#232 ??? H??? tr??? anh em: B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c v?? Vi???t Nam DCCH trong Chi???n tranh VN

Chủ nhật - 08/09/2019 19:36
Trong th??? gi???i th???i k??? h???u Th??? Chi???n II, nhi???u m???i li??n k???t m???i ???????c thi???t l???p gi???a c??i g???i l?? ???Th??? gi???i th??? hai??? v?? ???c??c n?????c ph????ng Nam.??? T??i li???u n??y nghi??n c???u vai tr?? c???a C???ng h??a D??n ch??? ?????c, hay ????ng ?????c, nh?? l?? th??nh vi??n th??? c???p c???a phe x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a trong s??? ph??t tri???n c???a ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i nh?? n?????c v?? hi???n ?????i h??a nh?? n?????c t???i Vi???t Nam. B??i vi???t ph??n t??ch nh???ng m???i li??n h??? ???????c t???o n??n gi???a c?? quan m???t v??? c???a m???t n?????c nh??? trong Chi???n tranh L???nh, ????ng ?????c, v?? c?? quan t??nh b??o m???i ???????c th??nh l???p
#232 ??? H??? tr??? anh em: B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c v?? Vi???t Nam DCCH trong Chi???n tranh VN
#232 ??? H??? tr??? anh em: B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c v?? Vi???t Nam DCCH trong Chi???n tranh VN


