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Vi???t Nam c?? th??? ho??n to??n ???tho??t Trung??? ???????c kh??ng?

Cho d?? ch??? l?? m???t du kh??ch b??nh th?????ng ??i tham quan ki???u c?????i ng???a xem hoa th?? b???n c??ng s??? d??? d??ng c???m nh???n ???????c v??n h??a Trung Hoa c?? ???nh h?????ng s??u s???c nh?? th??? n??o ?????i v???i Vi???t Nam: nh???ng bi???n ch??? H??n ngo??i c???ng c??c ki???n tr??c c??? tr??n ???????ng ph???, nh???ng ????i c??u ?????i nghi??m ch???nh tr??n c???t c??c ?????n ch??a, m??n c??? t?????ng Trung Qu???c l?? tr?? gi???i tr?? ???????c nhi???u ng?????i ??a th??ch nh???t ??? c??c c??ng vi??n, ch??? Song H??? m??u h???ng trong c??c l??? c?????i
Vi???t Nam c?? th??? ho??n to??n ???tho??t Trung??? ???????c kh??ng?
Vi???t Nam c?? th??? ho??n to??n ???tho??t Trung??? ???????c kh??ng?


Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh
Sau s??u n??m, t??i l???i ?????n Vi???t Nam l???n n???a; chuy???n ??i n??y nh???m m???c ????ch ch??nh l?? t??m hi???u t??nh h??nh ti???n tr??nh ???Tho??t Trung??? c???a Vi???t Nam th???i c???n ?????i v?? hi???n ?????i c??ng nh?? c??c ???nh h?????ng c???a ti???n tr??nh ????.
Cho d?? ch??? l?? m???t du kh??ch b??nh th?????ng ??i tham quan ki???u c?????i ng???a xem hoa th?? b???n c??ng s??? d??? d??ng c???m nh???n ???????c v??n h??a Trung Hoa c?? ???nh h?????ng s??u s???c nh?? th??? n??o ?????i v???i Vi???t Nam: nh???ng bi???n ch??? H??n ngo??i c???ng c??c ki???n tr??c c??? tr??n ???????ng ph???, nh???ng ????i c??u ?????i nghi??m ch???nh tr??n c???t c??c ?????n ch??a, m??n c??? t?????ng Trung Qu???c l?? tr?? gi???i tr?? ???????c nhi???u ng?????i ??a th??ch nh???t ??? c??c c??ng vi??n, ch??? Song H??? m??u h???ng trong c??c l??? c?????i???.
Th??? nh??ng sau khi ??i s??u quan s??t th?? b???n s??? ph??t hi???n th???y ch??? n??o c??ng c?? d???u t??ch c???a ti???n tr??nh ???Tho??t Trung???: m???t s??? b???ng bi???n ch??? H??n ??? c??c ?????n ch??a b??? thay b???ng c??c b???ng bi???n vi???t ch??? Qu???c ng??? La tinh h??a, th???m ch?? c??? ?????n c??u ?????i c??ng ?????u ???? ???La tinh h??a??? nh?? v???y, nh???ng ch??? La tinh c???a ????i c??u ?????i vi???t d???c t??? tr??n xu???ng d?????i ??em l???i cho ng?????i ta m???t c???m gi??c c?????i ra n?????c m???t; trong c??c vi???n b???o t??ng, nh???ng ph???n tr??ng b??y v??? kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p, ch???ng M??? h???u nh?? kh??ng th???y n??i g?? v??? vi???n tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c; c??c c???a hi???u tr??n ???????ng ph??? ?????u treo bi???n ???H??ng Vi???t Nam???, ???H??ng Nh???t???, ???H??ng H??n Qu???c??? ???H??ng M?????? th???m ch??? ???H??ng Canada??? m?? h???u nh?? ch???ng th???y bi???n hi???u ???H??ng Trung Qu???c???, cho d?? Trung Qu???c l?? n?????c nh???p kh???u h??ng h??a l???n nh???t v??o Vi???t Nam.
Ch??a th???y nhi???u t??c ph???m nghi??n c???u c?? h??? th???ng v??? v???n ????? Vi???t Nam ???Tho??t Trung???. Trong m???y t??i li???u t??i s??u t???m ???????c, c??c t??c gi??? ch??a nh???t tr?? v??? ngu???n g???c v?? t??nh h??nh ph??t tri???n c???a ti???n tr??nh Vi???t Nam ???Tho??t Trung???, vi???c ph??n t??ch ?????ng c?? ???Tho??t Trung??? c??ng kh?? ????n gi???n, v?? ???? l???i ch??nh l?? nguy??n nh??n th??c ?????y t??i ?????n Vi???t Nam t??m hi???u.
???La tinh h??a??? ch??? vi???t c???a Vi???t Nam
Trong t??c ph???m ???Kh???i c???ng ?????ng t?????ng t?????ng ??? ngu???n g???c v?? s??? truy???n b?? ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c??? [Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism] c???a Benedict Anderson c?? vi???t: ???C??c t?????ng t?????ng v??? nh?? b???o t??ng v?? qu?? tr??nh t??? ch???c nh?? b???o t??ng ?????u c?? t??nh ch??nh tr??? s??u s???c???. T??i lu??n cho r???ng n???u mu???n t??m hi???u l???ch s??? m???t n?????c, ho???c n??i ch??nh x??c h??n, n???u mu???n t??m hi???u m???t qu???c gia ???? h?????ng d???n ng?????i d??n c???a h??? nh??n nh???n l???ch s??? c???a n?????c m??nh nh?? th??? n??o th?? c??ch t???t nh???t l?? h??y ?????n th??m vi???n b???o t??ng l???ch s??? c???a qu???c gia ????.
???Vi???n B???o t??ng L???ch s??? qu???c gia Vi???t Nam??? l?? m???t t??a ki???n tr??c ki???u Ph??p mang ?????c s???c thu???c ?????a r?? r??ng. N??i ????y t???ng l?? vi???n nghi??n c???u kh???o c??? c?? t??n ???Vi???n Vi???n ????ng b??c c??? c???a Ph??p Qu???c (??cole fran??aise d???Extr??me-Orient, EFEO)???. Vi???n n??y c?? ????ng g??p to l???n cho c??ng cu???c nghi??n c???u c??c l??nh v???c l???ch s??? h???c, kh???o c??? h???c, nh??n h???c v??ng ????ng Nam ??, ????ng ?? v?? Nam ??; trong ???? c???ng hi???n ???????c truy???n t???ng nh???t l?? th??nh t???u nghi??n c???u v??? ?????n Angkor Wat ??? Campuchia v?? v??? H??n h???c Vi???n ????ng c??ng nh?? ????n Ho??ng h???c. Vi???n Vi???n ????ng b??c c??? c???a Ph??p Qu???c c??n ph??t minh ra m???t b??? ch??? ghi ??m H??n ng??? La Tinh h??a, t???ng m???t th???i ???????c d??ng r???ng r??i ??? c??c n?????c n??i ti???ng Ph??p ho???c d??ng La Tinh ng???.
B??? ch??? c??i ghi ??m ban ?????u do Vi???n Vi???n ????ng b??c c??? c???a Ph??p Qu???c thi???t k??? ch???c l?? kh??ng kh??c m???y so v???i ch??? Qu???c ng??? Vi???t Nam La tinh h??a do c??c nh?? truy???n gi??o B??? ????o Nha ph??t minh h???i th??? k??? 16, nh???m t???o thu???n ti???n cho ng?????i ph????ng T??y h???c H??n ng??? v?? ti???ng Vi???t, c??ng nh?? cho vi???c truy???n gi??o v?? giao ti???p h??ng ng??y. Th??? nh??ng, c??ng v???i ti???n tr??nh to??n c??i Vi???t Nam bi???n th??nh thu???c ?????a c???a Ph??p c??n Trung Qu???c th?? ch??a ho??n to??n tr??? th??nh thu???c ?????a, hai lo???i ch??? vi???t La tinh h??a ???y c?? s??? ph???n kh??c nhau. Sau khi H??? th???ng Pinyin H??n ng??? do nh?? n?????c Trung Qu???c tri???n khai ???????c Li??n H???p Qu???c th???a nh???n l?? H??? th???ng Pinyin ti??u chu???n qu???c t??? th?? b??? ch??? ghi ??m H??n ng??? do Vi???n Vi???n ????ng b??c c??? c???a Ph??p Qu???c ph??t minh v?? b??? ch??? ghi ??m H??n ng??? ki???u Wade???Giles [Wade???Gilles system] do ng?????i Anh ph??t minh c??ng nh?? m???t v??i ki???u ch??? phi??n ??m H??n ng??? kh??c ?????u d???n d???n m???t ??i ?????a v??? qu???c t???, kh??ng c??n ???????c s??? d???ng n???a.
