17/08/1962: L??nh ????ng ?????c b???n ng?????i c??? v?????t B???c t?????ng Berlin

Thứ bảy - 17/08/2019 07:06
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1962, l??nh canh ????ng ?????c ???? b???n h??? m???t thanh ni??n ??ang c??? g???ng tr???n tho??t qua B???c t?????ng Berlin v??o T??y Berlin v?? ????? m???c anh ta ch???y m??u ?????n ch???t. S??? ki???n tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng bi???n c??? t???i t??? nh???t x???y ra t???i m???t trong nh???ng bi???u t?????ng x???u nh???t c???a Chi???n tranh L???nh.
17/08/1962: L??nh ????ng ?????c b???n ng?????i c??? v?????t B???c t?????ng Berlin

17/08/1962: L??nh ????ng ?????c b???n ng?????i c??? v?????t B???c t?????ng Berlin

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Ngu???n: East Germans kill man trying to cross Berlin WallHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1962, l??nh canh ????ng ?????c ???? b???n h??? m???t thanh ni??n ??ang c??? g???ng tr???n tho??t qua B???c t?????ng Berlin v??o T??y Berlin v?? ????? m???c anh ta ch???y m??u ?????n ch???t. S??? ki???n tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng bi???n c??? t???i t??? nh???t x???y ra t???i m???t trong nh???ng bi???u t?????ng x???u nh???t c???a Chi???n tranh L???nh.

S??? ki???n n??m 1962 x???y ra g???n m???t n??m sau ng??y B???c t?????ng Berlin ???????c x??y d???ng. Th??ng 08/1961, ch??nh quy???n ????ng Berlin b???t ?????u d???ng h??ng r??o th??p gai t???i ranh gi???i gi???a ????ng v?? T??y Berlin. Ch??? trong v??i ng??y, m???t b???c t?????ng b?? t??ng ???? ???????c x??y d???ng, ho??n ch???nh v???i c??c th??p canh. Trong nh???ng th??ng ti???p theo, r???t nhi???u th??p gai, s??ng m??y, ????n r???i, ?????n b???o v???, ch??, m??n v?? h??ng r??o b?? t??ng ???? ???????c d???ng l??n, ng??n c??ch ho??n to??n hai n???a th??nh ph???. C??c quan ch???c M??? l??n ??n h??nh ?????ng c???a ph??a c???ng s???n, nh??ng ch???ng l??m g?? ????? ng??n ch???n vi???c x??y d???ng b???c t?????ng.

Ng??y 17/08/1962, hai thanh ni??n t??? ????ng Berlin ???? c??? g???ng v?????t qua b???c t?????ng ????? ??i t??m t??? do. M???t ng?????i ???? tr??o qua h??ng r??o d??y th??p gai th??nh c??ng, v?? d?? b??? nhi???u v???t c???t kh???p da th???t, anh ???? an to??n sang ?????n T??y Berlin. Tr?????c con m???t kinh ho??ng c???a l??nh canh T??y ?????c, ch??ng trai tr??? th??? hai ???? b??? b???n b???ng s??ng m??y t??? ph??a ????ng Berlin. Anh ta ng?? xu???ng nh??ng ???? c??? g???ng ?????ng d???y, men theo b???c t?????ng v?? b???t ?????u tr??o qua. Nhi???u ti???ng s??ng kh??c vang l??n. Ch??ng trai b??? b???n v??o l??ng, la h??t v?? ng?? kh???i t?????ng. Su???t g???n m???t gi???, anh c??? n???m ????, kh??c than k??u c???u v?? ch???y m??u ?????n ch???t. C??c l??nh canh T??y ?????c ???? n??m b??ng c???u th????ng cho anh, v?? m???t ????m ????ng gi???n d??? g???m nhi???u c??ng d??n T??y Berlin ???? th??t v??o m???t to??n l??nh ????ng ?????c, nh???ng ng?????i d?????ng nh?? b???ng l??ng ????? cho ch??ng trai tr??? ch???t. Cu???i c??ng sau khi anh ch???t, l??nh canh ????ng ?????c ch???y ?????n n??i anh n???m r???i d???n x??c ??i.

Trong l???ch s??? c???a B???c t?????ng Berlin (1961 ??? 1989), g???n 80 ng?????i ???? thi???t m???ng khi c??? g???ng v?????t t?????ng t??? ????ng sang T??y Berlin. C??c quan ch???c ????ng ?????c lu??n tuy??n b??? r???ng b???c t?????ng ???????c d???ng l??n ????? b???o v??? ch??? ????? c???ng s???n kh???i nh???ng ???nh h?????ng nguy hi???m c???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n v?? v??n h??a ph????ng T??y. Tuy nhi??n, trong g???n 30 n??m b???c t?????ng t???n t???i, ???? ch???ng c?? ai b??? b???n khi c??? g???ng v??o ????ng Berlin.
 

#220 ??? L?? Quang Di???u vi???t v??? ???M??a xu??n ???-r???p???

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Ngu???n: Lee Kuan Yew (2013). ???Middle East: A Spring without a Summer???, in L.K. Yew, One Man???s View of the World(Singapore: Straits Times Press), pp. 238-257.

Bi??n d???ch: Ng?? V??n T???ng | Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Th??? Nhung

B??i li??n quan: C??c ch????ng kh??c c???a cu???n One Man???s View of the World

Khi l??n gi?? ph???n kh???i c???a ???M??a xu??n ??? R???p??? nh?? ng?????i ta v???n g???i cu???i c??ng c??ng ??i qua, th??? gi???i c?? l??? s??? nh???n ra m???t th???c t??? tr???n tr???i r???ng b??? m??y ??i???u h??nh t???i khu v???c n??y v???n kh??ng c?? b?????c chuy???n m??nh m???i m??? n??o.  D?? nh???ng thay ?????i n??y b??? ngo??i nh??n c?? v??? r???t l???n lao v?? d?? c??c k?? gi??? ???? c??? g???ng t?? v??? cho ch??ng th???t ch???n ?????ng, nh??ng nhi???u th???p k??? v??? sau, khi bao qu??t l???i to??n b??? s??? ki???n, ch??ng ta ch???c ch???n s??? kh?? c?? th??? coi b???t c??? nh???ng thay ?????i n??o trong s??? ???? l?? m???t c??ng cu???c chuy???n ?????i th???c ch???t v?? b???n v???ng, theo h?????ng nh??n d??n n???m quy???n t???i khu v???c.

