Kinh Th??nh: T??c ph???m v??n h??a v?? gi?? c???a nh??n lo???i

Thứ sáu - 06/09/2019 23:39
Cho t???i nay d?????ng nh?? v???n c?? nhi???u ng?????i ngh?? r???ng Kinh Th??nh l?? s??ch n??i v??? gi??o l?? c???a ?????o Ki-t??, thu???n tu?? l?? s??ch t??n gi??o, ch??? d??ng cho c??c t??n ????? Ki-t?? gi??o m?? th??i ??? m?? t??n gi??o l???i l?? l??nh v???c nh???y c???m, ??? ta quen g???i l?? ???thu???c phi???n c???a nh??n d??n???, ch??? c?? d???i m?? ?????ng ch???m t???i ??? v?? v???y ai kh??ng theo Ki-t?? gi??o th
Kinh Th??nh: T??c ph???m v??n h??a v?? gi?? c???a nh??n lo???i

Kinh Th??nh: T??c ph???m v??n h??a v?? gi?? c???a nh??n lo???i

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T??c gi???: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

M???t s??? hi???u l???m v??? Kinh Th??nh

Cho t???i nay d?????ng nh?? v???n c?? nhi???u ng?????i ngh?? r???ng Kinh Th??nh l?? s??ch n??i v??? gi??o l?? c???a ?????o Ki-t??, thu???n tu?? l?? s??ch t??n gi??o, ch??? d??ng cho c??c t??n ????? Ki-t?? gi??o m?? th??i ??? m?? t??n gi??o l???i l?? l??nh v???c nh???y c???m, ??? ta quen g???i l?? ???thu???c phi???n c???a nh??n d??n???, ch??? c?? d???i m?? ?????ng ch???m t???i ??? v?? v???y ai kh??ng theo Ki-t?? gi??o th?? ch???ng c???n v?? ch??? n??n ?????c Kinh Th??nh. Cu???n s??ch g???i ?????u gi?????ng c???a h??n m???t t??? t??n ????? v?? ???????c c??? th??? gi???i kh??ng ng???ng xu???t b???n v???i s??? l?????ng nhi???u nh???t n??y ch??a t???ng th???y b??n t???i c??c hi???u s??ch ??? ta. B??o in, b??o ??i???n t??? ng???i ????ng c??c b??i vi???t li??n quan t???i Kinh Th??nh.

Th???c ra c??ch hi???u nh?? v???y l?? l???ch l???c v?? b???t l???i cho m???i ng?????i trong vi???c t??m hi???u v??n h??a nh??n lo???i v?? v??n h??a ph????ng T??y n??i chung c??ng nh?? v??n h??a Ki-t?? gi??o n??i ri??ng.

Hi???u l???m n??i tr??n c?? th??? b???t ngu???n t??? b???n th??n t??n ???Kinh Th??nh??? ??em l???i ???n t?????ng ???th???n th??nh???, th???n b??. ????y l?? c??i t??n kh??ng ch??nh x??c, d??? g??y hi???u nh???m. Th???c ra s??ch n??y v???n d?? c?? hai t??n g???c: 1) T??n ti???ng Hy L???p l?? Biblia, ngh??a l?? ???s??ch???;  2) T??n ti???ng La Tinh l?? Scriptura, ngh??a l?? ???tr?????c t??c??? ???b??i vi???t???, ???b???n th???o??? ??? n??i c??ch kh??c, n?? ho??n to??n kh??ng c?? ch??t n??o ?? ngh??a th???n th??nh. Ti???ng Anh ?????u ti??n g???i l?? Biblelh, v??? sau th???ng nh???t g???i l?? The Bible, ngh??a l?? s??ch kinh ??i???n.