Nh??ng t??? th??? k??? 19 th???c d??n Ph??p l???i ra s???c ?????y m???nh s??? d???ng ch??? Vi???t Nam La tinh h??a (ch??? Qu???c ng???), d???n d???n tr??? th??nh ch??? vi???t ch??nh th???c c???a x??? ????ng D????ng thu???c Ph??p. Ng?????i Ph??p l??m th??? nh???m m???c ????ch ch??nh l?? ????? t???ng l???p tinh hoa ng?????i Vi???t tho??t ra kh???i ???nh h?????ng c???a v??n h??a Trung Qu???c, c???t ?????t m???i li??n h??? v??n h??a gi???a Vi???t Nam v???i Trung Qu???c. Cho n??n m???t s??? h???c gi??? coi vi???c La tinh h??a v??n t??? Vi???t Nam ti???n h??nh trong th???i k??? Ph??p ???? h??? n?????c n??y l?? s??? kh???i ?????u qu?? tr??nh ???Tho??t Trung??? c???a Vi???t Nam.
Th??? nh??ng ngay c??? trong th???i k??? Ph??p thu???c th?? ch??? H??n v?? ch??? N??m (m???t lo???i ch??? Vi???t Nam h??a d???a tr??n n???n t???ng ch??? H??n) c??ng kh??ng ho??n to??n bi???n m???t trong ?????i s???ng ng?????i Vi???t. Tr??n r???t nhi???u l??nh v???c, ch??? H??n v???n d??ng song song v???i ch??? Qu???c ng???. Sau khi th??nh l???p ch??nh quy???n B???c Vi???t Nam do H??? Ch?? Minh l??nh ?????o th?? ch??? H??n ho??n to??n b??? thay th???, tr??? th??nh v???t hy sinh c???a ???Phong tr??o x??a n???n m?? ch?????? do nh?? n?????c tri???n khai. ?????i ngo???i, ch??nh ph??? Vi???t Nam tuy??n b??? s??? d?? ph???i ?????y m???nh d???y ch??? Qu???c ng??? ch??? kh??ng d???y ch??? H??n, ???? l?? do ch??? Qu???c ng??? La tinh h??a ????n gi???n d??? h???c. Nh??ng tr??n th???c t??? cho d?? l?? t???ng l???p l??nh ?????o ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam hay t???ng l???p tinh hoa trong x?? h???i Vi???t Nam th???i ???y, ai c??ng ?????u hi???u r?? b??? ch??? H??n l?? b?????c ??i c???t l??i c???a ti???n tr??nh ???Tho??t Trung??? nh???m ????? Vi???t Nam ho??n to??n tho??t kh???i ???nh h?????ng m???y ngh??n n??m c???a Trung Qu???c.
T??? thu???t c???a B???o t??ng L???ch s??? Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam
Trong B???o t??ng L???ch s??? Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam [Vietnam National Museum of History] ??? H?? N???i, ph???n l???n c??c v??n b???n thuy???t minh v?? l???i thuy???t minh v???t tr??ng b??y ?????u d??ng ti???ng Vi???t v?? ti???ng Anh; m???t s??? ??t ???n???i dung nh???y c???m??? th?? ch??? gi???i thi???u b???ng ti???ng Vi???t. M???c d???u Trung v??n kh??ng ???????c d??ng ??? ????y nh??ng r???t nhi???u v??n b???n l???ch s??? v?? hi???n v???t l???ch s??? l???i ?????u th??? hi???n b???ng ch??? H??n, nh???t l?? ph???n l???ch s??? c??? ?????i.
Theo c??ch n??i c???a gi???i s??? h???c Trung Qu???c th?? l???ch s??? Vi???t Nam c?? th??? s?? l?????c chia l??m 5 th???i k???: 1) Th???i ti???n s??? v?? c??c truy???n thuy???t;  2) Th???i k??? B???c thu???c, t???c th???i k??? Vi???t Nam l?? m???t b??? ph???n c???a Trung Qu???c, b???t ?????u t??? khi t?????ng nh?? T???n l?? Tri???u ???? b??nh ?????nh B??ch Vi???t v?? l???p n?????c Nam Vi???t t???i Phi??n Ngung [Panyu] thu???c t???nh Qu???ng ????ng th???i nay cho t???i n??m 938 sau CN th???i Ng?? ?????i th???p qu???c [907-979], khi Ng?? Quy???n c???a Vi???t Nam ????nh b???i qu??n Nam H??n, l???p tri???u ?????i nh?? Ng?? ?????c l???p;  3) Th???i k??? qu???c gia ?????c l???p, t??? n??m 938 ?????n n??m 1884 khi n?????c Ph??p bi???n Vi???t Nam th??nh thu???c ?????a; su???t th???i k??? ????, Vi???t Nam l?? n?????c phi??n thu???c c???a nhi???u v????ng tri???u Trung Qu???c, trong ???? c?? 20 n??m Vi???t Nam b??? nh?? Minh thu h???i th??nh thu???c qu???c;  4) Th???i k??? l?? thu???c ?????a c???a Ph??p;  6) Th???i k??? ?????c l???p sau Th??? chi???n II.
C??c ghi ch??p l???ch s??? th?????ng c?? n???i dung kh??c nhau b???i l??? ch??? th??? vi???t s??? kh??c nhau, ??i???u ???? kh??ng kh?? hi???u. Trong Vi???n B???o t??ng L???ch s??? qu???c gia, ??? ph???n th???i k??? ti???n s???, v??n h??a ????ng S??n ???????c gi???i thi???u nhi???u nh???t, coi l?? ti??u bi???u c???a th???i n??y, nh??ng ??? th???i k??? th??? hai th?? n???n v??n h??a ???? l???i b??? l?????c b???. Tr??n th???c t???, ph???n gi???i thi???u duy nh???t v??? th???i k??? th??? hai l?? m???t b???ng bi???u ???Ch???ng x??m l?????c??? xuy??n su???t th???i k??? n??y, to??n b??? ?????u vi???t b???ng ch??? Qu???c ng???. Th??? nh??ng khi ?????c k??? b???ng bi???u ???? ng?????i ta c?? th??? th???y m???t s??? ???n???i dung nh???y c???m???: ch???ng ????ng H??n, ch???ng L?????ng T???n, ch???ng Nam Tri???u, ch???ng qu??n nh?? ???????ng v.v??? Theo ghi ch??p c???a l???ch s??? Trung Qu???c th?? c??c n???i dung n??y ?????u ???????c ?????nh ngh??a l?? nh???ng s??? ki???n l???ch s??? ???d??n ?????a ph????ng n???i d???y [d??n bi???n]??? ho???c ???l??m lo???n [t??c lo???n]???, c??n t???i b???o t??ng n??y th?? t???t th???y ?????u ???????c coi l?? ngh??a c??? ???ch???ng ngo???i x??m???.