Ngu???n: Martin Grossheim, ???Fraternal Support: The East German ???Stasi??? and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam War???, Cold War International History Project Working Paper #71, September 2014.>>PDF
Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng
B??i li??n quan: ???Ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? ??? Vi???t Nam DCCH: B???ng ch???ng m???i t??? kho t?? li???u ????ng ?????c
Gi???i thi???u
Trong th??? gi???i th???i k??? h???u Th??? Chi???n II, nhi???u m???i li??n k???t m???i ???????c thi???t l???p gi???a c??i g???i l?? ???Th??? gi???i th??? hai??? v?? ???c??c n?????c ph????ng Nam.??? T??i li???u n??y nghi??n c???u vai tr?? c???a C???ng h??a D??n ch??? ?????c, hay ????ng ?????c, nh?? l?? th??nh vi??n th??? c???p c???a phe x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a trong s??? ph??t tri???n c???a ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i nh?? n?????c v?? hi???n ?????i h??a nh?? n?????c t???i Vi???t Nam. B??i vi???t ph??n t??ch nh???ng m???i li??n h??? ???????c t???o n??n gi???a c?? quan m???t v??? c???a m???t n?????c nh??? trong Chi???n tranh L???nh, ????ng ?????c, v?? c?? quan t??nh b??o m???i ???????c th??nh l???p c???a n?????c Vi???t Nam D??n ch??? C???ng H??a (Vi???t Nam DCCH) th???i k??? h???u thu???c ?????a. T???ng qu??t h??n, b??i vi???t nh???n m???nh vai tr?? c???a c??c n?????c ngo???i vi v?? ch???ng minh t???m quan tr???ng c???a nh???ng n?????c v???a v?? nh??? trong l???ch s??? Chi???n tranh L???nh.[1]
B??n c???nh ????, b??i vi???t n??y l?? m???t ????ng g??p cho l???ch s??? t??nh b??o. N??m 1984, nh?? s??? h???c ng?????i Anh Christopher Andrew ???? than phi???n r???ng t??nh b??o l?? m???t kh??a c???nh c??n thi???u trong s??? s??ch.[2] K??? t??? ????, ???nghi??n c???u t??nh b??o??? ???? n??? r??? v?? ???cung c???p nh???ng hi???u bi???t m???i v?? th?? v??? v??? chi???n tranh, x?? h???i, t?? t?????ng, th??? ch???, v?? th???m ch?? l?? v??n h??a v?? t?? duy.???[3] Tuy nhi??n, h???u h???t nh???ng nghi??n c???u n??y c?? xu h?????ng t???p trung v??o th??? gi???i ph????ng T??y, v?? c??c qu???c gia-d??n t???c h???u thu???c ?????a th?????ng kh??ng ???????c t??nh ?????n.[4] Nh??ng c??c t??? ch???c v?? c?? quan t??nh b??o c??ng quan tr???ng ?????i v???i s??? ph??t tri???n ch??nh tr??? v?? x?? h???i trong c??c n?????c ph????ng Nam nh?? ch??ng ???? t???ng ??? ph????ng T??y. Trong nghi??n c???u ?????u ti??n c???a m??nh v??? vai tr?? c???a t??nh b??o ??? Vi???t Nam trong cu???c kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p, Christopher Goscha ???? ch???ng minh ???c?? quan an ninh v?? t??nh b??o Vi???t Nam ???? tham gia s??u v??o vi???c x??y d???ng, b???o v??? v?? m??? r???ng nh?? n?????c, l???c l?????ng v?? trang, v?? quy???n l???c c???ng s???n c???a Vi???t Nam??? nh?? th??? n??o.[5] M???c ????ch c???a t??i trong b??i vi???t n??y l?? x??y d???ng d???a tr??n nghi??n c???u ti??n phong c???a Goscha b???ng c??ch t???p trung v??o vai tr?? c???a b??? m??y an ninh B???c Vi???t sau n??m 1953 v?? m???i quan h??? c???a n?? v???i B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c. D?? b??? m??y an ninh Vi???t Nam ???? b???t ?????u h??nh th??nh tr?????c n??m 1953 v?? d???a tr??n m?? h??nh c???a Ph??p (S??ret??), Anh (MI6), Nh???t B???n, v?? Trung Qu???c, b??i vi???t n??y ch??? t???p trung v??o giai ??o???n th??? hai, b???t ?????u t??? n??m 1953 v???i vi???c th??nh l???p m???t b??? ch??nh th???c.
T??i s??? d???ng c??c h??? s?? c???a B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c tr?????c ????y, th?????ng ???????c g???i l?? ???Stasi,??? l???ch s??? ch??nh th???c c???a B??? C??ng an Vi???t Nam, v?? c??c b??i b??o ???????c vi???t b???i c??c c??n b??? ???? ngh??? h??u c???a b??? m??y an ninh Vi???t Nam. Trong nh???ng th??ng h???n lo???n sau s??? s???p ????? c???a b???c t?????ng Berlin v??o th??ng 11 n??m 1989, h???u h???t c??c h??? s?? c???a C???c X thu???c B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c, c?? quan ph??? tr??ch quan h??? qu???c t??? v???i c??c n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a kh??c, b??? ph?? h???y, nh??ng may m???n thay r???t nhi???u t??i li???u v??? m???i quan h??? gi???a c?? quan an ninh ????ng ?????c v?? Vi???t Nam l???i ???s???ng s??t.??? Nh???ng h??? s?? n??y ?????n nay v???n ch??a ???????c s??? d???ng, m???c d?? ch??ng kh??ng ch??? cung c???p th??ng tin v??? m???t ch????ng l???ch s??? Chi???n tranh L???nh b??? l??ng qu??n, s??? h???p t??c gi???a Stasi ????ng ?????c v?? B??? C??ng an Vi???t Nam, m?? c??n ????a ra m???t c??i nh??n s??u h??n v??o c??c ho???t ?????ng n???i b??? c???a b??? m??y an ninh Vi???t Nam.[6]
?????n t???n g???n ????y, l???ch s??? ch??nh th???c c???a B??? C??ng An b???ng ti???ng Vi???t v???n ???????c ph??n lo???i l?? ???t???i m???t??? v?? ???l??u h??nh n???i b???.??? May m???n l?? ??i???u n??y ???? thay ?????i, nh??ng t???t nhi??n ph???i c???n th???n khi s??? d???ng c??c ???n ph???m ???? tr??? n??n s???n c?? b???i h??? ????a ra m???t phi??n b???n l???ch s??? c???a c??c c?? quan an ninh Vi???t Nam b??? ch???nh s???a r???t nhi???u v?? mang t??nh ?????nh h?????ng. Tuy nhi??n, ch??ng ch???a th??ng tin qu?? gi?? v?? r???t chi ti???t v??? n???n t???ng t?? t?????ng c???a B??? C??ng an Vi???t Nam v?? nh???ng thay ?????i v??? th??? ch??? sau nh???ng n??m 1950. K???t h???p v???i nh???ng b??i vi???t c???a c??c c??n b??? an ninh Vi???t Nam ???? ngh??? h??u, nh???ng ng?????i lu??n t??? h??o k??? l???i nh???ng th??nh c??ng c???a h??? trong cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng l???i c??i g???i l?? k??? th?? n???i b??? v?? b??n ngo??i, nh???ng ???n ph???m ch??nh th???c n??y cho ph??p ch??ng ta ????a th??ng tin t??? c??c h??? s?? c???a Stasi ????ng ?????c v??o b???i c???nh r???ng l???n h??n c???a s??? ph??t tri???n c???a b??? m??y an ninh Vi???t Nam.
T??nh h??nh an ninh B???c Vi???t nh???ng n??m 1950 v?? cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng l???i ???k??? th?????
N??m 1949, trong m???t cu???c h???p c???a t??? ch???c Li??n Vi???t, L?? ?????c Th???, ng?????i sau n??y l?? ch??nh tr??? gia quy???n l???c th??? hai ??? B???c Vi???t b??n c???nh L?? Du???n, ???? ph???n ???ng l???i nh???ng l???i ch??? tr??ch c???a m???t s??? th??nh vi??n phi c???ng s???n c???a t??? ch???c m???t tr???n n??y b???ng c??ch ????a ra m???t tuy??n b??? ???? tr??? th??nh nguy??n l?? c?? b???n c???a l???c l?????ng c???ng s???n ??? Vi???t Nam v?? c??c c?? quan an ninh c???a h??? cho ?????n t???n ng??y nay: ???Ch???ng l???i ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n l?? ch???ng l???i cu???c kh??ng chi???n v?? ph???n b???i T??? qu???c.???[7] Kh??i ni???m ???Vi???t Gian??? ???????c ??p d???ng cho t???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i Vi???t Nam n??o kh??ng ???ng h??? tuy??n b??? ?????c quy???n l??nh ?????o c???a c???ng s???n Vi???t Nam ho???c b??? t??nh nghi do t???ng l???p xu???t th??n c???a h??? hay do c?? m???i li??n h??? v???i c??c l???c l?????ng phi c???ng s???n.
Sau khi ????nh b???i Ph??p trong tr???n ??i???n Bi??n Ph??? th??ng 5 n??m 1954, qu??n ?????i Vi???t Minh chi???n th???ng tr??? v??? H?? N???i v?? ch??nh th???c n???m quy???n ki???m so??t mi???n B???c ?????t n?????c. Tuy nhi??n, chi???n th???ng v???n ch??a tr???n v???n b???i Vi???t Nam ???? b??? chia c???t t???m th???i ??? v?? tuy???n 17: Vi???t Nam D??n ch??? C???ng h??a ??? ph??a B???c d?????i s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ch??nh ph??? H??? Ch?? Minh v?? ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam, v?? Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a ??? ph??a Nam v???i T???ng th???ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m, s???m ???????c d???ng n??n nh?? m???t b???c t?????ng ch???ng l???i ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ???????c Hoa K??? h???u thu???n.
C??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ??? mi???n B???c t???p trung ?????u ti??n v??o t??i thi???t ?????t n?????c v?? c???ng c??? s??? ki???m so??t c???a h???. B??? C??ng an ????ng vai tr?? quan tr???ng trong qu?? tr??nh n??y v?? tr??? th??nh m???t c??ng c??? m???nh m??? ????? ki???m so??t x?? h???i v?? c???ng c??? nh?? n?????c. ??i???u n??y th??? hi???n r?? trong s???c l???nh ch??nh th???c th??nh l???p B??? n??m 1953.[8] Theo s???c l???nh n??y, nhi???m v??? ?????u ti??n c???a B??? l?? ???Ch???ng gi??n ??i???p, ph???n ?????ng ??? trong n?????c ????? b???o v??? ch??nh quy???n d??n ch??? nh??n d??n, b???o v??? qu??n ?????i nh??n d??n, [v??] b???o v??? kinh t??? qu???c d??n; b???o v??? bi??n gi???i, [v??] ch???ng ?????c v??? v?? gi??n ??i???p qu???c t???.???[9]
Gi???a nh???ng n??m 1950, c??c l??nh ?????o t???i H?? N???i ph???i ?????i m???t v???i hai cu???c kh???ng ho???ng l???n: th??? nh???t, h??? ph???i ?????i ph?? v???i Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m, m???t phong tr??o ph???n kh??ng ch??nh tr??? do nh???ng tr?? th???c d???n ?????u; v?? th??? hai, h??? ph???i ???n ?????nh m???t v??ng n??ng th??n ???? r??i v??o h???n lo???n ho??n to??n sau chi???n d???ch c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t th???t b???i. ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam ???? v?????t qua ???????c c??c cu???c kh???ng ho???ng n??y, nh??ng c??? hai s??? c??? cho th???y ?????ng v???n ch??a ho??n to??n ki???m so??t ???????c ?????t n?????c. Do ????, ch??nh ph??? B???c Vi???t ???? ti???n h??nh nh???ng b?????c ti???p theo ????? m??? r???ng v?? hi???n ?????i h??a l???c l?????ng c???nh s??t c???a m??nh, v?? t??? gi???a nh???ng n??m 1950, ???y ban An ninh Qu???c gia c???a Li??n X?? (KGB) b???t ?????u cung c???p h??? tr??? cho B??? C??ng An B???c Vi???t.[10]