T??n sai l?? do ta d??ng t??? ho??n to??n theo Trung Qu???c. Ng??y x??a, khi d???ch C???u ?????c to??n th?? v?? T??n ?????c to??n th?? ra ch??? H??n, ng?????i Trung Qu???c g??n cho hai cu???n s??ch n??y c??i t??n ???Th???n th??nh ??i???n ph???m??? (M???u m???c thi??ng li??ng) v?? ???Thi??n kinh ?????a ngh??a??? (?????o ngh??a mu??n th???a); v??? sau, khi in g???p C???u ?????c v?? T??n ?????c th??nh m???t b??? s??ch, ng?????i Trung Qu???c gh??p hai ch??? th??? hai l???i th??nh ???Th??nh Kinh???, nghe n???ng t??nh th???n th??nh, khi???n ng?????i ta d??? hi???u l???m s??ch n??y ch??? l?? s??ch kinh ??i???n c???a Ki-t?? gi??o. Qu??? th???t, c??i t??n ???? khi d???ch sang ti???ng Vi???t l?? Kinh Th??nh ???? nhu???m ?????m m??u s???c t??n gi??o, th??nh th???n, tr??? n??n xa l??? v???i c???ng ?????ng ng?????i kh??ng theo t??n gi??o.

????y th???t l?? m???t sai l???m l???ch s??? ????ng ti???c nh??ng kh??ng th??? s???a ???????c v?? ???? quen d??ng v?? c???m th???y thi??ng li??ng. V?? th??? r???t ??t ng?????i Vi???t Nam th???c s??? bi???t Kinh Th??nh l?? g??, n???i dung ra sao, c?? ?? ngh??a th??? n??o ?????i v???i ch??ng ta. ????y l?? m???t thi???t th??i l???n v??? tri th???c cho m???i ng?????i, nh???t l?? thanh thi???u ni??n.

S?? l?????c n???i dung Kinh Th??nh

Kinh Th??nh g???m hai ph???n: C???u ?????c (Old Testament) v?? T??n ?????c (New Testament), do h??n 40 t??c gi??? vi???t trong su???t h??n 1.600 n??m t??? th??? k??? 12 tr?????c CN cho t???i th??? k??? 2 sau CN, l?? m???t t??c ph???m ????? s???, b???n ti???ng Vi???t d??y t???i 1.400 trang ch??? kh??? nh???.

C???u ?????c ??? Giao ?????c c?? c???a ng?????i Hebrew (nay g???i l?? Do Th??i) v???i Th?????ng ?????, l?? Kinh ??i???n c???a ng?????i Hebrew, th???c t??? l?? b??? s??? c???a m???t d??n t???c d???n ?????u n???n v??n ho?? nh??n lo???i. T??? 5.000 n??m tr?????c, ng?????i Hebrew ???? s??ng su???t ch??? tin m???t ?????ng t???i cao duy nh???t h??? g???i l?? Jehovah t???c Th?????ng ????? (God), ???????c hi???u l?? m???t s???c m???nh si??u nhi??n s??ng t???o ra t???t c??? (T???o H??a, the Creator) ??? kh??i ni???m ???y ng??y nay ta ch??a hi???u r?? song l???i ch??a th??? ph??? nh???n ??? ch??? kh??ng th??? m???t th???n th??nh n??o c?? ngu???n g???c t??? ng?????i ho???c v???t.

