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Vai tr?? ng??y c??ng t??ng c???a EU ??? Bi???n ????ng

EU lu??n c?? l?? do ????? quan t??m ?????n c??c di???n bi???n ??? Bi???n ????ng. Kh???i th????ng m???i l???n nh???t th??? gi???i n??y c?? l???i ??ch kinh t??? s???ng c??n trong vi???c b???o v??? c??c h??nh lang v???n chuy???n b???ng t??u t??? do, an to??n v?? ???n ?????nh, ?????c bi???t l?? c??c h??nh lang n???i khu v???c n??y v???i c??c ???nh?? m??y ??i???n??? kinh t??? ??? ????ng ??. C??c n?????c ????ng B???c ?? t???o n??n th??? tr?????ng xu???t kh???u v?? l?? ngu???n FDI quan tr???ng nh???t c???a EU,
Vai tr?? ng??y c??ng t??ng c???a EU ??? Bi???n ????ng
Vai tr?? ng??y c??ng t??ng c???a EU ??? Bi???n ????ng
T??c gi???: Eva Pejsova | Bi??n d???ch: Tr???n Quang
Gi???i thi???u
EU lu??n c?? l?? do ????? quan t??m ?????n c??c di???n bi???n ??? Bi???n ????ng. Kh???i th????ng m???i l???n nh???t th??? gi???i n??y c?? l???i ??ch kinh t??? s???ng c??n trong vi???c b???o v??? c??c h??nh lang v???n chuy???n b???ng t??u t??? do, an to??n v?? ???n ?????nh, ?????c bi???t l?? c??c h??nh lang n???i khu v???c n??y v???i c??c ???nh?? m??y ??i???n??? kinh t??? ??? ????ng ??. C??c n?????c ????ng B???c ?? t???o n??n th??? tr?????ng xu???t kh???u v?? l?? ngu???n FDI quan tr???ng nh???t c???a EU, v???i Trung Qu???c l?? ?????i t??c th????ng m???i l???n th??? hai c???a kh???i, v?? ch??? ri??ng th????ng m???i v???i Nh???t B???n chi???m 25% GDP to??n c???u. EU c??ng l?? ?????i t??c th????ng m???i l???n th??? hai c???a ASEAN, v?? ASEAN l?? ?????i t??c th????ng m???i l???n th??? ba c???a EU.
Ngo??i l???i ??ch kinh t???, Brussels c??ng c?? nh???ng cam k???t ph??p l?? v?? ch??nh tr??? ?????i v???i s??? ???n ?????nh khu v???c, b???t ngu???n t??? vi???c EU tham gia Hi???p ?????c th??n thi???n v?? h???p t??c (TAC) n??m 2012 v?? tr??? th??nh th??nh vi??n c???a Di???n ????n khu v???c ASEAN (ARF). Cu???i c??ng v?? quan tr???ng nh???t l?? l?? do c??n b???n ?????ng sau c??c tranh ch???p Bi???n ????ng: Ch??? ngh??a ????n ph????ng c???a Trung Qu???c v?? m???i ??e d???a m?? n?????c n??y g??y ra cho tr???t t??? to??n c???u d???a tr??n nguy??n t???c ???? khi???n ch??u ??u, t??? ?????t m??nh v??o v??? tr?? l?? m???t si??u c?????ng quy chu???n, ph???i c???nh gi??c.
Trong khi c?? r???t nhi???u l?? do gi???i th??ch cho l???i ??ch c???a EU ??? Bi???n ????ng, nh???ng h??nh ?????ng c???a h??? l???i ??t r?? r??ng h??n. Thi???u c??c ngu???n l???c qu??n s??? ph?? h???p, EU ch??? y???u ???????c coi l?? ???m???t ?????i t??c v??? gi?? tr??????, ch??? c?? th??? c?? nh???ng ????ng g??p h???n ch??? cho ???c??u ???????? an ninh khu v???c. H??n n???a, ti???m n??ng c???a kh???i n??y l???i b??? x??i m??n do kh?? kh??n c???a c??c n?????c ch??u ??u trong vi???c duy tr?? m???t l???p tr?????ng th???ng nh???t m???nh m??? ?????i v???i Trung Qu???c, nh?? c?? th??? ???????c th???y trong ph???n ???ng y???u ???t c???a EU ?????i v???i ph??n quy???t c???a T??a Tr???ng t??i (PCA) h???i th??ng 7/2016. Nh??ng r???t nhi???u ??i???u ???? thay ?????i k??? t??? n??m 2016. Brussels ???? tr??? n??n c???nh gi??c h??n tr?????c ti???m n??ng g??y gi??n ??o???n c???a Trung Qu???c v?? th???c hi???n m???t ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i th???n tr???ng h??n. M???t s??? di???n bi???n b??n trong c??ng nh?? b??n ngo??i ???? th??c ?????y s??? h???p nh???t v??? an ninh v?? ph??ng th??? c???a EU, t??ng c?????ng uy t??n c???a t??? ch???c n??y v???i t?? c??ch l?? b??n tham gia an ninh to??n c???u.
