03/02/1950: B???t ??i???p vi??n ti???t l??? v??? bom nguy??n t??? cho Li??n X??

Thứ tư - 11/09/2019 22:19
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1950, Klaus Fuchs, m???t nh?? khoa h???c Anh sinh ra ??? ?????c, ng?????i ???? gi??p ph??t tri???n bom nguy??n t???, ???? b??? b???t t???i Anh v?? t???i ti???t l??? c??c th??ng tin tuy???t m???t v??? v?? kh?? cho Li??n X??. S??? ki???n n??y l?? kh???i ?????u cho h??ng lo???t v??? vi???c c?? li??n quan ?????n m???t ???????ng d??y gi??n ??i???p, m?? ?????nh ??i???m
03/02/1950: B???t ??i???p vi??n ti???t l??? v??? bom nguy??n t??? cho Li??n X??

03/02/1950: B???t ??i???p vi??n ti???t l??? v??? bom nguy??n t??? cho Li??n X??

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Ngu???n: Klaus Fuchs arrested for passing atomic bomb information to SovietsHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1950, Klaus Fuchs, m???t nh?? khoa h???c Anh sinh ra ??? ?????c, ng?????i ???? gi??p ph??t tri???n bom nguy??n t???, ???? b??? b???t t???i Anh v?? t???i ti???t l??? c??c th??ng tin tuy???t m???t v??? v?? kh?? cho Li??n X??. S??? ki???n n??y l?? kh???i ?????u cho h??ng lo???t v??? vi???c c?? li??n quan ?????n m???t ???????ng d??y gi??n ??i???p, m?? ?????nh ??i???m l?? v??? b???t gi??? v?? x??? t??? Julius v?? Ethel Rosenberg.

N??m 1933, Fuchs v?? gia ????nh r???i ?????c ????? tr??nh s??? kh???ng b??? c???a ?????ng Qu???c x??. H??? ?????n V????ng qu???c Anh, n??i Fuchs gi??nh ???????c h???c v??? Ti???n s?? V???t l??. Trong su???t Th??? chi???n II, ch??nh ph??? Anh ???? s???m nh???n ra khuynh h?????ng thi??n t??? c???a Fuchs v?? cha m??nh. Tuy nhi??n, v?? kh??? n??ng chuy??n m??n n??n cu???i c??ng Fuchs v???n ???????c m???i tham gia ch????ng tr??nh ph??t tri???n bom nguy??n t??? c???a Anh (D??? ??n ???Tube Alloys.???)

Sau khi d??? ??n b???t ?????u, c??c ?????c v??? Li??n X?? ???? li??n l???c v???i Fuchs v?? ??ng b???t ?????u chuy???n th??ng tin v??? ti???n ????? c???a ng?????i Anh cho h???. Cu???i n??m 1943, Fuchs tr??? th??nh m???t th??nh vi??n trong nh??m c??c nh?? khoa h???c Anh ?????n M??? l??m vi???c trong D??? ??n Manhattan, ch????ng tr??nh ph??t tri???n bom nguy??n t??? c???a M???. V?? ??ng v???n ti???p t???c g???p g??? b?? m???t v???i ?????c v??? Li??n X??. Khi chi???n tranh k???t th??c, Fuchs tr??? l???i Anh v?? ti???p t???c c??ng vi???c c???a m??nh trong d??? ??n Tube Alloys.

V??? b???t gi??? Fuchs v??o n??m 1950 ???????c th???c hi???n sau nhi???u ?????t ki???m tra an ninh ?????i v???i cha ??ng, ng?????i ???? chuy???n t???i n?????c ????ng ?????c c???ng s???n v??o n??m 1949. Khi ti???n h??nh kh??m x??t ng?????i cha, ch??nh quy???n Anh ???? nh???n ???????c th??ng tin t??? C???c ??i???u tra Li??n bang (FBI) v??? vi???c gi???i m?? m???t th??ng ??i???p ??m ch??? r???ng Fuchs l?? m???t ??i???p vi??n Li??n X??. Ng??y 03/02, c???nh s??t Anh ???? b???t Fuchs v?? bu???c t???i ??ng vi ph???m Lu???t B?? m???t Nh?? n?????c (Official Secrets Act.) Fuchs cu???i c??ng c??ng nh???n t???i v?? b??? k???t ??n 14 n??m t?? giam; tuy nhi??n ??ng ???? ???????c gi???m ??n v?? ???????c th??? v??o n??m 1959. Sau ???? ??ng s???ng h???t ph???n ?????i c??n l???i c???a m??nh v???i cha ??? ????ng ?????c.