C???u ?????c g???m 39 cu???n chia 4 ph???n: s??ch Lu???t ph??p (5 cu???n ?????u c???a Moses); s??ch L???ch s??? (12 cu???n); s??ch Ti??n tri (16 cu???n); s??ch V??n th?? (6 cu???n). C???u ?????c r???t ??t m??u s???c t??n gi??o, n?? ch???a ?????ng v?? tr??? quan, nh??n sinh quan c??? x??a nh???t c???a nh??n lo???i, l?? t??i li???u v?? c??ng qu?? gi?? r???t ????ng nghi??n c???u. S??ch C???u ?????c nguy??n v??n vi???t h???u h???t b???ng ti???ng Hebrew v?? m???t ph???n b???ng ti???ng Aramaic (ti???ng c???a ng?????i Aram, t???c Syria c???), do nhi???u ng?????i vi???t su???t t??? n??m 1.200 ?????n n??m 100 tr?????c CN v?? ???????c truy???n mi???ng t??? r???t l??u tr?????c khi vi???t th??nh v??n. Tuy c??? x??a nh?? th??? nh??ng C???u ?????c l?? m???t v??n b???n c?? th???c v?? t???n t???i cho t???i ng??y nay. Ch???ng c??? l?? th???i gian 1947???1956, ng?????i ta ph??t hi???n trong c??c hang ?????ng g???n Bi???n Ch???t (Dead Sea, ??? Israel) ch???a h??n 900 ???s??ch??? c?? vi???t ch??? (ch??? Hebrew, Hy L???p, Aramaic) b???ng d??i nung tr??n da c???u, g???i l?? S??ch Cu???n Bi???n Ch???t (Dead Sea scrolls), ?????ng trong c??c b??nh g???m cao. Gi??m ?????nh cho th???y s??? s??ch n??y ???????c l??m v??o kho???ng t??? n??m 100 tr?????c CN t???i 70 sau CN, l?? nh???ng b???n sao c??? x??a nh???t c??n t???n t???i c???a C???u ?????c (n???i dung ho??n to??n nh?? Kinh C???u ?????c hi???n s??? d???ng) v?? m???t s??? kinh ??i???n kh??c c???a ng?????i Hebrew. Ph??t hi???n S??ch Cu???n Bi???n Ch???t c?? ?? ngh??a c???c k??? quan tr???ng.

T??n ?????c ??? Giao ?????c m???i c???a c??c t??n ????? Ki-t?? gi??o v???i Th?????ng ?????, nguy??n v??n vi???t b???ng ti???ng Hy L???p, ra ?????i m???t th??? k??? sau khi xu???t hi???n ?????o Ki-t??, t???c r???t mu???n so v???i C???u ?????c, v?? n???ng m???u s???c t??n gi??o h??n; n?? tr??nh b??y cu???c ?????i v?? h???c thuy???t c???a Ch??a Jesus. T??n ?????c g???m 27 cu???n, chia 3 ph???n: s??ch Ph??c ??m (5 cu???n); s??ch gi??o l?? (21 cu???n); s??ch Kh???i Huy???n (1 cu???n). S??? trang c???a T??n ?????c ch??? b???ng kho???ng g???n 1/3 C???u ?????c. C??c h???c gi??? cho r???ng T??n ?????c ???????c vi???t xong v??o kho???ng n??m 382 sau CN.

Kinh Th??nh l?? m???t b??? s??ch c?? t??nh t???ng h???p, m???t b??ch khoa to??n th?? r???t h???u ??ch trong vi???c nghi??n c???u nh??n lo???i c??? ?????i v??? c??c m???t l???ch s???, ch??nh tr???, qu??n s???, ph??p lu???t, lu??n l?? ?????o ?????c, kinh t???, khoa h???c k??? thu???t, y h???c, v??n ho?? ??? Ch??a d??n t???c n??o vi???t ???????c b??? s??? c???a m??nh m???t c??ch kh??i qu??t, h???u ??ch nh?? C???u ?????c. B??? s??? n??y kh??ng vi???t nhi???u v??? ?????i s???ng, h??nh vi c???a c??c vua ch??a (nh?? S??? K?? c???a T?? M?? Thi??n), nh??ng vi???t r???t k??? v??? qu?? tr??nh di chuy???n, c??c tai h???a d??n t???c (chi???n tranh, ????i k??m ???), c??c kinh nghi???m v?? ?????i s???ng c???a d??n t???c n??y, qua ???? ?????i sau c?? th??? h???c ???????c nhi???u ??i???u b??? ??ch.

