05/08/1858: Tuy???n c??p ??i???n b??o xuy??n ?????i T??y D????ng ?????u ti??n

Thứ tư - 07/08/2019 02:47
M??y ??i???n b??o ???????c ph??t tri???n ?????u ti??n b???i Samuel F. B. Morse, m???t ngh??? s?? ki??m nh?? ph??t minh, ng?????i ???? ngh?? ra ?? t?????ng v??? m??y ??i???n b??o v??o n??m 1832. M???t s??? nh?? ph??t minh ch??u ??u ???? ????? xu???t m???t thi???t b??? nh?? v???y, nh??ng Morse ???? l??m vi???c ?????c l???p v?? ?????n gi???a nh???ng n??m 1830 ???? ch??? t???o ???????c m???t d???ng c??? ??i???n b??o c?? th??? ho???t ?????ng.
05/08/1858: Tuy???n c??p ??i???n b??o xuy??n ?????i T??y D????ng ?????u ti??n
05/08/1858: Tuy???n c??p ??i???n b??o xuy??n ?????i T??y D????ng ?????u ti??n


Ngu???n: First transatlantic telegraph cable completedHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1858, sau nhi???u n??? l???c kh??ng th??nh c??ng, ???????ng d??y ??i???n b??o ?????u ti??n xuy??n ?????i T??y D????ng ???? ho??n th??nh, m???t k??? t??ch ?????t ???????c ph???n l???n nh??? n??? l???c c???a th????ng gia ng?????i M??? Cyrus West Field.
M??y ??i???n b??o ???????c ph??t tri???n ?????u ti??n b???i Samuel F. B. Morse, m???t ngh??? s?? ki??m nh?? ph??t minh, ng?????i ???? ngh?? ra ?? t?????ng v??? m??y ??i???n b??o v??o n??m 1832. M???t s??? nh?? ph??t minh ch??u ??u ???? ????? xu???t m???t thi???t b??? nh?? v???y, nh??ng Morse ???? l??m vi???c ?????c l???p v?? ?????n gi???a nh???ng n??m 1830 ???? ch??? t???o ???????c m???t d???ng c??? ??i???n b??o c?? th??? ho???t ?????ng.
V??o cu???i nh???ng n??m 1830, ??ng ???? ho??n thi???n M?? Morse, m???t t???p h???p c??c t??n hi???u c?? th??? bi???u th??? ng??n ng??? d?????i d???ng c??c th??ng ??i???p ??i???n b??o. V??o th??ng 05 n??m 1844, Morse ???? kh??nh th??nh ???????ng d??y ??i???n b??o th????ng m???i ?????u ti??n tr??n th??? gi???i v???i th??ng ??i???p ???Nh???ng g?? con c?? ?????u do Ch??a ban??? (What hath God wrought) ???????c g???i ??i t??? T??a nh?? Qu???c h???i Hoa K??? t???i m???t nh?? ga ???????ng s???t ??? Baltimore. Trong v??ng m???t th???p ni??n, h??n 20.000 d???m c??p ??i???n b??o ???? ???????c gi??ng tr??n kh???p ?????t n?????c. Kh??? n??ng li??n l???c nhanh ch??ng m?? n?? t???o ra ???? gi??p ??ch r???t nhi???u cho vi???c m??? r???ng c???a n?????c M???, gi??p vi???c ??i l???i b???ng ???????ng s???t tr??? n??n an to??n h??n v?? n?? th??c ?????y ho???t ?????ng kinh doanh ???????c ti???n h??nh tr??n nh???ng khu v???c xa x??i c???a m???t n?????c M??? ??ang ph??t tri???n.
N??m 1854, Cyrus West Field ???? ti???p thu ?? t?????ng v??? c??p ??i???n b??o v?? ???? thu?? m???t con t??u ????? ?????t m???t ???????ng d??y ???????c c??ch ??i???n t???t d?????i ????y ?????i T??y D????ng. Nh???n ???????c s??? h??? tr??? c???a c??c t??u h???i qu??n Anh v?? M???, ??ng ???? th???c hi???n b???n l???n th??? nghi???m kh??ng th??nh c??ng, b???t ?????u v??o n??m 1857. V??o th??ng 07 n??m 1858, b???n t??u c???a Anh v?? M??? ??? t??u Agamemnon, Valious, Niagara v?? Gorgon ??? ???? g???p nhau gi???a ?????i d????ng ????? th???c hi???n n??? l???c l???n th??? n??m.
