, ???H????ng c???a m??a Thu.??? C??n ch??ng t??i g???i c?? l?? Hannah H?? N???i ??? gi???ng n??? ch??nh trong ch????ng tr??nh tuy??n truy???n c???a B???c Vi???t qua l??n s??ng ph??t thanh nh???m v??o qu??n nh??n M??? tr??n kh???p mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam, c??? g???ng thuy???t ph???c h??? r???ng chi???n tranh l?? tr??i ?????o ?????c v?? h??y bu??ng b??? v?? kh?? m?? tr??? v??? qu?? nh??.
C??ng vi???c c???a Hannah l?? khi???n ng?????i ta th?? gi??n pha ch??t lo l???ng, ch??? kh??ng ph???i d??? d??? hay quy???n r??. Ti???ng Anh c???a c?? g???n nh?? ho??n h???o v?? b???t c??? g?? ????n ??ng n??o c??ng s??? ???sa ng????? khi nghe ti???ng c?? qua radio v?? ch???ng th??? n??o quay ??i. ???C??c anh c?? kh???e kh??ng, ch??ng l??nh M??? v?? danh????- c?? h???i trong m???t ch????ng tr??nh ph??t s??ng th??ng 06/1967. ???T??i th???y r???ng h???u h???t c??c anh ?????u kh??ng ???????c bi???t nhi???u v??? di???n bi???n c???a cu???c chi???n, ch???ng m???t ai cho c??c anh l???i gi???i th??ch r??nh r???t cho s??? hi???n di???n c???a c??c anh ??? ????y. Kh??ng g?? kh?? hi???u h??n l?? b??? ra l???nh b?????c v??o m???t cu???c chi???n ????? r???i ph???i m???t m???ng hay th????ng t???t c??? ?????i m?? ch???ng c?? l???y m???t ?? ni???m, d?? l?? m??? nh???t nh???t, v??? nh???ng chuy???n ??ang x???y ra.???
Hannah sinh t???i H?? N???i v??o n??m 1931. Cha c?? l?? ??ng ch??? nh?? m??y th???y tinh l???n nh???t Vi???t Nam. C?? m?? phim M???. Cu???n phim ??a th??ch c???a c?? l?? Cu???n theo chi???u gi??, m?? c?? xem ?????n t???n n??m l???n. ??i???u c?? mu???n l?? th?????ng th???c phim m?? kh??ng c???n ph??? ????? ti???ng Ph??p ho???c ti???ng Vi???t, v???y n??n ph??? m???u ???? quy???t ?????nh thu?? gia s?? ri??ng d???y c?? ti???ng Anh.
N??m 1955, Hannah gia nh???p ????i Ti???ng n??i Vi???t Nam (V.O.V.), ????i ph??t thanh l???n nh???t ?????t n?????c, v???i t?? c??ch l?? m???t t??nh nguy???n vi??n. Gi???ng Anh chu???n kh??ng pha, ng??? ??i???u ch??nh x??c v?? v???n t??? v???ng phong ph?? s???m gi??p c?? nh???n ???????c chi???c gh??? ph??t thanh vi??n ?????c tin t???c ?????n c??c qu???c gia n??i ti???ng Anh ??? ch??u ??.
N??m 1965, khi l???c l?????ng m???t ?????t ?????u ti??n c???a M???, l??nh Th???y qu??n L???c chi???n, ????? b??? v??o ???? N???ng th?? V.O.V., v???n c?? tr??? s??? ??? ph??a B???c, c??ng b???t ?????u ch????ng tr??nh tuy??n truy???n ph??t thanh nh???m v??o l??nh M???.
?????n th???i ??i???m ????, l??n s??ng ph??t thanh tr??n kh???p hai mi???n Nam, B???c Vi???t Nam ???? tr??? th??nh chi???n tr?????ng g??y b???i r???i v???i nh???ng gi???ng n??i tuy??n truy???n m??u thu???n nhau. ???Chi???m gi??? t??m tr?? ng?????i kh??c v?? tr??i tim c???a h??? s??? theo sau,??? c??? hai phe ?????u c?? h??ng ch???c ????i ph??t thanh tuy??n truy???n nh???ng l???i ??c ?? v?? nh???ng th??ng tin sai l???ch v??? nhau su???t 24/7. V??? ph???n m??nh, k???ch b???n c???a Hannah ???????c vi???t b???i c??c chuy??n gia tuy??n truy???n c???a Qu??n ?????i B???c Vi???t c??ng v???i c??c c??? v???n ng?????i Cuba. Ch????ng tr??nh c???a c?? s???m ???????c k??o d??i ?????n 30 ph??t v?? ph??t s??ng ba l???n m???t ng??y.