C???u ?????c ghi l???i ?????i s???ng m???i m???t c???a ng?????i Hebrew, t??? vi???c l???n c???a qu???c gia, d??n t???c cho t???i nh???ng chi ti???t r???t nh??? nh???t trong ??n ???, ?????i nh??n x??? th???, th???m ch?? c??? trong sinh ho???t t??nh d???c, nh??? th??? gi??p h???u th??? hi???u ch??nh x??c, chi ti???t v??? ?????i s???ng tinh th???n v???t ch???t c???a h??? c??ch ????y m???y ngh??n n??m. M???t th?? d???: ph????ng ph??p tr??nh thai ph??? bi???n nh???t, c??? nh???t x??a nay l?? xu???t tinh ngo??i ??m ?????o ??? ph????ng T??y g???i l?? Onanism ??? t??? n??y c?? ngu???n g???c trong Kinh Th??nh, ch????ng 38 ???S??ng th??? k?? (Genesis)??? ???Giu??a v?? con d??u l?? Tama???.[1]

Ch??a d??n t???c n??o bi??n so???n v?? c??n l??u gi??? ???????c m???t t??c ph???m kinh ??i???n c?? gi?? tr??? nh?? Kinh Th??nh ph???n C???u ?????c. Th?? d??? ???Kinh th??nh??? c???a v??n minh Trung Hoa l?? s??ch Lu???n Ng??? ho??n to??n kh??ng c?? ???????c t??nh t???ng h???p nh?? v???y, ch??a k??? c??n ra ?????i sau 7 th??? k???.

Kinh Th??nh c??n l?? m???t t??c ph???m v??n h???c ????? s???, di s???n qu?? b??u c???a nh??n lo???i. Trong C???u ?????c c?? c??c t??c ph???m v??n h???c tr?? tu???, v??n h???c ti??n tri v?? v??n h???c kh???i huy???n, l?? nh???ng s??ng t???o c???a ng?????i Hebrew.

T??nh ch???t quan tr???ng c???a Kinh Th??nh

Kinh Th??nh c?? ?? ngh??a quy???t ?????nh ?????i v???i s??? t???n t???i c???a d??n t???c Do Th??i. C???u ?????c l?? kinh ??i???n c???a ?????o Do Th??i, nh??? t??n gi??o n??y m?? ng?????i Do Th??i d?? hai ngh??n n??m m???t t??? qu???c, s???ng l??u vong ph??n t??n ??? kh???p n??i tr??n th??? gi???i, b??? h???t h???i, xua ??u???i, th???m ch?? h??m h???i, t??n s??t nh??ng v???n gi??? nguy??n v???n ???????c n??i gi???ng, ng??n ng???, truy???n th???ng v??n h??a v?? nh???t l?? h??? lu??n d???n ?????u th??? gi???i trong c??c ho???t ?????ng tr?? tu???. Ng??y ng??y c???u kinh, ??n l???i l???ch s??? kh???n kh??? c???a d??n t???c m??nh, l?? c??ch nh???c nh??? ng?????i Do Th??i lu??n nh??? qu?? kh??? gian nan c???a m??nh ????? c??? g???ng v????n l??n tho??t kh???i ngh???ch c???nh. D??n t???c nh??? b?? n??y c?? ????ng g??p cho nh??n lo???i nhi???u h??n m???i d??n t???c kh??c. M???t th?? d???: ng?????i Do Th??i ch??? chi???m 0,25% s??? d??n th??? gi???i nh??ng h??? chi???m 22% t???ng s??? gi???i Nobel c??c lo???i ???? trao trong th???i gian 1901-2007; trong ???? c?? 41% gi???i Kinh t???, 26% gi???i V???t l??, 19% gi???i H??a h???c, 28% gi???i Y h???c, 13% gi???i V??n h???c, 9% gi???i H??a b??nh.