V??o ng??y 29 th??ng 07, t??u Niagara v?? Gorgon, v???i t???i tr???ng c??p c???a m??nh, ???? kh???i h??nh ?????n V???nh Trinity, Newfoundland, trong khi t??u Agamemnon v?? Valious ???? ??i t???i Valentia, Ireland. V??o ng??y 05 th??ng 08, c??p ???? ???????c ?????t th??nh c??ng, k??o d??i g???n 2.000 d???m qua ?????i T??y D????ng ??? ????? s??u trung b??nh h??n hai d???m. V??o ng??y 16 th??ng 08, T???ng th???ng James Buchanan v?? N??? ho??ng Victoria ???? trao ?????i nh???ng th??ng ??i???p ch??o h???i ngo???i giao cho nhau. Th???t kh??ng may, ???????ng c??p t??? ra y???u v?? d??ng ??i???n kh??ng ????? m???nh, v?? ?????n ?????u th??ng 09 ???? ng???ng ho???t ?????ng.
Field sau ???? ???? g??y ???????c nh???ng ngu???n qu??? v?? th???a thu???n m???i. N??m 1866, t??u Great East c???a Anh ???? th??nh c??ng trong vi???c ?????t ???????ng d??y ??i???n b??o c??? ?????nh ?????u ti??n xuy??n ?????i T??y D????ng. Cyrus West Field nh???n ???????c nhi???u l???i ca ng???i ??? c??? hai b??? ?????i T??y D????ng v?? s??? ki??n tr?? c???a ??ng trong vi???c ho??n th??nh ??i???u m?? nhi???u ng?????i cho l?? nhi???m v??? b???t kh??? thi. Sau ????, ??ng ???? th??c ?????y c??c tuy???n c??p xuy??n ?????i d????ng kh??c, bao g???m c??c ???????ng d??y ??i???n b??o k??o d??i t??? Hawaii ?????n Ch??u ?? v?? Ch??u ??c.
Kho???ng c??ch th??? h??? trong ch??nh tr??? ??u ??? M???


Ngu???n: Joseph E. Stiglitz, ???The New Generation Gap???, Project Syndicate, 16/03/2016.
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n H???ng Nhung | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p
M???t ??i???u th?? v??? ???? xu???t hi???n trong m???u h??nh b???u c??? tr??n c??? hai b??? ?????i T??y D????ng (??? c??? ch??u ??u v?? M???): C??ch nh???ng ng?????i tr??? b??? phi???u kh??c bi???t r?? r???t so v???i nh???ng ng?????i l???n tu???i. C?? v??? nh?? m???t s??? ph??n chia r?? r???t ???? xu???t hi???n, kh??ng d???a nhi???u v??o thu nh???p, gi??o d???c, hay gi???i t??nh m?? ph??? thu???c v??o vi???c ng?????i b??? phi???u thu???c th??? h??? n??o.
S??? ph??n chia n??y xu???t ph??t t??? nh???ng nguy??n nh??n d??? hi???u. Th??? h??? tr??? v?? th??? h??? nh???ng ng?????i l???n tu???i hi???n nay c?? cu???c s???ng kh??c nhau. Qu?? kh??? c???a h??? kh??c nhau, v?? c??? nh???ng tri???n v???ng c???a h??? c??ng kh??c nhau.
V?? d???, cu???c Chi???n tranh L???nh ???? k???t th??c th???m ch?? tr?????c c??? khi nhi???u ng?????i trong s??? h??? ra ?????i v?? s??? kh??c th?? v???n l?? nh???ng ?????a tr???. Nh???ng t??? ng??? nh?? ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i kh??ng c??n mang ?? ngh??a nh?? tr?????c n???a. N???u ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i ngh??a l?? t???o ra m???t x?? h???i n??i nh???ng m???i quan t??m chung kh??ng b??? ph???t l??? ??? n??i con ng?????i quan t??m t???i nhau v?? t???i m??i tr?????ng s???ng ??? v???y th?? h??y th???c hi???n n??. C?? th??? ????ng l?? ???? c?? nh???ng th??? nghi???m th???t b???i v???i kh??i ni???m ???? t??? c??ch ????y 25 ho???c 50 n??m; nh??ng nh???ng th??? nghi???m c???a ng??y h??m nay kh??ng c?? g?? gi???ng v???i nh???ng th??? nghi???m trong qu?? kh???. V?? th??? nh???ng th???t b???i trong qu?? kh??? ch???ng n??i l??n ??i???u g?? v??? hi???n t???i c???.