C?? ???y th???t ra c??ng l?? m???t ngu???n tin t???c. Hannah H?? N???i l?? ng?????i ????a tin v??? m???t trong nh???ng c??u chuy???n g??y s???c nh???t trong Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam ??? v??? th???m s??t h??ng tr??m d??n th?????ng ??? l??ng M??? Lai n??m 1968. Ch??? v??i tu???n sau v??? vi???c, Hannah ???? n??u ch??nh x??c t??n ?????a ??i???m v?? ?????c t??nh s??? th?????ng d??n thi???t m???ng, nh??ng c?? ???? x??c ?????nh nh???m ????n v??? Qu??n ?????i M??? tham gia, nh??? th??? m?? ng?????i M??? c?? th??? ph??? nh???n tin t???c v?? coi n?? nh?? m???t v?? d??? kh??c v??? vi???c B???c Vi???t b??p m??o th??ng tin.
L???n ?????u ti??n t??i nghe gi???ng n??i m?????t nh?? nhung c???a Hannah H?? N???i l?? v??o th??ng 09/1965, t???i m???t c??n c??? c???a l???c l?????ng ?????c Nhi???m ??? An L???c, kho???ng m???t tr??m d???m v??? ph??a t??y Nha Trang. L?? ph??ng vi??n tin t???c, t??i th?????ng ??i tu???n v???i nhi???u nh??m d??n qu??n ng?????i Th?????ng v?? c??c c??? v???n ng?????i M??? c???a h???. L??c ???y, tr???i ???? m??a r???n r?? su???t m???t tu???n, khi???n chi???c m??y bay ch??? h??ng ti???p vi???n, ph????ng th???c gi??p t??i r???i kh???i ????y, kh??ng th??? h??? c??nh. M???i t???i, sau khi tu???n tra khu v???c xung quanh, ch???ng c??n g?? ????? l??m ngo??i ch??i v??i v??n b??i, ?????c s??ch, u???ng bia 333 v?? nghe ????i. ??? T??y Nguy??n, s??ng V.O.V. r???t to v?? r??.
????m ????, Hannah cho ph??t xen k??? nh???c rock ph????ng T??y v???i b???n tin c???a m??nh. B???n We Gotta Get out of This Place c???a The Animals vang l??n, theo sau l?? gi???ng Hannah: ???V?? sau ????y l?? ph???n tin chi???n tranh. ??i???m qua th????ng vong c???a ng?????i M??? ??? Vi???t Nam. H??? s?? Larry J. Samples, Canada, Alabama, ??? Trung s?? Charles R. Miller, Tucson, Arizona, ??? Th?????ng s?? Frank Hererra, Coolige, Arizona.???
Ch????ng tr??nh ph??t s??ng c???a c?? g???n nh?? ch??? to??n nh???ng tin t???c chi???n tranh ???????c th???i ph???ng, c??? ?????ng vi???c ??m s??t c???p tr??n (frag) hay ????o ng?? (AWOL), ho???c ???n ?? r???ng v???/b???n g??i c???a nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ??ang l???a d???i h???. Hannah lu??n ???????c ch??o ????n v???i ti???ng c?????i, trong khi b??i ph???ng v???n c??c phi c??ng b??? b???n h??? ho???c nh???ng ng?????i M??? ch???ng chi???n tranh nh?? Jane Fonda l???i ???????c ????n nh???n b???ng s??? t???c gi???n.