N??m 1960, t???i ?????i h???i ?????i bi???u to??n qu???c l???n th??? III c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam, L?? Du???n ch??nh th???c ???????c b???u l??m B?? th?? th??? nh???t c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam, v?? t??? ????, c??ng v???i c??c th??nh vi??n B??? Ch??nh tr???, L?? ?????c Th???, Ph???m H??ng, v?? Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh, ??ng ti???p t???c th??c ?????y m???t chi???n l?????c qu??n s??? t???i mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam v?? ch??nh tr??? trong n?????c ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam. ?????u ti??n chi???n l?????c n??y k???t h???p ch??nh tr??? v?? ?????u tranh qu??n s???, nh??ng d???n d???n t???p trung v??o cu???c ?????u tranh qu??n s??? sau khi M???t tr???n D??n t???c Gi???i ph??ng mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam ???????c th??nh l???p n??m 1960.
?????ng th???i, phe L?? Du???n-L?? ?????c Th??? quy???t ?????nh ?????y m???nh c???i t???o x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a n???n kinh t??? B???c Vi???t v???n ???? ???????c tri???n khai t??? cu???i nh???ng n??m 1950 th??ng qua c??c chi???n d???ch t???p th??? h??a. ????? c???ng c??? quy???n l???c v?? ?????m b???o ph????ng ph??p t??ch c???c m???i n??y ???????c ti???n h??nh, L?? Du???n ng??y c??ng d???a nhi???u v??o b??? m??y an ninh v?? B??? tr?????ng B??? C??ng an, Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n.[11] Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n, B??? tr?????ng B??? C??ng an ?????u ti??n c???a mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam, l?? ng?????i l??nh tr??n ti???n tuy???n ch???u tr??ch nhi???m vi???c kh???ng ?????nh quy???n ki???m so??t c???a ?????ng ?????i v???i ch??nh quy???n Vi???t Nam v?? nh???m m???c ti??u t???i b???t k??? k??? th?? n???i b??? c??ng nh?? b??n ngo??i n??o. T??? nh???ng n??m ?????u 1960, ?????ng v?? Nh?? n?????c ???? ban h??nh nhi???u ngh??? ?????nh m??? r???ng vai tr?? c???a B??? C??ng an, cho ph??p n?? tr??? th??nh m???t ???c??ng c??? c???a ch??? ????? chuy??n ch??nh tuy???t ?????i trung th??nh v???i ?????ng??? v?? ?????y m???nh cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng ph???n c??ch m???ng. V?? d???, trong th??ng 6 n??m 1961, ???y ban Th?????ng v??? Qu???c h???i Vi???t Nam DCCH ???? ban h??nh Ngh??? quy???t s??? 49 v??? vi???c gi??o d???c c???i t???o nh???ng ng?????i b??? xem l?? nguy h???i cho x?? h???i.[12]
M???t ngh??? quy???t b??? sung t??? th??ng 1 n??m 1962 li???t k?? nhi???u nh??m ???ph???n t?????? kh??c nhau ???????c ph??n lo???i l?? ph???n c??ch m???ng, bao g???m ???gi??n ??i???p mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam, ng?????i C??ng Gi??o ph???n ?????ng, c??c ph???n t??? t???ng ph???c v??? Ph??p ho???c t???ng l?? c??c th??nh vi??n c???a c??c t??? ch???c ph???n ?????ng, ph???n t??? ph???n ?????ng ngoan c??? kh??ng ch???u c???i t???o trong c??c giai c???p b??c l???t c??, v?? t???t c??? c??c ph???n t??? th?? ?????ch, ph???n c??ch m???ng kh??c.??? Ngh??? ?????nh c??n quy ?????nh r???ng ?????n n??m 1963, t???t c??? c??c c?? quan l??nh ?????o, c??c nh?? m??y quan tr???ng, v?? c??c t??? ch???c v?? trang ph???i lo???i b??? ho??n to??n c??c ???ph???n t?????? n??y. Trong ??i???u ki???n c??? th???, c??c ph???n t??? t??nh nghi ph???i ???????c ??i???u chuy???n ?????n nh???ng n??i kh??c ???kh??ng quan tr???ng??? (c?? ngh??a l?? nh???ng v??ng xa x??i), trong khi nh???ng ai ch??a ??i???u chuy???n ???????c ph???i b??? theo d??i ch???t ch??? v?? kh??ng ???????c cung c???p b?? m???t nh?? n?????c. M???c ti??u t???ng th??? c???a c??c bi???n ph??p n??y v??? c?? b???n l?? qu??t s???ch b???t k??? l???c l?????ng ph???n c??ch m???ng c?? th???t hay t?????ng t?????ng n??o ra kh???i mi???n B???c.[13]
????? khai th??c c??c ph????ng ti???n th??? ch??? nh???m th???c hi???n chi???n d???ch l??m s???ch r???ng l???n n??y, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ??? H?? N???i quy???t ?????nh m??? r???ng B??? C??ng an v?? trao cho n?? to??n quy???n gi??m s??t an ninh n???i b??? c???a Vi???t Nam DCCH v?? ti???n h??nh ch???ng l???i t???t c??? c??c nghi ph???m ph???n c??ch m???ng. B??? C??ng an ???????c l???nh ti???p t???c th??nh l???p c??c ph??ng ban khoa h???c v?? k??? thu???t, nh???ng ????n v??? ???????c cho c???n thi???t cho c??ng vi???c ho???t ?????ng nghi???p v??? v?? ????? ?????i ph?? hi???u qu??? v???i ho???t ?????ng c???a ?????i ph????ng.[14] Hi???n ?????i h??a v?? chuy??n nghi???p h??a B??? C??ng an l?? ??u ti??n s??? m???t c???a Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n.[15] Do ????, c??c ngh??? quy???t t??? n??m 1961 ?????n n??m 1962 kh??ng ch??? nh???m thi???t l???p m???t nh?? n?????c an ninh, m?? c??n nh???m hi???n ?????i h??a v?? chuy??n nghi???p h??a l???c l?????ng an ninh ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam. V?? v???y, ngh??? quy???t c???a B??? Ch??nh tr??? v??o th??ng Gi??ng n??m 1962 ch??nh th???c ???????c coi l?? ???quy???t ?????nh c?? b???n c???a ?????ng v??? vi???c th??nh l???p L???c l?????ng C??ng an Nh??n d??n.???[16]
C??c ngh??? quy???t ngay l???p t???c ???????c th???c hi???n. V??ng ?????u ti??n ???? c?? kho???ng 570 ???ph???n t??? ph???n c??ch m???ng??? trong n??m 1961, chi???n d???ch ???????c t??ng c?????ng nh???ng n??m sau ????. N??m 1962, t???i H?? N???i, H???i Ph??ng, v?? c??c th??nh ph??? kh??c, kho???ng 4.000 ng?????i t???ng l??m vi???c cho ch??nh quy???n thu???c ?????a v?? ch??nh quy???n B???o ?????i th??n Ph??p, c??ng nhi???u ng?????i kh??c ???????c coi l?? kh??ng ????ng tin v??? ch??nh tr??? ???? b??? g???i ?????n c??c tr???i gi??o d???c c???i t???o ??? c??c khu v???c v??ng s??u v??ng xa ??? ph??a B???c.[17] Theo m???t ???n ph???m b???ng ti???ng Vi???t ch??nh th???c, trong giai ??o???n 1961-1965, B??? C??ng an ???? g???i 11.365 c?? nh??n ??????????c xem l?? nguy hi???m ?????i v???i an ninh c???a ch??ng t??i v?? tr???t t??? x?? h???i ??i c???i t???o t???p th??? [t???c l?? nh?? t??].???[18] Sau chi???n d???ch ch???nh ?????n di???n ra v??o ?????u nh???ng n??m 1950 v?? vi???c gi???i quy???t cu???c kh???ng ho???ng n??m 1956 (t???c l?? c??c chi???n d???ch c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t v?? phong tr??o Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m), nh???ng cu???c thanh tr???ng c?? h??? th???ng trong c??c khu v???c th??nh th??? c???a mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam v?? vi???c ??i???u chuy???n nh???ng ng?????i t??nh nghi v?? kh??ng ????ng tin c???y ?????n nh???ng v??ng xa x??i trong nh???ng n??m 1962-1965 l?? m???t b?????c ti???n xa h??n trong vi???c c???ng c??? quy???n l???c c???a ?????ng ?????i v???i Vi???t Nam DCCH. Sau khi chi???n tranh k???t th??c n??m 1975, c??c ch????ng tr??nh t??i ?????nh c?? tr??? th??nh m???t h??nh m???u ????? x??? l?? nh???ng ???ph???n t?????? ??? ph??a Nam ???????c coi l?? kh??ng ????ng tin c???y v?? l?? m???t m???i ??e d???a cho ???ch??nh quy???n c??ch m???ng??? m???i. M???c ????ch c???a vi???c ??i???u chuy???n nh???ng ???ph???n t?????? t??nh nghi l?? ????? lo???i tr??? h??? ra kh???i x?? h???i Vi???t Nam.
???Stasi??? ????ng ?????c v?? Vi???t Nam
???Nh???ng chuy???n h??ng ??o??n k???t???
T??? nh???ng n??m 1950, B??? C??ng an Vi???t Nam ???? nh???n ???????c s??? h??? tr??? c???a Li??n X?? v?? C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa, nh??ng nh???ng n???i dung v?? ph???m vi c??? th??? m?? Trung Qu???c h??? tr??? hi???n kh??ng r?? r??ng. Theo c??c ngu???n tin ti???ng Vi???t ch??nh th???c, v??o cu???i nh???ng n??m 1950, B??? tr?????ng Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n ???? nh??? c?? quan an ninh c??c n?????c Li??n X??, ????ng ?????c, Ti???p Kh???c, C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa, v?? th???m ch?? l?? c??? C???ng h??a D??n ch??? Nh??n d??n Tri???u Ti??n gi??p ????? x??y d???ng b??? m??y an ninh.[19] Trong khi c?? b???ng ch???ng cho th???y s??? h??? tr??? n??y l?? kh?? ????ng k???, ??t nh???t l?? trong tr?????ng h???p c???a Li??n X??, th?? trong tr?????ng h???p ????ng ?????c m???i ch??? c?? nh???ng ti???p x??c ban ?????u ???????c thi???t l???p.[20]
T???t c??? ???? thay ?????i khi chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam leo thang v???i vi???c M??? n??m bom ??? ph??a B???c v?? tuy???n 17 v?? nh???ng ng?????i l??nh M??? ?????u ti??n xu???t hi???n t???i ???? N???ng v??o th??ng 3 n??m 1965. Trong b???i c???nh m???i n??y, Vi???t Nam DCCH kh??ng ch??? c?? nhu c???u b???c thi???t v??? c??c lo???i v?? kh?? tinh vi ????? ?????i ph?? v???i m??y bay B-52 c???a M???, m?? c??n v??? c??c thi???t b??? t??nh b??o t??n ti???n ????? ch???ng l???i ???ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c M?????? v?? ????? x??? l?? t???t h??n c??c m???i ??e d???a th???c s??? c??ng nh?? c?? th??? c???m th???y ?????i v???i an ninh qu???c gia. Th???c t???, chi???n tranh v?? s??? can thi???p tr???c ti???p c???a M??? ???? th??c ?????y nh???ng n??? l???c c???a L?? Du???n trong vi???c x??y d???ng m???t nh?? n?????c an ninh qu???c gia. Trong kh??a c???nh n??y, c??u n??i n???i ti???ng c???a Charles Tilly, ???chi???n tranh sinh ra nh?? n?????c, v?? nh?? n?????c sinh ra chi???n tranh??? kh??ng ch??? ????ng ?????i v???i cu???c kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p (1945-1954), m?? c??n ????ng v???i cu???c chi???n ch???ng l???i Hoa K??? v?? Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a (1964- 1975).[21] Chi???n tranh ?????nh h??nh m???t nh?? n?????c Vi???t Nam trong ???? ?????ng C???ng s???n s??? d???ng chi???n tranh ????? ki???m so??t d??n s??? ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam ch???t ch??? h??n v?? theo d??i nh???ng th??? l???c th?? ?????ch c???a ch??? ?????. Ch??nh trong b???i c???nh c???a chi???n tranh m?? B??? C??ng an B???c Vi???t ???????c ti???p c???n v???i B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c, v???n n???i ti???ng l?? m???t trong nh???ng c?? quan t??nh b??o ???????c t??? ch???c ch???t ch??? v?? ho???t ?????ng hi???u qu??? nh???t trong kh???i x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a.