Nh???ng ng?????i l???n tu???i thu???c t???ng l???p th?????ng-trung l??u ??? ch??u ??u v?? M??? ???? c?? m???t cu???c s???ng t???t. Khi h??? m???i tham gia v??o l???c l?????ng lao ?????ng, nh???ng c??ng vi???c l????ng t???t ??ang ch??? ?????i h???. C??u h???i h??? ?????t ra l?? m??nh mu???n l??m g??, ch??? kh??ng ph???i h??? s??? ph???i s???ng c??ng cha m??? trong bao l??u cho t???i khi t??m ???????c m???t c??ng vi???c (l????ng t???t) c?? th??? gi??p h??? chuy???n ra ??? ri??ng.
Th??? h??? ???? k??? v???ng c?? c??ng vi???c ???n ?????nh, k???t h??n s???m, mua m???t c??n nh?? ??? v?? c?? th??? l?? c??? m???t c??n nh?? d??nh ri??ng cho vi???c ngh??? ngh?? n???a ??? v?? cu???i c??ng l?? m???t ch??? ????? an sinh h??u tr?? h???p l??. Nh??n chung, h??? k??? v???ng v??o m???t cu???c s???ng t???t h??n th??? h??? cha m??? m??nh.
Tuy th??? h??? nh???ng ng?????i l???n tu???i h??n c??ng ph???i ?????i m???t v???i nh???ng tr??? ng???i trong cu???c s???ng, nh??ng h???u h???t h??? ?????u ?????t ???????c nh???ng k??? v???ng c???a m??nh. H??? c?? th??? ki???m l???i t??? c??c kho???n v???n ?????u t?? v??o nh?? c???a c??n nhi???u h??n t??? c??ng vi???c. H??? ch???c c??ng th???y ??i???u ???? l??? l??ng, nh??ng h??? v???n vui v??? ch???p nh???n m??n qu?? ???? t??? c??c th??? tr?????ng ?????u c??, v?? th?????ng t??? khen b???n th??n v?? ???? c?? nh???ng quy???t ?????nh mua nh?? ????ng n??i, ????ng l??c.
Ng??y nay, k??? v???ng c???a ng?????i tr???, d?? thu nh???p c???a h??? n???m ??? m???c n??o, l???i tr??i ng?????c so v???i nh???ng ??i???u tr??n. H??? lu??n ph???i ?????i m???t v???i s??? b???t ?????nh trong c??ng vi???c. M???t b???ng chung l?? nhi???u sinh vi??n m???i ra tr?????ng s??? ph???i t??m ki???m trong nhi???u th??ng tr?????c khi c?? ???????c m???t c??ng vi???c ??? th?????ng l?? sau khi ch???p nh???n m???t v??i th??ng th???c t???p kh??ng l????ng. V?? h??? ngh?? b???n th??n m??nh may m???n, b???i h??? bi???t r???ng nhi???u b???n c??ng trang l???a c?? ho??n c???nh kh?? kh??n h??n, m???t s??? trong ???? h???c r???t t???t ??? tr?????ng, kh??ng th??? tr??? ???????c t??? m???t ?????n hai n??m m?? kh??ng c?? thu nh???p, v?? c??ng ch???ng c?? m???i quan h??? n??o ????? ???????c nh???n c?? h???i th???c t???p.
Hi???n nay, nhi???u c??? nh??n m???i ra tr?????ng b??? g??nh n???ng n??? n???n ??? h??? c??ng c?? ho??n c???nh kh?? kh??n th?? s??? n??? c??ng l???n. V?? th??? h??? kh??ng ????i h???i m???t c??ng vi???c nh?? mong mu???n; h??? ????n gi???n ch??? c???n m???t c??ng vi???c cho ph??p h??? tr??? ???????c nh???ng kho???n n??? h???c ph?? ?????i h???c, th?????ng l?? g??nh n???ng cho h??? trong v??ng 20 n??m ho???c l??u h??n n???a. T????ng t???, chuy???n mua nh?? ?????i v???i h??? l?? m???t gi???c m?? xa v???i.
Nh???ng kh?? kh??n n??y ?????ng ngh??a v???i vi???c nh???ng ng?????i tr??? s??? kh??ng suy ngh?? nhi???u ?????n chuy???n ngh??? h??u. N???u ngh?? t???i, h??? s??? ch??? c??ng th??m ho???ng s??? v??? s??? ti???n h??? c???n ph???i t??ch l??y ????? c?? m???t cu???c s???ng t??? t??? (kh??ng d???a v??o an sinh x?? h???i c?? b???n), trong b???i c???nh l??i su???t th?????ng xuy??n ??? m???c th???p s??t ????y.