B???o t??ng L???ch s??? qu???c gia d??nh cho th???i k??? th??? ba ph???n gi???i thi???u r???t chi ti???t nh??ng s???i ch??? ch??nh xuy??n su???t ph???n n??y th?? kh??ng thay ?????i, v???n l?? ch??? ????? ???Ch???ng x??m l?????c ph????ng B???c??? nh?? ch???ng qu??n T???ng, ch???ng qu??n Nguy??n, ch???ng qu??n Minh, ch???ng qu??n Thanh??? song le l???i kh??ng m???t ch??? n??o n??i ?????n m???i quan h??? gi???a ch??nh qu???c [t??ng ch???, t???c Trung Qu???c] v???i n?????c phi??n thu???c [t???c Vi???t Nam]. Trong ???? c?? m???t ??o???n kh?? th?? v??? n??i v??? th???i k??? 20 n??m Minh thu???c: Theo ghi ch??p trong ????????i Vi???t S??? k?? to??n th?????, s??ch s??? ch??nh th???c c???a tri???u H???u L?? Vi???t Nam th?? nh???ng n??m ?????u nh?? Minh, trong tri???u ????nh nh?? Tr???n ??? Vi???t Nam c?? x???y ra s??? ki???n m???t ng?????i h??? H??? [H??? Qu?? Ly?] thu???c b??n ngo???i c???a nh?? vua ?????nh c?????p ng??i, nh?? Minh ph??i qu??n ?????i Nam ti???n sang Vi???t Nam ????? l???p l???i s??? c??ng b???ng v??? ?????o l??; sau khi di???t xong H???, c??c quan l???i v?? ng?????i cao tu???i b???n ?????a cho bi???t ho??ng t???c nh?? Tr???n ???? b??? tuy???t di???t kh??ng c??n ng?????i n???i d??i, y??u c???u nh?? Minh thu h???i qu???c hi???u An Nam Qu???c (Vi???t Nam), kh??i ph???c ch??? ????? ????i ng??? ???qu???n huy???n??? c???a v????ng tri???u Trung nguy??n tr?????c kia. Trong B???o t??ng L???ch s??? Qu???c gia, ??o???n l???ch s??? n??y c??ng ???????c gi???i thi???u l?? ???Nh?? Minh x??m l??ng Vi???t Nam, ph???m t???i ??c t???y tr???i???.
T??? khoe l?? ???ch??nh th???ng Trung Hoa???
Cho d?? ph???n t??? thu???t trong B???o t??ng L???ch s??? Qu???c gia tr??n ?????y tinh th???n ???Ch???ng ph????ng B???c??? nh??ng t??? qu?? tr??nh l???ch s??? Vi???t Nam ???????c th??? hi???n trong m???i tr??ng b??y ??? ????y r???t kh?? c?? th??? n??i c??c ?????i v????ng tri???u Vi???t Nam c?? m???t qu?? tr??nh ch??? ?????ng ???Tho??t Trung???. Tr??n th???c t???, v??o c??c th???i Nguy??n M??ng, M??n Thanh l??m ch??? v??ng Trung nguy??n Trung Qu???c, c??c v??n b???n th?? t???ch c???a v????ng tri???u Vi???t Nam t???ng [c?? ?? khinh b???] g???i hai k??? th???ng tr??? ph????ng B???c ???y l?? ???M??ng Th??t???, ???M??n Di???, m?? t??? khoe m??nh l?? ???Ch??nh th???ng Trung Hoa???. Trong b???o t??ng c?? m???t b???n chi???u th?? b???ng g???m do ho??ng ????? tri???u nh?? Nguy???n s???c phong m???t v??? t?????ng ch???ng qu??n Thanh, tr??n t??? chi???u ???? th???m ch?? c?? m???y ch??? H??n: ???Ki???n c??ng V???n l?? tr??ng Tr?????ng th??nh???.
V??o cu???i th???i ?????i phong ki???n, Vi???t Nam ra s???c m??? r???ng l??nh th???, d???n d???n chi???m l??nh m???t v??ng ?????t r???ng ??? ch??u th??? s??ng Mekong v???n thu???c Campuchia. Trong qu?? tr??nh c?????ng ch??? ?????ng h??a ng?????i Cao Mi??n, Vi???t Nam c??ng c?????ng b???c ng?????i ???Cao man??? (ng?????i Cao Mi??n) m???c H??n ph???c, h???c ch??? H??n. S??ch s??? ch??nh th???c c???a tri???u Nguy???n ????????i Nam th???c l???c??? ch??p: ?????? Tai nghe nhi???u thi quen, m???t th???y nhi???u th?? thu???c, c??? th??? [ng?????i Mi??n] d???n d?? h??a nh???p v???i phong t???c ng?????i H??n; n???u l???i c?? th??m s??? gi??o h??a c???a ch??nh quy???n, d??ng v??n h??a Hoa H??? ????? bi???n ?????i c??c d??n t???c man di, xem ra sau v??i ch???c n??m th?? c?? th??? l??m cho h??? ch???ng kh??c g?? ng?????i H??n [H??n d??n].??? ??? ????y tri???u Nguy???n t??? x??ng l?? ???H??n???, ???H?????? [t??n c?? c???a Trung Qu???c], ???H??n d??n???, khoe m??nh l?? d??ng ch??nh th???ng [????ch h???] c???a v??n h??a Trung Hoa.
Nh?? v??n chuy??n m???c l???ch s??? Qu??ch Hoa M??n t???ng vi???t tr??n m???c ???T?? gia l???ch s?????? m???ng Bloomberg v??? s??? cai tr??? ?????t n?????c c???a v????ng tri???u phong ki???n nh?? Nguy???n nh?? sau: ???N?????c ?????i Vi???t d?? ??? xa trung t??m th???ng tr??? c???a v????ng tri???u Trung nguy??n nh??ng l???i to??n l???c b???t ch?????c v?? c???y gh??p c??c ch??? ????? v??n h??a, kinh t???, ch??nh tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c. Tri???u L?? (1010-1225) chia ch??? ????? quan l???i l??m hai ban v??n v??, m???i ban c?? c???u ph???m; c??c ?????a ph????ng c?? Tri ph???, Ph??n ph???, Tri ch??u; trung ????ng c??n c?? c??c tr???ng ch???c nh?? Th??i s??, Th??i ph??, Th??i ??y, Th??i b???o. Th???i k??? ?????u tri???u L?? ???? x??y d???ng V??n mi???u ????? th??? Kh???ng T??? v?? Chu C??ng, b???t ch?????c ch??? ????? khoa c??? nh?? T???ng ???????ng??????
Ph????ng th???c sao ch??p c??c ch??? ????? c???a Trung Qu???c k??o d??i su???t cho t???i ????m tr?????c ng??y Vi???t Nam r??i v??o v??ng thu???c ?????a c???a Ph??p. Ch???u s??? cai tr??? tr???c thu???c c???a Trung Qu???c trong h??n 1.000 n??m c???ng th??m h??n 900 n??m b?? nguy??n xi m???i th??? c???a Trung Qu???c v??? d??ng, Vi???t Nam ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a v??n h??a Trung Hoa qu?? ?? s??u xa (s??u v?? r???ng h??n nhi???u so v???i Tri???u Ti??n, Nh???t). Trong ???Kh???i c???ng ?????ng t?????ng t?????ng???, Anderson lu???n b??n th??? n??y: ???Tuy r???ng v????ng tri???u th???ng tr??? H?? N???i v?? Hu??? (kinh ???? tri???u Nguy???n) m???y th??? k??? qua ?????u b???o v??? ???????c n???n ?????c l???p, kh??ng b??? B???c Kinh x??m ph???m, nh??ng r???t cu???c h??? v???n c??? d???a v??o b?? l?? quan li??u d???c l??ng b???t ch?????c ng?????i Trung Qu???c ????? cai tr??? ?????t n?????c. C?? quan nh?? n?????c d???a v??o ch??? ????? ???khoa c?????? ??? ki???u thi vi???t v??? ch??? ????? l?? c??c kinh ??i???n Nho gi??o ????? l???a ch???n v?? ????? b???t ng?????i t??i; c??c v??n b???n c???a tri???u ????nh ?????u vi???t b???ng ch??? H??n; v??? m???t v??n h??a, m???c ????? Trung Qu???c h??a c???a giai c???p th???ng tr??? c??ng r???t s??u.???