Nh???ng li??n l???c ?????u ti??n gi???a B??? C??ng an Vi???t Nam v?? B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c b???t ?????u n??m 1957 khi B???c Vi???t ????? tr??nh m???t l???i ????? ngh??? v??? c??c thi???t b??? k??? thu???t, bao g???m c??? m??y ghi ??m nh??? v?? m??y ???nh nh???, ?????n ?????i s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c ??? H?? N???i.[22] N??m 1959, ph??i ??o??n ?????u ti??n c???a B??? C??ng an ???? t???i Berlin, d???n ?????u l?? Nguy???n Minh Ti???n. ??o??n l??m quen v???i c??c thi???t b??? vi???n th??ng v?? thi???t b??? ho???t ?????ng trong c??c l??nh v???c kh??c nh?? c??ng ngh??? h???ng ngo???i.[23] N??m 1960, B??? tr?????ng Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n ?????n th??m ????ng ?????c l???n ?????u ti??n, nh??ng kh??ng c?? th??ng tin v??? chuy???n ??i n??y.[24] Trong nh???ng n??m sau ????, hai b??n v???n gi??? li??n l???c v?? B??? C??ng an B???c Vi???t ti???p t???c nh???n ???????c h??? tr??? k??? thu???t t??? ????ng ?????c.
Tuy nhi??n, sau chuy???n th??m l???n ?????u ti??n v??o n??m 1959, ph???i m???t s??u n??m s??? h???p t??c gi???a ????ng ?????c v?? c??c c?? quan an ninh Vi???t Nam m???i th???c s??? v??o gu???ng. Th??ng 12 n??m 1965, m???t ??o??n ?????i bi???u Vi???t Nam t???i th??m ????ng ?????c v?? l???n n??y tr??nh b??y m???t danh s??ch d??i bao g???m t???t c??? c??c lo???i thi???t b??? mong mu???n ????? n??ng c???p kh??? n??ng c??ng ngh??? c???a B??? C??ng an Vi???t Nam.[25] Erich Mielke, B??? tr?????ng tai ti???ng c???a B??? An ninh Qu???c gia, ???? ph??n n??n v??? th???i gian d??i gi??n ??o???n trong m???i quan h??? hai n?????c: kh??ng r?? t???i sao B???c Vi???t Nam ph???i m???t m???t th???i gian d??i m???i n???i l???i ????m ph??n v???i nh???ng ng?????i ?????ng ch?? ????ng ?????c c???a h???. Nh?? ???? ????? c???p ??? tr??n, h??? n???i l???i ????m ph??n trong n??m 1965 ch??? y???u l?? do b??ng n??? chi???n tranh, nh??ng ??i???u n??y c??ng n??n ???????c nh??n nh???n trong m???t b???i c???nh th??? hai.
Trong hai n??m 1963-1964, quan h??? gi???a Vi???t Nam DCCH v?? Li??n X?? ??i xu???ng ?????n m???c r???t th???p ??? ?????c bi???t l?? b???i Moscow kh??ng t??n th??nh ch??? tr????ng ?????u tranh qu??n s??? th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c c???a L?? Du???n, thay v??o ???? h??? ???ng h??? kh??i ni???m chung s???ng ho?? b??nh. N??m 1964, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o t???i H?? N???i th???m ch?? c??n ????a ra m???t chi???n d???ch ch???ng l???i ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i.??? Chi???n d???ch n??y nh???m v??o c??c c??n b??? b??? nghi l?? b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i nh???ng t?? t?????ng c?? ngu???n g???c t??? Li??n X??. C??c n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a kh??c nh?? ????ng ?????c c??ng b??? nh???m t???i, nh??ng Li??n X?? m???i l?? m???c ti??u ch??nh trong chi???n d???ch ch???ng ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i n???i b??? n??y.[26]
Sau s??? s???p ????? c???a Khrushchev th??ng 10 n??m 1964, m???i quan h??? hai n?????c nhanh ch??ng ???????c c???i thi???n. Trong chuy???n vi???ng th??m H?? N???i v??o th??ng 2 n??m 1965, Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng b??? tr?????ng Li??n X?? Aleksei Kosygin h???a s??? vi???n tr??? qu??n s???, nh??ng khi n??i ?????n c??c v???n ????? t??nh b??o, r?? r??ng l?? B???c Vi???t mu???n tho??t kh???i s??? ph??? thu???c ????n ph????ng c???a m??nh v??o KGB v?? ??a d???ng h??a c??c m???i li??n k???t v???i nh???ng c?? quan t??nh b??o trong th??? gi???i c???ng s???n. H??? s?? c???a Stasi v?? c??c ???n ph???m ch??nh th???c b???ng ti???ng Vi???t c?? nh???ng b???ng ch???ng cho th???y Vi???t Nam DCCH b???t ?????u nh???n vi???n tr??? t??? c??c c?? quan an ninh c???a Ba Lan, Hungary, ????ng ?????c, Li??n X??, v?? C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa t??? n??m 1965.[27]
T??? quan ??i???m c???a kh???i x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a do Li??n X?? ?????ng ?????u, ????y c??ng l?? m???t d???ng ph??n c??ng lao ?????ng.
Theo m???t ???n ph???m ch??nh th???c v??? Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n, v??? B??? tr?????ng B??? C??ng an n??y ?????c bi???t quan t??m ?????n B??? An ninh qu???c gia ????ng ?????c b???i ??ng ???? nghe nhi???u v??? ???phong c??ch l??m vi???c c??ng nghi???p, hi???n ?????i, v?? khoa h???c??? ??? ????ng ?????c. ??ng c??ng th?????ng xuy??n trao ?????i v???i Nguy???n Song T??ng, ?????i s??? Vi???t Nam t???i ????ng ?????c. Nguy???n Song T??ng th???m ch?? c??n bi??n t???p m???t s??? t??i li???u v??? kinh nghi???m c???a B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c.[28] Trong l???ch s??? ch??nh th???c v??? B??? C??ng an b???ng ti???ng Vi???t, s??? h??? tr??? t??? c??c c?? quan t??nh b??o Li??n X?? v?? ????ng ?????c th?????ng ???????c ????nh gi?? l?? quan tr???ng nh???t trong kh???i x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a.[29] Do ????, vi???c hi???n ?????i h??a c?? quan an ninh m?? Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n ???? d??? t??nh trong m???t v??i n??m tr?????c ???? b???t ?????u tr??? th??nh hi???n th???c v??o gi???a n??m 1960, ch??? y???u l?? nh??? s??? gi??p ????? c???a Li??n X?? v?? CHDC ?????c.[30]
Th??ng 11 n??m 1965, B??? tr?????ng B??? C??ng an B???c Vi???t Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n ???? g???i m???t b???c th?? cho Erich Mielke, B??? tr?????ng B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c, v?? t??i l???p l???i li??n l???c v???i c??c ?????i t??c ????ng ?????c c???a ??ng.[31] ??o??n ?????i bi???u do Nguy???n Minh Ti???n d???n ?????u ?????n ????ng Berlin v??o th??ng 12 n??m 1965. Nguy???n Minh Ti???n l?? ng?????i ?????ng ?????u T???ng c???c K??? thu???t c???a B??? C??ng an B???c Vi???t v?? sau n??y tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng Th??? tr?????ng c???a n??. ????y l?? chuy???n ??i th??? hai c???a ??ng ?????n ????ng ?????c, sau n??y c??n r???t nhi???u chuy???n ??i kh??c n???a. Tr??n th???c t???, Nguy???n Ti???n Minh ???? tr??? th??nh ng?????i li??n l???c ch??nh v???i Stasi trong b??? m??y an ninh B???c Vi???t.
Trong cu???c g???p v???i Erich Mielke, ?????u ti??n Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n gi???i th??ch chi ti???t v??? nh???ng th??nh c??ng m?? Vi???t Nam DCCH ???? ?????t ???????c trong cu???c chi???n ch???ng l???i ???????? qu???c M??? v?? tay sai,??? nh??ng sau ???? l?? l?? do th???c s??? cho chuy???n th??m c???a ??ng t???i ????ng Berlin:
Ch??ng t??i ph???i ?????i m???t v???i nhi???u kh?? kh??n trong cu???c chi???n c???a m??nh, b???i k??? th?? r???t tinh ranh m?? ch??ng t??i c??n qu?? th?? s??. Do ???? ch??ng t??i v???n ch??a th??? ki???m so??t ???????c nhi???u??? Nh?? ?????ng ch?? B??? tr?????ng bi???t, c??c ?????ng ch?? c???a ch??ng t??i ??? ????ng ?????c ph???i ti???p x??c h??ng ng??y v???i k??? th?? v?? kh??ng ng???ng chi???n ?????u v???i ch??ng. C??c ?????ng ch?? ???? th???c hi???n nhi???u s??ng ki???n ??????trong cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng l???i k??? th?? v?? c?? m???t truy???n th???ng l??u ?????i v??? khoa h???c v?? c??ng ngh???. V?? v???y, ch??ng t??i ????? ngh??? c??c ?????ng ch?? cho ph??p ch??ng t??i ???????c nghi??n c???u nh???ng kinh nghi???m qu?? b??u c???a c??c ?????ng ch??, ????? ch??ng t??i c?? th??? th???c hi???n c??ng vi???c c???a ch??ng t??i hi???u qu??? h??n.[32]
Nguy???n Minh Ti???n tr??nh b??y v???i Mielke m???t danh s??ch mong mu???n d??i v?? chi ti???t: ph??a Vi???t Nam ????? ngh??? c??c ?????ng ch?? ????ng ?????c gi??p h??? thi???t l???p m???t khu v???c nghi???p v??? k??? thu???t c??ng nh?? ????o t???o v?? cung c???p c??c thi???t b??? c???n thi???t. C??? th???, Vi???t Nam mu???n h???c t???p kinh nghi???m c???a Stasi trong c??c l??nh v???c sau v?? ????? ngh??? ph??a ????ng ?????c gi??p x??y d???ng m???t b??? ph???n c?? th??? ph??n t??ch v?? thi???t k??? c??c thi???t b??? g???m: k??? thu???t nghe l??n, b???o v??? ch???ng thi???t b??? nghe l??n, thi???t b??? che gi???u, thi???t b??? ph?? kh??a, b?? m???t gi??m s??t tr???c ti???p qua h??nh ???nh, ch???n v?? theo d??i th?? t???, l??m gi??? t??i li???u, v?? so???n th???o v??n b???n b?? m???t.[33]
B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c r???t s???n s??ng chia s??? kinh nghi???m v?? chuy??n m??n k??? thu???t.[34] N??m 1966, Stasi ???? cung c???p tr??? gi??p k??? thu???t cho nh???ng ng?????i ?????ng ch?? c???a m??nh t???i H?? N???i. M???t s??? thi???t b??? cung c???p cho Vi???t Nam th???c ra ???? ph???i ???????c mua ??? T??y ?????c ho???c c??c n?????c ph????ng T??y kh??c. V?? d???, v??o th??ng 3 n??m 1966, Stasi ???? ?????t nhi???u thi???t b??? ?????c bi???t tr??? gi?? 38.000 M??c ?????c ??? ph????ng T??y, bao g???m m???t m??y phay Aciera vi c?? h???c do Th???y S?? s???n xu???t.[35]