V?? c??ng ch???c ch???n h??n n???a l?? nh???ng cu???c th??? nghi???m d??n ch??? n??y s??? kh??ng k??o d??i. T??i cho r???ng, ch???ng bao l??u n???a, nh???ng qu???c gia v???a m???i m?? m???m th???c hi???n c??c b?????c ??i theo h?????ng ???m???t ng?????i, m???t phi???u??? (one man one vote) s??? tr??? l???i v???i ch??? ????? ?????c nh??n tr??? hay ?????c ?????ng tr???. N??i c??ch kh??c, xu??n s??? qua v?? h??, thu, r???i ????ng s??? t???i. Cu???c s???ng v???n ti???p di???n, c??ng gi???ng nh?? n?? ???? ti???p di???n trong nhi???u thi??n ni??n k??? qua.

Khu v???c Trung ????ng thi???u v???ng m???t l???ch s??? x?? h???i v???n h??nh d???a tr??n c??ch th???c ?????m s??? ng?????i ???ng h??? ????? t??? ???? ????a ra c??c quy???t ?????nh. Khu v???c kh??ng c?? truy???n th???ng d??n ch???, cho d?? l?? trong giai ??o???n H???i gi??o c??? ?????i, giai ??o???n l???ch s??? thu???c ?????a g???n ????y, hay trong k??? nguy??n ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c h???u thu???c ?????a. Khi c??c kh???i thu???c ?????a c???a Anh v?? Ph??p tan v??? v?? chia t??ch th??nh c??c qu???c gia ri??ng r???, th?? t???t c??? c??c qu???c gia n??y cu???i c??ng l???i quay v??? ch??? ????? ?????c nh??n tr???. ????y kh??ng ph???i b???i s??? t??nh c??? m?? xu???t ph??t t??? ngu???n g???c v??n h??a v?? x?? h???i ???? c???m r??? s??u t??? xa x??a.

T???t nhi??n, ng?????i ta c?? th??? tranh lu???n r???ng, d??n ch??? ??? m???t hi???n t?????ng kh?? m???i m??? trong l???ch s??? nh??n lo???i ??? ?????u ???? b???t ?????u n???y m???m ????u ???? trong m???i khu v???c, v?? r???ng ??? nhi???u n??i (g???m c??? m???t s??? qu???c gia ??? ch??u ??), d??n ch??? ???? b???t r??? ??? ho???c ??t nh???t b??? ngo??i l?? nh?? v???y ??? b???t ch???p m??i tr?????ng c???a h??? c??ng thi???u v???ng truy???n th???ng d??n ch??? nh?? v???y. Nh??ng c?? m???t s??? kh??c bi???t quan tr???ng: Trung ????ng kh??ng ch??? kh??ng c?? kinh nghi???m v??? c??c th??? th???c ch??nh tr??? ?????i di???n trong qu?? kh???, m?? quan tr???ng h??n khu v???c n??y c??n thi???u v???ng c??c nh??n t??? x?? h???i l??m n???n t???ng thi???t y???u cho d??n ch??? ?????ng v???ng.

Th??? nh???t l?? ?? th???c v??? t?? c??ch c??ng d??n b??nh ?????ng. N???i dung t?? t?????ng n??y l?? c??? b???n v?? t??i m???c d?? c?? s??? kh??c bi???t v??? m???c ????? gi??u c??, v??? th??? x?? h???i, th??nh t???u, kh??? n??ng th??? ch???t v?? tinh th???n, v?? nhi???u th??? kh??c, nh??ng ch??ng ta ?????u b??nh ?????ng v???i nhau ??? m???t m???c ????? n??o ????, ch??? ????n thu???n v?? m???t l?? do duy nh???t: ch??ng ta ?????u l?? c??ng d??n c???a m???t qu???c gia c??? th???. Ch??ng ta c?? c??ng nh???ng quy???n v?? ngh??a v??? nh?? nhau m?? m???i qu???c gia ?????u trao cho t???t c??? c??ng d??n c???a m??nh. Ch??ng ta b??nh ?????ng v??? m???t ph??p l?? c??ng nh?? v??? m???t ?????o ?????c. T?? t?????ng n??y c???n ph???i xu???t hi???n tr?????c ????? l??m ti???n ????? cho vi???c ph??t tri???n nh???ng h??nh th???c ??p d???ng c??ng nh?? c??c th??? ch??? d??n ch??? th???c s???. N?? ph???i ???????c kh??ng ch??? gi???i tr?? th???c v?? nh???ng ng?????i ti???n b??? m?? to??n x?? h???i ????n nh???n.

Tuy nhi??n, nh???ng g?? ch??ng ta th???y t???i nhi???u v??ng thu???c khu v???c Trung ????ng ng??y nay l?? c??c h??? th???ng mang t??nh b??? l???c ho???c phong ki???n. T???i ???-r???p X??-??t, l??nh ?????o c???a c??c b??? l???c ?????u mang qu?? ?????n t???ng nh?? vua m???i n??m m???t l???n. C??ng gi???ng nh?? Trung Qu???c th???i c??? ?????i, ????? ????p l???i nh?? vua c??ng b???n cho h??? c??c m??n qu?? c?? gi?? tr??? l???n h??n. Th?????ng d??n trung th??nh v???i b??? l???c ??? ch??? kh??ng ph???i v???i qu???c gia, v?? ??? ????y qu???c gia kh??ng t???n t???i, v?? ch???c ch???n kh??ng ph???i v???i nh???ng ?????ng b??o nh?? h???.