Khi EU mong mu???n c?? ???????c ?????a v??? quan s??t vi??n t???i di???n ????n ADMM+ v?? H???i ngh??? c???p cao ????ng ?? (EAS), ??i???u quan tr???ng ?????i v???i h??? l?? ????nh gi?? l???i ????ng g??p c???a m??nh ?????i v???i an ninh khu v???c ??? v?? tr?????ng h???p Bi???n ????ng l?? m???t nghi??n c???u t??nh hu???ng h???u ??ch. L???p tr?????ng c???a EU l?? r?? r??ng ??? ba c???p ?????. Th??? nh???t l?? m???t s??? n?????c th??nh vi??n gia t??ng ho???t ?????ng tr??n bi???n trong vi???c b???o v??? quy???n t??? do h??ng h???i (FON). Th??? hai l?? ti???n h??nh nhi???u cu???c ?????i tho???i v?? ho???t ?????ng t??ng c?????ng n??ng l???c v???i ASEAN v?? t???ng n?????c ????ng Nam ?? trong c??c v???n ????? an ninh h??ng h???i phi truy???n th???ng mang ch???c n??ng kh??c nhau. Cu???i c??ng, ch??u ??u ti???p t???c l?? b??n c?? s???c n???ng quy chu???n to??n c???u, ??i???u c?? th??? l?? m???t trong nh???ng t??i s???n l???n nh???t c???a h??? x??t t???i tr???t t??? d???a tr??n nguy??n t???c qu???c t??? mong manh hi???n nay.
Gi???a nguy??n t???c v?? th???c ti???n
Nh?? v???i h???u h???t c??c b??n tham gia qu???c t??? kh??ng c?? tuy??n b??? ch??? quy???n ??? Bi???n ????ng, EU kh??ng ?????ng v??? b??n n??o trong c??c tranh ch???p v?? duy tr?? l???p tr?????ng ???trung l???p c?? nguy??n t???c??? ?????i v???i c??c v???n ????? ch??? quy???n. L?? m???t b??n tham gia c?? s???c n???ng quy chu???n v?? l?? b??n tham gia k?? k???t C??ng ?????c Li??n h???p qu???c v??? Lu???t bi???n (UNCLOS), Brussels lu??n kh???ng ?????nh t???m quan tr???ng c???a lu???t ph??p qu???c t???, th??c ?????y c??c s??ng ki???n h???p t??c v?? h???i th??c c??c b??n tu??n th??? chu???n m???c v?? nguy??n t???c qu???c t??? ????? gi???i quy???t h??a b??nh c??c tranh ch???p.
L???p tr?????ng n??y ???????c ph???n ??nh d?????i c??c h??nh th???c kh??c nhau trong t???t c??? c??c tuy??n b??? v?? v??n ki???n ch??nh th???c c???a EU li??n quan ?????n ch??u ?? hay an ninh h??ng h???i n??i chung. N??m 2012, ???????ng l???i ch??? ?????o ch??nh s??ch ????ng ?? khuy???n kh??ch c??c gi???i ph??p h??a b??nh cho c??c tranh ch???p, h???i th??c Trung Qu???c v?? ASEAN nh???t tr?? v??? B??? quy t???c ???ng x??? (COC) mang t??nh r??ng bu???c ph??p l??. Chi???n l?????c an ninh h??ng h???i EU 2014 x??y d???ng d???a tr??n s??? t??n tr???ng lu???t ph??p qu???c t???, tu??n th??? ?????y ????? UNCLOS c??ng nh?? quy???n t??? do h??ng h???i, coi ???? l?? c?? s??? cho m??i tr?????ng to??n c???u ???n ?????nh.
