N??m m????i n??m sau: Tr??m hoa ??ua n??? ??? VN 1954-60 (P3)

Thứ hai - 02/09/2019 00:37
Trong c??i m??a ????ng bu???n t???m t?? n??m 1954/55, m???t nh??m v??n ngh??? s?? v?? nh?? b??o ???? t??? h???p l???i, t???t c??? h??? ?????u l?? th??nh vi??n c???a Ph??ng V??n ngh??? Qu??n ?????i, ????? b??n v??? m???t ?????nh h?????ng t?? t?????ng-v??n h??a m???i v?? r???t cu???c, h??? ????i l??nh ?????o ch???p thu???n ?????nh h?????ng n??y. Qu??n ?????i mi???n B???c h???i ???? ???????c xem nh?? m???t ???tr?????ng h???c v??? d??n ch??????[
N??m m????i n??m sau: Tr??m hoa ??ua n??? ??? VN 1954-60 (P3)

N??m m????i n??m sau: Tr??m hoa ??ua n??? ??? VN 1954-60 (P3)

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Ngu???n: Heinz Sch??tte, ???F??nfzig Jahre danach: Hundert Blumen in Vietnam 1954-1960???, Hamburger S??dostasienstudien, Band 3, 2009.

Bi??n d???ch: Talawas

B??i li??n quan: Ph???n 1Ph???n 2

  1. Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh, Tr???n D???n v?? D??? th???o ????? ngh??? 32 ??i???m

Trong c??i m??a ????ng bu???n t???m t?? n??m 1954/55, m???t nh??m v??n ngh??? s?? v?? nh?? b??o ???? t??? h???p l???i, t???t c??? h??? ?????u l?? th??nh vi??n c???a Ph??ng V??n ngh??? Qu??n ?????i, ????? b??n v??? m???t ?????nh h?????ng t?? t?????ng-v??n h??a m???i v?? r???t cu???c, h??? ????i l??nh ?????o ch???p thu???n ?????nh h?????ng n??y. Qu??n ?????i mi???n B???c h???i ???? ???????c xem nh?? m???t ???tr?????ng h???c v??? d??n ch??????[1], b???i v?? ngay trong th???i k??? kh??ng chi???n v???n c?? nh???ng cu???c ph?? ph??n ???????c ph??p di???n ra trong h??ng ng?? qu??n ?????i. Th??? n??n gi??? ????y, khi h??a b??nh ???? l???p l???i, nh???ng v???n ????? b???c x??c c??ng ph???i ???????c mang ra th???o lu???n m???nh m??? v?? g???p r??t h??n bao gi??? h???t.

Nh??ng ??i???u ???? c?? ngh??a l?? g??? Ph???i ch??ng nh?? n?????c ?????ng tr??? ???? kh??ng n???m ???????c c??c tr?? th???c qu??n ?????i? Hay ?????ng ng??y ???? (c??n ch??a) xu???ng tay ngay v?? ???? ch???p nh???n ??a nguy??n t?? t?????ng? ??i???u ch???c ch???n l?? cu???c c??ch m???ng khi ???y c??n ch??a k???t th??c??? Trong kh??ng chi???n, trong h??ng ng?? qu??n ?????i r?? r??ng ???? hi???n di???n ????? c??c th??nh ph???n tr??i ng?????c nhau v?? nh???ng ?????i di???n cho nh???ng th??? gi???i quan v?? nh???ng quan ??i???m ngh??? thu???t kh??c nhau. Sau chi???n th???ng ??i???n Bi??n Ph???, khi c??ch m???ng b???t ?????u th???t ch???t quy???n l???c ??? c??c t??? ch???c ch??nh tr??? v?? qu???n ch??ng, nh???ng khuynh h?????ng n??y c?? c?? bung ra, tr??n sang tr???n ?????a c??ch m???ng x?? h???i ??? v?? r???t cu???c l?? tr???n ?????a c??ch m???ng v??n h??a. C??? b??n ngo??i qu??n ?????i, ng?????i ta ???? kh??ng th??? k??m h??m ????i h???i v??? vi???c m??? c???a v??n h??a l??u h??n ???????c n???a, v?? trong gi???i tr?? th???c v??n ngh??? s?? m?? ai c??ng bi???t ai ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam h???i ????, nh???ng quan h??? c?? nh??n gi???a nh??m tr?? th???c d??n s??? v?? nh??m tr?? th???c qu??n ?????i l?? r???t ph??? bi???n. V??i nh?? th?? trong s??? nh???ng ng?????i t??? h???p v???i nhau trong m??a ????ng ?????u ti??n sau kh??ng chi???n ???y ???? bi???t nhau t??? tr?????c trong nh??m l??m t???p ch?? t?????ng tr??ng D???????i, t???p ch?? xu???t b???n ngay tr?????c khi kh??ng chi???n b??ng n??? th??ng 11 n??m 1946.[2] H??? ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a Verlaine v?? Rimbaud v?? h??? tuy??n ng??n: ???Ch??ng t??i, m???t l?? ng?????i vong gia th???t th???, tr??t ?????u thai nh???m l??c sao m?????????.[3] C?? th??? n??i r???ng, nh???ng ng?????i ????n ??ng tr??? tu???i n??y ch??a bao gi??? ????nh m???t t??nh c?? nh??n m?? h??? th???a h?????ng t??? n???n gi??o d???c ???t??? do??? nh???ng n??m 30 v?? 40, c??ng nh?? trong kh??ng chi???n, h??? ???? ph???i k??m n??n n??ng l?????ng v?? s???c s??ng t???o c???a m??nh d?????i nh???ng ????i h???i ????i l??c ?????n ????? l??n ?????ng v??? vi???c ph???i ?????p ch???t qu?? kh???. M???t trong s??? nh???ng ng?????i ???? l?? nh?? th?? Tr???n D???n, ng?????i c??ng t??c t???i Ph??ng V??n ngh??? Qu??n ?????i c???a v??? t?????ng ki??m ch??nh ???y Tr???n ?????.

Sau chi???n th???ng, Tr???n D???n ???????c t?????ng Tr???n ????? c??? t???i Trung Qu???c ????? d???ng k???ch b???n cho m???t b??? phim v??? ??i???n Bi??n Ph???. Trong chuy???n ??i n??y, Tr???n D???n ???? c?? nh???ng va ch???m v???i v??? ch??nh ???y qu??n ?????i ??i c??ng ??ng, ng?????i kh??ng ch??? canh ch???ng th??i ????? ch??nh tr??? c???a nh?? th?? n??ng ?????u m?? c??n ????i ph???i c?? ti???ng n??i quy???t ?????nh trong c??c v???n ????? ngh??? thu???t.[4] S??? tranh c??i n??y c?? l??? kh??ng ph???i do m??u thu???n c?? nh??n m?? ch??? y???u l?? v??? v???n ????? nhi???m v??? c???a v??n ngh???, v???n ????? ???? lu??n ???????c tranh lu???n gay g???t t??? gi???a nh???ng n??m 1940. Ngo??i ra, li???u Tr???n D???n khi ??? Trung Qu???c c?? ti???p x??c v???i nh???ng t?? t?????ng c???a nh?? ph?? b??nh v??n h???c m??c-x??t ph??ng kho??ng H??? Phong hay kh??ng, v?? do ???? c?? th??? coi Trung Qu???c nh?? l?? ng?????i cha tinh th???n cho c??c nh?? ly khai Vi???t Nam hay kh??ng, l?? ??i???u c?? l??? ???? kh??ng x???y ra v?? ho??n to??n thi???u b???ng ch???ng x??c th???c.[5]

Nh???ng kinh nghi???m c???a Tr???n D???n ??? Trung Qu???c, s??? ??p ?????t quan ??i???m v??n ngh??? c???a h??? th???ng chuy??n ch??? Vi???t Nam th??ng qua c??c c??n b??? ch??nh tr???, v?? ?????i s???ng c???a v??n ngh??? s?? b??? ki???m so??t ch???t ch??? b???i k??? lu???t qu??n ?????i ??? m???t th??? k??? lu???t th??p c?? l??? ???? kh??ng c??n c???n thi???t sau khi h??a b??nh l???p l???i ??? l?? nh???ng t??c nh??n ch??nh khi???n Tr???n D???n ????i ph???i c?? canh t??n (m???t c??ch c?? t??? ch???c). Khi nh???ng ????i h???i n??y b??? t??? ch???i th?? s??? b???t m??n ???? chuy???n th??nh h??nh ?????ng ly khai. ??i???u ???? c??ng c?? ngh??a l??, trong nh???ng n??m 1955-56, ?????ng v???n c??n ch??a xu???ng tay h???n trong vi???c n???m tr???n v???n gi???i tr?? th???c.[6]