T??i ???? c?? l???n n??i chuy???n v???i m???t nh?? ngo???i giao ng?????i M??? m???t v??i n??m v??? tr?????c, sau khi ??ng r???i nhi???m s??? ??? ???-r???p X??-??t v?? ??ng ?????ng ?? v??? quan ??i???m n??y. ??ng cho r???ng ng?????i ???-r???p X??-??t c?? c?? c???u t??? ch???c theo l???i phong ki???n. T????ng t??? nh?? v???y, ng?????i Libi kh??ng c?? m???t qu???c gia th???ng nh???t m?? l?? m???t t???p h???p c??c b??? l???c, v?? ch??? ngh??a khu v???c t???i ????y c??n khi???n ?????c t??nh n??y th??m tr???m tr???ng. T???i c??c qu???c gia b??? l???c n??y, khi m???t ch??? ????? s???p ?????, c?? th??? ng?????i ta s??? ti???n h??nh ??i???u ch???nh s??u r???ng c??c quy t???c v???n h??nh t??? ch???c c???a n???n ch??nh tr??? ??? t???c l?? ai ???????c quy???n quy???t ?????nh c??i g?? v?? nh?? th??? n??o ??? nh??ng d??n ch??? s??? kh??ng xu???t hi???n v?? ????n v??? c?? b???n trong ch??nh th??? kh??ng ph???i l?? c??ng d??n m?? l?? b??? l???c.

C??c nh?? quan s??t ???? ch??? ra r???ng m???t s??? n?????c ??? r???p ???? tr??? th??nh qu???c gia ??? theo ngh??a hi???n ?????i h??n ??? n???i b???t nh???t l?? Ai C???p, Mar???c v?? Tunisia. Tuy v???y, th???m ch?? c??c qu???c gia n??y v???n thi???u th??nh t??? th??? hai v?? kh??ng k??m ph???n quan tr???ng, ????y l???i l?? th??nh t??? c???n thi???t ????? d??n ch??? c?? th??? tr??? n??n ch??n mu???i v?? ????? to??n th??? c??ng d??n ch???p nh???n k???t qu??? c???a kh??ng ch??? cu???c b???u c??? ?????u ti??n sau c??ch m???ng m?? c??n c???a t???t c??? c??c cu???c b???u c??? ti???p sau ????. ???? ch??nh l?? th??nh t??? m?? t??i g???i l?? kh??? n??ng t??i ch??nh ????? v???ng m???nh ????? t???o ra nh???ng b?????c ph??t tri???n kinh t??? th???c s???.

Khu v???c ??ang b??? l??? n??ng l???c n??y ????n gi???n b???i v?? h??? lu??n nh???t quy???t k??m h??m n??? gi???i ??? h???u ph????ng. X?? h???i ??? r???p nh??n chung ?????u do nam gi???i th???ng l??nh. H??? ???? t??? ch???i trao quy???n gi??o d???c b??nh ?????ng cho n??? gi???i v?? kh??ng cho ph??p ph??i n??? ???????c ????ng g??p s???c lao ?????ng nh?? nam gi???i trong x?? h???i ??? ????y ch??nh x??c l?? nh???ng r??o c???n m?? c??c qu???c gia n??y c???n kh???c ph???c ????? gi???i ph??ng ti???m n??ng b???n th??n v?? t???o ??i???u ki???n cho n???n kinh t??? ??? ????y ???????c hi???n ?????i h??a. H??? ???? ph???n ?????i gi???i ph??p n??y v?? lu??n t??m ????? m???i c??? ????? bi???n minh. V?? v???n ????? n??y ???? truy???n t??? th??? h??? n??y sang th??? h??? kh??c b???i l??? nh???ng ph??? n??? c?? h???c v???n th???p c?? xu h?????ng nu??i d???y n??n nh???ng ?????a con nh???n th???c th???p, do ng?????i m??? d??nh nhi???u th???i gian cho con c??i h??n ng?????i cha. Ng?????c l???i, m???t th??? h??? nh???ng ng?????i m??? ???????c gi??o d???c t???t h??n ch???c ch???n s??? nu??i d???y n??n th??? h??? nh???ng ng?????i tr??? c?? th??i ????? v?? th??? gi???i quan kh??c bi???t.

Th???m ch?? ??? m???t s??? qu???c gia t???i Trung ????ng c?? t??? l??? n??? gi???i h???c ?????i h???c g???n b???ng nam gi???i th?? h??? v???n b??? ng??n c???n kh??ng th??? ph??t huy h???t ti???m n??ng c???a b???n th??n theo nhi???u c??ch th???c kh??c nhau. Th??ng th?????ng, h??? b??? t??? ch???i nh???n v??o c??c kh??a h???c danh ti???ng, ch???ng h???n nh?? c??c kh??a h???c v??? khoa h???c, k??? thu???t hay lu???t, v?? thay v??o ???? ng?????i ta cho r???ng h??? n??n ?????m tr??ch c??c ng??nh ngh??? ???cho ph??i n?????? truy???n th???ng, ch???ng h???n nh?? l??m gi??o vi??n. Th???m ch?? khi h??? ?????t ???????c s??? th??nh c??ng ngang b???ng nam gi???i trong ng??nh gi??o d???c, th?? t??? l??? n??? gi???i tham gia l???c l?????ng lao ?????ng ??? nhi???u qu???c gia Trung ????ng v???n thua k??m ????ng k??? so v???i con s??? n??y c???a nam gi???i v?? nhi???u l?? do kh??c nhau. M???t s??? n??? gi???i ph???i ch???u ?????ng th??i quen ph??n bi???t ?????i x??? trong c??ng vi???c, t??? vi???c b??? tr??? l????ng kh??ng ngang b???ng ?????n vi???c b??? qu???y r???i t??nh d???c. M???t s??? n??? gi???i kh??c ????n gi???n l???i th???y kh??ng ????ng ph???i ?????u tranh v???i nh???ng phi???n ph???c m?? h??? ph???i ch???u ?????ng h???ng ng??y nh?? vi???c h???n ch??? n??? gi???i ??i l???i m???t m??nh ch???n c??ng c???ng, hay nh???ng ph??? n??? ???? l???p gia ????nh kh??ng nh???n ???????c b???t c??? chia s??? hay c???m th??ng n??o t??? x?? h???i khi h??? kh??ng ??? nh?? ????? ?????m tr??ch c??ng vi???c n???i tr???.

