H?? N???i ba m????i s??u ph??? ph????ng

Chủ nhật - 08/12/2019 00:18
Nh?? v??n TTh???ch Lam (1910[1]-1942) l?? m???t nh?? v??n Vi???t Nam n???i ti???ng thu???c nh??m T??? L???c v??n ??o??n. ??ng c??ng l?? em ru???t c???a 2 nh?? v??n kh??c n???i ti???ng trong nh??m T??? L???c v??n ??o??n l?? Nh???t Linh v?? Ho??ng ?????o. Ngo??i b??t danh Th???ch Lam, ??ng c??n c?? c??c b??t danh l?? Vi???t Sinh, Thi???n S???.h???ch Lam sinh ng??y 7-7-1910 t???i Th??nh ph??? Ha?? N????i, n?????c Vi???t Nam.
H?? N???i ba m????i s??u ph??? ph????ng

Th???ch Lam sinh ra t???i H?? N???i trong m???t gia ????nh c??ng ch???c g???c quan l???i, thu??? nh??? ch??? y???u s???ng ??? qu?? ngo???i, ph??? huy???n C???m Gi??ng, t???nh H???i D????ng. Th???ch Lam l?? ng?????i con th??? 6 trong gia ????nh 7 ng?????i con (6 trai, 1 g??i).Nguy??n t??n ban ?????u c???a ??ng do cha m??? ?????t l?? Nguy???n T?????ng Vinh. ?????n n??m Th???ch Lam 15 tu???i, th???y m??nh h???c ch???m, c???n t??ng th??m tu???i ????? h???c "nh???y" 4 n??m, ??ng l??m l???i khai sinh, th??nh Nguy???n T?????ng L??n.

Cha l?? Nguy???n T?????ng Nhu (1881-1918), th??ng th???o ch??? H??n v?? ch??? Ph??p, l??m Th??ng ph??n T??a s???, th?????ng ???????c g???i l?? Th??ng Nhu hay Ph??n Nhu. M??? l?? b?? L?? Th??? S??m[3], l?? con g??i ?????u l??ng c??? L?? Quang Thu???t (t???c g???i Qu???n Thu???t), ng?????i g???c Hu??? ???? ba ?????i ra B???c, l??m quan v?? ??? huy???n C???m Gi??ng. B???y gi??? tri huy???n C???m Gi??ng Nguy???n T?????ng Ti???p (t???c g???i l?? Huy???n Gi??m), qu?? g???c Qu???ng Nam, c?? con trai l?? Nguy???n T?????ng Nhu ?????n tu???i l???y v???, m???i cho ng?????i mai m???i h???i c?? L?? Th??? S??m v??? l??m d??u h??? Nguy???n T?????ng.

??ng b?? Ph??n Nhu l???y nhau h??n ch???c n??m, d???i t??? ???p Th??i H?? v??? s??? 10 H??ng B???cH?? N???i, r???i h???t v??? qu?? C???m Gi??ng l???i theo con c??? Nguy???n T?????ng Th???y ??? T??n ?????, Th??i B??nh. Do bu??n b??n ??? Th??i B??nh ???????c m???t n??m ch???ng thu???n, b?? Nhu l???i ????a c??? gia ????nh v??? H?? N???i. Khi v??? Nguy???n T?????ng Th???y xin ra ??? ri??ng, b?? l???i v??? C???m Gi??ng. Ng?????i b???n c??n g???o ng??y tr?????c l?? b?? c??? H???i n??? b?? Nhu 60 ?????ng ????ng D????ng t??? tr?????c, tr??? ti???n n??? b???ng hai m???u ?????t cho b?? Nhu. Th??? l?? b?? cho ????o ao, ?????p n???n, l??m nh?? g???, l???p r???, c???t vu??ng, b???n chung quanh hi??n r???ng, g???i l?? Nh?? ??nh s??ng.