T??m l???i, ng?????i tr??? b??y gi??? nh??n th??? gi???i qua l??ng k??nh c???a s??? c??ng b???ng xuy??n th??? h???. Con c??i c???a t???ng l???p th?????ng-trung l??u c?? th??? v???n s???ng t???t, b???i h??? ???????c th???a h?????ng gia t??i t??? cha m???. M???c d?? c?? th??? h??? kh??ng th??ch s??? ph??? thu???c n??y, h??? c??n gh??t ph???i ?????i m???t v???i kh??? n??ng c??n l???i h??n: m???t ???kh???i ?????u m???i??? khi m?? may m???n kh??ng ?????ng v??? ph??a h??? tr??n ch???ng ???????ng g??y d???ng nh???ng ??i???u g???n v???i th??? ???? t???ng ???????c coi l?? m???t m???c s???ng trung l??u c?? b???n.
Nh???ng s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng n??y kh??ng d??? m?? gi???i th??ch ngay ???????c. Kh??ng ph???i l?? nh???ng ng?????i tr??? hi???n nay kh??ng l??m vi???c ch??m ch???: kh?? kh??n n??y ???nh h?????ng t???i c??? nh???ng ng?????i h???c t???p r???t ch??m ch???, c?? th??nh t??ch t???t ??? tr?????ng, v?? lu??n l??m ??i???u ???????ng ?????n???. ?? th???c v??? s??? b???t c??ng x?? h???i ??? r???ng cu???c ch??i kinh t??? ???? b??? gian l???n ??? c??ng t??ng th??m khi h??? ch???ng ki???n nh???ng nh??n vi??n ng??n h??ng, nh???ng ng?????i g??y ra kh???ng ho???ng t??i ch??nh v?? l?? nguy??n nh??n c???a t??nh tr???ng kinh t??? b???t ???n tri???n mi??n, v???n ung dung v???i nh???ng kho???n ti???n th?????ng v?? h???u nh?? ch???ng ai ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m g?? cho nh???ng vi???c l??m sai tr??i c???a m??nh. ???? c?? m???t v??? l???a ?????o tr??n quy m?? l???n, nh??ng theo c??ch n??o ????, ch???ng ai l?? th??? ph???m th???c s??? c???. Gi???i tinh hoa ch??nh tr??? h???a h???n r???ng ???nh???ng c???i c??ch??? s??? mang l???i s??? th???nh v?????ng ch??a t???ng c??. V?? h??? ???? l??m ???????c ??i???u ????, nh??ng ch??? cho 1% s??? ng?????i thu???c t???ng l???p tr??n. Nh???ng ng?????i kh??c, bao g???m gi???i tr???, ??ang tr???i qua s??? b???t an ch??a t???ng c??.
Ba th???c t??? ??? s??? b???t c??ng x?? h???i ??? m???t quy m?? ch??a t???ng c??, s??? b???t b??nh ?????ng tr??n di???n r???ng, v?? s??? m???t ni???m tin v??o gi???i tinh hoa ??? ???? ?????nh h??nh b???i c???nh ch??nh tr??? c???a ch??ng ta, m???t c??ch th???a ????ng.
Gia t??ng nh???ng ??i???u t????ng t??? nh?? tr??n s??? kh??ng cho ta m???t c??u tr??? l???i. ???? l?? l?? do t???i sao c??c ?????ng trung t??? v?? trung h???u ??? ch??u ??u ??ang th???t th???. M??? ??ang ??? m???t t??nh th??? k??? l???: trong khi c??c ???ng c??? vi??n tranh c??? t???ng th???ng ?????ng C???ng h??a c???nh tranh b???ng s??? m??? d??n, v???i nh???ng ????? xu???t thi???u c??n nh???c c?? th??? khi???n m???i v???n ????? tr??? n??n t???i t??? h??n, th?? c??? hai c??? ???ng vi??n c???a ?????ng D??n ch??? ??ang ????? xu???t nh???ng thay ?????i ??? ch??? khi ch??ng ???????c Qu???c h???i th??ng qua ??? (???????c cho l??) s??? t???o n??n s??? kh??c bi???t ????ch th???c.
N???u nh???ng c???i c??ch do Hillary Clinton hay Bernie Sanders ????a ra ???????c th??ng qua, kh??? n??ng c???a h??? th???ng t??i ch??nh trong vi???c g??y b???t l???i cho nh???ng ng?????i v???n ???? c?? m???t cu???c s???ng b???p b??nh s??? ???????c h???n ch???. ?????ng th???i c??? hai ???? ????? xu???t nh???ng c???i c??ch s??u s???c s??? l??m thay ?????i vi???c t??i tr??? cho gi??o d???c ?????i h???c c???a M???.