?????i v???i lo??i ng?????i, t??nh ch???t quan tr???ng c???a Kinh Th??nh kh??ng ch??? th??? hi???n ??? ch??? n?? ???????c in ??i in l???i v???i s??? l?????ng nhi???u nh???t th??? gi???i, m?? c??n ??? ch??? ???????c ng?????i ta quan t??m ?????c v?? tr??ch d???n nhi???u nh???t ??? ????y l?? ti??u chu???n ?????nh l?????ng ????nh gi?? m???t t??c ph???m. Cho t???i nay, Kinh Th??nh ???? l??u truy???n m???y ngh??n n??m ch??a bao gi??? ng???ng, ???????c d???ch ra 1.800 ng??n ng??? c???a kh???p th??? gi???i, c?? ???nh h?????ng t???i h??ng t??? ng?????i k??? c??? ng?????i kh??ng theo t??n gi??o n??o. Ri??ng n?????c M??? h??ng n??m in kho???ng 9 tri???u b???n Kinh Th??nh. Trung Qu???c ???? in h??n 40 tri???u b???n.

Kinh Th??nh l?? ngu???n c???m h???ng v?? tr??ch d???n c???a nhi???u t??c ph???m v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t, l???ch s???, tri???t h???c v.v??? tr??n to??n th??? gi???i. T??? b???c tranh B???a ??n t???i cu???i c??ng c???a Leonard de Vinci, t???p th?? Th???n kh??c c???a Dante, c??c v??? k???ch c???a Shakespeare (v??? Hamlet tr??ch d???n Kinh Th??nh nhi???u nh???t), cho t???i ti???u thuy???t S???ng l???i c???a Tolstoy, ???v?? s??? t??c ph???m v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t ?????u l???y ngu???n t??? Kinh Th??nh. C??c tr?????c t??c c???a Karl Marx v?? Engels tr??ch d???n Kinh Th??nh h??n 300 l???n, li??n quan t???i h??n 80 nh??n v???t trong ????. T???i Trung Qu???c, L??? T???n, T??o Ngu, Qu??ch M???t Nh?????c, Mao Thu???n ??? ?????u tr??ch d???n Kinh Th??nh. ??? Vi???t Nam, ch??ng ta th?????ng xuy??n k??? ni???m l??? Ph???c sinh, Gi??ng sinh ???, ti???u thuy???t, s??ch b??o ta th?????ng n??i A-??am, ??-va, Ch??a,??? t???t c??? ?????u c?? ngu???n g???c t??? Kinh Th??nh.

B???i v???y n???u kh??ng hi???u Kinh Th??nh th?? s??? r???t kh?? t??m hi???u v??n minh ph????ng T??y ??? n???n m??ng c???a v??n minh hi???n ?????i, c??ng r???t kh?? hi???u v??? d??n t???c Do Th??i. Kh??ng ?????c Kinh Th??nh th?? t???t nhi??n s??? d??? n??i, vi???t sai v??? c??c ??i???n t??ch ????. R?? r??ng t???t c??? m???i ng?????i, nh???t l?? ng?????i l??m c??ng t??c v??n h??a v??n ngh???, gi??o d???c, x?? h???i ??? ?????u n??n ?????c Kinh Th??nh.

Kinh Th??nh ??? Vi???t Nam

C?? l??? v?? ngh?? r???ng Kinh Th??nh l?? s??ch ri??ng c???a Ki-t?? gi??o, tuy??n truy???n cho t??n gi??o, n??n ??? ta kh??ng th???y hi???u s??ch n??o c?? b??n Kinh Th??nh do nh?? xu???t b???n c???a nh?? n?????c ch??nh th???c ph??t h??nh r???ng r??i nh?? m???t t??c ph???m v??n h??a b??nh th?????ng.

Th???c ra c??c gi??o h???u ??? ta ?????u c?? cu???n Kinh Th??nh do To?? T???ng Gi??m m???c H?? N???i k???t h???p Nh?? Xu???t b???n H?? N???i in v?? xu???t b???n v???i s??? l?????ng l???n nh??ng ch??? ph??t h??nh n???i b??? gi??o h???u. Cu???n Kinh n??y ch??? in T??n ?????c n???ng t??nh t??n gi??o; C???u ?????c quan tr???ng h??n th?? l???i kh??ng ???????c in, th???t ????ng ti???c. S??ch kh??? nh??? c??? b??n tay in tr??n gi???y t???t, b??a ni l??ng. Ngo??i ra c??c gi??o h???u c??n c?? s??ch ???Kinh Th??nh b???ng h??nh??? (ph??? b???n c???a b??o ???C??ng gi??o v?? D??n t???c??? in t???i TP H??? Ch?? Minh n??m 1991, l?????ng in 25.000 cu???n); ????ng ti???c l?? h??? th???ng ph??t h??nh c???a nh?? n?????c c??ng kh??ng ph??t h??nh cu???n n??y.