S??? h??? tr??? c???a ????ng ?????c cho b??? m??y an ninh Vi???t Nam ti???p t???c ???????c m??? r???ng trong th??ng 9 n??m 1966 khi l???n ?????u ti??n B??? tr?????ng Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n ?????n th??m ch??nh th???c v?? g???p g??? ?????i t??c ????ng ?????c Erich Mielke c???a m??nh. Trong ??o??n c??n c?? Ph???m V??n M???n, T???ng c???c ph?? T???ng c???c K??? thu???t B??? C??ng an. ??i???u n??y ph???n ??nh m???c ti??u t???i quan tr???ng c???a chuy???n th??m, ???? l?? ????? ngh??? ????ng ?????c tr??? gi??p n??ng c???p v?? hi???n ?????i h??a c??c ng??nh k??? thu???t nghi???p v???.
Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n nh???n m???nh c??c nguy??n t???c c???a ???qu???c t??? v?? s???n.??? Khi k??u g???i s??? h??? tr??? c???a c??c ?????ng ch?? ????ng ?????c trong cu???c ?????u tranh chung c???a h??? ch???ng l???i ???????? qu???c M???,??? ??ng ???? kh??ng g???p kh?? kh??n g??. Erich Mielke n??i v???i ??ng r???ng s??? gi??p ????? c???a ????ng ?????c c???n ???????c xem x??t nh?? l?? m???t ???????ng g??p ??o??n k???t??? trong cu???c ?????u tranh chung ch???ng l???i ???ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c M?????? c???a hai n?????c.[36] Mielke ch??? y??u c???u ?????i t??c B???c Vi???t c???a m??nh g???i v?? kh?? v?? c??c thi???t b??? kh??c c???a M??? ?????n ????ng ?????c: ???Nh?? v???y ch??ng ta c?? th??? ?????t ???????c nh???ng hi???u bi???t m???i.???[37] Trong m???t cu???c h???p tr?????c ???? v???i Nguy???n Minh Ti???n, B??? tr?????ng An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c ???? ????? ngh??? g???i hai c??n b??? Stasi ?????n Vi???t Nam DCCH ????? t??m hi???u ho???t ?????ng c???a c??c c?? quan M??? t???i Vi???t Nam.[38]
Trong cu???c h???p, Erich Mielke c??ng th??ng b??o r???ng B??? An ninh Qu???c gia s??? cung c???p vi???n tr??? k??? thu???t tr??? gi?? 2 tri???u M??c (????ng ?????c) v?? 200.000 M??c (T??y ?????c) cho c?? quan an ninh mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam.[39] Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n r???t vui m???ng v??? vi???c c??c ?????ng ch?? ????ng ?????c s???n s??ng gi??p ????? v?? th???m ch?? c??n mua thi???t b??? k??? thu???t cao t??? ph??a k??? th?? ?????n n???i ??ng c???m ??n Erich Mielke b???ng c??ch tr??ch d???n c??u n??i n???i ti???ng c???a ng?????i Vi???t Nam. ???chia c??m s??? ??o.???[40]
Ngay sau chuy???n th??m ????ng ?????c c???a Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n v??o th??ng M?????i n??m 1966, Stasi ???? b???t ?????u kh??a ????o t???o ?????u ti??n trong l??nh v???c thi???t b??? ??i???n t??? cho c??c c??n b??? c???p cao c???a B??? C??ng an Vi???t Nam, nh?? C???c tr?????ng C???c an ninh s??ng v?? tuy???n.[41] T??? th??ng 11 n??m 1966 ?????n th??ng 4 n??m 1967, nhi???u nh??n vi??n an ninh cao c???p B???c Vi???t ???? tham gia kh??a ????o t???o ?????u ti??n ??? ????ng ?????c ???????c t??? ch???c b???i b??? ph???n k??? thu???t nghi???p v??? c???a Stasi (OTS) v?? h???c c??c k??? n??ng trong nh???ng l??nh v???c nh?? thu th???p t??nh b??o, ki???m so??t b??u ??i???n, v??n tay, ??i???u tra th?? t??n b???ng v??n b???n, s???n xu???t m???c b?? m???t, ph??n t??ch v?? kh??i ph???c t??i li???u.[42] ???????c ch??? ?????nh l?? ng?????i ?????ng ?????u c??c b??? ph???n t????ng ???ng trong B??? C??ng an B???c Vi???t, Nghi??m S?? T???o ???????c ????o t???o ph??n t??ch v?? s???n xu???t c??c t??i li???u v?? m???c in b?? m???t t??? th??ng 12 n??m 1967 ?????n th??ng 4 n??m 1968.[43] T????ng t??? nh?? v???y, Ch??u Di???u ??i, sau n??y l?? th??nh vi??n c???a C???c k??? thu???t nghi???p v???, ???????c ????o t???o vi???t v??n b???n b?? m???t v?? ph??n t??ch ch??? t???o t??i li???u v??o n??m 1970. Trong nh???ng n??m sau, Stasi t??? ch???c c??c kh??a h???c b??? sung cho c??c chuy??n gia t??? H?? N???i v???i m???t gi??o tr??nh ???????c m??? r???ng. Theo m???t b??o c??o ch??nh th???c c???a OTS Stasi,
c??c kh??a ????o t???o k??o d??i trong kho???ng th???i gian t??? ba ?????n s??u th??ng, kho???ng 20 ?????ng ch?? Vi???t Nam ???? ???????c OTS ????o t???o trong c??c l??nh v???c sau: [ph??n t??ch v?? t??i t???o] t??i li???u, v??n b???n b?? m???t, t???i ph???m h???c, ?????c v???; thi???t b??? ??i???n t??? (gi??m s??t ph??ng v?? khai th??c ??i???n tho???i), vi c??/quang h???c, s???n xu???t c??ng-ten-n?? [c??c thi???t b??? che gi???u], [v??] c??ng ngh??? b???o m???t.[44]
Do ????, B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c ???? ????o t???o c??c chuy??n vi??n cao c???p, nh???ng ng?????i sau n??y ???????c cho l?? n???m gi??? c??c v??? tr?? quan tr???ng trong B??? C??ng an Vi???t Nam v?? c?? c??ng trong vi???c hi???n ?????i h??a b??? ph???n k??? thu???t c???a n??.[45]
????p ???ng m???t ????? ngh??? kh??c c???a B??? tr?????ng Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n, ????ng ?????c c??ng h??? tr??? B??? C??ng an trong vi???c quy ho???ch v?? x??y d???ng m???t vi???n ph??p y v?? ????o t???o ?????i ng?? c??n b???.[46] Theo m???t ???n ph???m ch??nh th???c c???a Vi???t Nam, trong th??ng 4 n??m 1966, 9 c??n b??? ???? ???????c g???i ?????n ????o t???o t???i Tr?????ng Khoa h???c ph??p y thu???c B??? N???i v??? ????ng ?????c.[47] Trong nhi???m v??? kh???o s??t t??nh h??nh th???c t??? ??? H?? N???i trong th??ng 1 v?? th??ng 2 n??m 1967, m???t ph??i ??o??n c???a B??? N???i v??? ????ng ?????c th???y r???ng ph??p y t???i Vi???t Nam DCCH v???n c??n ??ang trong giai ??o???n ph??t tri???n ban ?????u v?? thi???u th???n chuy??n gia, thi???t b??? v?? chuy??n m??n. Ph??a Vi???t Nam ???? ????? ngh??? B??? N???i v??? ????ng ?????c h??? tr??? th??m. Rychlik, Tr?????ng ??o??n ????ng ?????c, ho??n to??n ch???p thu???n ????? ngh??? n??y v???i nh???n x??t h??i kh?? hi???u: ???Nh???ng mong mu???n c???a ph??a Vi???t Nam t????ng ???ng v???i c??c nhu c???u thi???t y???u trong cu???c chi???n ch???ng k??? th?? x??m l?????c M??? v?? x??y d???ng ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i ??? Vi???t Nam DCCH.???[48] V??o cu???i n??m 1968, m?????i c??n b??? b??? sung ???? ???????c g???i ?????n ????ng ?????c ????? tham d??? c??c kh??a h???c v??? khoa h???c ph??p y. Sau ???? H?? N???i ???? m???i c??c chuy??n gia t??? B??? N???i v??? ????ng ?????c ?????n ????o t???o cho c??c chuy??n gia b??? sung t???i H?? N???i. Nh?? v???y, trong v??ng m???t n??m ???? c?? kho???ng 100 c??n b??? Vi???t Nam ???????c ????o t???o v??? Ph??p y t???i ph???m (trong c??c l??nh v???c nh?? d???u v??n tay, ?????n, h??a h???c v?? sinh h???c ph??p y), m???c d?? ph???i m???t th??m n??m n??m B??? Ch??nh tr??? ?????ng Th???ng nh???t X?? h???i ch??? ngh??a ????ng ?????c m???i quy???t ?????nh x??y d???ng m???t Vi???n Ph??p y ho??n ch???nh t???i H?? N???i.[49]
???X??m nh???p mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam???
?? ngh??a c???a t???t c??? nh???ng ???l?? h??ng ??o??n k???t??? m?? CHDC ?????c g???i ?????n Vi???t Nam tr?????c ????y l?? g??? Ch??ng c?? th??? ph???c v??? c??? nhu c???u t??nh b??o n?????c ngo??i v?? ph???n gi??n v?? an ninh n???i b??? trong n?????c. Trong tr?????ng h???p c???a B???c Vi???t, ??i???u n??y c?? ngh??a l?? chi???n ?????u ch???ng ???????? qu???c M?????? v?? c??i g???i l?? ???ch??nh ph??? b?? nh??n??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam v?? theo d??i nh???ng k??? th?? n???i b???. M???t v?? d??? v??? ????? qu???c M??? l?? v??o n??m 1967, Hoa K??? ???? cung c???p m???t lo???i t??i li???u nh???n d???ng m???i v???i c??c t??nh n??ng k??? thu???t r???t hi???n ?????i v?? tinh vi cho ch??? ????? S??i G??n. C??i g???i l?? th??? c??n c?????c ???R???ng Xanh??? r???t kh?? sao ch??p v?? khi???n nhi???u c??n b??? B???c Vi???t v?? M???t tr???n Gi???i ph??ng ??ang ho???t ?????ng trong c??c khu v???c d?????i s??? ki???m so??t c???a ?????ch g???p nhi???u r???c r???i. Tuy nhi??n, trong n??m 1972, V??n ph??ng T??i li???u Nghi???p v??? t???i H?? N???i v???i ?????i ng?? nh??n vi??n ???????c ????o t???o ??? ????ng ?????c, ???? c?? th??? l??m gi??? th??? c??n c?????c ??? ch??? y???u nh??? v??o s??? gi??p ????? c???a Stasi. OTS t???i Berlin ???? ph??n t??ch m???t trong nh???ng th??? c??n c?????c R???ng Xanh v?? cam k???t s??? h??? tr??? c??c ?????ng nghi???p Vi???t Nam c???a h??? sao ch??p ch??ng b???ng c??ch mua v???t li???u v?? thi???t b??? ?????c bi???t, th???m ch?? t??? c??c n?????c t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a. V???n ????? l??m gi??? t??i li???u lu??n c?? m???t tr??n ch????ng tr??nh ngh??? s??? trong c??c cu???c h???p gi???a c??c th??nh vi??n c???p cao c???a B??? C??ng an B???c Vi???t v???i c??c ?????ng nghi???p ????ng ?????c c???a h??? t??? gi???a nh???ng n??m 1966 cho ?????n khi k???t th??c chi???n tranh.[50]
Theo m???t t??i li???u ti???ng Vi???t g???n ????y, ???n??m 1973, m???t s??? l?????ng l???n th??? c??n c?????c R???ng Xanh v?? c??c b??? ph???n c???a thi???t b??? h??? tr??? ???? ???????c nh???ng ng?????i b???n [????ng ?????c] c???a ch??ng ta v???n chuy???n ?????n V??n ph??ng T??i li???u. Ch??ng t??i ti???p t???c m??? c??c l???p ????o t???o c??n b??? v?? v???n chuy???n th??? c??n c?????c R???ng Xanh v?? c??c b??? ph???n thi???t b??? m???i ???????c nh???ng ng?????i b???n [????ng ?????c] c???a ch??ng ta cung c???p ????? g???i c??n b??? v??o Nam cho ?????n cu???c T???ng Ti???n c??ng chi???n th???ng v??o n??m 1975.???[51] ????? hi???u r?? h??n t???m quan tr???ng c???a v???n ????? n??y, c???n l??u ?? r???ng c??c c??n b??? c???p cao ho???t ?????ng ??? ph??a Nam ???????c cung c???p th??? c??n c?????c gi??? g???m c?? Nguy???n V??n Linh, sau n??y l?? T???ng B?? th?? ?????ng C???ng s???n, v?? V?? V??n Ki???t, sau n??y l?? Th??? t?????ng Vi???t Nam.