T???p ch?? H???c t???p c???a ?????ng s??? th??ng 3 n??m 1958 (ngay sau c??c s??? ki???n k??? tr??n) ????ng m???t b??i vi???t d??i d?????i nhan ????? ???Ch???ng ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i trong v??n ngh?????? c???a nh?? th??, nh???c s??, nh?? v??n Nguy???n ????nh Thi, T???ng Th?? k?? H???i V??n h???c Ngh??? thu???t Vi???t Nam. B???n d???ch b??i b??o n??y ???????c l??u t???i Kho L??u tr??? c???a B??? Ngo???i giao CHDC ?????c.[7] ????y l?? t??i li???u duy nh???t ???????c l??u tr??? m?? t??i t??m ???????c trong ???? c?? n??i v??? nh??m v??n ngh??? s?? qu??n ?????i, l???n ?????u ti??n ???? ph?? ph??n c??ch qu???n l?? c??ng nh?? ch??nh s??ch v??n h??a c???a Vi???t Nam D??n ch??? C???ng h??a. Nh?? ???? n??i, vi???c ph?? ph??n ban ?????u ch??? gi???i h???n v??o c??c ??i???u ki???n s???ng v?? s??ng t??c c???a v??n ngh??? s?? trong trong qu??n ?????i. Nguy???n ????nh Thi cho bi???t: ???C??ng l??c b???y gi???, trong qu??n ?????i, m???t nh??m v??n ngh??? s?? nh?? Tr???n-D???n, T???-Ph??c, v.v??? ???? ????i l???p m???t chi h???i v??n ngh??? ?????c l???p, kh??ng ch???u s??? l??nh ?????o ch??nh tr???, v?? l??nh ?????o v??? t??? ch???c c???a qu??n ?????i. Nh???ng quan ??i???m l???ch l???c ???? ???? b??? ????nh b???i trong m???t cu???c ?????u tranh ?????u ti??n k??o d??i m???y th??ng, nh??ng th???c ch???t t?? t?????ng t?? s???n trong nh???ng lu???n ??i???m v?? ch???tr????ng c???a L?? ?????t hay Tr???n D???n ch??a b??? v???ch ra tr?????c d??lu???n.???[8] Trong tr??ch d???n tr??n, ph???n th??? nh???t l?? s??? th???t, d?? th???c ra L?? ?????t kh??ng ph???i ng?????i trong bi??n ch??? qu??n ?????i, nh??ng ph???n th??? hai th?? sai ho??n to??n. B???i ???nh???ng quan ??i???m l???ch l???c??? c???a nh???ng nh?? canh t??n ???? kh??ng d??? b??? ????nh b???i, c??ng nh?? h??? ???? kh??ng h??? che gi???u c??ng lu???n h???i ???? v??? ???th???c ch???t t?? t?????ng t?? s???n??? c???a m??nh.

V???y th???c ra, ??i???u g?? ???n gi???u ?????ng sau ph??t bi???u c???a Nguy???n ????nh Thi? ???? l?? v??o m??a ????ng n??m 1954-55, Tr???n D???n v?? nh???ng ng?????i b???n c???a ??ng: T??? Ph??c, Ho??ng C???m, ????? Nhu???n, Tr??c L??m, Ho??ng T??ch Linh v?? v??i ng?????i n???a ???? c??ng nhau so???n th???o m???t v??n b???n c?? nhan ????? ???D??? th???o ????? ngh??? cho m???t ch??nh s??ch v??n ho????? g???m 32 ??i???m, trong ???? Tr???n D???n ?????m nhi???m vai tr?? bi??n t???p ch??nh. H??? ???? quy???t ?????nh kh??ng g???i D???th???o n??y t???i c??c c?? quan v??n h??a ho???c c??c t??? ch???c ?????ng, v?? h??? e ng???i d??? ??n c???i c??ch c???a m??nh s??? b??? ch??m trong ?????ng gi???y t??? h??nh ch??nh. Thay v??o ????, h??? ???? m???i t?????ng Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh t???i m???t cu???c g???p m???t kh??ng ch??nh th???c ????? l???ng nghe v?? th???o lu???n v??? nh???ng ????? ngh??? ???y. T?????ng Thanh ?????ng ??. Bu???i g???p m???t ????ng nh??? ???y ???? di???n ra v??o m???t ng??y th??ng 2 n??m 1955 t???i t?? gia c???a t?????ng Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh ??? H?? N???i. C?? v??? nh?? c??? nh??m v??n ngh??? s?? ?????u tin r???ng, v??? t?????ng quy???t ??o??n v?? h??o s???ng n??y s??? ???ng h??? nh???ng ????? ngh??? c???a h???. H??? c??ng tin r???ng t?????ng Tr???n ????? v?? ?????i t?? L?? Li??m s??? ???ng h??? ho???c ??t nh???t c??ng ch??m ch?????c cho nh???ng quan ??i???m c???a h???. B??n c???nh t?????ng Thanh, bu???i g???p m???t h???i ????? c??c ?????i di???n c???a nh??m v??n ngh??? s??[9] v?? c??n th??m hai ?????i di???n cao c???p c???a qu??n ?????i: t?????ng L?? Quang ?????o, C???c tr?????ng C???c Tuy??n hu???n Qu??n ?????i, v?? v??? ph?? c???a ??ng, ?????i t?? V?? H????ng C?????ng.

B???n ????? ngh??? 32 ??i???m n??y kh??ng bao gi??? ???????c c??ng b??? v?? hi???n nay c??ng kh??ng c??n t???n t???i b???n vi???t n??o n???a. Nh???ng ng?????i ???? tham gia v??o bu???i g???p m???t ???? ??? H?? N???i k??? l???i r???ng, Tr???n D???n ???? ?????c b???n ????? ngh??? m???t c??ch nh??? nh??? v?? ch???m r??i, v?? t?????ng Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh ???? ch??m ch?? nghe. Nh??ng khi nghe ?????n ??i???m th??? 14 th?? v??? t?????ng, lu??n ???????c xem l?? ??i???m t??nh v?? qu?? tr???ng v??n ngh??? s?? qu??n ?????i, ?????t ng???t n???i tr???n l??i ????nh. Tr?????c s??? kinh ho??ng c???a t???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i c?? m???t, ??ng ???? gi???n gi??? ?????m l??n m???t b??n v?? qu???t c??c t??c gi??? c???a D???th???o ????? ngh??? v??? t???i t??? do t?? s???n, v?? r???ng h??? ???? nhi???m nh???ng vi??n ?????n b???c ???????ng c???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n. ???M??nh l?? c??ng ??? n??ng ??? binh???, ??ng run ng?????i l??n, ho??n to??n m???t b??nh t??nh, ???v??n ngh??? ph???i ph???c v??? c??ng ??? n??ng ??? binh??????. R???i ??ng v???a h??t l??n v???a lao ra kh???i ph??ng.[10] Th??? l?? m???i quan h??? ?????y tin t?????ng gi???a v??? t?????ng v???i c??c v??n ngh??? s?? ???? v??nh vi???n ch???m d???t. N??? l???c ?????i tho???i v???i l??nh ?????o qu??n ?????i, ?????ng v?? Nh?? n?????c v??? m???t ch??nh s??ch v??n h??a m???i ???? th???t b???i.