C??c ch??? ????? d??n ch??? m???i kh??ng th??? t???n t???i l??u d??i n???u nh?? kh??ng t???o ???????c nh???ng b?????c ph??t tri???n th???c s??? v??? m???t kinh t???. X??t cho c??ng, ?????i v???i m???t ng?????i d??n b??nh th?????ng d??n ch??? c??n c?? ngh??a l?? g?? n???u nh?? anh ta kh??ng th??? t??? nh???n th???y ???????c nh???ng k???t qu??? m?? n?? mang l???i? Ch???c ch???n d??n ch??? v???i anh ta m?? n??i s??? ch??? ????n thu???n l?? c??? l??u l??u l???i ph???i ?????ng x???p h??ng ch??? ?????n l?????t m??nh ????? ????nh d???u v??o m???t t??? gi???y. Ch??? trong v??ng m???t hay hai k??? b???u c???, ng?????i d??n s??? b??? v??? m???ng tr?????c h??? th???ng v?? sau ???? ?????t n?????c l???i quay v??? m???t h??nh th???c cai tr??? ?????c t??i n??o ????.

T???i Ai C???p, nh??m Huynh ????? H???i gi??o (Muslim Brotherhood) l???n ?????u ti??n l??n n???m quy???n v?? c?? v??? nh?? hi???u ???????c t??nh c???p thi???t c???a tr???ng tr??ch tr??n vai n??n ???? c??? nhi???u ph??i ??o??n sang c??c n?????c kh??c ????? h???c h???i nh???ng g?? c?? th??? v??? ph??t tri???n. ???? l?? d???u hi???u cho th???y h??? th???c s??? nghi??m t??c v??? v???n ????? n??y. Nh??ng li???u h??? c?? th??nh c??ng? Khi m?? nh???ng thay ?????i c???n x??c ti???n th?? qu?? thi???t y???u m?? khung th???i gian cho ph??p ????? ?????t ???????c ??i???u ???? th?? l???i qu?? ng???n ng???i? Trong khi t??m c??ch th???c hi???n c??c cu???c c???i c??ch s??u r???ng, h??? s??? ph???i ?????i m???t v???i nh???ng tr??? ng???i l???n lao h??nh th??nh t??? c??c nh??n t??? c???a ch??? ????? c??. Ch???ng h???n, c??c c?? quan nh?? n?????c s??? v???n ?????y c??c c??ng ch???c do c???u t???ng th???ng Hosni Mubarak b??? nhi???m. H??? v???n l?? m???t ph???n kh??ng th??? t??ch r???i c???a h??? th???ng m???i b???i l??? h??? th???ng m???i kh??ng th??? v???n h??nh ???????c n???u nh?? n?? ph?? b??? ho??n to??n h??? th???ng c?? v?? x??y d???ng m???i ho??n to??n t??? con s??? kh??ng.

Khi th??? gi???i ng??y c??ng tr??? n??n to??n c???u h??a, c??c ch??nh ph??? ??? Trung ????ng b???t ?????u nh???n th???c ???????c r???ng h??? ph???i ??i c??ng v???i th???i ?????i, d?? ch??? v???i t???ng b?????c nh???. T???i ???-r???p X??-??t, v???i c???u tr??c x?? h???i mang ?????m t??nh H???i gi??o, n??? gi???i v???n b??? bu???c ph???i m???c trang ph???c che k??n to??n th??n khi xu???t hi???n t???i n??i c??ng c???ng, v?? kh??ng ???????c ph??p l??i xe h??i. Nhi???u ?????a ??i???m c??ng c???ng b??? ph??n chia th??nh c??c khu ri??ng bi???t theo gi???i t??nh. Nh??ng th???m ch?? trong m???t x?? h???i l??u ?????i nh?? th??? n??y, t??nh h??nh c??ng ??ang thay ?????i.

Ch???ng h???n, tr?????ng ?????i h???c Khoa h???c v?? C??ng ngh??? Vua Abdullah (KAUST) ???????c th??nh l???p n??m 2009 gi???ng nh?? m???t ???c ?????o t??? do trong l??ng m???t qu???c gia b???o th??? s??u s???c. Tr?????ng ???? thu?? Gi??o s?? Shih Choon Fong, ng?????i t???ng l?? ph?? hi???u tr?????ng tr?????ng ?????i h???c Qu???c gia Singapore (NUS), l??m hi???u tr?????ng. Trong ph???m vi khu??n vi??n c??c khu h???c x??, nam gi???i v?? n??? gi???i ???????c ?????i x??? m???t c??ch b??nh ?????ng, gi???ng nh?? m???i c?? d??n trong c??c x?? h???i theo l??? l???i ph????ng T??y.