Tuy nhi??n, r???t nhi???u ??i???u c???n ph???i ???????c gi???i quy???t ????? bi???n vi???c s??? h???u nh?? tr??? th??nh trong t???m tay kh??ng ch??? v???i nh???ng ng?????i tr??? ???????c cha m??? cho m???t kho???n ti???n tr??? tr?????c, ?????ng th???i an sinh h??u tr?? c??ng ph???i tr??? n??n kh??? thi trong b???i c???nh nh???ng thay ?????i b???t th?????ng c???a th??? tr?????ng ch???ng kho??n v?? t??nh tr???ng l??i su???t th???p g???n b???ng kh??ng m?? ch??ng ta ??ang tr???i qua. Quan tr???ng nh???t l?? th??? h??? tr??? s??? kh??ng t??m ???????c con ???????ng ??m ??i n??o ????? gia nh???p th??? tr?????ng vi???c l??m tr??? khi n???n kinh t??? c?? d???u hi???u kh???i s???c. T??? l??? th???t nghi???p ???ch??nh th???c??? ??? M??? l?? 4,9%, che ?????y t??? l??? th???t nghi???p kh??ng ch??nh th???c cao h??n nhi???u, ??i???u ch?? ??t l?? ??ang k??o m???c l????ng xu???ng th???p.
Tuy nhi??n ch??ng ta s??? kh??ng th??? gi???i quy???t ???????c v???n ????? n???u kh??ng nh???n ra n??. Nh???ng ng?????i tr??? nh???n ra n??. H??? nh???n th???y s??? thi???u c??ng b???ng gi???a c??c th??? h???, v?? h??? ???? ????ng khi gi???n d???.
Joseph E. Stiglitz, ??o???t gi???i Nobel Kinh t??? v?? gi??o s?? t???i ?????i h???c Columbia, l?? Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng C??? v???n Kinh t??? c???a T???ng th???ng Bill Clinton v?? t???ng l?? Ph?? Ch??? t???ch Cao c???p v?? Kinh t??? Tr?????ng c???a Ng??n h??ng Th??? gi???i. Quy???n s??ch g???n ????y nh???t c???a ??ng, ?????ng t??c gi??? v???i Bruce Greenwald, l?? quy???n X??y d???ng X?? h???i H???c t???p: Ph????ng ph??p M???i ????? T??ng tr?????ng, Ph??t tri???n v?? Ti???n b??? X?? h???i.
Copyright: Project Syndicate 2016 ??? The New Generation Gap
Cu???c chi???n tranh l???nh ??? Trung ????ng


Ngu???n: Bernard Haykel, ???The Middle East???s Cold War,??? Project Syndicate, 08/01/2015.
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n L????ng S??? | Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng
S??? r???n n???t trong quan h??? ngo???i giao gi???a Iran v?? ???-R???p X??-??t l?? m???t b?????c ngo???t nguy hi???m cho m???t khu v???c v???n ???? b???t ???n v?? b??? chi???n tranh t??n ph??. Nguy??n do xu???t ph??t t??? vi???c ???-r???p X??-??t t??? h??nh Nimr al-Nimr, m???t l??nh t??? ng?????i Shia c?? khuynh h?????ng b???o ?????ng v???n k??u g???i ch???m d???t ch??? ????? qu??n ch??? ??? qu???c gia n??y. Nh??ng s??? tan v??? ???? l???i c?? ngu???n g???c t??? s??? th?? ?????ch chi???n l?????c ??ang tr???i r???ng tr??n kh???p Trung ????ng.
T??nh tr???ng c??ng th???ng gi???a hai qu???c gia ???? c?? t??? nhi???u th???p ni??n, nh??ng ch??ng tr??? n??n ?????c bi???t gay g???t k??? t??? sau C??ch m???ng H???i gi??o n??m 1979 c???a Iran. Th??? l??nh cu???c c??ch m???ng, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, ???? kh??ng gi???u gi???m s??? khinh mi???t c???a ??ng tr?????c ho??ng gia ???-r???p; ??ng nhanh ch??ng x??y d???ng v??? th??? c???a Iran v???i t?? c??ch ng?????i b???o v??? ???nh???ng ng?????i b??? ????n ??p??? tr?????c ???c??c l???c l?????ng ng???o m???n??? ??? M??? v?? ?????ng minh c???a n?? trong khu v???c, ???-R???p X??-??t v?? Israel.