R???i Anderson ph??n t??ch: Sau n??m 1895, c??c tr?????c t??c c???a Khang H???u Vi, L????ng Kh???i Si??u v?? sau n??y l?? c???a T??n Trung S??n??? truy???n v??o Vi???t Nam khi???n cho ???m???i quan h??? l??u d??i gi???a Vi???t Nam v???i Trung Qu???c c?? t??nh ch???t kh??ng ???????c [ch??nh ph??? th???c d??n Ph??p] hoan ngh??nh???. B???i th??? n??n v??o kho???ng n??m 1915, ch??? ????? khoa c??? b??? b??i b???, thay b???ng h??? th???ng gi??o d???c thu???c ?????a v???i ti???ng Ph??p l?? m??n h???c ch??nh. Ngo??i ra, ch??? Qu???c ng??? Vi???t Nam La tinh h??a ???????c h???t s???c ????? x?????ng, qua ???? l??m cho c??c th??? h??? m???i c???a ng?????i Vi???t Nam thu???c ?????a do kh??ng th??? ti???p x??c v???i th?? t???ch c???a th???i ?????i c??c v????ng tri???u c??ng nh?? v??n h???c c??? x??a m?? b??? c???t ?????t m???i li??n h??? v???i Trung Qu???c ??? c??ng c?? th??? g???m c??? qu?? kh??? c???a b???n ?????a Vi???t Nam.
Theo ph??n t??ch c???a Anderson, ?????i v???i t???ng l???p tinh hoa b???n x??? Vi???t Nam, s??? ???Tho??t Trung??? do ng?????i Ph??p c?????ng ch??? ti???n h??nh kh??ng ph???i l?? ch??? ?? c???a ng?????i Vi???t, m?? l?? m???t qu?? tr??nh b??? ?????ng. Nh?? v???y sau khi ???? ????nh ??u???i th???c d??n Ph??p (nh???t l?? d?????i s??? gi??p ????? c???a qu??n ?????i Trung Qu???c), Vi???t Nam ho??n to??n c?? th??? tr??? l???i con ???????ng truy???n th???ng ???Trung Qu???c h??a???, ??i???u ???? ch???ng nh???ng c?? th??? t??ng c?????ng m???i quan h??? ???l??ng gi???ng h???u h???o??? gi???a Vi???t Nam v???i Trung Qu???c m?? c??ng c?? th??? gi??p cho ng?????i Vi???t Nam l???p l???i m???i li??n h??? v???i t??? ti??n m??nh.
Song le s??? th???c l???i kh??ng nh?? v???y.
Ph???n t??? thu???t c???a B???o t??ng L???ch s??? qu???c gia Vi???t Nam ?????n n??m 1945 th?? ch???m d???t. Ch??? c?? th??? t??m hi???u th???i k??? ti???p theo c???a l???ch s??? Vi???t Nam t??? m???t b???o t??ng kh??c ??? ???B???o t??ng C??ch m???ng Vi???t Nam??? ??? b??n kia ???????ng ph???. Vi???n B???o t??ng n??y tr??ng b??y th???i k??? t??? khi ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c Vi???t Nam th???c t???nh cho t???i ng??y th??nh l???p ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam r???i ?????n chi???n d???ch ??i???n Bi??n Ph???, ng?????i Vi???t Nam ????nh ??u???i th???c d??n Ph??p; v??? c?? b???n c?? th??? coi l?? l???ch s??? giai ??o???n ?????u qu?? tr??nh ph??t tri???n c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam, trong ???? tr??n ng???p s??? tuy??n truy???n mang m??u s???c th???n tho???i, ??i???u n??y kh??ng c?? g?? kh?? hi???u.
Ti???n ????? c???u t???o qu???c gia d??n t???c
??i???u kh??c bi???t r?? r??ng v???i c??c v???t tr??ng b??y t???i B???o t??ng L???ch s??? Qu???c gia l?? c??c v???t tr??ng b??y trong B???o t??ng C??ch m???ng h???u nh?? kh??ng c?? ch??? H??n, th???m ch?? h???u nh?? kh??ng c?? hai ch??? ???Trung Qu???c???. T???i ????y, phong tr??o Vi???t Nam ?????c l???p ch???ng Ph??p ho??n to??n do ng?????i Vi???t Nam t??? th???c hi???n, kh??ng m???t ch??? n??o nh???c t???i s??? vi???n tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c. C?? ??i???u ????ng ch?? ?? l?? ng??y 2/9/1945, t???i qu???ng tr?????ng Ba ????nh, H??? Ch?? Minh tuy??n b??? s??? ra ?????i c???a n?????c Vi???t Nam D??n ch??? C???ng h??a. Nh?? l??nh ?????o xu???t th??n t??? m???t gia t???c Nho h???c nhi???u ?????i, c?? v???n hi???u bi???t ch??? H??n v???ng v??ng n??y ???? ?????c tr?????c c??ng ch??ng b???n ???Tuy??n ng??n ?????c l???p??? vi???t b???ng ch??? Qu???c ng??? Vi???t Nam La tinh h??a. Sau ???? kh??ng l??u, Hi???n ph??p n??m 1946 ghi r?? ch??? Qu???c ng??? l?? ch??? vi???t ch??nh th???c c???a Vi???t Nam.
Cu???n s??ch ???Kh???i C???ng ?????ng t?????ng t?????ng??? c???a Anderson kh??ng quan t??m nhi???u t???i l???ch s??? ???Tho??t Trung??? c???a Vi???t Nam, nh??ng trong s??ch c?? ri??ng m???t ch????ng b??n v??? s??? th???c t???nh c???a ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c ??? c??c qu???c gia thu???c ?????a sau Th??? chi???n II v?? con ???????ng x??y d???ng nh?? n?????c d??n t???c. Trong ????, t??m ki???m s??? th???a nh???n th??n ph???n d??n t???c m??nh l?? b?????c ??i t???t y???u ????? x??y d???ng qu???c gia d??n t???c, l?? c?? s??? logic ????? th???c hi???n ???Kh???i c???ng ?????ng t?????ng t?????ng???, m?? qu?? tr??nh t??m ki???m ???? ???t ph???i l?? qu?? tr??nh ch??? ?????ng, t???nh t??o.
?????i v???i t???ng l???p l??nh ?????o Vi???t Nam sau ng??y ?????c l???p, tr??? l???i ???Trung Qu???c h??a??? tuy???t ?????i kh??ng ph???i l?? con ???????ng ????ng ?????n ????? x??y ?????p s??? ?????ng thu???n c???a d??n t???c. Ng?????c l???i, ???Tho??t Trung??? m???i l?? ??i???u ki???n t???t y???u ????? x??y d???ng m???t qu???c gia d??n t???c. N??i c??ch kh??c, n???u Vi???t Nam mu???n tr??? th??nh m???t qu???c gia hi???n ?????i ?????c l???p th?? ???Tho??t Trung??? l?? n???n t???ng, l?? c???t l??i, l?? m???t s??? m???nh l??u d??i. ??i???u ???? v??? c?? b???n nh???t tr?? v???i nh???n th???c ???Tho??t Trung??? c???a Nh???t B???n, Tri???u Ti??n v???n l?? c??c n?????c trong v??nh ??ai v??n h??a Trung Hoa, cho d?? qu?? tr??nh ???Tho??t Trung??? c???a Vi???t Nam c???n th???i gian d??i h??n, v?? qu?? tr??nh ???? c??ng ??au kh??? h??n ?????i v???i hai n?????c Trung Qu???c v?? Vi???t Nam.