????y l?? m???t b?????c ??i ti???n b???, nh??ng t??i kh??ng k??? v???ng nh???ng sinh vi??n t???t nghi???p t???i KAUST ????? s???c thay ?????i ?????t n?????c c???a h???. B???n kh??ng th??? thay ?????i c??? m???t ch??? ????? phong ki???n ch??? b???ng m???t v??i thanh ni??n nam n??? t??i n??ng v?? c?? h???c th???c. B???n ph???i ?????i m???t v???i nh??m gi??o gi???i, m?? ??? ????y l?? ph??i Wahhabi, nh??m gi??o s?? quy???n l???c b???c nh???t v?? c??ng b???o th??? nh???t t???i th??? gi???i ???-r???p. Quy???n l???c c???a h??? ???????c gi??? v???ng nh??? m???i quan h??? c???ng sinh v???i gia ????nh ho??ng gia: ho??ng gia ???????c n???m trong tay c???a c???i c???a c??? ?????t n?????c trong khi nh??m gi??o gi???i ???????c b???o ?????m g???n nh?? ch???c ch???n quy???n t??? tung t??? t??c ?????i v???i t???t c??? c??c v???n ????? t??n gi??o. Nh??ng sau khi g???p nh?? vua Abdullah, t??i tin r???ng gia ????nh ho??ng gia t???i ???-r???p X??-??t hi???u r???ng kh??ng th??? n??o gi??? ?????t n?????c ??? hi???n tr???ng ????ng b??ng trong su???t m???t k??? nguy??n n??o ????. H??? s??? ph???i t??nh ?????n ph??t tri???n qu???c gia theo h?????ng ti???n b???. S??? thay ?????i l?? t???t y???u. Nh??ng thay ?????i ??? t???c ????? n??o th?? t??i kh??ng th??? n??i tr?????c ???????c. C?? th??? nh???ng quy t???c x?? h???i ??ang ???????c ??p d???ng t???i KAUST s??? ???????c nh??n r???ng t???i to??n th??? c??c khu v???c xung quanh v?? sau ???? l?? t???t c??? c??c khu v???c th??nh th???.

Nh??ng t???i th???i ??i???m n??y, ???????ng h?????ng ph??t tri???n l??u d??i c???a khu v???c Trung ????ng c?? v??? v???n ch??a ki??n ?????nh. Sau khi cu???c th??? nghi???m b??? phi???u v?? b???u c??? hi???n th???i ??ang d???n ??i ?????n h???i k???t, gi???i ph??p ??em l???i s??? ph??t tri???n b???n v???ng v?? cung c???p c??ng ??n vi???c l??m cho kho???ng h??n 350 tri???u ng?????i v???n c??n l?? v???n ????? t???n ?????ng. T??nh th??? tr??? tr??u n??y l?? ??i???u kh?? tr??nh kh???i. C?? nhi???u ?? ki???n kh???ng ?????nh r???ng ????y l?? khu v???c gi??u c?? t??i nguy??n thi??n nhi??n kh??ng ????u s??nh b???ng. Nh??ng nhi???u v??ng ??? khu v???c n??y v???n b??? m???c k???t trong v??ng b??n tr?? tr???.

Th??? th??ch th???c s??? ?????i v???i c??c qu???c gia ??? khu v???c n??y l?? l??m th??? n??o h??? c?? th??? ch??? ?????ng g???n k???t b???n th??n v???i th??? gi???i b??n ngo??i m???t khi c??c ngu???n n??ng l?????ng h???u h???n kia b??? c???n ki???t. H??? c???n ph???i chuy???n ?????i t??? n???n kinh t??? l??? thu???c v??o ngu???n d???u m??? d???i d??o sang n???n kinh t??? c?? th??? t??? duy tr?? tr??n ch??nh ????i ch??n m??nh v??? l??u d??i, v?? h??? ph???i ti???n h??nh m???c ti??u n??y ch??? trong ph???m vi v??i th???p k??? t???i. H??? s??? ph???i nhanh ch??ng c???i thi???n ph????ng th???c hi???n t???i c???a m??nh v?? ph???i t??m ra l???i th??? c???nh tranh ?????i v???i c??c ng??nh c??ng nghi???p phi khai kho??ng, d?? l?? trong l??nh v???c ng??n h??ng, h??ng kh??ng, du l???ch, s???n ph???m ti??u d??ng hay t???ng h???p t???t c??? c??c l??nh v???c n??i tr??n. M???t trong nh???ng c??ch ????? ?????t ???????c ??i???u n??y l?? c??? nh???ng t??i n??ng tr??? h??ng ?????u c???a h??? sang l??m vi???c trong nh???ng ng??nh c??ng nghi???p n??y ??? c??c th??nh ph??? c???a M??? hay Ch??u ??u, v?? sau ????, thu h??t ngu???n nh??n l???c n??y v??? qu?? h????ng nh???m x??y d???ng c??c ng??nh m??i nh???n t????ng t??? trong n?????c.

Th???t kh??ng may, ngu???n d???u m??? qu?? ?? d???i d??o l???i c?? xu h?????ng nu??i d?????ng n??n nh???ng b??? ph???n d??n ch??ng c?? ni???m tin r???ng th??? gi???i ph???i cung ph???ng cho cu???c s???ng c???a h???. Ch??nh ph??? c???a h??? kh??ng may ph???i ?????m tr??ch c??ng vi???c kh??ng ai mu???n l?? n??? l???c huy ?????ng d??n ch??ng l??m vi???c v?? x??a b??? t?? duy ??? l???i nhu nh?????c n??y. H??? ph???i thuy???t ph???c ng?????i d??n r???ng s??? gi??u c?? v??? d???u m??? kh??ng k??o d??i m??i m??i, th???m ch?? ngay khi t???t c??? doanh thu t??? ???? ???????c l??u tr??? trong m???t ng??n qu??? ?????c bi???t v?? ???????c ?????u t?? m???t c??ch c???n th???n. ????y l?? nhi???m v??? kh?? kh??n nh???t.

C??ch ????y m???t v??i n??m, m???t qu???c gia t???i Trung ????ng ???? c??? m???t s??? sinh vi??n ?????n h???c t???i Singapore, tin t?????ng r???ng nh???ng sinh vi??n ?????i di???n cho m???t th??? h??? m???i n??y c?? th??? ???????c thay ?????i t?? duy. Mong ?????c n??y ???? kh??ng x???y ra. Nh???ng sinh vi??n n??y ?????n ????y kh??ng ph???i ????? ti???p thu n???n v??n h??a v?? ?????o ?????c l??m vi???c c???a ch??ng t??i. H??? ??i rong ch??i. Singapore l?? m???t ch???n m???i l??? ?????i v???i h???. H??? t??? nh???: ???H??y d??nh th???i gian ch??i th???t vui v??? r???i v??? n?????c???. T???i sao b???n ph???i lao ?????ng trong khi b???n c?? c??? kho c???a c???i kh???ng l??? nh?? v???y n???m ngay d?????i ch??n m??nh?