Cu???i c??ng, Chi???n l?????c to??n c???u EU (EUGS) hi???n nay, ???????c c??ng b??? h???i th??ng 6/2016, cam k???t m???t c??ch c??? th??? ??????ng h??? t??? do h??ng h???i, ki??n tr?? t??n tr???ng lu???t ph??p qu???c t???, trong ???? c?? Lu???t bi???n v?? c??c th??? t???c t??? t???ng c???a n??, khuy???n kh??ch gi???i quy???t h??a b??nh c??c tranh ch???p bi???n???. Chi???n l?????c n??y c??ng nh???n m???nh s??? c???n thi???t ph???i ???x??y d???ng n??ng l???c bi???n v?? h??? tr??? m???t c?? c???u an ninh khu v???c do ASEAN d???n ?????u???.
Nh???ng nguy??n t???c n??y ???????c ph???n ??nh bao nhi??u trong ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a EU? Vi???c EU kh??ng ???ng h??? m???nh m??? ph??n quy???t c???a PCA ?????i v???i v??? Philippines ki???n Trung Qu???c h???i th??ng 7/2016 ??? ch??? v??i tu???n sau khi EUGS ???????c c??ng b??? ??? l?? ??i???u g??y th???t v???ng. Sau m???t lo???t tuy??n b??? ???ng h??? lu???t ph??p qu???c t??? c???a Cao ???y ph??? tr??ch ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i Li??n minh ch??u ??u Federica Mogherini tr?????c khi ph??n quy???t ???????c ????a ra (c??? mang t??nh c?? nh??n l???n trong n???i b??? G7), tuy??n b??? ch??nh th???c cu???i c??ng c???a Brussels ???? b??? suy y???u b???i nh???ng kh??c bi???t gi???a c??c n?????c th??nh vi??n v???n lo ng???i v??? vi???c g??y ph????ng h???i cho m???i quan h??? c???a h??? v???i B???c Kinh.
Ph???i ch??ng Brussels ???? th???t b???i trong b??i ki???m tra v??? kh??? n??ng c???a h??? trong vi???c ????ng vai tr?? l???n h??n v??? an ninh ??? ch??u ??? M???c d?? qu??? th???t n?? ph???n n??o ???? l??m x??i m??n uy t??n c???a EU l?? m???t b??n tham gia c?? s???c n???ng quy chu???n, nh??ng n?? c??ng l?? m???t h???i chu??ng c???nh t???nh h???u ??ch, ????a ?????n m???t cu???c tranh c??i c??ng khai h???t s???c c???n thi???t tr??n to??n khu v???c. Ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i v?? c??c ho???t ?????ng theo ch??? ngh??a tr???ng th????ng c???a Trung Qu???c ???? ph?? ho???i s??? th???ng nh???t v?? c??? k???t ch??nh tr??? c???a ch??u ??u. Nh??ng d?? sao, n?? c??ng g??p ph???n m??? ???????ng cho m???t ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i th???n tr???ng v?? ch??? ?????ng h??n.
C??c m???i quan h??? song ph????ng v???i B???c Kinh v?? nh???ng l???i ??ch c???a c?? nh??n c??c n?????c th??nh vi??n ti???p t???c chi ph???i m???nh m??? vi???c ra quy???t ?????nh c???a EU. V???n ????? ch??u ??u b??n v?? kh?? cho c??c n?????c c?? tuy??n b??? ch??? quy???n c???a ????ng Nam ?? v?? chuy???n giao c??ng ngh??? l?????ng d???ng cho Trung Qu???c ??? c?? th??? ???????c cho l?? g??p ph???n t??ng c?????ng s???c m???nh qu??n s??? ??? Bi???n ????ng, l??m r?? h??n n???a s??? m?? h??? trong ch??nh s??ch c???a Brussels ?????i v???i c??c ??i???m n??ng khu v???c.