Nguy???n v???ng c???a t???ng l???p l??nh ?????o Vi???t Nam
Sau Th??? chi???n II, 200 ngh??n qu??n Qu???c D??n ?????ng Trung Qu???c ti???n v??o Vi???t Nam v???i danh ngh??a ti???p thu s??? ?????u h??ng c???a qu??n ?????i Nh???t chi???m ????ng Vi???t Nam. Kh??ng l??u sau, qu??n ?????i Ph??p c??ng ????? b??? v??o Vi???t Nam, y??u c???u ph???c h???i ch??? quy???n c???a qu???c gia cai tr??? thu???c ?????a tr?????c chi???n tranh. T?????ng Gi???i Th???ch l???y vi???c Ph??p tr??? l???i cho Trung Qu???c m???t s??? l???i ??ch kinh t??? nh?? c??c t?? gi???i trong l??nh th??? Trung Qu???c l??m ??i???u ki???n trao ?????i ????? r??t qu??n Qu???c D??n ra kh???i Vi???t Nam.
Ph???n l???n c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam th???i ???y ?????u ph???n ?????i vi???c trao tr??? Vi???t Nam cho th???c d??n Ph??p, nh??ng H??? Ch?? Minh l???i k?? v??o Hi???p ?????nh.[1] V?? th??? m???i c?? chuy???n trong ghi ch??p c???a nh?? b??o M??? Stanley Karnow c?? vi???t m???t danh ng??n c???a H??? Ch?? Minh:
???L?? ng???c n??y! Ch???ng l??? c??c anh kh??ng bi???t r???ng ????? ng?????i Trung Qu???c ??? l???i c?? ngh??a l?? g?? ??? C??c anh kh??ng nh??? l???ch s??? ??? L???n tr?????c ng?????i Trung Qu???c ?????n ????y, h??? ??? l???i m???t ngh??n n??m. Ng?????i Ph??p l?? k??? t??? b??n ngo??i t???i, h??? ???? r???t suy y???u r???i, ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n ??ang ch???t, ng?????i da tr???ng t???i ch??u ?? ??ang h???t ?????i. Nh??ng n???u ng?????i Trung Qu???c ??? l???i th?? h??? s??? m??i m??i kh??ng b??? ??i ????u! T??i th?? l???i ng???i c???t b???n Ph??p th??m 5 n??m m?? kh??ng mu???n ??n c???t b???n T??u su???t ph???n ?????i c??n l???i.???[2]
Trong th??? gi???i Trung v??n, c??u n??i n??y c???a H??? Ch?? Minh c?? nh???ng b???n d???ch kh??c nhau, c?? th??? t??? ng??? c?? ch??t d??? bi???t, nh??ng ?? ngh??a ?????i ????? nh?? v???y. M???c d???u v??? sau gi??o s?? Liam Kelley ??? ?????i h???c Hawaii c?? nghi ng??? v??? xu???t x??? c??u n??i ???y c???a H??? Ch?? Minh m?? Karnow tr??ch d???n, th??? nh??ng qua li??n h??? v???i h???i k?? c???a m???t s??? nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c th?? nh???ng ph??t bi???u c???a H??? Ch?? Minh ?????i lo???i nh?? ???Bi???u hi???n ng???o m???n c???a qu??n ?????i Trung Qu???c th?? gi???ng nh?? bi???u hi???n c???a qu??n ?????i Trung Qu???c th???i x??a t???ng th?????ng xuy??n x??m ph???m Vi???t Nam???, v?? li??n h??? t???i chuy???n B???o t??ng L???ch s??? Qu???c gia Vi???t Nam x??a s???ch s??? vi???n tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c gi??p Vi???t Nam ????nh ??u???i th???c d??n Ph??p, th?? ch???ng n??i c??ng bi???t t???ng l???p l??nh ?????o Vi???t Nam ????ng l?? c?? xu h?????ng m???nh m??? ???Tho??t Trung???.
??i???u th?? v??? l?? Anderson sinh ra ??? C??n Minh, t??? nh??? gia ????nh ??ng c?? thu?? m???t b?? b???o m???u ng?????i Vi???t Nam; tuy s??ch c???a ??ng kh??ng b??n lu???n s??u v??? m???i quan h??? Vi???t Nam ??? Trung Qu???c song ??ng l???i n??i ch??nh cu???c chi???n tranh Trung Qu???c-Vi???t Nam n??m 1979 ???? ???tr???c ti???p g???i ?? t??i vi???t cu???n Kh???i c???ng ?????ng t?????ng t?????ng???.
H???i ???? to??n th??? gi???i ?????u cho r???ng cu???c chi???n ???y c?? nguy??n nh??n l?? s??? ?????u tranh phe ph??i trong th??? gi???i c???ng s???n (Li??n X?? v?? Vi???t Nam m???t phe, Trung Qu???c v?? Campuchia m???t phe), ho???c l?? cu???c xung ?????t ?????a ch??nh tr??? c???a ba n?????c l???n Trung Qu???c, M???, Nga. Nh??ng Anderson th?? nh??n th???y r?? nguy??n nh??n l???ch s??? ??? t???ng s??u h??n ph??a sau cu???c chi???n ???y ??? ???? l?? ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c v?????t qua ?? th???c h???, v?????t qua ?????a ch??nh tr???.
Vi???t Nam c?? th??? tri???t ????? ???tho??t Trung??? ???????c ch??ng?
Nh???ng n??m g???n ????y, do xung ?????t tr??n v???n ????? Bi???n ????ng [nguy??n v??n Nam Trung Qu???c h???i] v?? do n???i ??au v???t th????ng c??n l???i sau cu???c chi???n 1979 ???y, m???t s??? nh?? ph??n t??ch cho r???ng Vi???t Nam c?? l??? s??? t??ng c?????ng ????? ???Tho??t Trung???. N??m 2010 m???t b??? phim truy???n h??nh c??? trang c???a Vi???t Nam quay t???i tr?????ng quay ??? Trung Qu???c v?? ???qu?? ?? Trung Qu???c h??a??? m?? b??? ch??nh quy???n Vi???t Nam c???m chi???u.[3] N??m 2014, B??? V??n h??a Vi???t Nam g???i c??ng v??n ki???n ngh??? c??c ?????a ph????ng kh??ng b??y bi???n, kh??ng s??? d???ng, kh??ng th??? c??ng c??c lo???i t?????ng ??i??u kh???c, s???n ph???m, linh v???t v?? v???t ph???m qu??i d??? kh??ng h???p thu???n phong m??? t???c Vi???t Nam???. Nghe n??i nh???ng v???t ph???m ???y ch??? y???u l?? c??c lo???i s?? t??? ???? ???Trung Qu???c h??a??? nh???p t??? Trung Qu???c.
Th??? nh??ng c??c c??? g???ng ???Tho??t Trung??? v??? v??n h??a c???a Vi???t Nam xem ra kh??ng c?? hi???u qu??? l???n. Suy cho ?????n c??ng, qu?? tr??nh h??n 2000 n??m ng???m v??n h??a Trung Qu???c ???? ?????t n???n m??ng v??n h??a cho b???n th??n Vi???t Nam, tri???t ????? ???Tho??t Trung??? s??? t????ng ??????ng v???i s??? c???t ?????t l???ch s??? c???a ch??nh m??nh. ??? Vi???t Nam ng??y nay, tam gi??o Nho, Th??ch, ?????o ?????u c?? m???nh ?????t c???a m??nh, m?? c??? ba ?????u t??? Trung Qu???c truy???n sang, c??c t??n ????? c???a h??? v???n chi???m tuy???t ?????i ??a s??? trong s??? d??n tin theo t??n gi??o ??? n?????c n??y.
V??? kinh t???, h???u nh?? ch???ng ai tin r???ng trong m???t th???i gian ng???n Vi???t Nam c?? th??? tho??t kh???i s??? d???a d???m v??o Trung Qu???c. Cho d?? n???i b??? ch??nh ph??? Vi???t Nam th???nh tho???ng c?? th???o lu???n v???n ????? ???C??? g???ng Tho??t Trung v??? kinh t?????? nh??ng ng??nh ch??? t???o c???a Vi???t Nam ch??? l?? m???t kh??u trong chu???i s???n xu???t c??ng nghi???p do Trung Qu???c l??m ch???, s???n ph???m l??m ra l???i c???n l???y Trung Qu???c l??m n?????c nh???p kh???u l?? t?????ng. Tho??t kh???i Trung Qu???c v??? kinh t??? h???u nh?? l?? m???t ???nhi???m v??? kh??ng th??? th???c hi???n???.