Nh??ng d?? s??? th?? ?????ch ???? c?? nhi???u y???u t??? s???c t???c v?? ?? th???c h???, tr??n t???t th???y, n?? l?? m???i b???t h??a mang t??nh th???c d???ng v??? nh???ng l???i ??ch trong khu v???c. B???i Iran coi tr???t t??? ch??nh tr??? trong th??? gi???i ???-r???p l?? ph????ng ti???n ph???c v??? cho nh???ng l???i ??ch c???a k??? th?? m??nh, n??n n?????c n??y s??? kh??ng ng???ng t??m c??ch l???t ????? tr???t t??? ????, th??c ?????y c??c nh??m kh???ng b??? v?? tri???n khai c??c l???c l?????ng ???y nhi???m nh???m thi???t l???p v?? m??? r???ng ???nh h?????ng trong khu v???c. C??c ch??? th??? phi nh?? n?????c ???????c Iran ???ng h??? g???m nh???ng ng?????i h??nh h????ng b???o lo???n ??? th??nh ?????a Mecca, nh???ng k??? ????nh bom li???u ch???t ??? Li-b??ng, v?? c??c chi???n binh Hezbollah, nh???ng ng?????i ???? ti???n h??nh c??c cu???c t???n c??ng nh???m v??o Israel v?? g???n ????y h??n l?? chi???n ?????u ch???ng c??c nh??m n???i d???y ???????c ???-r???p X??-??t h???u thu???n ??? Syria.
Cho ?????n khi b?????c sang th??? k??? 21, ph???n ???ng c???a ???-r???p X??-??t v???n r???t h??? h???ng; n?????c n??y t??m c??ch thi???t l???p t??nh ch??nh danh H???i gi??o c???a m??nh th??ng qua vi???c c?????ng ch??? th???c thi nghi??m ng???t c??c m???nh l???nh t??n gi??o trong n?????c v?? ???ng h??? phong tr??o gi???i ph??ng ng?????i H???i gi??o ??? n?????c ngo??i, ????ng ch?? ?? nh???t l?? ??? Afghanistan v?? Bosnia. Nh??ng trong nh???ng th???p ni??n g???n ????y, chi???n tranh l???nh gi???a hai th??? l???c trong khu v???c ???? d???n ???????c nung n??ng.
Sau khi cu???c x??m l?????c Iraq c???a M??? n??m 2003 d???n ?????n s??? th??nh l???p m???t ch??nh ph??? do ng?????i H???i gi??o Shia th???ng tr??? ??? Baghdad, c??c nh?? cai tr??? ???-r???p X??-??t ???? ph???i c???nh gi??c khi Iran m??? r???ng ???nh h?????ng c???a m??nh tr??n kh???p Trung ????ng. N??m 2006, Hezbollah ???? t???n c??ng Israel cho ?????n khi ng???ng b???n ??? Li-b??ng. Sau ????, n??m 2014, c??c phi???n qu??n d??ng Shia Houthi ??? m???t nh??m qu??n ???y nhi???m kh??c c???a Iran ??? ???? x??m chi???m th??? ???? Yemen. Trong nh???ng cung ??i???n ho??ng gia ??? Riyadh, vi???n c???nh c??c cu???c n???i lo???n ???????c Iran h???u thu???n t???i Ba-ranh ??? hay t???i ch??nh ???-r???p X??-??t ??? ???? b???t ?????u tr??? n??n kh??? thi m???t c??ch ????ng lo ng???i.
M???i th??? l??n ?????n ?????nh ??i???m v??o n??m 2015, khi M??? v?? n??m th??nh vi??n th?????ng tr???c kh??c c???a H???i ?????ng B???o an Li??n H???p Qu???c (c???ng th??m ?????c) ?????t ???????c m???t th???a thu???n h???t nh??n v???i Iran, ?????ng ?? d??? b??? c??c l???nh tr???ng ph???t kinh t??? trong khi v???n cho ph??p qu???c gia n??y duy tr?? ???nh h?????ng c???a m??nh trong khu v???c. Do c??c ?????ng minh c???a Iran ho???c c??c t??? ch???c ???????c h??? ???y nhi???m ho???t ?????ng ??? Syria, Iraq, Li-b??ng v?? Yemen, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ???-r???p X??-??t ???? c???m th???y ng??y c??ng b??? bao v??y. Sau khi Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud l??n ng??i th??ng 1 n??m 2015, m???c ti??u chi???n l?????c c?? b???n c???a v????ng qu???c n??y l?? ?????y l??i ???nh h?????ng c???a Iran ??? d?? c?? hay kh??ng s??? gi??p ????? c???a M???.