??? m???c ????? t???ng qu??t h??n, tuy???n t???p ch??nh th???c ho??nh tr??ng mang t??n 60 n??m l???ch s??? c???a L???c l?????ng C??ng an Nh??n d??n n??i r???ng d?????i s??? gi??p ????? c???a ????ng ?????c v?? Li??n X??, c???c k??? thu???t nghi???p v??? B???c Vi???t ???? c?? th??? s???n xu???t nhi???u thi???t b??? ph???c v??? cho c??ng t??c ho???t ?????ng c???a c??n b??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam, bao g???m l??m gi??? con d???u v?? t??i li???u, thi???t b??? quang h???c, c??c c??ng c??? ph?? kh??a, v?? ng??i n??? ch??y ch???m.[52]
Trong khi s??? h??? tr??? k??? thu???t t??? Stasi ????ng ?????c ????ng vai tr?? quan tr???ng trong vi???c b???o v??? c??n b??? c???ng s???n c???p cao ??? mi???n Nam kh???i b??? c??c l???c l?????ng an ninh S??i G??n ph??t hi???n v?? t???o ??i???u ki???n thu???n l???i cho c??c ho???t ?????ng c???a h???, c??c thi???t b??? k??? thu???t v?? ch????ng tr??nh ????o t???o hi???n ?????i m?? ????ng ?????c cung c???p c??ng t??ng c?????ng ????ng k??? kh??? n??ng ki???m so??t v?? gi??m s??t d??n c?? c???a c??c ?????ng nghi???p mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam ??? kh??a c???nh th??? hai c???a li??n minh t??nh b??o ????ng ?????c-Vi???t Nam.
???Ki???m so??t n???i b??? ??? mi???n B???c???
???Ng??? v???c???
H??? tr??? c???a Stasi sau Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam
K???t lu???n
???.
Download ph???n c??n l???i c???a v??n b???n t???i ????y: Stasi Dong Duc va Viet Nam DCCH.pdf
????????????
Ghi ch?? c???a Ban Bi??n t???p: 1. T??i li???u mang t??nh ch???t tham kh???o, th??? hi???n quan ??i???m ri??ng c???a t??c gi???, kh??ng ph???i quan ??i???m c???a ng?????i d???ch v?? Ban Bi??n t???p Nghiencuuquocte.net; 2. Do kh??ng th??? t??m ???????c t???t c??? c??c v??n b???n g???c ????? ?????i chi???u, m???t s??? tr??ch d???n ???????c d???ch t??? ti???ng Anh c?? th??? kh??ng ????ng nh?? nguy??n v??n ti???ng Vi???t. M???t s??? t??n g???i c???a c??c c?? quan, c???c v?????? khi d???ch sang ti???ng Vi???t c?? th??? kh??ng ch??nh x??c.
[1] Tony Smith, ???New Bottles for New Wine: A Pericentric Framework for the Study of the Cold War,??? Diplomatic History 24, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 567-591.
[2] Christopher Andrew and David Dilks, eds., The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century (London: Macmillan, 1984), 1.
[3] Christopher E. Goscha, ???Intelligence in a Time of Decolonization: The Case of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam at War (1945-1950),??? Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 1 (February 2007): 100.
[4] Goscha, ???Intelligence in a Time of Decolonization.???See also Richard J. Aldrich, Introduction, in: same, Gary D. Rawnsley and Ming-Yeh T. Rawnsley, eds., The Clandestine Cold War in Asia, 1945-1965: Western Intelligence, Propaganda and Special Operations (Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2000), 1.
V??? m???t nghi??n c???u m???i v??? b??? m??y an ninh ??? C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa, xem Guo Xuezhi, China???s Security State: Philosophy, Evolution, and Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012). V??? nghi??n c???u ?????u ti??n v??? t??nh b??o qu???c gia ???ngo??i v??n h??a quy???n ti???ng Anh,??? xem Philip H. J. Davies and Kristian C. Gustafson, eds., Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage Outside the Anglosphere (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013).
[5] Goscha, ???Intelligence in a Time of Decolonization,??? 104.
[6] Ngo???i l??? duy nh???t l?? trong cu???c th???o lu???n trong Kristie Macrakis, Seduced by Secrets: Inside the Stasi???s Spy-Tech World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
[7] Tr??ch trong Christopher E. Goscha, Vietnam. Un ??tat n?? de la Guerre, 1945-1954 (Paris: Armand Colin, 2012), 88.
[8] ???S???c L???nh c???a Ch??? T???ch n?????c Vi???t Nam D??n Ch??? C???ng H??a, s??? 141/SL ng??y 16 th??ng 2 n??m 1953??? (???Decree of the President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, no. 141, 16 Febr. 1953???), <http://moj.gov.vn/vbpq/Lists/Vn%20bn%20php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=1129> (truy c???p v??o February 12, 2014).
[9] Nh?? tr??n. V??? s??? b???t ?????u c???a c?? quan an ninh B???c Vi???t v?? kh??i ni???m ???k??? th??,??? xem b??i vi???t c???a Fran??ois Guillemot, ???De l???invention et de l???usage de ???l???ennemi int??rieur???: Vraie et fausse contre-r??volution au Nord-Vietnam 1945-1967??? (???The Invention and Use of the ???Enemy Within???: True and False Counterrevolution in North Vietnam, 1945-1967???), Communisme 2013. Vietnam de l???insurrection ?? la dictature, 1920-2012, 259-302.
[10] Nguy???n Thanh et al., eds., Nh???ng K??? Ni???m S??u S???c V??? B??? Tr?????ng Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n (Profound Memories of Minister Tran Quoc Hoan) (H?? N???i: NXB C??ng An Nh??n D??n, 2004), 290-291.
[11] V??? l?? l???ch ng???n c???a Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n, xem Li??n-H???ng T. Nguy???n. Hanoi???s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012), 55-56.
[12] ???Ngh??? quy???t s??? 49 NQ/TVQH v??? vi???c quy ?????nh vi???c t???p trung gi??o d???c c???i t???o c?? th???i h???n ?????i v???i c??c ph???n t??? ph???n c??ch m???ng ngoan c??? v?? l??u manh chuy??n nghi???p??? (???Resolution No. 49 on Regulating the Temporary Reeducation of Obstinate Counterrevolutionary Elements and Professional Hooligans???), <http://www.na.gov.vn/Sach_QH/VKQHTap2/Nam%201961/UBTVQH1961_12.htm> (accessed April 24, 2014). Xem B??? C??ng An. T???ng c???c X??y d???ng L???c l?????ng. C???c C??ng T??c Ch??nh Tr??? (Ministry of Public Security. General Department of Building up the Forces. Political Department), 65 n??m C??ng an Nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam. X??y d???ng, chi???n ?????u v?? tr?????ng th??nh (S?? th???o) (People???s Public Security of Vietnam: Building, Fighting, Growing Up) (H?? N???i: C??ng An Nh??n D??n, 2010), 148.
[13] ???Ngh??? quy???t c???a B??? Ch??nh tr??? s??? 39-NQ/TW, ng??y 20 th??ng 1 n??m 1962, v??? vi???c t??ng c?????ng ?????u tranh ch???ng c??c b???n ph???n c??ch m???ng ????? ph???c v??? t???t c??ng cu???c x??y d???ng ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i ??? mi???n B???c v?? ?????u tranh??? (???Politburo Resolution No. 39, 20 Jan. 1962, on Intensifying the Struggle against the Anti-Revolutionary Clique to Serve the Building Up of Socialism in the North and the Fight??? ), <http://cpv.org.vn/cpv/Modules/Preview/PrintPreview.aspx?co_id=30063&cn_id=160987> (accessed January 10, 2014). See B??? C??ng An, 65 n??m C??ng an nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam,157.
[14] ???Ngh??? quy???t c???a B??? Ch??nh tr??? s??? 40-NQ/TW, ng??y 20 th??ng 1 n??m 1962, v??? v???n ????? c???ng c??? v?? t??ng c?????ng l???c l?????ng c??ng an??? (???Politburo Resolution No. 40, 20 Jan. 1962, on Strengthening and Reinforcing the Public Security Forces???], <http://cpv.org.vn/cpv/Modules/News/NewsDetail.aspx?co_id=30063&cn_id=160986> (accessed January 10, 2014); ???Ngh??? ?????nh c???a H ???i ?????ng Ch??nh ph??? s??? 132-CP ng??y 29 th??ng 9 n??m 1961 quy ?????nh nhi???m v???, quy???n h???n v?? t??? ch??c b??? m??y c???a B??? C??ng An??? (???Decree 132 of the Council of Ministers, 29 Sept. 1961, Regulating the Tasks, Responsibility, and Organization of the Ministry of Public Security???), <http://thuvienphapluat.vn/archive/Nghi-dinh/Nghi-dinh-132-CP-Quy-dinh-nhiem-vu-quyen-han-va-to-chuc-bo-may- cua-Bo-Cong-an-vb43783t11.aspx> (accessed February 13, 2014). V??? vi???c thi???t l???p t??nh h??nh an ninh nh?? n?????c B???c Vi???t, xem Nguyen, Hanoi???s War, 53-56.
[15] Tr???nh Th??c Hu???nh, ed., ?????ng ch?? Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n ??? chi???n s?? c??ch m???ng trung ki??n c???a ?????ng, nh?? l??nh ?????o xu???t s???c c???a C??ng an Vi???t Nam (Comrade Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n: Faithful Revolutionary Soldier of the Party, Outstanding Leader of the Public Security of Vietnam) (H?? N???i: Ch??nh tr??? Qu???c gia, 2006), 171.
[16] B??? C??ng An, 65 n??m C??ng an nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam, 157.
[17] Ph???m V??n Quy???n et al., eds., B??? C??ng An. 60 n??m C??ng An Nh??n D??n Vi???t Nam (1945-2005) (Sixty Years of the
People???s Public Security Forces, 1945-2005) (H?? N???i: NXB C??ng An Nh??n D??n, 2006), 201-202; B??? C??ng An, 65 n??m C??ng an Nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam, 148.
[18] B??? N???i V???. T???ng c???c I (Ministry of Interior. General Department I), Major Nguyen Hung Linh and Lieutenant Colonel Hoang Mac, L???c l?????ng ch???ng ph???n ?????ng: L???ch s??? bi??n ni??n (1954-1975) (Anti- Reactionary Forces: Chronology of Events, 1954-1975) (H?? N???i: NXB C??ng An, 1997), 134. T??i xin g???i l???i c???m ??n t???i Merle Pribbenow v?? ???? cung c???p cho t??i nh???ng ngu???n ti???ng Vi???t v?? b???n d???ch c???a anh ???y.
[19] Tr???nh Th??c Hu???nh, ed., ?????ng ch?? Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n ??? chi???n s?? c??ch m???ng trung ki??n c???a ?????ng, 167.
[20] V??? nh???ng ?????i tho???i ban ?????u v???i ????ng ?????c, xem BStU MfS AP 1839/61.