Ph???i ch??ng c??c v??n ngh??? s?? ???? qu?? c??? tin v?? ng??y th?? ch??nh tr??? ?????n m???c kh??ng nh???n ra b???n ch???t s???t ???? c???a v??? t?????ng ch??nh ???y trong v??? ngo??i h??o s???ng c???a ??ng, ng?????i trong t?? c??ch l?? ?????i di???n cho ?????ng v?? qu??n ?????i s??? kh??ng bao gi??? ch???p nh???n nh???ng ????i h???i tr??i v???i ???????ng l???i v??n ngh??? c???a ?????ng. Trong nh???ng n??m cu???i c??ng c???a cu???c kh??ng chi???n, v??n ngh??? s?? kh??ng ch??? ???????c gi???ng v??? nh???ng nguy??n t???c c???a M??c, ??ng-ghen, L??-nin v?? Xta-lin, v?? ?????c bi???t l?? ch??? ngh??a Mao nh?? h??nh m???u cho c??c ho???t ?????ng v??n ngh???. Song h??nh nh?? h??? v???n c??n ho??n to??n tin r???ng, khi h??a b??nh l???p l???i th?? vi???c t??? ch???c v?? qu???n l?? tr?? th???c s??? ???????c n???i l???ng h??n v?? s??? ??a d???ng t?? t?????ng s??? ???????c cho ph??p. C??u chuy???n c???a c??c nh??n ch???ng c??n s???ng k??? l???i c?? v??? ph?? h???p v???i gi??? ?????nh r???ng, ch??nh t?????ng Thanh c??ng ???? ?????t ng???t b??? h??? g???c b???i nh???ng vi??n ?????n t?? t?????ng ?????ng ng???t c???a ng?????i l??ng gi???ng ph????ng B???c, c?? ??i???u c??c v??n ngh??? s?? ???? ho??n to??n kh??ng hay bi???t. Ph???i ch??ng c??c v??n ngh??? s?? ???? th???c s??? tin r???ng, ch??? ngh??a Mao v?? th??? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n gi??o ??i???u ch???ng qua ch??? l?? nh???ng c??ng c??? nh???t th???i trong kh??ng chi???n, v?? ch??ng s??? h???t ???nh h?????ng khi chi???n tranh k???t th??c? R???ng ch??ng s??? kh??ng ph???i l?? n???n t???ng cho m???t x?? h???i m???i h???u thu???c ?????a v?? c??ch m???ng s??? ch???m d???t khi h??? tr??? v??? H?? N???i? Th???c t??? c?? v??? ????ng nh?? v???y. Ch???ng h???n Ho??ng C???m cho r???ng, ch??? ngh??a Mao ch??? m???i xu???t hi???n ??? Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh khi h??a b??nh l???p l???i v?? t??? khi tr??? v??? H?? N???i. Trong kh??ng chi???n kh??ng h??? c?? s??? kh??c bi???t hay b???t ?????ng n??o gi???a h???, v?? t???t c??? ?????u h?????ng t???i m???c ti??u ?????c l???p. T???t c??? nh???ng th??? kh??c ?????u ph???i ?????t d?????i m???c ti??u n??y. Ng?????c l???i, sau ??i???n Bi??n Ph???, v???n ????? l?? l??m sao gi??? ???????c quy???n l???c, v?? khi ???? ng?????i ta tr??? th??nh Mao-??t[11]. R???i Ho??ng C???m gi???i th??ch khi h???i t?????ng l???i (nh?? m???t l???i bi???n h????): t?? t?????ng c???a nh?? th?? kh??ng bao gi??? chung s???ng ???????c v???i ?? th???c h??? c???ng s???n. V?? v???y, r???n v??? l?? ??????ng nhi??n v?? ly khai l?? kh??ng th??? tr??nh kh???i.[12] Nh??ng ??ng nh???n m???nh r???ng, ??ng v?? nh???ng ng?????i b???n c???a m??nh ch??a bao gi??? ch???ng ?????ng c???. ???Seulement, nous sommesautre que le Parti??? ??? ???Ch??ng t??i ch??? kh??c ?????ng th??i???.

Tuy nhi??n ch??ng ta ph???i ?????t ra m???t c??u h???i, r???ng li???u trong h??ng ng?? l??nh ?????o cao c???p c???a qu??n ?????i h???i ???? c?? nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? c??c nh?? canh t??n, nh?? nhi???u ng?????i n??i v???y, hay kh??ng? ?????n nay t?????ng Gi??p v???n gi??? im l???ng. Cu???i n??m 1956, t???i m???t doanh tr???i qu??n ?????i, t?????ng Gi??p ???? l??u ?? r???ng c??c v??n ngh??? s?? Nh??n v??n ??? Giai ph???m l?? nh???ng ng?????i c?? nh??n ch??? ngh??a.[13]Tuy nhi??n, m???t ?????ng ch?? th??n c???n c???a ??ng, ?????i t?? L?? Li??m, nguy??n ch??nh ???y m???t tr???n ??i???n Bi??n Ph???, ???? nh??n danh B??? Ch??nh tr??? ?????n g???p g??? c??c v??n ngh??? s?? ???l???ch l???c??? v?? thuy???t ph???c h??? tr??? v??? v???i ???????ng l???i ????ng ?????n c???a ?????ng. C??ng nh?? t?????ng Gi??p, L?? Li??n v?? Tr???n ?????[14] s??? s???m b??? ph?? ph??n l?? ng??? theo ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i. Theo t??i, n???u trong gi???i l??nh ?????o qu??n ?????i, ?????ng v?? nh?? n?????c c?? ng?????i c?? c???m t??nh v???i m???t ch??nh s??ch v??n h??a v??n ngh??? m???i th?? ??i???u ???? c?? l??? c??ng ch??? x???y ra trong t????ng quan v???i cu???c tranh lu???n v??? ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i sau ?????i h???i 20 c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X??.[15] Cu???c tranh lu???n n??y ???? b???c l??? t???t c??? nh???ng v???n ????? m??u thu???n xung quanh ch??? ngh??a Mao v?? ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i c???a Khrushchev. C??n th???i gian sau chi???n th???ng 1954, trong h??ng ng?? l??nh ?????o ?????ng v?? nh?? n?????c ???? kh??ng h??? c?? b???t k??? ai c?? ?? ?????nh ???ng h??? m???t ch??nh s??ch v??n h??a ??a nguy??n v?? nh?? th??? ngh??a l?? cho v??n h??a ???????c gi???i tho??t ra kh???i ch???c n??ng duy nh???t c???a n?? nh?? l?? m???t m???t tr???n ph???c v??? c??ng cu???c x??y d???ng ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i.

B???n D??? th???o c???a Tr???n D???n v?? c??c v??n ngh??? s?? xoay quanh ba ??i???m:

Th??? nh???t: Tr??? l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? cho v??n ngh??? s??;

Th??? hai: Th??nh l???p trong qu??n ?????i m???t chi h???i v??n ngh??? tr???c thu???c H???i V??n ngh???, kh??ng qua C???c Tuy??n hu???n v?? T???ng c???c Ch??nh tr???;

Th??? ba: B??? m???i ch??? ????? qu??n s??? hi???n h??nh trong v??n ngh??? qu??n ?????i.[16]

Tr???n D???n ????a ra nh???ng ????? ngh??? n??y nh??n danh t???p th???. ??ng c??? v?? cho m???t th??? ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c trung th??nh v???i s???th???c c???a x?? h???i, c???a con ng?????i, v?? ????i h???i kh??ng g?? b?? s??? th???c v??o ch??nh s??ch. ??ng n??i, ???ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c khuy???n kh??ch tr??m nh?? ??ua ti???ng, c??? v??? n???i dung l???n h??nh th???c???[17].

??ng c??o bu???c c??c c??n b??? ch??nh tr??? ???? d??m ch???t s??ng t???o v?? ngh??? thu???t. ???Ng?????i vi???t ch??? vi???t do th??i th??c t??? th???c t??????, ??ng vi???t ti???p, ???kh??ng ph???i vi???t ????? v???a l??ng tuy??n hu???n, v???a l??ng c???p tr??n???. V??, ???c??ch m???ng kh??ng c???n nh???ng ng?????i hoan h?? nh???m m???t. Nh???ng anh h??t ca ch??nh s??ch. Th???m ch?? nh???ng anh ???th??y c??ng ch??nh s??ch???, leng keng b??p m??o, ngh??o n??n??????. ??ng ghi nh???n, ???c?? th??? n??i v??n ch????ng hi???n nay nhi???u c??i gi??? t???o (gi??? tr?? n???a)??? T???c l?? ng?????i vi???t ?????t ra m???t c??i khu??n nh???t ?????nh, r???i g?? ??p m???i s??? th???c v??o ???????T???i sao kh??ng vi???t v??? c?? quan ch???ng h???n? T???i sao s??? vi???t v??? t??nh y??u ch???ng h???n? M?? vi???t t??nh y??u th?? y nh?? ????a ra ??i t??nh hy sinh v?? t???qu???c!??? T???i sao c??? xu???t th??n c??ng n??ng m???i ????ng vi???t???? V?? ??ng ????i ph???i ???????c n??i th???ng, n??i th???t, n??i h???t.[18]

Nh???ng nh?? c??ch t??n tuy??n b??? ch???ng l???i th??? ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i m?? ??? ???? ?????ng L??-nin-n??t ki???m so??t to??n di???n c??c l??nh v???c x?? h???i, k??? c??? ?????i s???ng ri??ng t??, n???i dung c??ng nh?? h??nh th???c s??ng t??c c???a v??n ngh??? s??. B???i ???ch??nh tr??? kh??ng th??? ki???m so??t v??n ngh??????[19], v?? h??? ????i ph???i c?? m???t th??? ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c cho ph??p tr??m hoa ??ua n??? ??? nh?? m??a Xu??n Praha v???y. H??? mu???n c?? s??? ??a d???ng, m??u thu???n, kh??c bi???t. B???i v?? ???trong m???i ng?????i c??ng l???i c?? tri???u v???n ?????, m???i v???n ????? l?? m???t s??? th???c??? m???i b??? ?????i, c??ng ch???c, ng?????i vi???t ?????u mang trong m??nh m???t??? ti???u thuy???t.???[20] V??? v??n ch????ng, h??? c??ng ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a c??c nh?? t?????ng tr??ng ch??? ngh??a Ph??p (Verlaine, Rimbaud), c??ng nh?? h??? ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a Mayakovsky.