?????i v???i l??nh M??? ??ang ch??n ch?????ng, ch????ng tr??nh c???a Hannah l?? m???t ngu???n gi???i tr?? hi???m hoi. Radio l?? t??i s???n qu?? gi?? nh???t c???a m???t ng?????i l??nh, ch??? sau kh???u s??ng c???a anh ta. Gi???ng nh?? b??ng s??ng, radio c??ng ???????c b???o v??? b???ng c??ch b???c trong nh???ng d???i b??ng ??en ??eo c???nh s?????n. L??nh M??? ch??? c?????i nh???o nh???ng n??? l???c c???a Hannah nh???m h?? d???a h???, k??u g???i ????o ng??, hay ????? ngh??? s??t h???i m???t s?? quan. Nh??ng h??? v???n lu??n t??? h???i li???u c?? ???y tr??ng c?? ????ng y??u nh?? ch???t gi???ng c???a m??nh, v?? nhi???u ng?????i th???m ch?? coi c?? ???y l?? k??? th?? l???n nh???t, sau H??? Ch?? Minh.
Hannah th?????ng xuy??n n??i v??? nh???ng l??nh M??? da ??en. Trong m???t l???n ph??t s??ng, c?? n??i r???ng ???M???t l??nh M??? da ??en t???i Vi???t Nam v???a t??? ch???i tr??? th??nh n???n nh??n c???a n???n ph??n bi???t ch???ng t???c l?? Billy Smith. S??ng ng??y 15/03, m???t tr??i l???u ?????n qu??? d???a ???? ph??t n??? trong m???t doanh tr???i s?? quan ??? Bi??n H??a, gi???t ch???t hai trung ??y. Smith b??? truy n?? tr??i ph??p, b??? b???t v?? t???ng v??o nh?? t?? Long B??nh v?? mang v??? x??t x??? t???i M???. B???ng ch???ng cho th???y anh c?? t???i bao g???m: l?? ng?????i da ??en, ngh??o, ph???n ?????i chi???n tranh v?? t??? ch???i tr??? th??nh n???n nh??n c???a n???n ph??n bi???t ch???ng t???c.???
Khi b???o l???c n??? ra ??? Detroit v??o ng??y 23/07/1967, Hannah ngay l???p t???c ????a tin. M???i c??n c??? qu??n s??? c???a M??? ?????u l???ng im khi c?? cho ph??t s??ng m???i chi ti???t m??nh c??.
Mike Roberts, m???t ng?????i l??nh t??? Detroit ?????n ????ng qu??n t???i ???? N???ng, nh??? r???t r?? tu???n l??? ????. ???Hannah ti???p t???c v?? c?? ???y bi???t r?? ????n v??? n??o ???? ???????c ??i???u ?????ng v?? lo???i v?? kh?? n??o ???????c s??? d???ng,??? anh n??i. ???T??? l??c ????, ch??ng t??i b???t ?????u h?????ng v??? qu?? nh??. Ch??ng t??i bi???t v??? lo???i v?? kh?? ???y v?? s??? t??n ph?? m?? ch??ng c?? th??? g??y ra cho con ng?????i, v?? b??y gi??? nh???ng v?? kh?? t????ng t??? ??ang ch??a v??o ng?????i d??n ch??ng ta, anh bi???t ?????y, qu??n ?????i c???a ch??ng ta ??ang gi???t ch???t ch??nh ng?????i d??n c???a ch??ng ta. Ch??ng ta c??ng nh?? Vi???t C???ng m?? th??i. Hannah ???? ch???n ch??? ????? n??y v?? n??i v??? n??.???
Hannah H?? N???i c?? th??? y??n t??m r???ng s??? lu??n c?? th??nh gi??? ng?????i M??? l???ng nghe ch????ng tr??nh ph??t s??ng c???a c?? ??? ch??nh l?? c??c t?? nh??n chi???n tranh ??? nh???ng n??i nh?? Tr???i giam H???a L??, m?? l??nh M??? g???i l?? ???Kh??ch s???n Hilton H?? N???i.??? John McCain, m???t t?? nh??n ??? ???? su???t h??n 5 n??m, g???n ????y ???? nh???n x??t: ???T??i nghe Hannah m???i ng??y. C?? ???y l?? m???t ngh??? s?? gi???i tr?? tuy???t v???i. T??i l???y l??m ng???c nhi??n khi c?? kh??ng ?????n ???????c Hollywood.???
Thi???u t?? Ray Voden, b??? b???n h??? t???i H?? N???i v??o ng??y 03/04/1965, ???? nghe ch????ng tr??nh c???a Hannah trong 8 n??m. ???Hannah th?????ng khu???y ?????ng tranh lu???n gi???a c??c t?? nh??n chi???n tranh. ???? c?? l???n ch??ng t??i su??t n???a ????nh nhau v?? c??. M???t s??? k??? mu???n nghe c?? ???y, trong khi nh???ng ng?????i kh??c c??? g???ng ph???t l???. C?? nh??n t??i ch???n l???ng nghe v?? t??i th?????ng l?????m l???t th??ng tin, c??? g???ng t??m ra s??? th???t.???