Ng??y 31 th??ng 8 n??m 1917, cha c???a Th???ch Lam sang S???m N??a, L??o l??m th??ng ph??n T??a s???, ???????c ??em theo v??? ????? bu??n b??n m??u sinh nh??ng ch??? t??m th??ng sau, ??ng b???o b???nh qua ?????i. M???t m??nh n??i xa x???, lo ch??n c???t ch???ng xong, b?? Nhu tr??? v??? Vi???t Nam ??i h???t 12 ng??y ???????ng b??? v?? ???????ng th???y, gian nguy v?? ng???n. M??n tang ch???ng m???t n??m, b?? c??ng b???n ng?????i th??n l???i sang L??o ????? mang h??i c???t ??ng v??? n?????c ?????t m??? b??n b??? ao thu???c l??ng La A, x?? Kim Giang, huy???n C???m Gi??ng.

Sau khi ch???ng m???t, b?? t???o t???n khuya s???m ??i v??? l??ng qu?? c??n g???o nh??ng kh??ng ????? s???ng, ????nh n???u thu???c phi???n, bi???t l?? hi???m nguy c?? th??? b??? ng?????i Ph??p b???t b??? t?? b???t c??? l??c n??o ????? c??c con h???c h??nh th??nh ?????t, t???o t???n lo cho 7 ng?????i con ??n h???c. Sau khi c??c con ?????u ???? c?? gia ????nh, b?? xu???t gia ?????n tu ??? ????o Xuy??n, B???i Kh??, H?? N???i.

Khi bi???t tin Ho??ng ?????o ?????t t??? ??? ga Th???ch Long (Trung Qu???c) n??m 1948, b?? ???? l??m l??? c???u si??u cho con, r???i v??o S??i G??n, tu ??? ch??a X?? L???i cho ?????n n??m 1960. ??t l??u sau b?? vi??n t???ch t???i ????, tr?????c ng??y Nh???t Linh m???t (7 th??ng 7 n??m 1963).

Th???i th?? ???u

Cha ??ng m???t s???m, m??? ??ng ph???i m???t m??nh bu??n b??n nu??i m??? ch???ng v?? b???y ng?????i con...L??c nh???, ??ng ch??? y???u s???ng ??? qu?? ngo???i.

??? C???m Gi??ng, Th???ch Lam h???c t???i tr?????ng Nam (Ti???u h???c H???i D????ng, nay l?? tr?????ng Ti???u h???c T?? Hi???u). ?????n khi ng?????i anh c??? l?? Nguy???n T?????ng Th???y ra tr?????ng d???y h???c ??? T??n ????? (Th??i B??nh), m??? ??ng ???? ????a c??? nh?? ??i theo ng?????i con c???, n??n Th???ch Lam ?????n h???c ??? T??n ?????. Nh??ng ??? ????y ???????c m???t n??m, l??m v???n kh??ng ????? cho c??c mi???ng ??n, m??? ??ng d???n c??c con (tr??? Nguy???n T?????ng Th???y) v??? H?? N???i ??? nh?? thu??, r???i c??? th??? l??c th?? ??? H?? N???i, l??c th?? ??? C???m Gi??ng.

Mu???n s???m ????? ?????n cho m???, Th???ch Lam ???? nh??? m??? n??i kh??o v???i ??ng l?? tr?????ng cho ?????i t??n v?? khai t??ng tu???i ????? h???c ban th??nh chung. Ti???p theo, ??ng thi ????? v??o Cao ?????ng Canh N??ng ??? H?? N???i, nh??ng ch??? h???c m???t th???i gian, r???i v??o tr?????ng Trung h???c Albert Sarraut ????? h???c thi T?? t??i.

B?????c v??o nghi???p v??n

Khi ???? ????? T?? t??i ph???n th??? nh???t, Th???ch Lam th??i h???c ????? l??m b??o v???i hai anh. Bu???i ?????u, ??ng gia nh???p T??? L???c v??n ??o??n do anh l?? Nguy???n T?????ng Tam s??ng l???p, r???i ???????c ph??n c??ng lo vi???c bi??n t???p tu???n b??o Phong h??a v?? t??? Ng??y nay c???a b??t nh??m n??y. ?????n th??ng 2 n??m 1935, th?? ??ng ???????c giao l??m Ch??? b??t t??? Ng??y nay.