Chi???n tr?????ng ch??nh c???a s??? th?? ?????ch n??y l?? Syria v?? Yemen. ??? Syria, ???-r???p X??-??t ???? t??? m??nh t??m c??ch l???t ????? ch??nh quy???n t???ng th???ng Bashar al-Assad, m???t ?????ng minh quan tr???ng c???a Iran, v?? ti???n h??nh th???ng nh???t c??c nh??m ?????i l???p v???n c???c k??? v?? t??? ch???c. V??? ph???n m??nh, Iran ti???p t???c ch???ng l??ng cho Assad v???i s??? tr??? gi??p c???a Nga.
Cu???c chi???n ???? bi???n th??nh m???t v??ng l???y. V???i vi???c kh??ng b??n n??o c?? th??? gi??nh ???????c th??? th?????ng phong, b???o l???c nhi???u kh??? n??ng s??? v???n ti???p di???n. M???t n??? l???c g???n ????y do M??? d???n ?????u nh???m m??i gi???i m???t th???a thu???n h??a b??nh ??? Li-b??ng, ???????c tri???n khai v???i hy v???ng n?? c?? th??? ??em ?????n m???t b?????c ?????t ph?? ??? Syria, ???? tr??? th??nh n???n nh??n c???a s??? ng??? v???c gi???a hai qu???c gia n??y. Th???a thu???n ph??n chia quy???n l???c ???????c ????? xu???t ????ng l??? ???? thay th??? ch??nh quy???n Assad b???ng m???t trong c??c ?????ng minh c???a ??ng v?? ?????ng th???i ????a m???t ?????ng minh l??u n??m c???a ???-r???p X??-??t l??n l??m th??? t?????ng. Nh??ng trong khi ???-r???p X??-??t c?? v??? ???? s???n s??ng ch???p nh???n th???a thu???n th?? Iran l???i b??c b??? n?? sau khi Hezbollah ng???n ng???i tr?????c c??? hai ???ng c??? vi??n.
??? Yemen, ???-r???p X??-??t v?? c??c ?????ng minh Sunni c???a m??nh ???? tri???n khai m???t chi???n d???ch qu??n s??? v??o th??ng 3 n??m 2015 nh??ng nhanh ch??ng g???p ph???i m???t b??? t???c kh??c. C??c chi???n binh Houthi th??n Iran v?? c??c l???c l?????ng trung th??nh v???i c???u T???ng th???ng Ali Saleh ???? ?????y lui m???t nh??m qu??n ng?????i mi???n Nam Yemen ???????c h???u thu???n b???i c??c l???c l?????ng ?????c nhi???m v?? kh??ng qu??n ???-r???p X??-??t v?? c??c Ti???u v????ng qu???c ???-r???p th???ng nh???t. C??c cu???c ????m ph??n nh???m gi???i quy???t cu???c xung ?????t n??i tr??n ?????u ????? v???. Do kh??ng c?? m???t cu???c x??m l?????c to??n di???n ??? ??i???u r???t ??t kh??? n??ng x???y ra do nguy c?? g??y th????ng vong tr??n quy m?? l???n ??? n??n cu???c chi???n g???n nh?? ch???c ch???n s??? k??o d??i.
Vi???c ???-r???p X??-??t t??? h??nh al-Nimr l?? m???t ph???n c???a chi???n d???ch ????n ??p r???ng l???n h??n l??n c??c th??? l???c ?????i l???p trong n?????c; v??? l??nh t??? H???i gi??o n??y l?? m???t trong 47 ng?????i b??? x??? t??? v???i c??o bu???c kh???ng b???, tr??? 4 ng?????i trong s??? ???? th?? t???t c??? ?????u l?? nh???ng chi???n binh Sunni b??? c??o bu???c ???ng h??? Al Qaeda. Ph???n ???ng c???a Iran v?? nh???ng b??n ???ng h??? n?????c n??y ??? v???i c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh b???o l???c ch???ng ???-r???p X??-??t kh??ng ch??? x???y ra ??? Tehran, n??i ?????i s??? qu??n c???a v????ng qu???c n??y ???? b??? ?????t ph??, m?? c??n ??? c??? Iraq v?? Ba-ranh ??? ???? cho th???y m???c ????? s??u s???c c???a t??nh tr???ng th?? ?????ch ??n s??u b??n r??? gi???a hai n?????c.
Trong ng???n h???n, ph???n ???ng c???a Iran s??? c?? l???i cho c??c nh?? cai tr??? ???-r???p X??-??t, gi??p n?????c n??y t???p h???p nh???ng ng?????i Sunni ??? c??? trong v????ng qu???c c??ng nh?? ??? ngo??i n?????c v?? b???t mi???ng nh???ng ?????i th??? th??nh chi???n c???a h???. Tuy nhi??n, n???u kh??ng c?? s??? can thi???p n??o ???? t??? b??n ngo??i nh???m ????a hai qu???c gia n??y ng???i v??o b??n ????m ph??n, t??nh tr???ng th?? ?????ch c???a h??? s??? l??m h???ng nh???ng n??? l???c b??nh ???n Trung ????ng v?? c?? th??? d???n ?????n nh???ng t??c ?????ng lan t???a v?? leo thang, khi???n m??i tr?????ng v???n ???? t???i t??? c???a khu v???c ng??y c??ng tr??? n??n tr???m tr???ng h??n.
Bernald Haykel l?? gi??o s?? ng??nh Nghi??n c???u C???n ????ng t???i ?????i h???c Princeton.
06/08/1890: V??? t??? h??nh b???ng gh??? ??i???n ?????u ti??n


Ngu???n: First execution by electric chairHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1890, t???i nh?? t?? Auburn ??? New York, v??? t??? h??nh b???ng gh??? ??i???n ?????u ti??n trong l???ch s??? ???? ???????c th???c hi???n ?????i v???i William Kemmler, k??? b??? k???t ??n gi???t t??nh nh??n c???a m??nh, Matilda Ziegler, b???ng r??u.
S??? d???ng ??i???n gi???t nh?? m???t ph????ng th???c h??nh h??nh nh??n ?????o ???????c ????? xu???t l???n ?????u ti??n v??o n??m 1881 b???i Nha s?? Albert Southwick. Southwick ???? ch???ng ki???n m???t ng?????i say r?????u l???n tu???i ???ch???t kh??ng ??au ?????n??? sau khi ch???m v??o c??c thi???t b??? ?????u cu???i c???a m???t m??y ph??t ??i???n ??? Buffalo, New York. H??nh th???c x??? t??? ph??? bi???n th???i b???y gi??? l?? treo c??? ??? t???i nh??n s??? b??? treo l?? l???ng trong v??ng 30 ph??t tr?????c khi ch???t v?? ng???t th???.
N??m 1889, Lu???t T??? h??nh b???ng ??i???n New York (New York???s Electrical Execution Law), ?????o lu???t ?????u ti??n tr??n th??? gi???i v??? c??ch t??? h??nh n??y, c?? hi???u l???c, v?? Edwin R. Davis, th??? ??i???n c???a nh?? t?? Auburn, ???????c giao nhi???m v??? thi???t k??? m???t chi???c gh??? ??i???n. G???n gi???ng v???i gh??? ??i???n t??? h??nh th???i hi???n ?????i, chi???c gh??? do Davis ch??? t???o ???????c g???n hai ??i???n c???c, bao g???m c??c ????a kim lo???i ???????c gi??? b???ng cao su v?? ???????c ph??? m???t mi???ng b???t bi???n ???m. ??i???n c???c sau ???? s??? ???????c g???n v??o ?????u v?? l??ng t???i ph???m.
Ng??y 06/08/1890, William Kemmler tr??? th??nh ng?????i ?????u ti??n b??? t??? h??nh tr??n gh??? ??i???n. Sau khi anh ta b??? bu???c d??y, m???t ??i???n ??p kho???ng 700 volt ???????c cung c???p ch??? trong 17 gi??y tr?????c khi d??ng ??i???n b??? ng???t. M???c d?? c??c nh??n ch???ng n??i r???ng h??? ng???i th???y m??i qu???n ??o ch??y v?? th???t ch??y, nh??ng Kemmler v???n ch??a ch???t, v?? m???t c?? s???c ??i???n th??? hai ???? ???????c chu???n b???. ??i???n ??p l???n th??? hai l?? 1.030 volt v?? k??o d??i kho???ng hai ph??t, ng?????i ta ???? th???y kh??i t???a ra t??? ?????u c???a Kemmler, k??? r?? r??ng ???? ch???t. Kh??m nghi???m t??? thi cho th???y ??i???n c???c g???n tr??n l??ng h???n ???? ?????t ch??y ?????n c???t s???ng.
Ti???n s?? Southwick ???? hoan ngh??nh vi???c x??? t??? Kemmler, tuy??n b??? r???ng ???Ch??ng ta s???ng trong m???t n???n v??n minh cao h??n k??? t??? h??m nay,??? trong khi nh?? ph??t minh ng?????i M???, George Westinghouse, m???t nh?? c???i c??ch s??? d???ng ??i???n, l???i nh???n x??t ???H??? ????ng l??? s??? l??m t???t h??n v???i m???t chi???c r??u.???



 

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