Trong t???t c??? nh???ng cu???c tr?? chuy???n c???a t??i ??? H?? N???i v???i nh???ng nh??n v???t ch??nh c???a th???i ????, t??i lu??n ???????c nghe kh???ng ?????nh r???ng, h??? ch??? mong mu???n ???????c ph??p c?? s??? kh??c bi???t, c?? d??n ch??? v?? m??? r???ng t??? ch???c v??n ngh??? trong khu??n kh??? c???a ch??? ?????, ch??? h??? tuy???t kh??ng ch???ng ?????ng v?? nh?? n?????c. ??i???u n??y ???????c x??c nh???n trong m???t b??o c??o c???a ?????i s??? CHDC ?????c Pf??tzner v??? t??nh h??nh H?? N???i cu???i n??m 1955. Pf??tzner vi???t: ???Sau khi h??a b??nh l???p l???i (H???i ngh??? Gen??ve 1954), v??n ngh??? s?? thu???c t???t c??? c??c nh??m kh??c nhau ?????u ch??? ?????i c?? s??? thay ?????i ch??nh s??ch m???t c??ch c?? b???n v?? mong ???????c ch??nh ph??? v?? ?????ng gi??p ?????. Nh???ng n??m v???a r???i h??? ???? ???????c ph??n cho ????? lo???i c??ng vi???c kh??c nhau. H??? tr??? th??nh c??n b??? h??nh ch??nh, c??n b??? t??? ch???c ho???c v???n l?? s?? quan trong qu??n ?????i. V?? d??? trong qu??n ?????i, h??? ph???i ch???u ch??nh s??ch m???nh l???nh g?? b??, khi???n cho h??? kh?? l??ng m?? s??ng t??c ???????c, th???m ch?? h??? c???m th???y ???c ch??? v?? b??? coi r???. Ch???ng h???n h??? kh??ng ???????c th???c khuya h??n 9 gi??? ????? d??nh ??t gi??? ban ????m cho c??ng vi???c s??ng t??c. T???i nh???ng c?? quan v?? t??? ch???c kh??c, v??n ngh??? s?? c??ng g???p ph???i s??? quan li??u c???ng nh???c nh?? th??? khi h??? l???p ??i l???p l???i nh???ng ????i h???i v??? vi???c ph???i t???o ??i???u ki???n c???n thi???t cho v??n ngh???. ??? ???? l?? t??nh h??nh c??ch ????y kho???ng m???t n??m khi c??c v??n ngh??? s?? b???t ?????u l???n ti???ng b??y t??? s??? b???t b??nh.???[21]

C??ng (hay t???i) c???a c??c v??n ngh??? s?? qu??n ?????i l??: v???i D??? th???o ????? ngh??? 32 ??i???m, l???n ?????u ti??n h??? ???? tr??nh b??y m???t gi???i ph??p kh??c cho ch??nh s??ch v??n h??a c???a ?????ng. B??o c??o c???a ?????i s??? Pf??tzner ???????c tr??ch d???n tr??n ????y ghi nh???n, sau nh???ng hy sinh gian kh??? trong kh??ng chi???n, gi??? ????y nh???ng ???ng?????i l??m v??n h??a??? trong qu??n ?????i c??ng nh?? trong kh???i d??n s??? mong ?????ng n???i l???ng ch??nh s??ch, c??ng nh?? h??? mong ???????c c??ng ?????ng th???c hi???n s??? m??? r???ng n??y. ?????i s??? Pf??tzner c??ng gi???i th??ch ti???p r???ng, ch??? sau khi b??? c??c c?? quan h???u tr??ch v?? gi???i l??nh ?????o t??? th??i ????? t??? ch???i m???t c??ch ti??u c???c, phong tr??o m???i tr??? n??n c???c ??oan v?? gi???i v??n ngh??? s?? ng??y c??ng tr??? n??n b???t m??n.

  1. Nh???ng m??u thu???n c?? b???n c???a n??m 1956

C??ng ng??y c??ng r?? r???ng, nh???ng c???i c??ch m?? ng?????i ta ch??? ?????i s??? kh??ng ???????c th??ng qua, b???i v??, nh?? Nguy???n ????nh Thi ???? gi???i th??ch trong B??o c??o ?????c t???i H???i ngh??? V??n ngh??? to??n qu???c l???n th??? 2, n??m 1957: ???N???n v??n ngh??? d??n t???c v?? nh??n d??n c???a ch??ng ta ???????c s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng ti???n phong c???a giai c???p c??ng nh??n??? ?????ng l??nh ?????o ???? ??em t???i cho v??n ngh??? Vi???t Nam ??nh s??ng t?? t?????ng M??c-L??nin, soi r?? con ???????ng ph???n ?????u ????? ?????i m???i x?? h???i, x??y d???ng con ng?????i m???i Vi???t Nam. ?????ng ???? ??o??n k???t t???p h???p m???i l???c l?????ng v??n ngh??? Vi???t Nam th??nh m???t m???t tr???n ng??y c??ng l???n m???nh. ?????ng ???? gi???i thi???u cho c??c nh?? v??n ngh??? ph????ng ph??p hi???n th???c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a, l?? ph????ng ph??p s??ng t??c t???t nh???t.???[22] Nh?? v???y, nh???ng ????? xu???t c???a Tr???n D???n ???? ??i ng?????c l???i v???i ???????ng l???i c???a ?????ng v?? th??ch th???c t??nh ?????c quy???n c???a n??.

M???c ti??u cao nh???t c???a ?????ng v?? ch??nh ph??? v???n l?? s??? th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c d?????i s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng (cu???c c??ch m???ng n??y c??n k??o d??i t???i n??m 1975), v?? v??n h??a c??ng ph???i ho??n to??n ph???c v??? m???c ti??u n??y. S??? l???ch l???c v??? ch??nh tr??? v?? l?? t?????ng s??? t???o c?? h???i cho k??? th?? l???i d???ng. H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng 8 c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam n??m 1955 ???? th???o lu???n v??? ???c??ng t??c ch???ng gi??n ??i???p, ch???ng ph???n b???i; t??ng c?????ng c??ng t??c ph??ng gian, b???o m???t. V?? ????? ph??t tri???n cu???c ?????u tranh n??y t???i c??c ???? th???, m???i ng?????i d??n ?????u ph???i ????ng k?? h??? t???ch. C??c kh??a h???c ch???nh ?????n v??? ch??? ????? b???o m???t li??n t???c ???????c t??? ch???c t???i c??c x?? nghi???p v?? c??c c?? quan ?????ng, ch??nh quy???n, qu??n ?????i v?? d??n s???.???[23] S??? t??? do ??i l???i c???a d??n ch??ng b??? ki???m so??t b???i ch??nh s??ch h??? kh???u, v?? m???i ng?????i ?????u b??? qu???n l?? b???i m???t quy???n s??? l?? l???ch trong ???? ghi r?? chi ti???t ti???u s??? b???n th??n v?? giai c???p c???a ng?????i ????.[24]