Kh??c v???i t???t c??? c??c anh trai ?????u l???y v??? qua mai m???i, ???????c b??? m??? ch???p thu???n m???i coi m???t nhau, r???i c?????i, Th???ch Lam l???y v??? ho??n to??n do s??? l???a ch???n c???a c?? nh??n ??ng. Kho???ng n??m 1935, Th???ch Lam l???y v??? l?? b?? Nguy???n Th??? S??u, ng?????i Ninh B??nh, ???? t???ng c?? m???t ?????i ch???ng. ??ng ???????c ng?????i ch??? (Nguy???n Th??? Th???) nh?????ng l???i c??n nh?? nh??? t???i ?????u l??ng Y??n Ph???, ven H??? T??y (H?? N???i) cho v??? ch???ng ??ng ???.

C??ng theo h???i ???c c???a b?? Nguy???n Th??? Th??? th?? b???n t??nh Th???ch Lam "??a t??nh m???ch n??n khi c?? con, v?? em ???????c l???nh c???m kh??ng ???????c ru v?? c??ng c???m kh??ng ???????c ????? n?? kh??c. Ngo??i c???ng, c?? khi ch?? c??n cho treo m???t c??i bi???n ?????: "Ai h???i g?? xin l??n t??a so???n". V?? b?? Th??? k???t lu???n, nh???ng th??ng ng??y cu???i ?????i, Th???ch Lam "kh?? t??nh ?????n n???i h???u nh?? ch??? c?? th??m l?? chi???u chu???ng ???????c ch??, c??n t??i v?? m??? t??i c??ng ????nh ch???u".[5]

Tuy ch??? l?? m???t m??i tranh v??ch ?????t, th??? nh??ng "nh?? c??y li???u"[6] l?? n??i th?????ng lui t???i c???a c??c v??n ngh??? s??. Ngo??i c??c th??nh vi??n trong T??? L???c v??n ??o??n, c??n c??: Th??? L???V?? Ho??ng Ch????ng??inh H??ngNguy???n Xu??n SanhNguy???n Tu??nHuy???n Ki??uNguy???n Xu??n Kho??t...

Qua ?????i

Theo nh???ng g?? m?? ng?????i th??n c???a Th???ch Lam k??? l???i, m???c d?? cao t???i 1m70, v?????t tr???i h??n kh?? nhi???u chi???u cao trung b??nh c???a ng?????i Vi???t th???i ????, nh??ng s???c kh???e c???a Th???ch Lam l???i r???t kh??ng t????ng x???ng v???i chi???u cao c???a ??ng. C?? th??? n??i, ??ng thu???c d???ng th??? ch???t y???u. V?? th??? m?? ??ng r???t n??ng ch??i th??? thao (??ng ch??i tennis v??o lo???i kh??) v?? c?? th???i k???, ??ng c??ng ng?????i anh r??? t????ng lai t??n g???i Nguy???n Kim Ho??n ??i h???c v?? ngh???.

M???t tu???i th?? nh???c nh???n c???ng v???i cu???c s???ng lao l???c v?? mi???ng c??m manh ??o ???? l??m Th???ch Lam s???m m???c c??n b???nh lao ph???i, m???t c??n b???nh nan y th???i b???y gi???. ??ng m???t t???i "nh?? c??y li???u" v??o ng??y 27 th??ng 6 n??m 1942 l??c m???i 32 tu???i, khi ??ang c??n trong ????? tu???i r???c r??? tr??n v??n ????n.

??ng ra ??i ????? l???i ng?????i v??? tr??? c??ng v???i ba ?????a con th?? trong c???nh ngh??o. Gia ????nh ???? an t??ng ??ng n??i ngh??a trang H???p Thi???n, nay thu???c qu???n Hai B?? Tr??ngTh??nh ph??? H?? N???i.

Th???ch Lam c?? ba ng?????i con, hai trai m???t g??i l?? b?? Nguy???n T?????ng Nhung (sau n??y l?? v??? c???a trung t?????ng Ng?? Quang Tr?????ng trong qu??n ?????i Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a tr?????c ????y), ??ng Nguy???n T?????ng ?????ng, v?? tr?????c v??i ng??y khi Th???ch Lam m???t, v??? ??ng sinh th??m con trai m?? sau n??y l?? nh?? v??n Nguy???n T?????ng Giang. Nguy???n T?????ng Giang t???t nghi???p Tr?????ng ?????i h???c Y khoa S??i G??n n??m 1968. Ra tr?????ng, ??ng l??m vi???c t???i c??c b???nh vi???n T??? D??, H??ng V????ng. Sau bi???n c??? th??ng 4/1975, ??ng qua M??? h??nh ngh??? t??, tham gia gi???ng d???y chuy??n m??n (s???n ph??? khoa) t???i Southside HospitalBay ShoreNew York r???i t???i Virginia Hospital Center, t???i Arlington, Virginia, v?? v??? h??u n??m 2010.