[21] V??? cu???c kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p, xem Goscha, Vietnam: Un ??tat n?? de la Guerre 1945-1954.
[22] BStU MfS AP 1839/61, 737-738.
[23] BstU MfS AP 1839/61, 724, 737.
[24] BstU MfS AP 1839/61, 737.
[25] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652. Note on a Meeting of Comrade Minister with Vietnamese comrade Nguyen Minh Tien, Head of the Operational-Technical Sector in the Ministry for State Security of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on Dec. 13, 1965. Dec. 14, 1965: 31-49.
[26] Xem Pierre Asselin, Hanoi???s Road to the War 1954-1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), 162-189; Nguyen. Hanoi???s War, 60-70; Martin Grossheim, ???The Lao ?????ng Party, Culture, and the Campaign against ???Modern Revisionism???: The Democratic Republic of Vietnam before the Second Indochina War,???Journal of Vietnamese Studies 9, no. 1 (May 2013): 80-129; Martin Grossheim,???Revisionism in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam: New Evidence from the East German Archives,??? Cold War History 5, no. 4 (November 2005): 451-477.
[27] Xem Ph???m V??n Quy???n et al., eds., B??? C??ng An. 60 n??m C??ng An Nh??n D??n Vi???t Nam, 757. M???t cu???n s??ch vi???t v??? Tr???n Qu???c
Ho??n th???m ch?? c??n ????? c???p r???ng Tri???u Ti??n ???? c??? chuy??n gia ?????n H?? N???i, nh??ng ????y l?? b???ng ch???ng duy nh???t t??i t??m ???????c v??? m???i quan h??? ?????ng minh gi???a B???c Vi???t v?? Tri???u Ti??n. Xem Tr???nh Th??c Hu???nh, ed., ?????ng ch?? Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n, 167. V??? nh???ng b???ng ch???ng trong h??? s?? c???a Stasi v??? vi???n tr??? t??? Hungary, xem BStU MfS Abt. X, 652, Andras Benkei, Ministry of Interior of the People???s Republic of Hungary, to Mielke, Translation from Russian, Dec. 11, 1965: 384-385.
[28] Nguy???n Thanh et al., eds., Nh???ng K??? Ni???m S??u S???c V??? B??? Tr?????ng Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n, 210; Tr???nh Th??c Hu???nh, ed., ?????ng ch?? Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n, 189.
[29] M???t v?? d???, xem Tr???nh Th??c Hu???nh, ed., ?????ng ch?? Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n, 63-64, 94.
[30] Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n th?????ng ???????c ghi nh???n l?? ng?????i ???? kh???i x?????ng c??ng cu???c hi???n ?????i h??a l???c l?????ng an ninh (B???c) Vi???t Nam. Xem Tr???nh Th??c Hu???nh, ed., ?????ng ch?? Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n, 63, 94, 253.
[31] BStU MfS Abt. 652, Tran Quoc Hoan, Hanoi, to Erich Mielke, Nov. 1, 1965: 24-26.
[32] BStU MfS Abt. X 652, Note on a Meeting of Comrade Minister with the Vietnamese Comrades Nguyen-Minh-Tien, Head OTS in the MfS of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and [name blacked out] interpreter on 13 December 1965 from 4 to 7 pm: 13.
[33] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652, Note on a Meeting of Comrade Minister with Vietnamese comrade Nguyen Minh Tien, Head of the Operational-Technical Sector in the Ministry for State Security of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on Dec. 13, 1965. Dec. 14, 1965: 31-49.
[34] V??? s??? tr??? gi??p c???a Stasi cho c??c n?????c h???u thu???c ?????a trong kh???i ???c??c n?????c ph????ng Nam??? n??i chung, xem Gerhard Ehlert, Jochen Staadt, and Tobias Voigt, Die Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem Ministerium f??r Staatssicherheit der DDR (MfS) und dem Ministerium des Innern Kubas (MINIINT) (Berlin: Forschungsverbund SED-Staat, 2002); Jens Gieseke, Die Stasi 1945-1990 (Munich: Pantheon, 2011), 243-247; Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk, Stasi konkret. ??berwachung und Repression in der DDR (Munich: C.H. Beck, 2013), 247-262; Bernhard Marquardt, ???Die Kooperation des Ministeriums f??r Staatssicherheit (MfS) mit dem KGB und anderen Geheimdiensten,??? in Materialien der Enquete-Kommission : ?????berwindung der Folgen der SED-Diktatur im Proze?? der deutschen Einheit???, vol. 8 (Baden-Baden 1999), 1.966???2.007; and Monika Tantzscher, ???Die Stasi und ihre geheimen Br??der. Die internationale geheimdienstliche Kooperation des MfS,: in Diktaturen in Europa im 20. Jahrhundert ??? der Fall DDR (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1996), 595-621.
[35] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652. Dept. X: 115.
[36] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652, Note on a Meeting between high-level members of the MfS of the DRV and MfS of the GDR on Sept. 24, 1966, from 9:30 to 12:00 am, Sept. 27, 1966, 141. See also BStU MfS Abt. X, 652, Note on a Meeting of Comrade Minister with the Vietnamese comrades on Febr. 1, 1966, Febr. 10, 1966: 55.
[37] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652: 141.
[38] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652. Note on a Meeting of Comrade Minister with the Vietnamese comrade on Febr. 1, 1966, Febr. 10, 1966: 58.
[39] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652: 135.
[40] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652: 142.
[41] Xem BStU MfS, OTS, 1775. Training of Vietnamese Comrades by the MfS in the GDR, Dec. 10, 1971: 2. Trong m???t t??i li???u kh??c ng?????i n??y ???????c x??c ?????nh l?? c???c ph??. Xem BStU MfS, OTS, 1775. Exchange of specialists/meetings of heads of departments/short consultations, no date. 7. V??? vi???n tr??? c???a ????ng ?????c cho Vi???t Nam, xem th??m Macrakis, Seduced by Secret, 165-166, and B??? C??ng An. T???ng C???c X??y D???ng L???c L?????ng C??ng An Nh??n D??n Vi???t Nam (Ministry of Public Security. General Department of Building up the Forces of the People???s Public Security of Vietnam), L???ch s??? x??y d???ng l???c l?????ng c??ng an nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam, T???p II (1954???1975) (S?? th???o) (History of Building up the Forces of the People???s Public Security of Vietnam, Volume II, 1954???1975, (Draft)) (H?? N???i: NXB C??ng An Nh??n D??n, 2010), 153-154.
[42] V??? ng??nh k??? thu???t nghi???p v??? c???a Stasi (OTS), xem Roland Wiedmann: Die Diensteinheiten des MfS 1950??? 1989. Eine organisatorische ??bersicht (MfS-Handbuch). Hg. BStU. Berlin 2012. <http://www.nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:0292-97839421302889> (accessed March 19, 2014): 160-167.
[43] Nh?? tr??n. 2; MfS, OTS, 1775. Important results and activities of the previous cooperation: 6, no date; MfS, OTS, 1775. Exchange of specialists/meetings of heads of departments/short consultations: 7-10, no date.
[44] BStU MfS, OTS, 1775. Information on the Cooperation of the MfS OTS of the GDR with the Main Department Technology I of the Ministry of Interior of the SR of Vietnam: 14, no date; BStU MfS Abt. X, 652. Hentschke, Head OTS, Training of Vietnamese comrades, Dec. 11, 1967: 303; BStU MfS Abt. X, 562. OTS Der Leiter, Schmidt, Berlin, 7. 11.1969: 333-334. Comment on the training program of the Vietnamese comrade Ai, Letter from 20 Oct. 1969; BStU MfS, OTS, 1775. Training of Vietnamese Comrades by the MfS in the GDR, Dec. 10, 1971: 2.
[45] Nghi??m S?? T???o, ng?????i tham gia m???t trong nh???ng kh??a h???c ?????u ti??n B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ????ng ?????c t??? ch???c n??m 1967/68 sau n??y tr??? th??nh Ph?? Gi??o s?? v?? Ph?? Gi??m ?????c tr?????ng H18; Ph???m T???t Lanh and Nguy???n Kim Qu??, nh???ng ng?????i tham gia kh??a ????o t???o l??m gi??? t??i li???u n??m 1974 sau n??y tr??? th??nh Ch??nh v??n ph??ng C???c H??? s?? An ninh and Ph?? ch??nh v??n ph??ng T?? li???u nghi???p v???. Xem ???Nh??? m??i nh???ng k??? ni???m v??? B??? tr?????ng Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n??? (???Unforgettable Memories of Minister Tran Quoc Hoan???), C??ng An Nh??n D??n (People???s Public Security Newspaper), January 21, 2014, <http://www.cand.com.vn/vi-VN/phongsu/2014/1/221014.cand>(accessed 21 January 2014); and BStU MfS Abt. X, 652, Hentschke, Head OTS, Training of Vietnamese comrades, 303, Dec. 11, 1967, 303-304; MfS, OTS, 1775. Exchange of specialists/meetings of heads of departments/short consultations, 7-10, no date.
[46] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652, Tran Quoc Hoan, H?? N???i, to Erich Mielke, Nov. 1, 1965: 28.
[47] B??? C??ng An, L???ch s??? x??y d???ng l???c l?????ng C??ng an Nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam, T???p II (1954???1975), 149.
[48] BStU MfS Abt. X, 652. Ministry of Interior. Account of the Visit of a Delegation of the Ministry of Interior in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from 12 Jan. 1967 to 15 Febr. 1967. Rychlik: 497.
[49] B??? C??ng An, L???ch s??? x??y d???ng l???c l?????ng c??ng an nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam, T???p II (1954???1975), 149-150; BStU MfS Abt. X 348. Mielke an Ministerrat der DDR, Stellv. Vors. Dr. Weiss, 11.10.1973: 270. For further details see the files in the Federal Archives BArch DO 1/11602, Bd. 12, DO 1/11493, and DO 1/40386, Bd. 3.
[50] MfS, OTS, 1775. Exchange of specialists/meetings of heads of departments/short consultations, 7-10, no date.
[51] ???Nh??? m??i nh???ng k??? ni???m v??? B??? tr?????ng Tr???n Qu???c Ho??n.??? Xem BStU MfS Abt. X 348, Support of the Security Organs of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Dec. 6, 1971. 261-267.
[52] Ph???m V??n Quy???n et al., eds., B??? C??ng An. 60 n??m C??ng An Nh??n D??n Vi???t Nam, 758.