Trung ????ng l?? m???t v??ng ?????t tuy???t ?????p cho ta gh?? ch??n th??m th??; n??i ????y c?? n???n v??n h??a phong ph?? v???i b??? d??y l???ch s??? l??u ?????i v?? l??i cu???n. M???t s??? qu???c gia trong khu v???c gi??p ranh v???i ph??a Nam c???a Ch??u ??u, ch???ng h???n nh?? Ma-r???c hay Tunisia, l?? n??i giao thoa v?? n??o nhi???t, ?????ng th???i c??ng c???i m??? h??n so h??n c??c qu???c gia kh??c ??? Trung ????ng.

Khi t??i ?????n th??m Iran theo l???i m???i c???a vua Mohammad Reza Pahlavi tr?????c khi ??ng b??? l???t ?????. T??i ???????c s???p x???p cho ngh??? t???i m???t trong nh???ng cung ??i???n c???a v??? vua n??y. T??i v???n c??n nh??? nh???ng t???m th???m ??? ???? ??? ch??ng ?????p ?????n n???i ?????c g?? t??i c?? th??? s??? h???u ch??ng. T??i s??? treo ch??ng l??n t?????ng ????? tr??ng b??y. Nh??ng t???i cung ??i???n n??y, b???n d???m ch??n tr??n nh???ng t???m th???m ???y. H??? c?? r???t nhi???u th??? d???t. Khi ?????n l?????t ??ng ?????n th??m Singapore, ??ng ????a cho T???ng th???ng Benjamin Sheares l??c ???? m???t t???m th???m l???n v?? cho t??i m???t t???m th???m nh???, c??? hai t???m th???m ?????u c?? hoa v??n t????ng t???, ?????u l??m b???ng t?? l???a. T???m th???m ???????c t???ng cho t??i hi???n gi??? ??ang ???????c ????? t???i nh?? con trai t??i. N?? ???????c tr???i tr??n s??n nh??. Nh??ng sau ????, ng?????i ta ??i ch??n kh??ng l??n t???m th???m v?? c??c s??n nh?? ?????u s???ch s???.

Qu???c gia ??? Trung ????ng m?? t??i bi???t nhi???u nh???t l?? Ai C???p. T??i t???ng l??u l???i t???i m???t trong nh???ng cung ??i???n c???a Vua Farouk khi t???ng th???ng Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein m???i t??i ?????n th??m. Nasser l?? m???t ng?????i hi???n ?????i v?? s???ng khi??m t???n, m???c d?? ???? kh??ng th??nh c??ng trong vi???c gi???i ph??ng ng?????i d??n c???a m??nh. ??ng ???? x??y d???ng ?????p Aswan v???i s??? gi??p ????? c???a ng?????i Nga, ????y l?? m???t th??nh t???u l???n b???i v?? con ?????p n??y ki???m so??t l?? l???t v?? cung c???p n??ng l?????ng. H??? ????a t??i ?????n con ?????p n??y tr??n m???t phi c?? ri??ng v?? t??i ???? ??? ???? m???t v??i ng??y ??? ????y l?? m???t n??i r???t kh?? v?? y??n t??nh. T??i ngh?? r???ng n???u b???n ??i ?????n sa m???c Gobi hay Grand Canyon (H???m N??i l???n), c?? l??? b???n s??? c?? c???m gi??c t????ng t??? nh?? v???y. S??? kh??c bi???t duy nh???t l?? ??? ch???, khi b???n r???i kh???i sa m???c Gobi, b???n s??? th???y m???t x?? h???i nh???n nh???p v???i nh???p s???ng s??i ?????ng v?? lao ?????ng kh??ng ng???ng ngh???. V?? khi b???n r???i kh???i Grand Canyon, b???n s??? th???y gi???c m?? M??? ??ang hi???n ra tr?????c m???t b???n.
 

Nh???ng ph???m ch???t c???n c?? c???a m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o v?? ?????i

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Ngu???n: Kishore Mahbubani & Klaus Schwab, ???What Makes a Great Leader????, Project Syndicate, 09/08/2017.

Bi??n d???ch: ?????u Th??? Ho??ng | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

C??ch ????y kh??ng l??u, trong m???t b???a t???i ??? Singapore, ch??ng t??i ???? c??? x??c ?????nh nh???ng ph???m ch???t n??o s??? gi??p t???o n??n m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o v?? ?????i. ?????i v???i Klaus, c?? n??m y???u t??? c???t l??i l?? tr??i tim, tr?? tu???, s???c kh???e, can ?????m v?? t??m h???n. C??n v???i Kishore, l??ng th????ng c???m, t??nh c???n tr???ng v?? s??? d??ng c???m l?? c???t y???u, t????ng t??? l?? kh??? n??ng x??c ?????nh t??i n??ng v?? hi???u ???????c c??c v???n ????? ph???c t???p. Ph???m vi c???a s??? tr??ng l???p gi???a hai ?? ki???n n??i l??n ???????c nhi???u ??i???u.

Vi???c hai danh s??ch tr??n ?????u b???t ?????u v???i ???tr??i tim??? ho??n to??n kh??ng ph???i l?? t??nh c???. Nh?? l???i Nelson Mandela v?? Mahatma Gandhi, m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o kh??ng th??? tr??? n??n v?? ?????i m?? kh??ng th??? hi???n s??? c???m th??ng s??u s???c v???i ?????ng b??o m??nh, m???t th??i ????? gi??p ti???p l???a cho cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng l???i b???t c??ng m?? nh???ng ng?????i d??n ???? ??ang ph???i ?????i m???t.

C??c nh?? l??nh ?????o anh h??ng nh?? v???y d?????ng nh?? kh??ng xu???t hi???n trong c??c giai ??o???n b??nh th?????ng. Song giai ??o???n hi???n nay kh??ng h??? b??nh th?????ng. Tr??i l???i, t??nh tr???ng b???t b??nh ?????ng ch??a t???ng c?? ti???n l??? ng??y nay ??? nhi???u n??i tr??n th??? gi???i ch??nh l?? th??? b???t c??ng c?? th??? th??i th??c s??? tr???i d???y c???a nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o v?? ?????i v???i l??ng th????ng c???m d??nh cho t???ng l???p d?????i ????y x?? h???i. Th??? t?????ng Canada Justin Trudeau, v??? l??nh ?????o tr??? ??ang l??m lan t???a hi v???ng trong th???i ??i???m hi???n nay, ?????c c??? m???t ph???n l?? nh??? vi???c ??ng cam k???t h??? tr??? nh???ng ng?????i d??n b??nh th?????ng.

K??? ?????n l?? ???tr?? tu??????, kh??? n??ng s??ng l???c t??? kh???i l?????ng l???n th??ng tin m?? ch??ng ta li??n t???c nh???n ???????c ????? ????a ra c??c quy???t ?????nh kh??n ngoan trong m???t th??? gi???i thay ?????i nhanh ch??ng v?? ph???c t???p. ??? ????y, m???t s??? nh?? l??nh ?????o hi???n nay ??ang b???c l??? r???t nhi???u t??i n??ng ????.

V?? d???, s??? ph??t tri???n v?? t??ng tr?????ng li??n t???c c???a n???n kinh t??? Trung Qu???c v?? ???n ????? ph???n ??nh th???c t??? r???ng Ch??? t???ch T???p C???n B??nh v?? Th??? t?????ng Narendra Modi ?????u hi???u r?? nh???ng th??ch th???c v?? c?? h???i x?? h???i v?? kinh t??? ?????n t??? cu???c C??ch m???ng C??ng nghi???p l???n th??? T??. H??? bi???t r???ng, trong b???i c???nh ph???c t???p n??y, ?????t n?????c h??? c???n ph??t tri???n c??c ng??nh c??ng nghi???p m???i n??ng ?????ng nh???m ????a n???n kinh t??? c???a n?????c m??nh d???n ?????u c??c ti???n b??? v??? khoa h???c v?? c??ng ngh???.

Vi???c s??? d???ng c??ng ngh??? m???i m???t c??ch th??ng minh c??ng g??p ph???n gi???m ngh??o. M???t t??? ng?????i d??n ???n ????? ???? ????ng k?? l??m th??? ch???ng minh nh??n d??n ??i???n t??? Aadhaar, v?? gi??? h??? c?? th??? ti???p c???n tr???c ti???p c??c ph??c l???i m?? kh??ng g???p b???t c??? r??o c???n h??nh ch??nh n??o. M???t t??? ng?????i d??n Trung Qu???c ??ang s??? d???ng ??i???n tho???i th??ng minh ????? thanh to??n tr???c tuy???n nay ???? c?? th??? ti???p c???n tr???c ti???p t???t c??? c??c lo???i s???n ph???m ti??u d??ng ????? n??ng cao ?????i s???ng c???a m??nh.

Hi???n v???n ch??a c?? ai c?? th??? ?????nh l?????ng ch??nh x??c m???c ????? gia t??ng th???nh v?????ng m?? c??c ti???n b??? c??ng ngh??? mang l???i l?? bao nhi??u. Song s??? l???c quan ??? Trung Qu???c v?? ???n ????? ?????u ??ang gia t??ng. Theo Trung t??m Nghi??n c???u Pew, 87% ng?????i d??n Trung Qu???c c???m th???y l???c quan v??? ??i???u ki???n kinh t??? hi???n nay c???a n?????c m??nh, trong ???? c?? 82% tin r???ng con c??i h??? s??? kh?? gi??? h??n h??? hi???n nay. T????ng t???, 83% ng?????i d??n ???n ????? c???m th???y l???c quan v??? n???n kinh t???, v?? 76% trong s??? ???? ngh?? r???ng con c??i h??? s??? d?? gi??? h??n m??nh trong t????ng lai.

Ph???m ch???t quan tr???ng th??? ba c???a m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o v?? ?????i l?? l??ng d??ng c???m ??? hay d??ng kh?? theo c??ch g???i c???a Klaus. L??n s??ng ng?????i t??? n???n ??? ch??u ??u, ?????c bi???t l?? nh???ng ng?????i t??? n???n Syria trong n??m 2015, ???? d???n t???i s??? b??ng n??? c???a t?? t?????ng d??n tu??, khi c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ch??nh tr??? gia t??ng k??u g???i ????ng c???a bi??n gi???i. Nh???ng l??nh ?????o y???u s??? ch???u khu???t ph???c tr?????c ??p l???c, ho???c l?? s??? ?????ng nh???t lu???n ??i???u c???a m??nh v???i t?? t?????ng c???a c??c nh?? d??n tu??, ho???c l?? b??? ???? b???p b???i c??c ?????i th??? hung h??ng c???a h???.

Th??? t?????ng ?????c Angela Merkel l???i kh??ng gi???ng v???y. ??i???n h??nh l?? vi???c b?? th??ng qua vi???c ti???p nh???n m???t tri???u ng?????i t??? n???n. Tho???t ti??n, v??? th??? c???a b?? tr?????c c??? tri ??? v?? th???m ch?? v??? th??? c???a nhi???u th??nh vi??n trong ?????ng c???a b?? ??? ???? s???t gi???m, t???i m???c nhi???u ng?????i b???t ?????u vi???t ??i???u v??n ch??nh tr??? cho b??. Song s??? d??ng c???m ????ng n??? c???a b?? cu???i c??ng l???i cho tr??i ng???t. Gi??? ????y b?? ???????c coi l?? m???t trong nh???ng v??? l??nh ?????o quy???n l???c nh???t trong th???i ?????i c???a ch??ng ta.

V???i c??ch l??m ??i???m t??nh c???a ri??ng m??nh, T???ng th???ng Indonesia Joko ???Jokowi??? Widodo c??ng cho th???y ???????c l??ng can ?????m t????ng t???. Indonesia, gi???ng nh?? ch??u ??u, ??ang ph???i ??????ng ?????u v???i ??p l???c gia t??ng t??? c??c quan ??i???m ???ng h??? ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c v?? ch??? ngh??a d??n tu?? v???n ??ang t??m c??ch thay th??? n??m nguy??n t???c c???a l??ng khoan dung ??? hay c??n g???i l?? ???Pancasila??? ??? v???n l?? n???n m??ng t?? t?????ng cho nh?? n?????c Indonesia.

Vi???c b??? t?? c???u Th???ng ?????c Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, hay c??n g???i l?? Ahok, ?????ng minh ch??nh tr??? c???a Jokowi, v?? t???i ph??? b??ng H???i gi??o ???? khi???n ??p l???c ???y th??m tr???m tr???ng. Tuy nhi??n, Jokowi, gi???ng nh?? Merkel, v???n ti???p t???c ?????u tranh ch???ng l???i nh???ng ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a c???c ??oan, th???m ch?? c??n ?????t nh??m c???c ??oan Hizb ut-Tahrir ra ngo??i v??ng ph??p lu???t.

D?? nhi??n, vi???c bi???n l??ng d??ng c???m th??nh chuy???n bi???n t??ch c???c ????i h???i ph???i c?? s???c m???nh ??? ???nh h?????ng v?? th???m quy???n ????? h??nh ?????ng ??? ??i???u c???n t???i s??? hi???u bi???t s??u s???c v??? th???c t??? ch??nh tr???. Ph???m ch???t tinh t??? nh?? v???y ????ng vai tr?? thi???t y???u mang l???i m???t s??? chuy???n d???ch m???nh m??? trong h??? th???ng ch??nh tr??? Ireland, khi m???t ?????t n?????c b???o th??? s??u s???c ???? b???u Leo Varadkar, m???t ng?????i ?????ng t??nh g???c ???n ?????, l??m th??? t?????ng n?????c n??y.

Gi??o ho??ng Francis cho th???y c??ch k???t h???p nh???ng ph???m ch???t n??y l???i v???i nhau nh???m t???o n??n m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o m???nh m??? nh?? th??? n??o. S???c s???o, d??ng c???m, ?????o ?????c v?? tr?? tu??? l?? n???n t???ng c???ng c??? cho n??? l???c c???a ??ng trong vi???c thay ?????i v??? th??? v?? nh???n th???c v??? Gi??o h???i C??ng gi??o La M?? tr??n th??? gi???i.

Ch???ng h???n, trong khi truy???n th???ng c???m Gi??o ho??ng ???ng h??? v???n ????? ?????ng t??nh, Gi??o ho??ng Francis l???i can ?????m n??i r???ng: ???N???u m???t ng?????i ?????ng t??nh s???n s??ng t??m t???i Ch??a, t??i l?? ai m?? c?? th??? ph??n x??t ng?????i ???????? T????ng t???, Gi??o ho??ng Francis ???? ph?? v??? nguy??n t???c truy???n th???ng c???a Gi??o h???i khi ????? xu???t r???ng nh???ng ph??? n??? b??? nhi???m virus Zirka v???n ??ang ho??nh h??nh nhi???u n??i ??? M??? La-tinh trong n??m v???a qua c?? th??? ??p d???ng ph????ng ph??p th??? tinh nh??n t???o.

N??i r???ng h??n, Gi??o ho??ng Francis ???? cho th???y ???????c s??? d??ng c???m v?? t???m v??c tr?? tu??? c???a m??nh khi ???ng h??? m???t c???u tr??c gi??o h???i phi t???p trung h??n, ?????ng th???i mong ?????i m???t gi??o h???i bao tr??m, l?? ???m??i ???m cho t???t c??? m???i ng?????i.??? Trong m???t ?????ng th??i kh??n ngoan kh??c, ??ng ???? t??? t??? thay m??u m???t s??? c??c ch???c s???c t???i Vatican thay v?? thay ?????i t???t c??? c??ng m???t l??c.

Gi??o ho??ng Francis c??n s??? h???u m???t th??? m?? Klaus g???i l?? linh h???n c???a m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o. ??a ph???n c??c l??nh ?????o kh??ng th??? c?????ng l???i nh???ng c??m d??? h???p d???n khi t???i nhi???m, l??c n??y hay l??c kh??c. Song Gi??o ho??ng v???n ti???p t???c s???ng m???t cu???c s???ng ????n gi???n v?? kho??ng ?????t m?? kh??ng c???n nh???ng th??? t??i s???n v???n g???n li???n v???i v??? tr?? l??nh ?????o, th???m ch?? ngay c??? trong ph???m vi t??n gi??o.

Trong m???t th??? gi???i ??ang thay ?????i v???i t???c ????? nhanh h??n bao gi??? h???t, ch??ng ta c???n t??m ki???m nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o s???n s??ng b???o v??? v?? ph???c v??? nh???ng l???i ??ch c???a ng?????i d??n m?? h??? ?????i di???n. ??i???u n??y kh??ng ch??? c?? ngh??a l?? c???n ch??? tr??ch c??c khuy???t ??i???m c???a nh???ng l??nh ?????o y???u k??m, m?? c??n c???n n??u b???t s??? th??nh c??ng c???a nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o v?? ?????i. H??? c?? th??? hi???m g???p, nh??ng v???n hi???n h???u , v?? ch??ng ta n??n t??n vinh nh???ng con ng?????i n??y.

Kishore Mahbubani, Hi???u tr?????ng Tr?????ng Ch??nh s??ch C??ng L?? Quang Di???u t???i ?????i h???c Qu???c gia Singapore, l?? ?????ng t??c gi??? v???i Jeffery c???a cu???n s??ch The ASEAN Miracle: A Catalyst for Peace. ??ng ???????c b??nh ch???n l?? m???t trong 50 nh?? t?? t?????ng h??ng ?????u th??? gi???i n??m 2014 b???i t???p ch?? Prospect.

Klaus Schwab l?? nh?? s??ng l???p v?? Ch??? t???ch ??i???u h??nh Di???n ????n Kinh t??? Th??? gi???i, l?? t??c gi??? cu???n The Fourth Industrial Revolution.

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