Tuy nhi??n c??c v??n ngh??? s?? v?? tr?? th???c qu??n ?????i ???? kh??ng ch???u nh??n, m??, c??ng v???i c??c ?????ng nghi???p trong kh???i d??n s???, h??? ???? cho xu???t b???n t???p ch?? Giai ph???m m??a Xu??n th??ng 3.1956. Gi??? ????y, nh???ng ch??? tr??ch nh???m v??o h??? kh??ng ch??? d???ng trong ph???m vi t????ng ?????i an to??n c???a qu??n ?????i n???a, m?? lan sang kh???i ?????ng v?? kh???i d??n s???, ?????a h???t qu???n l?? c???a T??? H???u (1920-2003), ng?????i ???????c ???th???a nh???n l?? nh?? th?? Vi???t Nam l???n nh???t c???a th???i ?????i???[25]. T??? H???u l?? ???y vi??n B??? Ch??nh tr???, n???m m???ng tuy??n gi??o (tuy??n truy???n v?? gi??o d???c), m???t nh?? th?? ti??u bi???u cho th?? ch??nh th???ng, m???t gi??o ho??ng v??n ngh???, ng?????i ?????t ra c??c ch??nh s??ch, ng?????i canh g??c vi???c th???c hi???n c??c ch??? tr????ng (th?????ng do ??ng t??? ?????t ra), v?? nh?? v???y, ??ng l?? m???t trong nh???ng ng?????i c?? quy???n l???c l???n nh???t ?????t n?????c ??? m???t nh?? t?? t?????ng s???t ????. T??? H???u ???????c xem l?? ng?????i th?? b???o v?? kh??ng khoan nh?????ng v??? t?? t?????ng. ??? H?? N???i loan truy???n c??u chuy???n, ??ng ???? g???i c??c ?????ng nghi???p t???ng s??t c??nh b??n ??ng trong kh??ng chi???n l??n v?? qu???t: ???C??c anh vi???t cho ai? Vi???t cho t????ng lai hay vi???t cho c??ng n??ng c??ch m???ng? Sao c??c anh kh??ng ??n cho t????ng lai lu??n ??i!??? C?? th??? th???y r???ng, T??? H???u, trong t?? c??ch nh?? th??, ???? c???m th???y b??? x??c ph???m gh?? g???m nh?? th??? n??o khi Tr???n D???n v?? L?? ?????t ?????u n??m 1955 ???? ph?? ph??n gay g???t t???p th?? Vi???t B???c c???a ??ng, t???p th?? ???????c trao gi???i Nh???t c???a H???i V??n h???c v?? Ngh??? thu???t Vi???t Nam n??m 1954-55.[26]

Sau n??m 1954, ?????ng  ???? ??i m???t b?????c quy???t ?????nh trong vi???c ki???m so??t l??nh v???c t?? t?????ng v?? qua ???? kh???ng ?????nh quy???n l???c ?????c t??n c???a m??nh. Trong khi 10 n??m tr?????c, Vi???t Minh ???? n??? l???c ki???m so??t l??nh v???c ch??? vi???t v?? tri th???c b???ng chi???n d???ch x??a n???n m?? ch???, th?? nay ?????ng ???? d???n th??m b?????c n???a b???ng c??ch ki???m so??t tr???n v???n t???t c??c c??c kh??u trong ho???t ?????ng ch??? vi???t v?? h??nh ???nh.[27]

Tuy nhi??n, Ban l??nh ?????o ?????ng v?? Nh?? n?????c ???? ph???i ????n nh???n nh???ng b???t ???n do c??c v???n ????? t??? b??n trong c??ng nh?? b??n ngo??i. ??? n??ng th??n, c??c v??? ?????u t??? trong c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t, v?? k??o theo l?? c??c cu???c thanh l???c nh???ng ???ph???n t??? ph???n ?????ng??? ra kh???i h??ng ng?? ?????ng v?? c??c t??? ch???c qu???n ch??ng, ???? t???o ra s??? ?????i l???p v?? n???i lo???n. T??nh h??nh ch??nh tr??? kh???p n??i ?????u ???c??ng th???ng???[28], v?? ngay c??? nh???ng gia ????nh ???? tham gia kh??ng chi???n c??ng b??? ?????u t??? kh??ng th????ng ti???c. N???n ????i n??m ???y l???i khi???n cho t??nh h??nh x?? h???i c??ng th??m x???u.[29] ???? kh??ng  h??? c?? t??ng tr?????ng kinh t???, c??ng nh?? kh??ng h??? c?? nh???ng ti???n tri???n t??ch c???c v??? ch??nh tr??? v?? ?????o ?????c x?? h???i t??? cu???c c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t, nh?? B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao Ung V??n Khi??m k??? v???i ?????i s??? CHDC ?????c th??ng 10.1956.[30] Nh?? th?? Ph??ng Qu??n mi??u t??? nh???ng g?? ??ng ch???ng ki???n t???i n??ng th??n B???c B??? h???i ????:

T??i ???? ??i qua

Nhi???u x??m l??ng v??ng Ki???n An H???ng Qu???ng

N?????c bi???n d??ng l??n ?????p mu???i c??c c??nh ?????ng

Hai m??a l??a kh??ng c?? m???t b??ng.

Ph??n ng?????i to??n v??? khoai t??m ?????.

T??i ???? g???p

Nh???ng ?????a em c??m c??i

L??n n??m l??n s??u tu???i ?????u.

C??m th??m th??m ?????n c??m v???i rau???[31]

Ng??y 29.10.1956, nh??n danh ?????ng v?? Ch??nh ph???, ?????i t?????ng V?? Nguy??n Gi??p, ng?????i h??ng c???a ??i???n Bi??n Ph???, ???? t??? ph?? b??nh c??ng khai. Th??ng 11 b???t ?????u chi???n d???ch s???a sai. Ch??? t???ch H??? Ch?? Minh th???a nh???n nh???ng sai l???m trong c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t, m???c d?? v??? t???ng th??? ??ng v???n ????nh gi?? c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t l?? t??ch c???c[32]. ??ng ???? kh??c tr?????c m???t m???i ng?????i, v?? ??i???u ???? ?????n nay v???n mang l???i c???m gi??c v??? s??? ch??n th??nh v?? ch??m lo cho d??n ch??ng c???a v??? cha gi??.[33] Nh??ng m???c d?? ???? c?? nh???ng c??? ch??? h??a gi???i nh?? v???y, t??nh h??nh v???n ti???p t???c c??ng, ?????n n???i th??ng 11.1956 ??? c??ng th???i ??i???m v???i ???nh???ng s??? ki???n Hungary??? ??? ng?????i ta ???? ph???i huy ?????ng qu??n ?????i ????? ????n ??p ?????m m??u nh???ng cu???c n???i lo???n c???a n??ng d??n ??? m???t lo???t c??c l??ng t???i Ngh??? An, qu?? h????ng H??? Ch?? Minh. T??nh th??? nguy ng???p ???????c ????nh d???u b???ng cu???c vi???ng th??m c???a Th??? t?????ng Trung Qu???c Chu ??n Lai t???i H?? N???i ng??y 18.11.1956.[34] Tr?????c ???? c??c v??n ngh??? s?? v?? nh???ng th??nh vi??n kh??c c???a H???i Tr?? th???c ???? ???????c ph??n c??ng t???i n??ng th??n ????? n???m t??nh h??nh c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t. Tuy nhi??n nh???ng kinh nghi???m ??? n??ng th??n ch??? khi???n h??? th??m nghi ng??? v??o h??? th???ng ch??nh tr??? v?? h??m n??ng kh??ng kh?? ph???n kh??ng ??? ???? th???.[35] ???????ng l???i kh??ng t?????ng c???a Mao Tr???ch ????ng[36] th???ng tr??? mi???n B???c, nh?? Georges Baudarel ch??? r??, ???? d???n t???i c??c cu???c ?????u t??? trong c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t v?? g??y c??m ph???n trong d??n ch??ng, th??ch th???c s??? s???ng c??n c???a ch??? ?????. ??i???u n??y d???n t???i s??? ph??n h??a trong h??ng ng?? l??nh ?????o th??nh hai phe: phe ??a s??? theo ???????ng l???i gi??o ??i???u c???a Mao v?? phe thi???u s??? nghi??ng v??? ???????ng l???i d??n t???c th???c d???ng th??n Moskva ??? phe c???a nh???ng ng?????i b??? g???i l?? x??t l???i.