L??nh v???c Vi???t Nam c?? kh??? n??ng nh???t ????? th???c hi???n ???Tho??t Trung??? l?? ch??? ????? ch??nh tr???. M???c d?? r???t kh?? c?? th??? n??i th??? ch??? ch??nh tr??? hi???n nay c???a Vi???t Nam l?? b???n sao c???a Trung Qu???c, nh??ng m???i l???n Vi???t Nam v?? Trung Qu???c x???y ra xung ?????t th?? h???u nh?? l???n n??o m??u thu???n c??ng ?????u ???????c h??a gi???i v???i l?? do ???gi??? cho to??n v???n m???i t??nh gi???a hai ?????ng, hai ch??nh ph??????. Tuy nhi???u b??o ????i t???ng ????a tin v???i ti??u ????? ?????i ????? nh?? ???C??ng cu???c c???i c??ch th??? ch??? ch??nh tr??? c???a Vi???t Nam ti???n nhanh h??n Trung Qu???c??? song t??nh h??nh th???c t??? l???i kh??ng nh?? v???y, ho???c c?? th??? n??i vi???c c???i c??ch th??? ch??? ??? Vi???t Nam ch??a c?? nh???ng ?????t ph?? th???c ch???t.
Th??ng 8/2014, h??ng tin Bloomberg ????a tin: 61 th??nh vi??n ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam, trong ???? c?? m???t c???u ?????i s??? t???i Trung Qu???c, c??ng k?? t??n v??o m???t b???c th?? ng??? g???i Ch??nh ph??? Vi???t Nam. B???c th?? vi???t: C??c nh?? l??nh ?????o n??n ???x??y d???ng m???t nh?? n?????c th???c s??? d??n ch???, ph??p tr??????, cho ph??p t??? do ng??n lu???n ch??nh tr??? ??? m???c ????? r???ng h??n, ???tho??t kh???i??? s??? d???a d???m v??o Trung Qu???c. B???n tin cho bi???t, m???t s??? ng?????i, k??? c??? c??c c???u quan ch???c ch??nh ph??? ???? d??? th???o m???t b???n Hi???n ph??p y??u c???u tri???n khai s??? ???c???nh tranh v??? ch??nh tr??????. M???c d?? k???t qu??? b???u c??? l??nh ?????o m???i ????y kh??ng th??? hi???n Ch??nh ph??? Vi???t Nam c?? d???u hi???u ???tho??t kh???i Trung Qu???c???, nh??ng vi???c v???n ????? n??y c?? th??? ???????c b??n lu???n trong th?? ng??? l?? ????? t??? r?? nguy???n v???ng c???a m???t b??? ph???n kh?? ????ng ?????o tr??n ch??nh tr?????ng Vi???t Nam.
B???t k??? l?? tr??n v???n ????? tranh ch???p l??nh th??? hay v???n ????? kinh t???, Vi???t Nam ?????u t??nh to??n kh??? n??ng d???a v??o ph????ng T??y, th???m ch?? t???ng c?? th???i ???? xem x??t v???n ????? l???p li??n minh qu??n s??? v???i qu???c gia c???u th?? l?? M???, song le l???i kh?? c?? th??? v?????t qua tr??? ng???i v??? ?? th???c h???. N???u Vi???t Nam mu???n t??ng c?????ng m???i quan h??? v???i ph????ng T??y ????? ch???ng Trung Qu???c th?? ti???n ????? ???t ph???i l?? v??? ch??nh tr??? n??n m??? c???a h??n, b??? ch??? ????? chuy??n ch??? m???t ?????ng, v??? th??? ch??? ch??nh tr??? c???n tri???t ????? c???t ?????t quan h??? v???i Trung Qu???c. B?????c ??i n??y tuy kh??ng gian nan nh?? s??? ???Tho??t Trung??? v??? v??n h??a nh??ng l???i ch???ng d??? d??ng th???c hi???n.
B??i kh??ng ghi t??n t??c gi???, c?? l??? l?? m???t nh?? b??o Trung Qu???c gi???u t??n. Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh bi??n d???ch v?? ghi ch?? trong ngo???c [ ].
Ngu???n ti???ng Trung:  ??????????????????????????????????????? 2017-05-10
?????????????????????
[1] C?? th??? t??c gi??? mu???n n??i Hi???p ?????nh S?? b??? Ph??p-Vi???t, k?? t???i H?? N???i ng??y 6/3/1946. Tham kh???o: https://vov.vn/the-gioi/ho-so/hiep-dinh-so-bo-631946-nuoc-co-sac-sao-cua-ho-chu-tich-va-dang-ta-486107.vov
[2] C??u cu???i n??y trong ti???ng Anh l??  ???I prefer to sniff French shit for five years than eat Chinese shit for the rest of my life.??? ??? Theo: Stanley Karnow???s Vietnam: A History (New York: Viking Press, 1983).
[3] C?? l??? l?? phim ???L?? C??ng U???n ??? ???????ng d???n t???i th??nh Th??ng Long??? Tham kh???o: https://nld.com.vn/van-hoa-van-nghe/khong-chieu-ly-cong-uan-duong-toi-thanh-thang-long-la-hop-le-20110609102020887.htm
03/09/1783: K?? Hi???p ?????c Paris, ch???m d???t C??ch m???ng M???


Ngu???n: Treaty of Paris signedHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1783, C??ch m???ng M??? ch??nh th???c ch???m d???t khi ?????i di???n c??c n?????c M???, Anh, T??y Ban Nha v?? Ph??p c??ng nhau k?? k???t Hi???p ?????c Paris. H??nh ?????ng n??y c??ng bi???u th??? v??? th??? qu???c gia t??? do c???a M???, khi Anh ch??nh th???c c??ng nh???n n???n ?????c l???p c???a 13 thu???c ?????a c?? c???a m??nh v?? bi??n gi???i c???a n?????c c???ng h??a m???i c??ng ???????c th???ng nh???t: t??? Florida k??o d??i ?????n Ng?? H??? ??? ph??a b???c, v?? t??? b??? bi???n ?????i T??y D????ng ?????n s??ng Mississippi ??? ph??a t??y.
Nh???ng s??? ki???n m??? ???????ng cho hi???p ?????c n??y di???n ra t??? th??ng 04/1775, khi t???i m???t th???m c??? g???n Lexington, Massachusetts, ng?????i d??n thu???c ?????a M??? d??ng c??ch m???ng v?? trang ????? ????p tr??? vi???c Vua George III t??? ch???i cho ph??p h??? ti???n h??nh c??c c???i c??ch ch??nh tr??? v?? kinh t???. Ng??y 04/07/1776, h??n m???t n??m sau nh???ng ph??t s??ng ?????u ti??n c???a cu???c chi???n, Qu???c H???i L???c ?????a l???n II ???? ch??nh th???c th??ng qua Tuy??n ng??n ?????c l???p. Ti???p ???? l?? n??m n??m ?????y kh?? kh??n, v?? ?????n th??ng 10/1781, T?????ng Charles Lord Cornwallis c???a Anh ???? ?????u h??ng l???c l?????ng c???a M??? v?? Ph??p t???i Yorktown, Virginia, k???t th??c tr???n chi???n l???n cu???i c??ng trong Chi???n tranh C??ch m???ng.
Th??ng 09/1782, Benjamin Franklin, c??ng v???i John Adams v?? John Jay, b???t ?????u c??c cu???c ????m ph??n h??a b??nh ch??nh th???c v???i ng?????i Anh. Qu???c H???i L???c ?????a ban ?????u ???? b??? nhi???m m???t ???y ban n??m ng?????i ??? bao g???m Franklin, Adams v?? Jay, c??ng v???i Thomas Jefferson v?? Henry Laurens ??? tham gia h??a ????m. Tuy nhi??n, c??? Jefferson v?? Laurens ?????u ???? b??? l??? c??c phi??n h???p ??? chuy???n ??i c???a Jefferson b??? tr??? trong khi Laurens ???? b??? ng?????i Anh b???t gi??? v?? ??ang b??? t???m giam t???i Th??p Lu??n ????n. Ph??i ??o??n M???, v???n kh??ng tin t?????ng v??o ng?????i Ph??p, ???? ch???n ????m ph??n ri??ng v???i Anh.
Trong c??c cu???c ????m ph??n, Franklin y??u c???u Anh giao Canada cho M???. ??i???u n??y ???? kh??ng x???y ra, nh??ng ng?????i M??? v???n gi??nh ???????c ????? l??nh th??? m???i ??? ph??a nam bi??n gi???i Canada ????? t??ng g???p ????i k??ch th?????c c???a m??nh. M??? ????m ph??n th??nh c??ng ????? ???????c gi??? quy???n ????nh c?? quan tr???ng trong v??ng bi???n Canada. Ngo??i ra, M??? c??ng ?????ng ?? kh??ng ng??n c???n c??c ch??? n??? c???a Anh ??ang c??? g???ng thu h???i c??c kho???n n??? c???a m??nh. Hai th??ng sau, c??c chi ti???t quan tr???ng ???? ???????c b??? sung v?? v??o ng??y 30/11/1782, M??? v?? Anh ???? k?? c??c ??i???u kho???n s?? b??? c???a hi???p ?????c. Ph??p c??ng ???? k?? th???a thu???n h??a b??nh s?? b??? ri??ng v???i Anh v??o ng??y 20/01/1783 v?? sau ???? v??o th??ng 9 c??ng n??m, b???n Hi???p ?????c cu???i c??ng ???? ???????c c??? ba qu???c gia k?? c??ng v???i T??y Ban Nha. Hi???p ?????c Paris ???? ???????c Qu???c h???i L???c ?????a ph?? chu???n v??o ng??y 14/01/1784.

Gi???i m?? v?? kh?? 'kh???ng' nh???t th??? gi???i c???a ho??ng ????? Quang Trung
V???i nh???ng th??? v?? kh?? "kh???ng", Quang Trung ???? th???ng nh???t nh?? n?????c ?????i Vi???t v?? x??ng ho??ng ????? v???i v??? th??? ?????c bi???t m?? ?????n n?????c Trung Hoa c??ng v??? n???.
L?? m???t k??? s?? t??n l???a, hi???n ??ang l??m vi???c cho m???t t???p ??o??n nghi??n c???u v?? s???n xu???t t??n l???a t???i ch??u ??u, sau m???t th???i gian d??i t??m hi???u k??? l?????ng c??c v?? kh?? th???i vua Quang Trung, t??i r???t mong mu???n truy???n t???i m???t s??? th???t m?? ng?????i Vi???t Nam ch??ng ta n??n bi???t v?? c?? quy???n bi???t: vua Quang Trung l?? nh??n v???t r???t ?????c bi???t v??? c??ng ngh??? s???n xu???t v?? kh??. Ch??nh ??ng l?? ng?????i ???? s???n xu???t nh???ng v?? kh?? kh???ng nh???t th??? gi???i th???i ????.
Qu??n Nguy???n Hu??? - Quang Trung ???? d??ng th??? v?? kh?? n??y ?????t ch??y t??u Ph??p, ?????t ch??y 5 v???n qu??n Xi??m, ?????t ch??y 29 v???n qu??n Thanh v?? khi???n Trung Hoa m???c d?? ??ang ??? ?????nh cao c???a s???c m???nh c??ng ph???i ?????i b???i, b??? ch??n b?????c v?? bu???c th??o ch???y v??? n?????c.
Sau ????y l?? nh???ng b???ng ch???ng r?? r??ng v?? d??? hi???u ????? t???t c??? ng?????i ?????c ?????u hi???u ???????c t???i sao nh???ng v?? kh?? ???? c???a vua Quang Trung l?? kh???ng nh???t th??? gi???i? T???i sao Trung Hoa kh??ng th??? s???n xu???t ???????c? V?? t???i sao 29 v???n qu??n Thanh l???i b??? vua Quang Trung ?????p tan ch??ng v??nh ch??? trong c?? v??i ng??y?

V?? kh?? ?????c bi???t c???a nh?? T??y S??n Nguy???n Hu???.
V?? kh?? kh???ng nh???t m?? vua Quang Trung ???? nghi??n c???u, s???n xu???t, ????a v??o s??? d???ng l?? lo???i v?? kh?? kh???ng nh???t th??? gi???i th???i ???? - ch??nh l?? bom hay l???u ?????n ph???t pho hay ?????u n??? ph???t pho - th??? v?? kh?? m?? ?????n ng??y h??m nay v???n l?? v?? kh?? kh???ng khi???p nh???t th??? gi???i ch??? sau bom nguy??n t???.
Nh??ng th??? n??o m?? vua Quang Trung l???i c?? ???????c m???t th??? v?? kh?? kh???ng khi???p nh?? th????
Vi???t Nam ch??ng ta c?? r???t nhi???u hang ?????ng t??? Nam ra B???c. ???? c??ng l?? n??i tr?? ng??? c???a h??ng tri???u tri???u con d??i, nh???ng con d??i n??y th???i ra ph??n d??i v?? n?????c ????i d??i. Ch??ng c?? th??nh ph???n ph???t pho r???t cao. Cho ?????n ng??y nay, ng?????i Vi???t Nam v???n ??ang khai th??c ph??n d??i ????? b??n. ?????ng b??o d??n t???c ??? g???n nh???ng hang d??i ???? t??? h??ng ng??n n??m nay ???? bi???t c??ch ch??ng c???t ph??n d??i v?? n?????c ????i d??i ????? c?? m???t th??? ch???t n??? v?? ch???t chi???u s??ng v?? ???? ch??nh l?? ph???t pho nguy??n ch???t.
Vua Quang Trung ???? s??? d???ng ph???t pho nguy??n ch???t ???? ????? l??m th??? v?? kh?? mang t??n ho??? c???u. C???u tr??c c???a ho??? c???u l?? b??n trong ch???a thu???c n??? ??en, bao quanh thu???c n??? ??en l?? ph???t pho v??ng c??ng v???i nh???ng qu??? ph??o nh??? h??n. Khi ho??? c???u n??? s??? tung ra b???t ph???t pho trong kh??ng kh?? v?? c??c qu??? ph??o nh??? h??n s??? n??? v?? d??? d??ng ?????t ch??y ph???t pho ????.
Nh?? v???y, ho??? c???u c???a vua Quang Trung s??? c?? uy l???c kh??ng kh??c g?? so v???i bom ph???t pho, v?? kh?? ch??? ?????ng th??? hai sau bom nguy??n t??? sau c??? tr??m n??m nh?? b??y gi???. Khi ho??? c???u c???a vua Quang Trung n???, n?? s??? g??y ra ????m ch??y kh???ng khi???p v???i nhi???t ????? c???c cao (?????n 800 -1000 ????? C) v?? ?????t h???t oxy trong kh??ng kh?? y h???t nh?? bom ph???t pho ng??y nay.
Khi qu??n Quang Trung tung nh???ng qu??? bom ph???t pho n??y v??? ph??a qu??n Thanh th?? ??i???u d??? hi???u l?? qu??n Thanh s??? b??? ch???t b???ng v?? ch???t ng???t h??ng lo???t v???i m???c ????? r???t nhanh ch??ng v?? kh??ng c?? c??ch n??o kh??c l?? ph???i b??? ch???y v?? ????? l???i x??c ch???t ch???t ?????ng t???i g?? ?????ng ??a, Th??ng Long nh?? s??? s??ch l??u truy???n.
H???a C???u L??u Ho??ng m???t lo???i v?? kh?? c???a ngh??a qu??n T??y S??n khi???n cho k??? th?? khi???p s???.
T???t c??? nh???ng hi???n t?????ng c???a bom ph???t pho ?????u ???????c s??? s??ch nh?? Thanh ghi l???i.