V??? b???t gi??? Fuchs l?? kh???i ?????u cho m???t lo???t c??c v??? b???t gi??? kh??c. Harry Gold, ng?????i m?? Fuchs ??m ch??? l?? trung gian gi???a ??ng v?? c??c ?????c v??? Li??n X??, ???? b??? b???t t???i M???. Ngay sau ????, Gold ch??? ??i???m David Greenglass, m???t trong c??c ?????ng nghi???p c???a Fuchs trong D??? ??n Manhattan. Sau khi b??? b???t, Greenglass ???? khai ra ch??? d??u v?? anh trai c???a m??nh, Ethel v?? Julius Rosenberg. H??? ???? b??? b???t t???i New York v??o th??ng 07/1950, b??? k???t t???i ??m m??u l??m gi??n ??i???p, v?? b??? giam ??? nh?? t?? Sing Sing v??o th??ng 06/1953.
 

D???u ???n Chi??m th??nh trong Nh?? nh???c Nh???t B???n

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T??c gi???: NNC H?? V?? Tr???ng

??t ng?????i bi???t Ph???t Tri???t ??? t??ng s?? Ch??mpa ???????c suy t??n l?? t??ng s?? c???a Gagaku hay Nh?? nh???c Nh???t B???n, ?????c bi???t v???i lo???i v?? nh???c g???i l?? Rinyugaku hay L??m ???p Nh???c (L??m ???p v???n l?? t??n g???i Ch??mpa theo s??? s??ch Trung Qu???c t??? th??? k??? 2), mang s???c th??i Ph???t gi??o v?? ???n gi??o c???a Chi??m Th??nh trong bi??n ch??? nh?? nh???c cung ????nh.

N??m 736, s??? k?? Nh???t B???n c??ng nh???n s??? du nh???p ??m nh???c ????ng D????ng, ch??? y???u t??? Ch??mpa do t??ng s?? Ph???t Tri???t truy???n v??o Nh???t B???n. Ph???t Tri???t (??m Nh???t l?? Buttetsu) sang Nam ???n h???c v???i cao t??ng B??? ????? Ti??n Na (Bodhisena), sau ???? c??? hai du h??nh sang Trung Qu???c truy???n ?????o. T???i n??m 736, Ph???t Tri???t v?? th???y qua Nh???t B???n th??? theo th???nh c???u c???a c??c v??? t??ng c???a x??? n??y, h??? tr?? ??? ?????i An T??? v?? ????ng ?????i T???, v?? ??? ???? truy???n d???y cho t???i khi qua ?????i.

 

Nh?? nh???c Nh???t B???n hay Gagaku ???????c truy???n nh???p ch??? y???u b???t ?????u t??? th??? k??? 8 th???i Nara (N???i L????ng), l??n ?????n c???c th???nh gi???a nh???ng th??? k??? 9 ?????n 11 trong th???i Heian (B??nh An). N??m 752,  trong ng??y l??? l???ch s??? v?? tr???ng ?????i l?? ?????i H???i Khai Nh??n T?????ng ?????i Ph???t Nh?? Lai t???i ????ng ?????i T??? (T??dai-ji) do cao t??ng B??? ????? Ti??n Na ch??? tr?? bu???i l??? v?? l??m khai nh??n ?????o s??. Tri???u ????nh mu???n c??? h??nh l??? c??ng d?????ng v??o d???p n??y ????? ????nh d???u 200 n??m Ph???t gi??o du nh???p v??o Nh???t B???n, ch??a ????ng ?????i T??? m???i t???i 25 ng??n t??ng l??? ngo???i qu???c t???i tham d??? ?????i l???, ch??? y???u t??? ????ng D????ng (g???m c??c n?????c ????ng Nam ??) v?? ???n ?????. V??o d???p n??y, tr?????c s??? hi???n di???n c???a Ho??ng ????? v?? t???t c??? b?? quan v??n v??, trong l??? khai m???c Ph???t Tri???t l?? nh???c s?? truy???n th??? v?? c??ng d?????ng b???ng L??m ???p Nh???c v???i nh???ng v?? ??i???u nh?? B??? T??t, B???t ?????u, B???i L????? Nh???c L??m ???p c??ng ???????c di???n t???u trong nh???ng s??? ki???n quan tr???ng, c??c bu???i kh??nh y???n c???a tri???u ????nh,??? V??o n??m 809, ???? ch???n ra ban nh???c c??ng t??? x??? L??m ???p ??? ?????i An T??? l??n t???i 107 ng?????i.