Trong v??ng 5 n??m sau khi t??i tr??? th??nh ph??ng vi??n c???a ABC News, g???n nh?? ng??y n??o t??i c??ng thu ??m l???i c??c ch????ng tr??nh ph??t s??ng c???a Hannah, ph??ng khi c?? ???y c?? v??i m???u tin ????ng gi??, hay c?? b??i ph???ng v???n m???t phi c??ng M??? b??? b???t. V???i t??i, c?? ????n gi???n ch??? l?? m???t ngu???n th??ng tin c???n ???????c ki???m tra v?? ph??n lo???i trong h??ng lo???t c??c ngu???n tin v??? Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam.
Th??ng 05/1978, t??i quay l???i Vi???t Nam v?? ????? ngh??? B??? Ngo???i giao s???p x???p m???t cu???c ph???ng v???n v???i Tr???nh Th??? Ng???. L??c ???y, Hannah H?? N???i ???? r???i H?? N???i y??u d???u c???a m??nh v?? chuy???n ?????n Th??nh ph??? H??? Ch?? Minh, v???n ???????c ?????i t??n t??? S??i G??n, c??ng ch???ng l?? m???t ng?????i mi???n nam v?? l?? m???t s?? quan Qu??n ?????i Vi???t Nam. ??i???m h???n l?? qu??n bar tr??n t???ng th?????ng Kh??ch s???n Rex, n??i t??i ch??? ?????i c??ng v???i Ken Watkins, t???ng l?? l??nh Th???y qu??n L???c chi???n v?? l?? th??nh gi??? quen thu???c c???a Hannah.
Trong khi ch??? ?????i, Ken h???i t?????ng nh???ng k?? ???c c???a m??nh v??? Hannah. ???S??ng radio kh?? t???t ??? ???? N???ng, v?? th?????ng th?? m???t ho???c hai l???n m???i tu???n, ch??ng t??i b???t ????i ????? nghe c?? ???y n??i v??? cu???c chi???n,??? ??ng n??i. ???K???ch b???n c???a Hannah kh??ng h???n l?? c?? ?? ngh??a; c?? ???y s??? d???ng ti???ng Anh-M???, nh??ng kh??ng th???c s??? n??i th??? ng??n ng??? c???a ch??ng ta, b???t ch???p bi???u c???m v?? ng??? ??i???u c?? chu???n ?????n ????u, th???m ch?? c??n d??ng c??? nh???ng b??i h??t b??? c???m tr??n ????i ph??t thanh c???a qu??n ?????i M???. ??i???u tuy???t v???i nh???t ??? Hannah ???? l??: c?? l?? ph??? n???, v???i ch???t gi???ng nh??? nh??ng.???
T??i h???i ??ng c?? c??n gi???n c?? kh??ng. ???Ch???c ch???n,??? ??ng n??i, ???m???t ki???u th?? gh??t, m???t d??ng trong ???danh s??ch Vi???t Nam??? c???a t??i. Nh??ng l???n tr??? l???i n??y l?? ????? hi???u r?? h??n v??? r???t nhi???u ??i???u, v?? c?? ???y l?? m???t gi???ng n??i t??? qu?? kh??? t??i mu???n tr?? chuy???n tr???c ti???p.???
Th??? l??, m???t c???u l??nh th???y ????nh b??? v?? m???t c???u ph??ng vi??n chi???n tr?????ng ???? d??nh bu???i s??ng ?????y n???ng ???? ????? ch??? ?????i Hannah H?? N???i xu???t hi???n, mong r???ng th???c t??? s??? qu??t s???ch nh???ng n??m th??ng ?????y h??nh ???nh cay ?????ng trong t??m tr?? c???a ch??ng t??i. M???t B?? R???ng? Chuy??n gia v??? chi???n tranh t??m l??? Nh?? ti??n tri? Hay th??? g?? ???? kh??c?