Tuy nhi??n, m???t s??? thay ?????i ??ang di???n ra ti???n t???i c??ch ti???p c???n c?? c?? s???, th???c t??? h??n ?????i v???i c??c v???n ????? to??n c???u, nh?? ???????c th??? hi???n trong EUGS v?? c??c nguy??n t???c ch??? ?????o c???a n??. Ch???ng h???n nh??, c??i m?? m???t s??? ng?????i g???i l?? ???ch??nh s??ch ch??nh tr??? th???c d???ng mang ?????c ??i???m ch??u ??u???, kh??i ni???m ???ch??? ngh??a th???c d???ng theo nguy??n t???c??? ???? h??? th???p m???c ????? tham v???ng li??n quan ?????n vi???c th??c ?????y d??n ch??? h??a, v?? th???a nh???n t???m quan tr???ng c???a s???c m???nh c???ng, h???i th??c c???n c?? quy???n t??? tr??? chi???n l?????c l???n h??n ?????i v???i EU. Trong b???i c???nh Bi???n ????ng, ??i???u n??y v??? c?? b???n c?? ngh??a l?? ????? EU ti???p t???c can d??? v???i Trung Qu???c ?????ng th???i duy tr?? s??? ????m lu???n theo quy chu???n v?? ng???m ???ng h??? c??c h??nh ?????ng qu??n s??? c???a c??c n?????c th??nh vi??n Li??n minh.
Nh???ng nguy??n t???c kh??c c???a Chi???n l?????c to??n c???u c??ng ???????c ph???n ??nh trong c??ch ti???p c???n ??a d???ng h??a c???a EU ?????i v???i v???n ????? Bi???n ????ng, ch???ng h???n nh?? c???n x??y d???ng ???t??nh ki??n c?????ng??? ??? c??c ?????i t??c n?????c ngo??i (vi???c x??y d???ng n??ng l???c c???a c??c n?????c ????ng Nam ??), ???ng h??? ???tr???t t??? khu v???c mang t??nh h???p t??c??? (s??? h???i nh???p ch??nh tr??? v?? an ninh c???a ASEAN) v?? ???c?? ????ng g??p th???c t??? l???n h??n??? cho an ninh h??ng h???i khu v???c.
M???i ng?????i v?? m???t ng?????i, m???t ng?????i v?? m???i ng?????i
B???t ch???p s??? h???i nh???p gia t??ng v??? an ninh v?? ph??ng th??? k??? t??? n??m 2016, EU v???n c??n l??u m???i ?????t ???????c ?????c m?? l???ch s??? c???a m??nh l?? c?? m???t ???qu??n ?????i ch??u ??u???. V???i tr?????ng h???p ngo???i l??? l?? c??c ph??i ??o??n qu??n s??? ng???u h???ng (hi???n l?? EUNAVFOR SOPHIA ??? ?????a Trung H???i v?? EUNAVFOR ATALANTA ngo??i kh??i b??? bi???n Somali), EU kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t nh?? n?????c ?????c l???p v?? kh??ng c?? b???t k??? l???c l?????ng h???i qu??n th?????ng tr???c n??o.
Nh???n th???c ???????c nh???ng h???n ch??? trong ho???t ?????ng, Chi???n l?????c an ninh h??ng h???i EU c??ng khai khuy???n kh??ch c??c n?????c th??nh vi??n ???????ng vai tr?? chi???n l?????c trong vi???c ??em l???i t???m v???i to??n c???u, t??nh linh ho???t v?? kh??? n??ng ti???p c???n???cho Li??n minh, v?? s??? d???ng c??c l???c l?????ng v?? trang c???a m??nh ????? ???h??? tr??? quy???n t??? do h??ng h???i v?? ????ng g??p cho s??? qu???n tr??? to??n c???u b???ng c??ch r??n ??e, ng??n ch???n v?? ch???ng l???i c??c ho???t ?????ng b???t h???p ph??p???. Hai trong ba n?????c th??nh vi??n c?? n??ng l???c h???i qu??n vi???n d????ng hi???n can d??? t??ch c???c v??o vi???c b???o v??? FON ??? Bi???n ????ng.