Nh???ng v?? ??i???u do Ph???t Tri???t truy???n d???y ???????c khai tri???n th??nh Nh?? nh???c, qua s??? c???i c??ch th??nh 8 kh??c g???i l?? L??m ???p B??t Nh???c, c?? th??? li???t k??: 1) Bosatsu/B??? T??t; 2) Karyobin/Ca L??ng T???n ; 3) Ry??-??/L??ng V????ng ho???c Long V????ng; 4) Anma /An Ma Nh??? V??, 5) Bairo/B???i L??; 6) Bato/B???t ?????u, ph???i h???p v???i v?? kh??c kh??c l?? Ho??n Th??nh Nh???c c??n g???i l?? Ki???n x?? nh???c; 7) Koinju/H??? ???m T???u; v?? 8) Manjuraku/V???n Thu Nh???c. D?????i ????y, ta h??y l?????t qua t???ng v?? kh??c trong L??m ???p B??t Nh???c.

V?? ??i???u th??? nh???t l?? B??? T??t, nay c??n d???u v???t ??? v?? ??i???u B??? T??t ??eo m???t n??? ng??y nay c??n th???y trong nh???ng l??? r?????c c??ng d?????ng ??? c??c ch??a, ?????c bi???t t???i ??????ng Ma T??? (Taima-dera) ??? Nara.

V?? kh??c th??? hai l?? Ca L??ng T??n, ???????c cho l?? x??a v?? chung v???i kh??c B??? T??t sau n??y ???????c t??ch ra. Ca L??ng T???n Gi?? (phi??n ??m t??? ti???ng Ph???n), l?? t??n m???t lo??i chim qu?? c???a ???n ????? c?? ti???ng h??t tuy???t hay, ???????c xem nh?? l?? lo??i chim c???a th??? gi???i C???c L???c. Trong ngh??? thu???t, h??nh t?????ng chim th???n Ca L??ng T???n Gi?? th?????ng ???????c th??? hi???n d?????i h??nh d???ng ?????u ng?????i m??nh chim c?? ??u??i d??i, ho???c nh?? l?? nh???ng thi??n th???n nh???c c??ng m??a v??? tr???ng b???ng v?? d??ng hoa m?? ta th???y trong ngh??? thu???t ??i??u kh???c Ch??mpa ?????c bi???t tr??n th??p M???m, ho???c ch??a Ph???t T??ch (th???i L??) v?? ch??a Th??i L???c (th???i Tr???n), ????y ch??nh l?? nh???ng v???t t??ch c???a v?? ??i???u Chi??m Th??nh chim th???n Ca L??ng T???n Gi?? m???t th???i th???nh h??nh trong c??c ng??i ch??a th???i L??-Tr???n.


??i???u m??a Karyobin/Ca L??ng T???n

Kh??c th??? ba, L??ng V????ng hay Long V????ng, danh kh??c n??y v???i phong c??ch l??? lu???t tuy???t ?????p ?????c tr??ng cho L??m ???p Nh???c, tr???i b???t trong nh???ng ??i???u v?? t????ng ?????i nhanh g???i l?? t???u m?? (hashiri-mai) trong T??? nh???c. Long V????ng l?? ??i???u m??a ?????c di???n. Qua so s??nh v??? ?????ng t??c v?? ?????o c???a Long V????ng, nh?? nghi??n c???u v??n ho?? V?? Ng???c Li???n ???? cho r???ng s??? h??nh th??nh s??n kh???u h??t b???i B??nh ?????nh sau n??y v???n b???t ngu???n t??? h??nh th??i ngh??? thu???t s??n kh???u ???Ph???n h????? hay K???ch Nh?? Ch??a c???a Ch??mpa m?? ngay t??? th??? k??? th??? 8 ???? ?????t ?????n tr??nh ????? c?? k???ch b???n th??nh v??n. Nh???ng l??? h???i d??n gian ??? Nh???t t??? th???i B??nh An, th?????ng ph???i h???p ??i???u v?? Long V????ng v???i ch???c n??ng ????? c???u m??a, v?? r???ng l?? v??? th???n coi v??? n?????c, m??a v?? ph????ng ????ng.