Nh??ng c??ng nh?? nh???ng b??ng ma kh??c c???a cu???c chi???n, Hannah kh??ng nh?? ch??ng t??i t?????ng t?????ng. C?? ch???ng c?? ch??t g?? c???a B?? R???ng trong Terry and the Pirates. Thanh l???ch v?? quy???n r?? trong chi???c ??o d??i m??u v??ng n???i b???t, trang ph???c truy???n th???ng c???a Vi???t Nam, Hannah xu???t hi???n vui v??? tr??? l???i c??u h???i c???a ch??ng t??i.
Sau khi c?? ng???i xu???ng, t??i h???i c?? ???y l???y tin t???c ??? ????u.
???T??? Stars and Stripes,??? c?? tr??? l???i, ????? c???p ?????n t??? b??o qu??n s??? ch??nh c???a Qu??n ?????i M???. ???Ch??ng t??i ?????c tin t???c t??? n??. Ch??ng t??i c?? b??o m???i m???i ng??y. Ch??ng t??i c??ng ?????c c??? Newsweek, Times v?? m???t s??? t??? b??o kh??c. Ch??ng t??i xem nh???n x??t c???a c??c nh?? b??o M??? v?? ????a ch??ng v??o ch????ng tr??nh ph??t s??ng c???a m??nh, ?????c bi???t l?? v??? th????ng vong.???
C?? ???? bao gi??? c???m th???y t???c gi???n qu??n ?????i M??? ch??a?
???Khi bom r??i xu???ng H?? N???i, t??i c?? c???m th???y t???c gi???n,??? c?? n??i. ???V???i ng?????i Vi???t, H?? N???i l?? m???t m???nh ?????t thi??ng li??ng. Nh??ng ngay c??? c?? th??? th?? l??c n??i chuy???n v???i l??nh G.I.s, t??i v???n lu??n c??? g???ng b??nh t??nh. T??i ch??a bao gi??? th???y mu???n g??y h???n v???i ng?????i M???. T??i ch??a bao gi??? g???i h??? l?? k??? th??, ch??? l?? ?????i th???.???
Ch??ng t??i tr?? chuy???n m???t l??c, v??? m???c ti??u c???a c??, nh???ng th??nh c??ng v?? c??? nh???ng nu???i ti???c c???a c??. Sau ????, t??i h???i th??m m???t c??u ??? Hannah s??? n??i g??, n???u c?? ???y c?? m???t ch????ng tr??nh ph??t s??ng cu???i c??ng cho l??nh M????
???H??y ????? cho qu?? kh??? ???????c l?? qu?? kh???,??? c?? ????p. ???H??y ????? m???i chuy???n qua ??i v?? tr??? th??nh b???n b??. S??? c?? l???i h??n n???u ch??ng ta c?? th??? l??m b???n v???i nhau. Ch???ng c?? l?? do g?? ????? tr??? th??nh k??? th??.???
G???p g??? v?? ph???ng v???n Hannah H?? N???i, ?????i v???i t??i, gi???ng nh?? vi???c tr??? th??nh Dorothy g??? b??? t???m m??n che gi???u Ph?? th???y x??? Oz. C?? Hannah kh???ng khi???p m?? ch??ng t??i t?????ng t?????ng, h??a ra l?? m???t ph??t thanh vi??n ??n h??a, n??i ti???ng Anh tr??i ch???y v?? ?????c t??? Stars and Stripes.
Tr???nh Th??? Ng??? m???t ng??y 30/09/2016 ??? tu???i 85. B?? ???????c an t??ng t???i Long Tri, huy???n Ch??u Th??nh, t???nh Long An, theo phong t???c ch??n c???t c???a ng?????i Vi???t b??n c???nh ch???ng v?? gia ????nh ??ng. Con trai duy nh???t c???a b?? ???? r???i Vi???t Nam v??o n??m 1973 v?? hi???n ??ang s???ng ??? San Francisco.
Don North, trong giai ??o???n 1965 -1973, l?? ph??ng vi??n th???i s??? chuy??n ????a tin v??? Vi???t Nam. ??ng l?? t??c gi??? cu???n ???Inappropriate Conduct: Mystery of a Disgraced War Correspondent,??? ?????ng th???i c??n l?? th??nh vi??n c???a Vietnam Old Hacks, m???t t??? ch???c g???m c??c nh?? b??o k??? c???u t???ng l??m vi???c t???i Vi???t Nam.
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o
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