N??m 1956 l?? m???t n??m nguy kh???n c???a th??? gi???i c???ng s???n. Ngay sau c??i ch???t c???a Stalin n??m 1953 ???? b???t ?????u h??nh th??nh m???t qu?? tr??nh n???i l???ng v?? ?????t l???i c??u h???i v??? ch??? ????? to??n tr???. Nh??n ?????i h???i ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? l???n th??? 20 t???i Moskva, ng??y 24.2.1956, trong m???t b??o c??o m???t, T???ng B?? th?? Khrushchev ???? c??ng b??? nh???ng t???i ??c c???a Stalin, v?? qua ???? ????nh ????? th???n t?????ng ???????c coi l?? b???t kh??? x??m ph???m cho t???i khi ????. Cu???i n??m 1956, sau b??i ph??t bi???u c???a Mao v??? c??c m??u thu???n, B???c Kinh k??u g???i c??c tr?? th???c c???a ?????t n?????c ??? nh???ng ng?????i c?? v??? th???c s??? tin r???ng nh???ng m??u thu???n c?? b???n ???? ???????c gi???i quy???t, c??n nh???ng m??u thu???n kh??c, kh??ng c?? b???n, th?? c?? th??? b??n lu???n c??ng khai ??? ph?? ph??n th??i quan li??u v?? nh???ng ??i???m y???u kh??c c???a ch??? ?????. ??i???u n??y d???n t???i phong tr??o tr??m hoa ??ua n??? ng???n ng???i ki???u Trung Qu???c d?????i kh???u hi???u ???B??ch hoa t??? ph??ng, b??ch gia tranh minh???[37] (Tr??m hoa ??ua n???, tr??m nh?? ??ua ti???ng). Cu???i th??ng 6 x???y ra cu???c n???i d???y ??? Poznan (Ba Lan) v?? ?????n th??ng 10 th?? x???y ra cu???c ph???n kh??ng ??? Hungary, cu???c ph???n kh??ng sau ???? ???? b??? d???p t???t b???i qu??n ?????i c???a Kh???i Hi???p ?????c Warszawa.

T???t c??? nh???ng s??? ki???n k??? tr??n ???? kh??ng ph???i kh??ng g??y ra ti???ng ?????ng n??o ??? H?? N???i. ?????ng v?? Ch??nh ph??? ???? t??? ra r???t lo l???ng. Th??ng 9.1956, trong ???Ngh??? quy???t H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng l???n th??? 10 (m??? r???ng) v??? vi???c s???a sai trong c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t v?? ch???nh ?????n t??? ch???c ?????ng, qu???n ch??ng???, ?????ng ????a ra nh???n ?????nh: ??????nh h?????ng b???t l???i t??? n??ng th??n ??ang lan ra th??nh th??? v?? t???n c??ng v??o t???t c??? c??c giai c???p v?? t???ng l???p nh??n d??n, mi???n B???c c??ng nh?? mi???n Nam. T??nh h??nh ????i h???i ch??ng ta ph???i s???a ch???a sai l???m d???t kho??t, kh???n tr????ng v?? kh??o l??o???[38]. Trong m???t cu???c g???p tr???c ti???p v???i ?????i s??? CHDC ?????c ng??y 7.1.1957, Th??? t?????ng Ph???m V??n ?????ng gi???i th??ch: ???C??ch ????y kho???ng 3-4 th??ng, ??? t??nh h??nh ??? n??ng th??n r???t nguy ng???p, nguy h??n m???c ng?????i ta d??m th???a nh???n???[39]. T??? khi h??a b??nh l???p l???i th??ng 7.1954, ?????i s???ng v???t ch???t c???a d??n ch??ng ???? kh??ng h??? ???????c c???i thi???n. Theo b??o c??o c???a ?????i s??? CHDC ?????c, Th??? t?????ng Ph???m V??n ?????ng ???? n??i ti???p: ???S??? b???t m??n n??y ???????c bi???u hi???n trong c??c cu???c t???n c??ng v??? t?? t?????ng nh???m v??o Ch??nh quy???n Nh??n d??n. ??? ????y Ch??nh quy???n ph??n bi???t r?? hai lo???i b???t m??n: lo???i k??? th?? ch???ng ch??? ????? v?? lo???i l???m ???????ng l???c l???i. ?????i v???i lo???i k??? th??, Ch??nh quy???n lu??n s???n s??ng d??ng m???i ph????ng ti???n ????? ti??u di???t.???[40]

Nh??ng ph???i l??m g?? v???i nh???ng tr?? th???c b???t m??n, ?????c bi???t l?? nh???ng tr?? th???c v??n ngh??? s?? trong nh??m Nh??n v??n-Giai ph???m? Nguy???n ????nh Thi ???? gi???i th??ch v???i ??ng ?????i s??? CHDC ?????c t???i H?? N???i ng??y 20.10.1956: ???Ch??nh n???i b??? B??? Ch??nh tr??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng v???n c??n ch??a c?? quan ??i???m th???ng nh???t v??? vi???c n??y, m???c d?? ?????i di???n B??? Ch??nh tr??? ???? c?? v??i cu???c trao ?????i v???i nh??m Nh??n v??n r???i.???[41] S??? ng???p ng???ng n??y ???? cho ph??p nh???ng ng?????i n???i lo???n m???t kho???ng th???i gian ????m ph??n nh???t ?????nh, tuy nhi??n ??i???u ???? ???? nhanh ch??ng ch???m d???t v???i cu???c ????n ??p ??? Hungary. Th??ng 11.1957, trong m???t cu???c h???p c???a c??c ?????ng c???ng s???n c???m quy???n t???i Moskva, ng?????i ta ???? ????a ra quy???t ?????nh s??? d???p t???t t???t c??? c??c ph???n t??? dao ?????ng. M???t th???i k??? ????ng b??ng m???i l???i h??nh th??nh[42]; ?????i h???i 20 ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? v?? cu???c c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t ???? gieo s??? ho??i nghi v??o c??c tr?? th???c mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam.

Quy???n l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng ch??? c??n c?? th??? duy tr?? b???ng tr???n ??p. Nh??ng gi??? ????y ch??nh ?????i h???i 20 ???? t??? x??c nh???n nh???ng m???m m???ng ho??i nghi v??o ch??? ?????. ???nh h?????ng c???a n?? v???i Vi???t Nam, nh???t l?? v???i gi???i tr?? th???c, ho??n to??n kh??ng th??? coi nh???. Th???c ra, tho???t ti??n ???? kh??ng c?? ai ?????c ???????c b???n b??o c??o c???a Khrushchev, song nh???ng tin ?????n ??? r?? r??? ????y ???? t??? c??c ngu???n s??ch b??o ti???ng Ph??p hi???m hoi ??? khi???n ng?????i ta nh???n th???c r???ng ??i???u m?? h??? h???ng tin t?????ng b???y nay ???? kh??ng th??? c??n ????ng n???a.[43] V?? khi s??? nghi ng??? ???? ???????c ph??p hi???n di???n ??? Moskva th?? h???n n?? c??ng ph???i ???????c ph??p ??? Vi???t Nam. B???i v???y ta c?? th??? hi???u r???ng, ch??? ngh??a y??u n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a d?????i ???nh h?????ng c???a Mao ??? m???t s??? nh?? c??c m???ng tr??? tu???i, v???n ???? b??? nh???t ??i ph???n n??o do vi???c ?????c c??c ti???u thuy???t X??-vi???t ?????u nh???ng n??m 50[44], qua ?????i h???i 20 ??? Moskva, ???? r??? sang m???t nh??nh kh??c, v???i nh???ng gi???i ph??p kh??c v??? m???t x?? h???i x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a-c???ng s???n ch??? ngh??a.