??i???u m??a Ry??-??/ L??ng V????ng ho???c Long V????ng.

V?? kh??c th??? t??, An Ma Nh??? V??, l?? v?? ??i???u m???t c???p v?? c??ng (nam n??? l???n tu???i) ??eo m???t n??? b???ng l???a tr???ng v??? b???ng m???c ??en tr??n ???? nh???ng h??nh d???ng tr???u t?????ng. Hai nh??n v???t t????ng t??? c??c v??? th???n A-tu-la th??? trong c??c ????nh mi???u v?? mang s???c th??i ph??p thu???t, tay c???m c??i h???t l??m nh???ng ?????ng t??c v???a ph???t v???a ng??m x?????ng.

V?? kh??c th??? n??m B???i L??/Bairo (t??? t??n v??? th???n ???n gi??o l?? Bairava bi???u hi???n cho c??n th???nh n??? v?? h???y di???t c???a th???n Shiva) l?? v?? kh??c nh??m b??? t???, t????ng t??? nh???ng ??i???u m??a ki???m v?? l?? v?? kh??c chi???n binh.

V?? kh??c th??? s??u B???t ?????u (Bat??) l?? v?? kh??c ????n. H??nh ???nh ch??nh: v?? c??ng qu??? nh?? th??? tuy???t v???ng, m??i t??c r?? xu???ng che k??n m???t ??eo m???t n???; bi???u hi???n t??m tr???ng c???a ng?????i con trai kh??c th????ng cha b??? h??? v??? ch???t. Ng?????i con lang thang trong r???ng cho t???i khi g???p ???????c v?? gi???t h???. Sau ????, ng?????i con nh???y v?? ??i???u chi???n th???ng.

??i???u m??a Bato/B???t ?????u.

V?? kh??c th??? b???y H??? ???m t???u (Koinju) ??eo m???t n??? m??u ????? t?????ng tr??ng s??? say s??a, c??i m??i to t?????ng ?????c tr??ng cho ng?????i H??? hay

T??y V???c. Ti???p theo 7 kh??c v?? nh???c L??m ???p n??i tr??n do Ph???t Tri???t l??m nh???c s?? truy???n th??? ??? ?????i An T???, 10 n??m sau, trong L??? h???i ??? ?????i Ph???t ??i???n c???a ????ng ?????i T???, ng??i c??ng khai truy???n th??? v?? nh???c th??? 8 l?? V???n Thu Nh???c, ????y l?? m???t ?????i kh??c, v?? c??ng g???m 6 ho???c 4. ??m nh???c v???n l?? b??? m??n gi??o d?????ng b???t bu???c c???a gi???i qu?? t???c v?? cung ????nh m?? trong ???? V???n Thu Nh???c l?? v?? nh???c ti??u bi???u v?? l?? b?? kh??c ???????c b???o l??u ri??ng.

Nh?? v???y, su???t m?????i m???y th??? k???, n?????c Nh???t t??ng ch???a m???t kho b??u ngh??? thu???t v?? gi?? v?? ??a v??n h??a, ???? l?? n???n v?? nh???c cung ????nh g???i chung l?? Nh?? nh???c hay Gagaku, ngo??i b???n ?????a ra c??n bao g???m nhi???u n???n v?? nh???c qu???c t??? nh?? Trung Qu???c, H??n Qu???c, ???n ?????, M??n Ch??u, Th??i Lan, Ba T?????. ?????c bi???t quan tr???ng l?? v?? nh???c Ch??mpa (hay ????ng Nam ??) v???i c??ng tr???ng c???a Ph???t Tri???t.

Ngu???n: Ti???n Phong

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