10/05/1924: J. Edgar Hoover tr??? th??nh Gi??m ?????c FBI


Ngu???n: J. Edgar Hoover begins his legacy with the FBI, History.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1924, J. Edgar Hoover ???????c b??? nhi???m l??m Quy???n Gi??m ?????c C???c ??i???u tra (Bureau of Investigation, nay l?? FBI); ?????n cu???i n??m, ??ng ch??nh th???c ???????c th??ng ch???c l?? Gi??m ?????c. S??? ki???n n??y ???? b???t ?????u 48 n??m n???m quy???n FBI c???a Hoover, trong ???? ??ng ???? ?????nh h??nh h??? th???ng ph??p l?? h??nh s??? (criminal justice) c???a M??? trong th??? k??? 20.
Hoover l???n ?????u tham gia v??o l??nh v???c th???c thi ph??p lu???t tr??n c????ng v??? tr??? l?? ?????c bi???t c???a T???ng Ch?????ng l??, chuy??n gi??m s??t c??c ?????t v??y b???t v?? tr???c xu???t nh???ng ng?????i b??? t??nh nghi l?? c???ng s???n trong th???i k??? N???i s??? C???ng s???n v??o cu???i nh???ng n??m 1910. Sau khi ti???p qu???n FBI v??o n??m 1924, Hoover b???t ?????u b?? m???t theo d??i b???t k??? ho???t ?????ng n??o kh??ng ph?? h???p v???i l?? t?????ng c???a ??ng v??? n?????c M???.
Hoover ch???p thu???n vi???c x??m nh???p v?? theo d??i b???t h???p ph??p Li??n ??o??n T??? do D??n s??? M??? (American Civil Liberties Union). ?????c v??? c???a ??ng c?? th??? ???????c t??m th???y ??? m???i v??? tr?? trong ch??nh ph???, ngay c??? t???i T???i cao Ph??p vi???n. ??ng c??ng cho thu th???p th??ng tin g??y t???n h???i ?????n cu???c s???ng c?? nh??n c???a c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng d??n quy???n, bao g???m Martin Luther King, Jr.
D?? ch??? ?????t th??nh c??ng khi??m t???n trong cu???c chi???n ch???ng t???i ph???m, vi???c Hoover b???t th??p ???????c nhi???u c?? nh??n v?? nhi???u t??? ch???c quy???n l???c ???? khi???n ??ng ???????c t??n tr???ng v?? gi??p ??ng n???m v???ng quy???n l???c. ??ng c??n r???t th??nh c??ng trong vi???c thu h??t s??? ch?? ?? v?? l??i k??o b??o ch?? vi???t nh???ng b??i c?? l???i cho FBI. M??i ?????n sau khi ??ng qua ?????i n??m 1972, ngay tr?????c khi b???t ?????u v??? b?? b???i Watergate, h??nh ?????ng tham nh??ng c???a Hoover m???i b??? v???ch tr???n.

10/05/1924: J. Edgar Hoover tr??? th??nh Gi??m ?????c FBI


Ngu???n: J. Edgar Hoover begins his legacy with the FBI, History.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1924, J. Edgar Hoover ???????c b??? nhi???m l??m Quy???n Gi??m ?????c C???c ??i???u tra (Bureau of Investigation, nay l?? FBI); ?????n cu???i n??m, ??ng ch??nh th???c ???????c th??ng ch???c l?? Gi??m ?????c. S??? ki???n n??y ???? b???t ?????u 48 n??m n???m quy???n FBI c???a Hoover, trong ???? ??ng ???? ?????nh h??nh h??? th???ng ph??p l?? h??nh s??? (criminal justice) c???a M??? trong th??? k??? 20.
Hoover l???n ?????u tham gia v??o l??nh v???c th???c thi ph??p lu???t tr??n c????ng v??? tr??? l?? ?????c bi???t c???a T???ng Ch?????ng l??, chuy??n gi??m s??t c??c ?????t v??y b???t v?? tr???c xu???t nh???ng ng?????i b??? t??nh nghi l?? c???ng s???n trong th???i k??? N???i s??? C???ng s???n v??o cu???i nh???ng n??m 1910. Sau khi ti???p qu???n FBI v??o n??m 1924, Hoover b???t ?????u b?? m???t theo d??i b???t k??? ho???t ?????ng n??o kh??ng ph?? h???p v???i l?? t?????ng c???a ??ng v??? n?????c M???.
Hoover ch???p thu???n vi???c x??m nh???p v?? theo d??i b???t h???p ph??p Li??n ??o??n T??? do D??n s??? M??? (American Civil Liberties Union). ?????c v??? c???a ??ng c?? th??? ???????c t??m th???y ??? m???i v??? tr?? trong ch??nh ph???, ngay c??? t???i T???i cao Ph??p vi???n. ??ng c??ng cho thu th???p th??ng tin g??y t???n h???i ?????n cu???c s???ng c?? nh??n c???a c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng d??n quy???n, bao g???m Martin Luther King, Jr.
D?? ch??? ?????t th??nh c??ng khi??m t???n trong cu???c chi???n ch???ng t???i ph???m, vi???c Hoover b???t th??p ???????c nhi???u c?? nh??n v?? nhi???u t??? ch???c quy???n l???c ???? khi???n ??ng ???????c t??n tr???ng v?? gi??p ??ng n???m v???ng quy???n l???c. ??ng c??n r???t th??nh c??ng trong vi???c thu h??t s??? ch?? ?? v?? l??i k??o b??o ch?? vi???t nh???ng b??i c?? l???i cho FBI. M??i ?????n sau khi ??ng qua ?????i n??m 1972, ngay tr?????c khi b???t ?????u v??? b?? b???i Watergate, h??nh ?????ng tham nh??ng c???a Hoover m???i b??? v???ch tr???n.
Nghi???n quy???n l???c
Nh?? c??c Tbt Lx kh??c, Brezhnev m???c t???t nghi???n r?????u v?? thu???c l??.
Nh???ng n??m cu???i ?????i, s???c kh???e & tinh th???n ?? gi???m s??t nghi??m tr???ng.
Bs ri??ng khuy??n Brezhnev n??n d???ng h??t thu???c. Bct Lx h???p, b??n gi???i ph??p cai thu???c l?? cho Tbt.

K???t qu???, Brezhnev ?????ng ?? b??? h??t thu???c. ?????i l???i, ?? b???o c???n v??? h??t thu???c r???i nh??? kh??i. Brezhnev ng???i c???nh ????? h??t.

Gi???a 1973, Brezhnev th??m M???, sau khi v???n ????? VN, ??c xem l?? tr??? ng???i trong quan h??? X?? - M???, ???? ??c gi???i quy???t c?? b???n qua h?? Paris (1/1973).
Khi b?????c xu???ng m??y bay, Brezhnev su??t ng??. ?? b?????c ch???nh cho???ng. C???n v??? ph???i ?????, d??u ?? b?????c xu???ng.
B??o gi???i M??? khi ???? ???? ko b??? l??? c?? h???i. Nh???ng b???c ???nh ch???p Brezhnev b?????c xu???ng m??y bay ??c v?? von ???n d??? cho ?????t n?????c X?? vi???t. 1 Lx gi?? nua, b???nh t???t, kh???ng ho???ng tr?? tr??? & c?? th??? g???c ng?? b???t c??? l??c n??o.
Nh??ng c?? 1 ??i???u d?? lu???n khi ???? ko bi???t: tr??n m??y bay, trong su???t h??nh tr??nh, Brezhnev ???? u???ng r???t nhi???u r?????u.

V??i n??m trc khi m???t, Brezhnev m???c b???nh m???t ng???. ?? th?????ng th???c d???y v??o 2 - 3h s??ng. ?? g???i c???n v??? ?????n v?? n??i chuy???n nh?? ng m???ng du.
C???n v??? h??t thu???c l?? v?? nh??? kh??i. Brezhnev l???i h??t.
- c???u c?? bi???t ??? ?????i c?? th??? g?? l??m ng?????i ta nghi???n nh???t ko? ???? l?? quy???n l???c. Quy???n l???c r???t d??? l??m ng ta nghi???n - Brezhnev n??i vs c???n v???.

Brezhnev c?? v??? l?? 1 nh?? ?????o ?????c h???c h??n l?? 1 nh?? kinh t???. Th???i ?? l??m Tbt c??ng l?? th???i kinh t??? Lx l??m v??o tr?? tr??? r???i khu??ng hoa??ng.
Nh??ng d?????i th???i Brezhnev, t??i ch??a t???ng, d?? ch??? 1 l???n, b??? x??c ph???m hay s??? nh???c. Nh??ng v???i Gorbachev, th?? t??i ???? b??? s??? nh???c. X??c ph???m t??i ko ch??? ??ng ta m?? c??n c??? v??? ??ng ta - V.Medvedev, thi???u t?????ng, ng l??m c???n v??? cho 4 ?????i Tbt Lx (Brezhnev, Andropov, Chernenko v?? Gorbachev) k??? l???i trong cu???n h???i k?? c???a m??nh, sau khi Lx tan r??.
Cu???n h???i k?? c???a vi??n c???u s??? quan c???c 9 kgb c?? d???o ???? ??c d???ch sang ti???ng Vi???t.
Theo fb 
V?? Th??? Long



 

Tổng số điểm của bài viết là: 0 trong 0 đánh giá

Click để đánh giá bài viết

  Ý kiến bạn đọc

Những tin mới hơn

Những tin cũ hơn

Thống kê
  • Đang truy cập7
  • Hôm nay0
  • Tháng hiện tại204,959
  • Tổng lượt truy cập5,070,357
Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây