23/08/1926: Ng??i sao phim c??m Rudolph Valentino qua ?????i

Thứ sáu - 23/08/2019 07:39
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1926, c??i ch???t c???a ng??i sao phim c??m Rudolph Valentino ??? tu???i 31 ???? khi???n ng?????i h??m m??? c???a ??ng v?? c??ng th????ng ti???c. Trong s??? nghi???p ??i???n ???nh ng???n ng???i c???a m??nh, nam di???n vi??n g???c ?? ???? t???o d???ng ???????c danh ti???ng l?? nguy??n m???u ng?????i t??nh m??n ???nh. Sau khi tin t???c v??? vi???c ??ng qua ?????i v?? m???t kh???i u b??? v??? ???????c c??ng b???, h??ng ch???c v??? t??m c??ch t??? t??? ???? ???????c b??o c??o,
23/08/1926: Ng??i sao phim c??m Rudolph Valentino qua ?????i

23/08/1926: Ng??i sao phim c??m Rudolph Valentino qua ?????i

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Ngu???n: Valentino diesHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1926, c??i ch???t c???a ng??i sao phim c??m Rudolph Valentino ??? tu???i 31 ???? khi???n ng?????i h??m m??? c???a ??ng v?? c??ng th????ng ti???c. Trong s??? nghi???p ??i???n ???nh ng???n ng???i c???a m??nh, nam di???n vi??n g???c ?? ???? t???o d???ng ???????c danh ti???ng l?? nguy??n m???u ng?????i t??nh m??n ???nh. Sau khi tin t???c v??? vi???c ??ng qua ?????i v?? m???t kh???i u b??? v??? ???????c c??ng b???, h??ng ch???c v??? t??m c??ch t??? t??? ???? ???????c b??o c??o, v?? n??? di???n vi??n Pola Negri ??? ng?????i t??nh g???n nh???t c???a Valentino ??? ???????c cho l?? kh??ng th??? ngu??i ngoai. H??ng ch???c ng??n ng?????i ???? b??y t??? l??ng t??n k??nh c???a m??nh tr?????c quan t??i m??? c???a ??ng ??? th??nh ph??? New York, v?? 100.000 ng?????i than kh??c ???? x???p h??ng tr??n ???????ng ph??? b??n ngo??i nh?? th??? n??i t??? ch???c tang l???. Thi th??? c???a Valentino sau ???? ???????c ch??? b???ng t??u h???a ?????n Hollywood, n??i ??ng ???????c an t??ng sau m???t ????m tang kh??c.

Rudolph Valentino sinh ra v???i t??n g???i Rodolfo Guglielmi t???i Castellaneta, ??, v??o n??m 1895. ??ng di c?? t???i Hoa K??? v??o n??m 1913 v?? l??m c??c c??ng vi???c l??m v?????n, r???a ch??n, b???i b??n v?? trai bao tr?????c khi ph??t tri???n ???????c m???t s??? nghi???p nh??? l??m v?? c??ng t???p k???. N??m 1917, ??ng t???i Hollywood v?? xu???t hi???n trong vai m???t v?? c??ng trong b??? phim Alimony. Valentino tr??? n??n n???i ti???ng v???i gi???i ?????o di???n nh?? l?? m???t nh??n v???t ph???n di???n Latinh ????ng tin c???y, v?? ??ng xu???t hi???n trong m???t lo???t c??c vai di???n nh??? tr?????c khi gi??nh ???????c vai ch??nh trong b??? phim The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921). B??? phim, v???i m???t c???nh Valentino nh???y ??i???u tango ????ng nh???, ???? khi???n ch??ng trai ng?????i ?? ?????p trai phong t??nh tr??? th??nh hi???n t?????ng ch??? sau m???t ????m. S??? n???i ti???ng c???a ??ng t??ng nhanh v???i c??c b??? phim t??nh c???m l??ng m???n nh?? The Sheik (1921), Blood and Sand (1922) v?? The Eagle (1925).

Valentino l?? bi???u t?????ng t??nh d???c nam ?????u ti??n c???a Hollywood, v?? h??ng tri???u ng?????i h??m m??? n??? ???? th???n t?????ng h??a ??ng th??nh ???Ng?????i t??nh Tuy???t v???i.??? Cu???c s???ng c?? nh??n c???a ??ng th?????ng ?????y s??ng gi??, v?? sau hai cu???c h??n nh??n th???t b???i, ??ng b???t ?????u h???n h?? v???i n??? di???n vi??n Ba Lan quy???n r?? Pola Negri v??o n??m 1926. Ngay sau b??? phim cu???i c??ng c???a ??ng, The Son of the Sheik, kh???i chi???u v??o th??ng 08 n??m 1926, ??ng ph???i nh???p vi???n ??? New York v?? m???t v???t u b??? v???. Ng?????i h??m m??? ???? t??? ch???c m???t l??? v???ng ?????y n?????c m???t b??n ngo??i B???nh vi???n ??a khoa trong m???t tu???n, nh??ng ngay sau 12 gi??? ????m ng??y 23 th??ng 08, ??ng qua ?????i v?? nhi???m tr??ng.

Valentino ???????c t??? ch???c l??? vi???ng trong nhi???u ng??y t???i nh?? tang l??? Frank E. Campbell t???i ???????ng Broadway v?? Ph??? 66, v?? h??ng ng??n ng?????i kh??c th????ng ???? g??y n??o lo???n, ?????p v??? c???a s??? v?? ????nh nhau v???i c???nh s??t ????? ???????c nh??n th???y ng??i sao qu?? c???. ?????ng b???o v??? b??n quan t??i l?? b???n g?? ph??t x??t, ???????c cho l?? do nh?? l??nh ?????o ng?????i ?? Benito Mussolini g???i ?????n, nh??ng th???c t??? l?? h??? ???????c thu?? b???i h??ng th??ng t???n Frank Campbell. V??o ng??y 30 th??ng 08, m???t ????m tang ???? ???????c t??? ch???c t???i Nh?? th??? St. Malachy tr??n Ph??? W. 49th, v?? m???t s??? ng?????i n???i ti???ng ??? Hollywood ???? xu???t hi???n, trong ???? c?? Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks v?? Gloria Swanson. Pola Negri ch??? ?????nh m??nh l?? ng?????i than kh??c ch??nh v?? ???? ng???t x???u cho c??c nhi???p ???nh ch???p ???nh nhi???u l???n tr??n qu??ng ???????ng gi???a nh?? ga v?? nh?? nguy???n. C?? ng?? g???c trong m???t l???n ch???t ng???t b??n c???nh quan t??i c???a Valentino, n??i c?? ???? cho d???ng m???t d??n hoa kh???ng l??? ????nh v???n t??? Pola.

Thi th??? c???a Valentino ???????c chuy???n ?????n Hollywood, n??i m???t ????m tang kh??c cho ??ng ???????c t??? ch???c t???i Nh?? th??? Good Shepherd v??o ng??y 14 th??ng 09. Sau ????, ??ng ???? ???????c an t??ng trong m???t h???m m??? ???????c quy??n t???ng b???i ng?????i b???n c???a ??ng l?? Jun Mathis trong C??ng vi??n T?????ng ni???m Hollywood. M???i n??m v??o ng??y gi??? c???a ??ng, m???t ???ph??? n??? ??o ??en??? b?? ???n l???i xu???t hi???n t???i ng??i m??? c???a ??ng v?? ????? l???i m???t b??ng h???ng ????? duy nh???t. Sau ????, c?? t???i h??ng ch???c ???ph??? n??? ??o ??en??? kh??c b???t ch?????c c??. Danh t??nh c???a ng?????i ph??? n??? ??o ??en ban ?????u v???n l?? m???t v???n ????? b??? tranh c??i, nh??ng ng?????i tuy??n b??? thuy???t ph???c nh???t l?? Ditra Flame, ng?????i n??i r???ng Valentino ???? ?????n th??m c?? trong b???nh vi???n khi c?? b??? b???nh n???ng ??? tu???i 14, mang cho c?? m???t b??ng h???ng ?????. Flame cho bi???t c?? ti???p t???c chuy???n h??nh h????ng h??ng n??m trong ba th???p ni??n v?? sau ???? t??? b??? vi???c n??y khi nhi???u k??? b???t ch?????c b???t ?????u xu???t hi???n.
 

T???i sao m???t s??? nh?? kinh t??? mu???n lo???i b??? ti???n m???t?

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62-Why some economists want to get rid of cash

Ngu???n: ???Why some economists want to get rid of cash???, The Economist, 16/08/2016

Bi??n d???ch: L?? Th??? H???ng Loan | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Ti???n l?? m???t trong nh???ng ph??t minh v?? ?????i nh???t c???a nh??n lo???i; m???t s??? c???i ti???n l???n n???u so v???i vi???c ph???i mang loanh quanh c???u ho???c c??c ki???n c??? kh?? (????? ??i ?????i c??c h??ng h??a kh??c). M???c d?? c?? s??? ph??t tri???n c???a c??c h??nh th???c thanh to??n kh??c, ti???n m???t v???n gi??? ???????c nh???ng ph???m ch???t m?? c??c ph????ng th???c kh??c kh??ng th??? c?? ???????c, trong ???? c?? kh??? n??ng ???n danh, thanh to??n ngay l???p t???c, ???????c ch???p nh???n r???ng r??i v?? l?? m???t c?? ch??? t????ng ?????i kh??ng li??n quan ?????n c??ng ngh???. N?? c?? th??? ???????c s??? d???ng ngay c??? khi l?????i ??i???n b??? c???t ho???c c??c ng??n h??ng ?????u b??? t???n c??ng. Tuy nhi??n, hi???n nay ng??y c??ng nhi???u nh?? kinh t??? k??u g???i lo???i b??? ti???n m???t. T???i sao l???i nh?? v???y?

Trong cu???n The Curse of Cash (L???i nguy???n c???a Ti???n m???t), ph??t h??nh ng??y 16/08/2016, Kenneth Rogoff ????a ra c??c l???p lu???n ???ng h??? vi???c d???n d???n lo???i b??? ph???n l???n c??c lo???i ti???n gi???y. ??ng th???a nh???n r???ng ti???n gi???y ch???c ch???n mang l???i l???i ??ch, nh??ng nh???ng l???i ??ch n??y b??? l??m lu m??? b???i c??c chi ph?? li??n quan t???i m???t ti??u c???c c???a n??. L???y v?? d??? v??? kh??? n??ng ???n danh. C??ng v???i kh??? n??ng cho ph??p thanh to??n cho m???t cu???c ti???p ????i b?? tha ho???c m???t d???ch v??? ngo??i lu???ng m?? kh??ng khi???n ch??ng xu???t hi???n tr??n h??? s?? ng??n h??ng ho???c sao k?? th??? t??n d???ng, ??i???u n??y c??ng cho ph??p b???n t???i ph???m t??i tr??? cho c??c ho???t ?????ng c???a m??nh, ?????ng th???i gi??p ??ch cho nh???ng ng?????i tr???n thu???. Con s??? 1,4 ngh??n t??? USD l??u h??nh b??n ngo??i h??? th???ng ng??n h??ng, ch??? t??nh ri??ng ?????ng ???? la v?? ch??? y???u l?? c??c t??? ti???n m???nh gi?? cao, c?? th??? cho th???y r???ng m???i gia ????nh b???n ng?????i t???i M??? c?? th??? c?? 13.600 USD d?????i d???ng t??? 100 USD ???????c gi???u trong c??c l??? m???t. ??i???u ???? l?? kh?? x???y ra. Theo Rogoff, ph???n l???n ngu???n cung ti???n c???a c??c qu???c gia gi??u c?? ???????c s??? d???ng ????? t???o thu???n l???i cho vi???c tr???n thu??? v?? c??c ho???t ?????ng b???t h???p ph??p nh?? bu??n ng?????i v?? t??i tr??? kh???ng b???.

M???t s??? ng?????i, trong ???? bao g???m Rogoff, cho r???ng m???t th??? gi???i kh??ng d??ng ti???n m???t c??ng s??? khi???n cho ch??nh s??ch ti???n t??? tr??? n??n hi???u qu??? h??n b???i v?? ng?????i ti???t ki???m s??? kh??ng c??n c?? th??? gi???t ti???n d?????i n???m trong tr?????ng h???p l??i su???t ??m. V?? nh?? nh???ng ng?????i b??n h??ng v?? c??c doanh nghi???p t???i c??c qu???c gia s??? d???ng t????ng ?????i ??t ti???n m???t, ch???ng h???n nh?? Th???y ??i???n, ??ang ph??t hi???n ra, ??p d???ng thanh to??n ??i???n t??? c??n c?? nh???ng l???i ??ch th???c t??? kh??c so v???i ti???n m???t, bao g???m c??c l???i ??ch v??? an ninh, chi ph?? th???p h??n, v??? sinh v?? ti???n l???i, cho c??? doanh nghi???p v?? kh??ch h??ng.

Kh??ng ph???i l?? kh??ng c?? kh?? kh??n trong vi???c lo???i b??? ti???n m???t. M???t s??? ?? ki???n ph???n ?????i c?? th??? ???????c d??? d??ng b??c b???, ch???ng h???n nh?? m???t tuy??n b??? ???????c ????a ra b???i m???t ph???n n??m s??? ng?????i ?????c trong m???t cu???c kh???o s??t g???n ????y, trong ???? nh???ng ng?????i tham gia tr??? l???i r???ng h??? th??ch c???m gi??c mang theo ti???n m???t. Nh??ng c?? nh???ng v???n ????? kh??c s??? kh?? b??c b??? h??n. Tr??? ng???i l???n nh???t l?? vi???c m???t ??i kh??? n??ng ???n danh v?? r???i ro r???ng m???t s??? b??? ph???n c???a x?? h???i s??? b??? lo???i ra kh???i h??? th???ng t??i ch??nh, trong m???t th??? gi???i n??i m?? ??i???n tho???i th??ng minh v?? c??c lo???i th??? ng??n h??ng tr??? th??nh c??ch duy nh???t ????? thanh to??n.

V???n ????? ???n danh c?? th??? ???????c gi???i quy???t m???t ph???n b???ng c??ch gi??? l???i nh???ng t??? ti???n m???nh gi?? nh??? v?? ti???n xu; ????? cho ng?????i d??ng c?? th??? ti???p t???c mua phim ng?????i l???n, c???n sa v?? qu?? sinh nh???t, nh??ng kh??ng ????? nhi???u ????? mua b???t ?????ng s???n.

V???n ????? v??? lo???i tr??? t??i ch??nh th?? ph???c t???p h??n. Trong m???t th??? gi???i g???n nh?? kh??ng d??ng ti???n m???t, c??c nh??m d??? b??? ???nh h?????ng, ch???ng h???n nh?? ng?????i ngh??o, ng?????i gi?? v?? ng?????i di c??, c?? th??? g???p nhi???u thi???t th??i h??n, v?? nh???ng ng?????i m?? thu nh???p c???a h??? ?????c bi???t ph??? thu???c v??o ti???n m???t, ch???ng h???n nh?? c??c nh?? th???, c??c t??? ch???c t??? thi???n v?? nh???ng ng?????i v?? gia c??, c?? th??? s??? g???p ph???i m???t s??? s???t gi???m v??? thu nh???p. Nh??ng nh???ng thay ?????i c?? th??? ???????c th???c hi???n d???n d???n v?? theo m???t c??ch th??ng minh, v?? d??? b???ng c??ch thanh to??n c??c kho???n ph??c l???i b???ng c??c th??? ghi n??? tr??? tr?????c v?? cung c???p cho c??c t??? ch???c t??? thi???n c??c m??y ?????c th??? kh??ng c???n qu???t. S??? chuy???n ?????i nh?? v???y trong th???c t??? c?? th??? l??m gia t??ng kh??? n??ng tham gia t??i ch??nh, b???ng c??ch b???o ?????m cung c???p t??i kho???n ng??n h??ng cho c??c c?? nh??n kh??ng c?? t??i kho???n ng??n h??ng.

Cu???c tranh lu???n n??y l??m d???y l??n nh???ng ph???n ???ng m???nh m???; Bild, m???t t??? b??o ?????c, g???n ????y ???? t??? ch???c m???t cu???c ph???n ?????i c???a c??c ?????c gi??? ch???ng l???i quy ?????nh gi???i h???n ???5.000 ($5.633) ?????i v???i c??c giao d???ch ti???n m???t. V?? c??c h???c gi??? ?????c ???? l???p lu???n r???ng vi???c c???m ti???n m???t s??? kh??ng k???t th??c m???t c??ch k??? di???u t??nh tr???ng t???i ph???m v?? c??c giao d???ch ch??? ??en: gian l???n ??i???n t???, t???i ph???m m???ng v?? thanh to??n ???n danh tr???c tuy???n kh??ng qu?? kh?? ?????i v???i nh???ng ng?????i c?? k??? n??ng v?? quy???t t??m. Tuy nhi??n, khi c??c n?????c gi??u ??ang ng??y c??ng t??ch ra kh???i ti???n m???t, v???i m???t s??? c???a h??ng v?? qu??n c?? ph?? ho??n to??n kh??ng ch???p nh???n ti???n m???t, c??c nh?? kinh t??? ???? c?? th??? nh??n th???y b???ng ch???ng s???m c???a c??c l???i ??ch khi kh??ng d??ng ti???n m???t ??? c??ng nh?? s??? t????ng ?????i d??? d??ng c???a qu?? tr??nh chuy???n ?????i n??y.
 

16/03/1916: ???? ?????c Alfred von Tirpitz t??? ch???c

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Ngu???n: German Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz resignsHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1916, ???? ?????c Alfred von Tirpitz, ki???n tr??c s?? tr?????ng x??y d???ng h???i qu??n ?????c trong nh???ng n??m tr?????c Th??? chi???n I v?? ng?????i ?????ng sau chi???n l?????c h???i qu??n hi???u chi???n m?? ?????c theo ??u???i trong hai n??m ?????u chi???n tranh, ???? n???p ????n t??? ch???c cho Ho??ng ????? Wilhelm II. Tr?????c s??? ng???c nhi??n c???a Tirpitz, Ho??ng ????? ???? ch???p thu???n l?? ????n.

Tirpitz b???t ?????u m???i quan h??? th??n thi???t v???i Ho??ng ????? Wilhelm II v??o n??m 1897, khi ??ng ???????c b??? nhi???m l??m B??? tr?????ng B??? H???i qu??n Ho??ng gia. M???t n??m sau, Tirpitz gi???i thi???u ?????o lu???t H???m ?????i I (First Fleet Act), ????nh d???u b?????c kh???i ?????u c???a m???t cu???c c???i t??? v?? x??y d???ng quan tr???ng ?????i v???i h???i qu??n ?????c. ?????o lu???t H???m ?????i II (Second Fleet Act) ra ?????i n??m 1900 c??n ch???a ?????ng nhi???u tham v???ng h??n n???a, ?????t ra th???i h???n 17 n??m ????? x??y d???ng m???t h???m ?????i g???m 2 so??i h???m, 36 chi???n h???m, 11 t??u tu???n d????ng l???n v?? 34 t??u tu???n d????ng nh??? ??? m???t h???m ?????i s??? th??ch th???c c??? H???i qu??n Ho??ng gia Anh.

?????n n??m 1905, s???c m???nh h???i qu??n c???a ?????c ???? v?????t xa c??? Ph??p v?? Nga v?? ??ang tr??n ???????ng ??? d?? ???? l?? m???t ch???ng ???????ng d??i ??? h?????ng t???i m???c ti??u tr??? th??nh ?????i th??? th???c s??? c???a H???i qu??n Ho??ng gia Anh. S??? th???t n??y khi???n Anh v?? ???? ?????c Th??? nh???t c???a H???i qu??n Ho??ng gia (First Sea Lord) Jackie Fisher, ng?????i v??o n??m 1906 ???? ?????ng ?????u d??? ??n ph??t tri???n con t??u chi???n lo???i m???i HMS Dreadnought, sau n??y tr??? th??nh bi???u t?????ng c???a cu???c ch???y ??ua v?? trang ?????c-Anh trong nh???ng n??m tr?????c Th??? chi???n I.

N??m 1911, Tirpitz ???????c th??ng h??m ???? ?????c (grand admiral); ba n??m sau, chi???n tranh b??ng n??? v?? ??ng tr??? th??nh ch??? huy c???a to??n b??? h???i qu??n ?????c. B???t ch???p ???? ph??t tri???n m???nh m??? trong th???p ni??n tr?????c ????, ?????c ch??? c?? th??? t???p trung 18 chi???n h???m v?? t??u tu???n d????ng chi???n ?????u ??? th???i ??i???m b???t ?????u Th??? chi???n I, so v???i 29 t??u t????ng t??? c???a Anh. Hi???u ???????c n???i kh?? kh??n c???a ?????c khi ch???ng l???i Anh tr??n bi???n, Tirpitz nh???n ra r???ng t??u ng???m U-Boat l?? v?? kh?? hi???u qu??? nh???t c???a h???i qu??n, do ???? ??ng ???? ???ng h??? m???t ch??nh s??ch hi???u chi???n, ???????c tuy??n b??? b???i Ho??ng ????? ?????c v??o th??ng 02/1915, theo ???? c??c t??u b???t k??? trung l???p hay t??u ?????ch ?????u s??? r??i v??o t???m ng???m c???a t??u ng???m ?????c n???u ch??ng ti???n v??o v??ng chi???n s??? ??? Bi???n B???c gi???a ?????c v?? Anh.

Sau m???t v??i cu???c t???n c??ng t??u ng???m, ?????nh ??i???m l?? v??o ng??y 07/05/1915, khi ?????c ????nh ch??m t??u ch??? kh??ch Lusitania c???a Anh, khi???n 1.201 ng?????i, trong ???? c?? 128 ng?????i M??? b??? ch???t ??u???i, ch??nh ph??? ?????c m???i ?????t ra ranh gi???i cho ch??nh s??ch chi???n tranh t??u ng???m kh??ng h???n ch??? nh???m tr??nh g??y th?? ?????ch v???i c??c n?????c trung l???p, ch??? y???u l?? Hoa K???. M??a thu n??m 1915, Tirpitz v?? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o h???i qu??n kh??c b??? ki???m ch??? ?????n m???c h??? ????nh ch??? ho??n to??n ch??nh s??ch. (N?? s??? ???????c kh??i ph???c v??o th??ng 02/1917, khi???n M??? c???t ?????t quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i ?????c v?? ti???n t???i vi???c tham chi???m v??? ph??a phe ?????ng minh.)

Gi???a s??? ph???n n??? qu???c t??? xung quanh ch??nh s??ch m?? ??ng ????a ra, Tirpitz d???n d???n th???y m??nh xa l??nh v???i ph???n c??n l???i c???a b??? ch??? huy chi???n tranh ?????c, bao g???m c??? l??nh ?????o c???a ??ng, Ho??ng ????? Wilhelm II. Ng??y 16/03/1916, khi Tirpitz t??? ch???c, Wilhelm ???? ch???p nh???n v?? ??ng ???? r???i b??? v??? tr?? c???a m??nh.

Trong th???i k??? h???u chi???n, Tirpitz ?????ng s??ng l???p ?????ng T??? qu???c (Fatherland Party) c??nh h???u v???i mong mu???n t???n d???ng nh???ng ho??i ni???m v??? m???t n?????c ?????c quy???n uy n??m 1914, v?? tr??? th??nh ?????i bi???u trong Ngh??? vi???n Li??n bang (Reichstag) t??? n??m 1924 ?????n 1928. D?? v???y, Tirpitz kh??ng bao gi??? l???y l???i ???????c t???m ???nh h?????ng c???a m??nh; ??ng qua ?????i v??o n??m 1930.

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