Theo nh?? s??ch c???a c??c nh?? truy???n gi??o ph????ng T??y ghi l???i, qu??n Quang Trung ???? t??? s???n xu???t bom tr?????c khi v??o tr???n ????nh. ??i???u ???? c?? ngh??a l?? vua Quang Trung ???? bi???t v???n chuy???n ph???t pho tr???ng/v??ng ng??m trong n?????c ????? tr??nh ch??y n??? v?? chu???n b??? nh???ng qu??? bom ph???t pho tr?????c tr???n ????nh.
???? l?? m???t b?? m???t qu??n s??? m?? qu??n t?????ng nh?? Thanh kh??ng th??? hi???u n???i v?? bom ph???t pho c???a vua Quang Trung n???u kh??ng s??? d???ng trong tr???n ????nh s??? t??? ph??n hu??? r???t nhanh v?? th???i ???? Trung Hoa l???i ch??a bi???t.

C??ch l?? gi???i kh??c v??? c??i ch???t c???a vua Quang Trung
Theo m???ch suy lu???n v??? ph???t pho, t??i c??ng c?? m???t l?? gi???i v??? c??i ch???t c???a vua Quang Trung. ????ng nh?? trong th?? c???a c??ng ch??a Ng???c H??n ???? vi???t, vua Quang Trung ???? nhi???m b???nh th???i gian d??i v?? tri???u ch???ng ????ng nh?? nh???ng g?? m?? ng?????i b??? ph??i nhi???m ph???t pho g???p ph???i ???? l?? vi??m gan v?? m???t b??? bi???n d???ng. Nh?? v???y, ho??ng ????? Quang Trung c???a ch??ng ta ???? hy sinh l?? do b??? ph??i nhi???m ph???t pho trong qu?? tr??nh s???n xu???t v?? kh?? ch??? kh??ng ph???i l?? v?? b??? ?????u ?????c.
Th??m m???t c??n c??? n???a, c??c s??? s??ch ch??p l???i hi???n t?????ng vua Quang Trung c?? m???t con m???t c?? kh??? n??ng ph??t s??ng trong ????m. T??i c?? th??? t???m l?? gi???i r???ng ??i???u ???? ho??n to??n c??ng c?? th??? l?? s??? th???t n???u vua Quang Trung c?? th??? c?? m???t m???t b??? h???ng. Khi thoa b???t ph???t pho v??o m???t, n?????c m???t s??? gi??? b???t ph???t pho kh??ng ch??y nh??ng khi kh?? n?????c m???t th?? b???t ph???t pho s??? ch??y nh??? trong kh??ng kh?? g??y hi???n t?????ng ph??t s??ng trong ????m. Nh?? v???y, b???ng khoa h???c ta c?? th??? gi???i m?? ???????c ??i???u t?????ng nh?? k??? b?? ????.
Ngo??i bom ph???t pho, vua Quang Trung c??n s??? d???ng nh???a th??ng tr???n v???i v??i s???ng ????? t???o n??n m???t th??? v?? kh?? y h???t nh?? bom napal v?? s??ng phun l???a th???i nay. T??nh ch???t ch??y c???a nh???a th??ng c??n t???t h??n bom napal ng??y nay (nhi???t ????? ch??y cao v?? ????? b??m r???t l???n).
Th??m n???a, qu??n Quang Trung trang b??? ?????i tr?? ho??? l???a, m???t d???ng s??ng phun l???a ho???c lao c?? ch???a ch???t ch??y l?? nh???a th??ng th?? uy l???c c???a qu??n Quang Trung l?? kh???ng khi???p. Nh???a th??ng, v??i s???ng l???i l?? nh???ng th??? r???t s???n ??? Vi???t Nam. ????y l???i l?? th??? v?? kh?? sau n??y b??? c???m.
Khi g???p k??? th?? ??? t???m xa, qu??n Quang Trung s??? b???n t??n l???a ho???c b???n ph??o v???i ?????u n??? l?? ?????u n??? ph???t pho ho???c h???p ch???t nh???a th??ng g??y n??n nh???ng ????m ch??y kh???ng khi???p, ????? ????? ti??u di???t h???t m???i k??? th??.
Khi t???m g???n h??n, qu??n Quang Trung c?? th??? ph??ng lao, trong lao s??? ch???a nh???a th??ng, r?????u m???nh 80 ????? ???????c ch??ng c???t t??? qu??? c??y ho???c l?? bom ph???t pho. Khi lao g???p ?????ch s??? n??? bung ra, lao n??y l?? c??c lo???i c??y tr??c, tre r???t ph??? bi???n t???i Vi???t Nam.
Ngay tr?????c khi ph??ng, n?? s??? ???????c m???i b???ng v??i s???ng, v??i s???ng s??? c?? ph???n ???ng ho?? h???c v???i n?????c (nh?? khi l?? t??i v??i) v?? l??m cho nh???a th??ng trong ???ng c?? nhi???t ????? r???t cao v?? khi phun ra g???p ?? xy trong kh??ng kh?? s??? t??? ch??y v???i nhi???t l?????ng l???n v?? ????ng nh?? m?? t??? trong s??? s??ch s??? t??? ch??y v?? b??m v??o k??? th??. Ho???c l?? khi ph??ng nh???a th??ng ra c?? tr???n v???i v??i s???ng, v??i s???ng s??? c?? ph???n ???ng ho?? h???c v???i n?????c trong kh??ng khi gi???i ph??ng nhi???t l?????ng l???n v?? m???i ch??y nh???a th??ng thi??u ch???t k??? th??.
Khi c???n chi???n, qu??n Quang Trung c?? l???u ?????n ph???t pho v?? c??ng uy l???c, c?? ho??? c???u l???a l?? b??nh phun ra nh???a th??ng tr???n v??i s???ng c?? th??? ch??y khi ch???m v??o ?????i ph????ng ????ng nh?? s??? s??ch t???ng ghi ch??p. To??n qu??n c???a Quang Trung ?????u ???????c trang b??? ?????i tr?? v?? ch??? ?????o c??c v?? kh?? n??u tr??n. V?? l??? n??y n??n ?????i qu??n Quang Trung c???n ???????c nh??n nh???n nh?? l?? ?????i qu??n v?? ?????ch tr??n to??n th??? gi???i l??c ????.
Nh?? v???y b???n ?????c c?? th??? hi???u ???????c th??ng qua nh???ng b???ng ch???ng r?? r??ng l?? th???i ????, qu??n ?????i vua Quang Trung kh??ng c?? ?????i th???.
Vua Quang Trung ch???t ??i (??ng m???t ng??y 16/9/1792, t???c ng??y 29 th??ng 7 n??m Nh??m T??), r???t nhi???u b?? m???t v??? v?? kh?? ???? ??i theo v??? ho??ng ????? t??i cao. V?? v???y n??n ???s???c m???nh ?????i Vi???t??? c???a nh?? T??y S??n ???? suy y???u r???t nhi???u. Th??m n???a, ch??a Nguy???n ??nh c?? l??? ???? bi???t uy l???c c???a v?? kh?? qu??n Quang Trung n??n trong t??c chi???n, nh?? Nguy???n lu??n tr??nh ?????i ?????u tr???c ti???p, s??? d???ng c??ch ????nh c?? ?????ng v?? s??? d???ng ph??o c???a ph????ng T??y c?? t???m b???n xa h??n ????? ch??? ?????ng ng??n ch???n...
???? l?? nh???ng nghi??n c???u chi ti???t c???a t??i nh???m g??p ph???n n??o l?? gi???i v??? s???c m???nh c???a ho??ng ????? Quang Trung n?????c ?????i Vi???t ta. T??i r???t mong c?? ???????c s??? l??u t??m c???a c??c nh?? s??? h???c, c??c nh?? khoa h???c qu??n s??? Vi???t Nam (?????c bi???t l?? ng??nh ho?? h???c) v?? th??? gi???i ????? gi??p s??ng t??? th??m nh???ng suy ngh??a, ph??n t??ch n??y.

Theo V?? ????nh Thanh/Ng?????i ????a Tin

 
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