Nh???ng qu?? tr??nh c???i b??? ???o t?????ng n??y c??ng t???o ra s??? kh??ch l??? m???i. B???i l??? ?????i v???i nhi???u ng?????i Vi???t Nam th?? nh???ng s??? th???t ???????c ph??i b??y v??? Stalin v?? h??? th???ng X??-vi???t t??? trong ch??nh n???i b??? c???a h??? th???ng l?? b???ng ch???ng v??? kh??? n??ng ?????i m???i c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n, v???i Li??n X?? c??ng nh?? v???i Vi???t Nam. ???Kinh nghi???m Li??n X?? lu??n l?? ??nh s??ng t??? do ?????i v???i ch??ng t??i???, nh?? s??? h???c ????o H??ng ???? n??i nh?? v???y[45]. V?? ????o H??ng so s??nh kinh nghi???m Li??n X?? v???i kinh nghi???m Trung Qu???c: Ng?????i ta kh??ng bao gi??? ch??? ?????i s??? gi???i ph??ng t??? Trung Qu???c, m?? lu??n lu??n l?? s??? ????n ??p v?? ngu d??n ???  d?? nhi??n ????y c??ng l?? m???t c??ch n??i c??ch n??i c?? ph???n bi???n h??? khi nh??n l???i. Tri???t gia Tr???n ?????c Th???o c??ng ???? vi???n d???n t???i phong tr??o t??? do d??n ch??? do ?????i h???i 20 c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? ph??t ?????ng, v?? ??ng cho r???ng nh???ng th???ng l???i c???a phong tr??o n??y ????i h???i ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam c??ng ph???i m??? r???ng t??? do d??n ch???. Tr???n ?????c Th???o gi???i th??ch, t??? sau h??a b??nh l???p l???i, nh???ng ph?? ph??n l??nh ?????o c???a c??ng nh??n v?? tr?? th???c l?? ho??n to??n ????ng: ng?????i ta kh??ng ph??t huy ???????c kh??? n??ng c???a m??nh do t??? quan li??u, b?? ph??i v?? s??ng b??i c?? nh??n. Ch???ng h???n trong l??nh v???c v??n h??a, ng?????i tr?? th???c c???n t??? do nh?? kh?? tr???i ????? th???, v?? ?????i h???i 20 ???? b??c tr???n nh???ng k???t qu??? tai h???i c???a t??c phong l??nh ?????o vi ph???m h??nh th???c t??? do.[46] ?????i h???i 20 r??t cu???c ???? c???ng c??? ni???m tin cho c??c nh?? ly khai, khi???n h??? kh??ng nh?????ng b??? trong nh???ng ????i h???i c???a m??nh. V??i n??m sau, ng??y 23.8.1963, Tham t??n ?????i s??? CHDC ?????c Klaus Matzke ???? c?? bu???i trao ?????i v???i ng?????i ?????ng ch?? V?? Kung Ky, C???c tr?????ng C???c H???p t??c Qu???c t???, B??? V??n h??a, v?? (Xu??n?) Th???y. Ng??i tham t??n ???????c th??ng b??o r???ng: ???V??n ngh??? Vi???t Nam v???n c??n m???t s??? ???nh h?????ng ti???u t?? s???n???. Matzke h???i, ph???i ch??ng ???nh???ng quan ??i???m ?????c h???i ???? c?? ngu???n g???c t??? Th??i Lan hay mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam???? V?? ??ng ???????c tr??? l???i: ???Ngu???n g???c nh???ng quan ??i???m ?????c h???i n??y kh??ng ph???i l?? Th??i Lan hay mi???n Nam, m?? ch??nh l?? Li??n X?????[47]. ????y qu??? l?? nh???ng m??u thu???n c?? b???n.

(C??n ti???p)

??????????????????

Ch?? th??ch

[1] Boudarel 1991b, tr. 97

[2] Ninh2002, tr. 126 tt.

[3] Boudarel 1991b, tr. 49

[4] Theo c??c ngu???n tin truy???n mi???ng ??? H?? N???i v?? Paris th?? v??? ch??nh ???y n??y l?? Ho??ng Xu??n T??y, ng?????i sau n??y s??? gi??? ch???c hi???u tr?????ng tr?????ng ?????i h???c B??ch khoa H?? N???i v?? Th??? tr?????ng B??? ?????i h???c.

[5] Boudarel 1991b, tr. 52 tt., 87, 156 tt. ?????u th??ng 3.2001, t??i c?? h???i Georges Boudarel, r???ng h???i 1955 ??ng v?? Tr???n D???n c?? bi???t g?? v??? H??? Phong kh??ng? ??ng tr??? l???i: ???Rien???, kh??ng bi???t g?? h???t, v?? n??i th??m: ???Je me suis tromp?????, ngh??a l??: ???T??i ???? nh???m???. Tham kh???o th??m Ninh 2002, tr.128-129; Duiker 2000, tr.489. V??? H??? Phong, xem: Goldman 1967, c??ng nh?? Goldman 1960; MacFarquhar 1960.

[6] S??? r???t th?? v??? n???u ???????c bi???t th??m v??? vai tr?? c???a t?????ng Tr???n ????? trong nh???ng s??? ki???n n??y.

[7] PolA, AA, MfAA/A 8494, th??? 1, tr. 050-079. Kh??i ni???m ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? n??m 1954/55 c??n ch??a xu???t hi???n ??? Vi???t Nam, v?? ch??? t??? 1957 sau ph???n ???ng v???i ?????i h???i 20 ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? n??m 1956, kh??i ni???m n??y m???i ???????c s??? d???ng ch??? c??c tr?? th???c ly khai H?? N???i.

[8] Nt, tr. 051

[9] G???m nh?? v??n Thanh T???nh, nh?? th?? V?? Cao v?? em trai ??ng, nh?? v??n V?? T?? Nam, nh?? v??n Ph??ng Qu??n, h???a s?? Mai V??n Hi???n, c??c nh???c s?? ????? Nhu???n, L????ng Ng???c Tr??c v?? Do??n Nho, c??ng nh?? c??c nh?? v??n, nh?? th??, nh?? b??o Cao Nh???, Ph??c V??n, T??? Ph??c v?? d?? nhi??n l?? Ho??ng C???m. V??? t?????ng Thanh, xem th??m B??i T??n 1999, tr.86-87,c??ng nh?? Boudarel 1991 b, tr. 98-100.

[10] Tr?? chuy???n v???i Ho??ng C???m ??? H?? N???i 2.12.1998

[11] Tr?? chuy???n v???i Ho??ng C???m ??? H?? N???i 24.6.1999

[12] Tr?? chuy???n v???i Ho??ng C???m ??? H?? N???i 19.10.2000

[13] Tr?? chuy???n v???i Ho??ng C???m ??? H?? N???i 6.11.1998

[14] N??m 1999 ??? tu???i 86, Tr???n ????? b??? khai tr??? kh???i ?????ng sau nhi???u n??m ????i m??? c???a v?? c??ch t??n b???ng c??c b??i vi???t ph??? bi???n tr??n internet. ??ng ???? l??n ti???ng sau nhi???u n??m gi??? k??n c??c quan ??i???m c???a m??nh, v?? ??i???u ???? ???? v?????t qu?? s???c ch???u ?????ng c???a ?????ng. ??ng m???t th??ng 8.2002.

[15] Trong v??ng 20 n??m ti???p theo, s??? chia r??? gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? Li??n X?? c?? ???nh h?????ng quy???t ?????nh t???i ch??nh s??ch ?????i n???i v?? ?????i ngo???i c???a Vi???t Nam trong vi???c ph???i duy tr?? m???i quan h??? t???t v???i c??? hai c?????ng qu???c n??y. D?? l??c n??y l??c kh??c, t?? t?????ng c??ng c?? vai tr?? quy???t ?????nh, song nh??n chung ch??nh tr??? Vi???t Nam ???? ??i m???t con ???????ng th???c d???ng r???t ?????c tr??ng. Xem th??m Grossheim 2005.

[16] Nh?? Phong 1962, tr. 57

[17] Boudarel 1991b, tr. 92

[18] Boudarel 1991b, tr. 90-92; Boudarel v?? Nguyen Van Ky 1997, tr.132-136

[19] Nh?? Phong 1962, tr. 57

[20] Boudarel 1991b, tr. 93

[21] ?????i s??? Pf??zner, S??? n???i lo???n c???a v??n ngh??? s?? ch???ng l???i ch??nh s??ch c???a Trung ????ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam trong c??c v???n ????? v??n ngh??? (Oppositionelle Bewegungen der Schriftsteller und K??nstler gegen die Politik des ZK der Lao-Dong-Partei in den Fragen der Literatur und Kunst), th??ng 11.1956, t???i: MfAA/A 8420, tr. 031

[22] ???Nh???ng n??t ch??nh v??? t??nh h??nh v?? c??ng t??c ph??t tri???n v??n ngh??????. B??i ph??t bi???u t???i H???i ngh??? V??n ngh??? l???n th??? 2 n??m 1957. Die Entwicklung der Kunst und Literatur in ihren gro??en Z??gen. PolA, AA, MfAA/A 8582, tr.079-080.