Theo nh?? v??n B??ng S??n th?? sau khi Th???ch Lam m???t, v??? v?? c??c con ??ng c?? v??? s???ng ??? C???m Gi??ng v???i b?? Ph??n Nhu m???t th???i gian r???i di c?? v??o Nam.


H?? N???i b??m s??u ph??? ph?????ng

H?? N???i b??m s??u ph??? ph?????ng l?? t???p s??ch ch??? y???u vi???t v??? nh???ng m??n ??n v?? s??? g???n b?? gi???a ???m th???c v???i ?????i s???ng v??n ho?? x?? h???i c???a ng?????i H?? N???i. ????y c??ng l?? t???p tu??? b??t ?????u ti??n vi???t v??? H?? N???i v???i ch??? ????? ???m th???c. M???c d?? v??? sau c??c t??c ph???m vi???t v??? ????? t??i n??y r???t phong ph?? v?? ?????y ????? h??n nh??ng H?? N???i b??m s??u ph??? ph?????ng v???n c?? ch??? ?????ng ri??ng tr??n v??n ????n v?? trong l??ng nhi???u th??? h??? ?????c gi???.

H?? N???i b??m s??u ph??? ph?????ng, g???m nh???ng b??i v??n ng???n, ph??ng b??t, c?? th??? Th???ch Lam ???? vi???t r???t nhanh ????? in tr??n b??o. Sau khi ??ng m???t, T??? l???c v??n ??o??n ???? thu th???p v?? cho xu???t b???n.

Nh?? v??n Th???ch Lam c?? t???p t??y b??t mang t??n ???H?? N???i b??m s??u ph??? ph?????ng???, do nh?? xu???t b???n ?????i nay ph??t h??nh v??o n??m 1943. ?? ???H?? N???i ba s??u ph??? ph?????ng??? m?? ng??y nay ta v???n d??ng l?? m???t c??ch g???i kh??ng ch??nh x??c c???a khu ph??? c??? H?? N???i (t???c qu???n Ho??n Ki???m, v???i t???ng 76 tuy???n ph??? thu???c 10 ph?????ng), v?? 36 ph??? ph?????ng ch??? l?? c??ch g???i ?????c l??? cho khu v???c ???? th??? c??? x??a, n???m b??n trong v?? c??? b??n ngo??i khu ph??? c???.

????????c tr??ng n???i ti???ng nh???t c???a khu ph??? c??? l?? c??c ph??? ngh???. Th??? th??? c??ng t??? c??c l??ng ngh??? quanh Th??ng Long x??a t??? t???p v??? ????y, t???p trung theo t???ng khu v???c chuy??n l??m ngh??? c???a m??nh. C??c thuy???n bu??n c?? th??? v??o gi???a ph??? ????? bu??n b??n trao ?????i, khi???n c??c ph??? ngh??? c??ng ph??t tri???n. V?? ch??nh s???n ph???m ???????c bu??n b??n tr??? th??nh t??n ph???, v???i ch??? ???H??ng??? ?????ng tr?????c, m???i ph??? chuy??n m??n bu??n b??n m???t lo???i m???t h??ng.

Hi???n nay, m???t s??? ph??? v???n c??n gi??? ???????c s???n ph???m truy???n th???ng nh?? ph??? H??ng M??, H??ng Tre, H??ng Thi???c, Thu???c B???c??? Ngo??i ra m???t s??? ph??? tuy kh??ng gi??? ngh??? truy???n th???ng, nh??ng c??ng t???p trung chuy??n b??n m???t lo???i h??ng h??a nh?? ph??? H??ng Qu???t b??n ????? th???, H??ng Bu???m b??n b??nh k???o, ph??? M?? M??y chuy??n d???ch v??? du l???ch???

  • H??ng B??ng l???y theo t??n ??o???n ph??? ch??nh H??ng B??ng ?????m v???n c?? nhi???u nh?? l??m ngh??? b???t b??ng, b??n m???n b??ng, ch??n ?????m.
  • Ph??? H??ng M?? ng??y x??a chuy??n bu??n b??n ????? v??ng m?? ????? th??? c??ng, bao g???m ti???n gi???y ??m ph???, v??ng gi???y ??m ph???, sau m??? r???ng th??m c??c t?????ng gi???y h??nh c??c quan, h??nh nh?? c???a??? ????? c??ng v?? ?????t cho ng?????i ??m (ng?????i ch???t). Ng??y nay ph??? H??ng M?? t???p trung nh???n nh???p v??o c??c d???p l???, t???t Trung Thu, Nguy??n ????n v???i c??c m???t h??ng phong ph?? v??? ????? ch??i. Ngo??i ra, t???i ????y c??ng l?? n??i b??n ????? trang tr?? ph??ng m??n cho ????m c?????i v???i c??c h??nh c???t l??m t??? nguy??n li???u gi???y m??u hay b???t x???p nhi???u m??u s???c.
  • Ph??? M?? M??y nguy??n bao g???m hai ph??? x??a: ph??? H??ng M?? v?? ph??? H??ng M??y. ??o???n ph??? H??ng M??y n???m gi??p ph??? H??ng Bu???m, tr??n b??? s??ng Nh???, n??i t???p trung thuy???n b?? mi???n ng?????c ch??? c??c m???t h??ng l??m s???n nh?? song, m??y, tre, n???a???
  • Ph??? H??ng B???c do ??ng L??u Xu??n T??n ???????c nh?? vua cho ph??p m??? l?? ????c b???c th??nh n??n cho tri???u ????nh, k??o ng?????i trong h??? h??ng v?? ng?????i l??ng Tr??u Kh?? (hay Ch??u Kh??, x?? Th??c Kh??ng, huy???n B??nh Giang ??? H???i D????ng) ra ????y m??? ph?????ng ????c b???c, th??nh l???p tr?????ng ????c ??? s??? nh?? 58 H??ng B???c.
  • Ph??? H??ng ????o l?? n??i bu??n t??, b??n v???i v??c (ch??? v???i ??i???u ch??? m??u ????? ???????c ?????c ch???ch th??nh ch??? ????o).
  • Ph??? H??ng L?????c n???i t??? ph??? H??ng C??t ?????n ph??? Ch??? C??, v???n l?? n??i c?? nhi???u nh?? bu??n b??n l?????c: l?????c g???, l?????c s???ng v?? sau n??y l?? l?????c nh???a.
  • Ph??? H??ng Chai kh??ng ph???i l?? n??i s???n xu???t, bu??n b??n chai l???; ph??? n??y l?? m???t ??o???n ng?? nh??? n???i ph??? H??ng R????i v?? H??ng C??t, ????y l?? n??i t???p trung d??n ngh??o chuy??n l??m ngh??? thu l?????m c??c ????? ph??? li???u, ????? b??? (r??c).
  • Ph??? H??ng G?? ch???y t??? ph??? H??ng ??i???u ?????n ph??? H??ng C??t, v???n l?? n??i t???p trung c??c c???a h??ng b??n ????? gia c???m: g??, v???t, ngan, ng???ng, b??? c??u, g?? t??y???
  • Ph??? H??ng Ch??nh ???????c ng?????i Ph??p g???i l?? Rue des Vases (ph??? h??ng V???i Ch???u), v???n th??ng ra b??? s??ng, l?? b???n ?????u c??c thuy???n ch??? v???i, ch???u b???ng s??nh c???a l??ng Ph?? L??ng, n???i ?????t, chum v???i, ti???u s??nh t??? H????ng Canh, b???ng g???m t??? Th??? H??
  • Ph??? H??ng ?????ng v?? ph??? B??t S??? th???i thu???c Ph??p c?? t??n chung l?? Rue des Tasses (ph??? H??ng Ch??n). ??o???n H??ng ?????ng v?? H??ng M?? tr?????c thu???c th??n Y??n Ph??, c?? ngh??? g???c b??n ????? ?????ng nh?? m??m, n???i, ?????nh, l?? h????ng, l??? hoa, h???c th??????

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