L??ng c??c hi???u s??ch c??, ng?????i vi???t b??i n??y mua ???????c m???t b???n Kinh Th??nh to??n t???p ti???ng Vi???t, d??y 1.400 trang gi???y m???ng, b??a gi??? da, do United Bible Societies in t???i H??n Qu???c n??m 1995. S??ch d??ng c??ch h??nh v??n v?? t??? ng??? c???, kh?? hi???u; ph???n T??n ?????c d???ch kh??c nhi???u so v???i b???n in c???a T??a T???ng Gi??m M???c H?? N???i.

Thi???t ngh?? h??? th???ng xu???t b???n ph??t h??nh c???a nh?? n?????c n??n xu???t b???n ph??t h??nh Kinh Th??nh nh?? m???t t??c ph???m v??n ho?? ngh??? thu???t nh???m khai th??c kho t??ng v??n h??a v?? gi?? n??y c???a nh??n lo???i. N??n ????a vi???c h???c Kinh Th??nh (nh???t l?? C???u ?????c) v??o ch????ng tr??nh gi???ng d???y ph??? th??ng trung h???c. C??ng n??n bi??n so???n c??c s??ch h?????ng d???n t??m hi???u gi?? tr??? v??n ho?? l???ch s???, kh???o c??? ??? c???a Kinh Th??nh. Vi???c t??m hi???u Kinh Th??nh s??? gi??p ch??ng ta hi???u ????ng ?????n, to??n di???n v??? v??n minh ph????ng T??y n??i ri??ng v?? v??n minh nh??n lo???i n??i chung, gi??p ch??ng ta ho?? v??o d??ng ch???y chung c???a v??n minh to??n c???u, ?????ng th???i th??? hi???n ch??ng ta bi???t t??n tr???ng v??n ho?? t??n gi??o ??? m???t th??nh ph???n r???t quan tr???ng c???a v??n ho?? th??? gi???i.

????y l?? m???t vi???c c???n l??m khi Vi???t Nam ???? gia nh???p WTO, h??a v??o nh???p s???ng chung c???a to??n c???u, trong ???? c?? ?????i s???ng v??n h??a-t??m linh.

Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh l?? d???ch gi??? v?? l?? nh?? nghi??n c???u t??? do hi???n s???ng t???i H?? N???i.

?????????????????????-

[1] D??n Hebrew c?? t???c ch??? d??u g??a ch???ng m?? ch??a c?? con th?? ???????c quy???n l???y m???t trong c??c em trai c???a ch???ng. Giu??a (ch??u n???i t???c tr?????ng Abraham) b???o con trai th??? hai c???a m??nh l?? Onan : Con h??y ng??? v???i ch??? d??u con (l?? Tama) ????? l??m tr??n b???n ph???n em ch???ng ??? sinh ng?????i n???i d??i cho anh con (anh c???a Onan l?? ??r?? do ?????c ??c ???? b??? Th?????ng ????? Jehovah gi???t). Onan bi???t ?????a con n???i d??i ???y s??? kh??ng thu???c v??? m??nh n??n khi ???ng?????? v???i Tama ???? c??? ?? l??m r??i tinh d???ch ra ngo??i. Th?????ng ????? coi vi???c ???? l?? t???i ??c n??n ???? gi???t Onan (trang 45 Kinh Th??nh, United Bible Societies, b???n ti???ng Vi???t 1995, ??? ????y c?? s???a l???i v??n cho d??? hi???u). T??? Onanism b???t ngu???n t??? Onan ??? t??n ng?????i c?? s??ng ki???n d??ng c??ch tr??nh thai ???y.

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