[23] ?????i s??? qu??n CHDC ?????c, H?? N???i, 20.9.1955, ph??? ch?? ghi ch??p cu???c h???p gi???a c??c ?????i s??? c??c n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a anh em v???i T???ng B?? th?? ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam, ?????ng ch?? Tr?????ng Chinh, ng??y 17.9.1955 ??? t??? 15:00 t???i 18:00, t???i: PolA, AA, MfAA/A 8679, th??? 3, tr.0229a.

[24] Baudarel/ Nguyen Van Ky 1997, tr.134.

[25] Anon 1978, tr.9. C??ng c?? th??? tham kh???o th??m Th??rk 1970, tr.188.

[26] Xem Boudarel 1991b, tr.119 ff; Ninh 2002, tr.133-135; Tongas 1960, tr. 337, c??ng nh??: Nguyen Tran Huan 1981, tr. 322-323 v?? tr.330-331. V??? m???t ti???u s??? (ch??nh th???c) c???a T??? H???u (kho???ng 1959) xem PolA, AA, MfAA/A 8494, tr.0137. Tr?? chuy???n v???i L?? ?????t ??? H?? N???i 4.10.2000. Ngo??i ra th??n ph??? c???a h???a s?? Tr???n Duy.

[27] Trong m???t b???n th???o kh??ng ???????c c??ng b??? vi???t ?????u nh???ng n??m 1970, Rudy Schr??der (t??n Vi???t Nam l?? Nguy???n ?????c Nh??n) vi???t: ???Kh??? n??ng ?????c v?? vi???t ???????c d??ng qu?? t???t cho vi???c s???n sinh, gi??? g??n v?? truy???n b?? ch??? ngh??a n?? b???c. T??i c?? l?? do ????? lo s??? r???ng Vi???t Nam ng??y nay ???? l?? m???t trong nh???ng n?????c m?? quy???n l???c ho??n to??n ch??? ng??? tri th???c.??? FMS, b???n th???o Schr??der, tr. 56.

[28] ?????i s??? qu??n CHDC ?????c g???i B??? Ngo???i giao, H?? N???i, 8.4.1957, t???i: PolA, AA, MfAA/A 8383, tr.009.

[29] Th??ng 9.1955, T???ng B?? th?? Tr?????ng Chinh th??ng b??o v???i c??c ?????i s??? ???c??c n?????c anh em??? nh?? sau: ???c??n 91.000 ng?????i th???t nghi???p, trong ???? m???t s??? l??m nh???ng vi???c th???i v??? (h???a xa, l??m ???????ng v.v.). S??? ng?????i b??? ????i n???ng gi???m t??? 1 tri???u (th??ng 3.1955) xu???ng c??n 180.000 (th??ng 7.1955). S???n l?????ng l????ng th???c th??ng 5 v?????t m???c ????? ra (kh??ng c?? s??? li???u c??? th???). Tuy nhi??n s???n xu???t c??ng nghi???p v?? th????ng m???i kh??ng ?????t k??? ho???ch.??? ??i???u kh??c th?????ng trong th??ng b??o n??y c???a Tr?????ng Chinh kh??ng ph???i l?? c??c con s??? (v?? th???c ra n?? c?? ????ng hay sai c??ng kh??ng quan tr???ng), m?? l?? s??? th???a nh???n c?? n???n ????i l???n v?? nh???ng kh?? kh??n l???n v??? kinh t???. ?????i s??? qu??n CHDC ?????c, H?? N???i, 20.9.1955, ph??? ch?? ghi ch??p cu???c h???p gi???a c??c ?????i s??? c??c n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a anh em v???i T???ng b?? th?? ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam, ?????ng ch?? Tr?????ng Chinh, ng??y 17.9.1955 ??? t??? 15:00 t???i 18:00, t???i: PolA, AA, MfAA/A 8679, th??? 3, tr.0229a.

[30] ?????i s??? qu??n CHDC ?????c g???i Trung ????ng ?????ng X?? h???i Th???ng nh???t ?????c (SED), Berlin. H?? N???i, 17.10.1956, t???i: L??u tr??? Li??n bang, Berlin (BArch), ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng SED, Ban ?????i ngo???i Trung ????ng, DY30/IV2/20/217.

[31] Giai ph???m m??a Thu, 10.1956, tr??ch theo Ho??ng V??n Ch?? 1962, tr. 96.

[32] Fall 1967, tr. 304-306

[33] V??? nh???ng gi???t n?????c m???t chi???n l?????c c???a H??? Ch?? Minh, tham kh???o Maneli 1971, tr. 154.

[34] Honey 1957, tr. 251. T??i kh??ng t??m th???y trong c??c kho l???u tr??? c???a CHDC ?????c th??ng tin n??o v??? chuy???n th??m n??y.

[35] V?? d??? c?? th??? xem Moise 1983, tr. 215 tt.

[36] Boudarel / Nguyen Van Ky 1997.

[37] Goldman 1967, tr. 160; tham kh???o th??m MacFarquhar 1960.

[38] PolA, AA, MfAA/A 8380, tr. 056.

[39] ?????i s??? Pf??tzner g???i B??? Ngo???i giao, 27.11.1956 v?? 8.1.1957, t???i: PolA, AA, MfAA/A 8699, th??? 3, tr.0233-0237, c??ng nh?? c??c b???n tin t??? b??o Nh??n D??n; Nt, tr. 0238-0244. V??? con s??? nh???ng ng?????i b??? gi???t, b??? k???t ??n t?? ho???c b??? giam c???m, xin xem: b??o c??o c???a ?????i s??? qu??n CHDC ?????c g???i ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng X?? h???i th???ng nh???t (SED), H?? N???i 17.10.1956, t???i Barch ??? ???y ban Trung ????ng SED, DY 30/IV2/20/217.

[40] ?????i s??? Pf??tzer g???i B??? Ngo???i giao CHDC ?????c, H?? N???i 8.1.1957, t???i: PolA, AA, MfAA/A 8699, th??? 3, tr. 0234.

[41] ?????i s??? Pf??tzner g???i B??? Ngo???i giao CHDC ?????c, H?? N???i 5.11.1956, t???i: PolA, AA, MfAA/A 842O, tr. 0028.

[42] Xem MacFarquhar 1960, tr. 303/304.

[43] Theo B??i T??n 1999, tr.57, th?? Tr?????ng Chinh, ng?????i tham d??? ?????i h???i 20 ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? ??? Moskva, ???? b??? m???t c?? s???c n???ng (???en ??tat de choc???) khi nghe b???n B??o c??o m???t c???a Khrushchev. Tr?????ng Chinh ???? gi???u k??n b???n b??o c??o m???t n??y trong c???p t??i li???u c???a m??nh; khi tr??? v??? H?? N???i, ??ng kh??ng h??? n??i v???i ai v??? ??i???u ???? x???y ra m?? ch??? b??o c??o ri??ng v???i H??? Ch?? Minh.

[44] Tr?? chuy???n v???i ????o H??ng ??? H?? N???i 10.10.2000.

[45] Nt, v?? ????o H??ng n??i th??m: ???Nh??ng sau ???? m???i s??? t??? t??? thay ?????i, v?? khi Breshnev l??n th?? hi v???ng ch???m d???t. Vi???c qu??n ?????i Li??n X?? tr??n v??o Ti???p Kh???c l?? d???u ch???m h???t v???i ch??ng t??i??????

[46] Tr???n ?????c Th???o, Development of Democratic Freedom (N??? l???c ph??t tri???n t??? do d??n ch???), Nh??n v??n s??? 3, 15.10.1956, t???i: L???u tr??? Qu???c gia ??c (NAA), A463/17, tr.20-21. Nh???ng t??i li???u t??? NAA ???????c Thomas Engelbert vui l??ng cho t??i s??? d???ng.

[47] Barch, ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng X?? h???i Th???ng nh???t ?????c (SED): Ph??? ch?? h??? s?? s??? 117/63, ?????i s??? qu??n CHDC ?????c, H?? N???i, 7.9.1963, DY 30-IV A 2/20/442. S??ch v??? n?????c ngo??i h???u nh?? kh??ng c??n ???????c xu???t b???n th???i gian n??y; thao kh???o: Pommerening (ph??ng vi??n th?????ng tr?? c???a ????i ADN ??? H?? N???i), V??i suy ngh?? v??? ch??nh s??ch hi???n nay c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng (1.1963), t???i: Barch, L??u tr??? ADN, DC 900-54.

Ngu???n: Talawas

 

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