Ph??p, v???i c??c v??ng l??nh th??? tr???i kh???p ???n ????? D????ng-Th??i B??nh D????ng, v??ng ?????c quy???n kinh t??? (EEZ) 9 tri???u km2, s??? hi???n di???n qu??n s??? th?????ng tr???c ??? New Caledonia v?? Polynesia thu???c Ph??p, t??? coi m??nh l?? m???t b??n tham gia an ninh h??ng h???i khu v???c h???p ph??p, ???????? l??ng ????? c??nh???. Th?????ng xuy??n qu?? c???nh t???i c??c v??ng bi???n khu v???c, k??? t??? n??m 2016 Paris ???? v?? ??ang l???n ti???ng ???ng h??? vi???c b???o v??? FON, sau khi B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng khi ???? l?? Jean-Yves Le Drian ch??? r?? t??c ?????ng nguy hi???m c???a h??nh vi c???a Trung Qu???c ??? Bi???n ????ng v?? xa h??n n???a, trong ???? c?? B???c c???c v?? ?????a Trung H???i.
Ngo??i vi???c b???o v??? c??c l???i ??ch chi???n l?????c c???a ri??ng n?????c Ph??p, Le Drian h???i th??c ch??u ??u ????ng vai tr?? ch??? ?????ng h??n n???a trong khu v???c, khuy???n kh??ch c??c l???c l?????ng h???i qu??n ???ph???i h???p n??? l???c nh???m ?????m b???o s??? hi???n di???n th?????ng xuy??n v?? r?? r??ng trong l??nh v???c h??ng h???i c???a ch??u ?????. Trong m???t ?????ng th??i mang t??nh t?????ng tr??ng, s??? m???nh Jeanne d???Arc, ???????c th???c hi???n h???i th??ng 4/2017, bao g???m 52 nh??n vi??n H???i qu??n Ho??ng gia, 12 s?? quan c???a c??c n?????c ch??u ??u kh??c nhau v?? m???t quan ch???c EU (Ch??? t???ch ???y ban ch??u ??u ph??? tr??ch khu v???c ch??u ??-Th??i B??nh D????ng), ti???n h??nh ho???t ?????ng ??i qua Bi???n ????ng.
N??m 2018, B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng Ph??p Florence Parly cam k???t ti???p t???c c??c cu???c di???n t???p, gia nh???p l???c l?????ng v???i Anh, chia s??? ???t???m nh??n, gi?? tr??? v?? s??? s???n s??ng ?????t ???????c c??c m???c ti??u ???????. C??? hai n?????c c??ng chia s??? c??c m???i quan h??? ?????i t??c ph??ng th??? ch???t ch??? v???i ???n ?????, Nh???t B???n, ??c v?? M???. B???t ch???p kh??? n??ng Anh r???i kh???i EU, nh???ng l???i ??ch an ninh c???a n?????c n??y v???n g???n ch???t v???i c??c l???i ??ch c???a ch??u ??u. Anh c??ng r??ng bu???c v??? h???p t??c ph??ng th??? v???i Ph??p b???i c??c hi???p ?????nh Lancaster House 2010.
Anh, c??ng l?? ???ng??i nh????? c???a c??c v??ng bi???n khu v???c v?? l?? th??nh vi??n t??ch c???c trong FPDA (Hi???p ?????nh ph??ng th??? 5 n?????c g???m Anh, ??c, New Zealand, Malaysia v?? Singapore), g???n ????y h??n ???? c?? s??? hi???n di???n n?????c ngo??i ??? Bi???n ????ng, v???i vi???c h???i th??ng 8/2018 tri???n khai 3 t??u nh???m ph??t ??i ???nh???ng t??n hi???u m???nh m??? nh???t??? v??? t???m quan tr???ng c???a t??? do h??ng h???i. Vi???c duy tr?? m???t tr???t t??? qu???c t??? d???a tr??n nguy??n t???c c?? ?? ngh??a s???ng c??n ?????i v???i s??? t???n t???i c???a n?????c Anh trong th??? gi???i h???u Brexit. Chi???n l?????c ???n?????c Anh to??n c???u??? c???n t??ng c?????ng h???p t??c qu???c ph??ng th??? v???i c??c ?????i t??c ch??u ??-Th??i B??nh D????ng n???u Anh mu???n l??m y??n l??ng h??? v??? cam k???t l??u d??i c???a m??nh ?????i v???i an ninh khu v???c v?? c??c gi?? tr??? chung.
Trong khi ?????ng l???c th??c ?????y v?? h??nh th???c c??c ho???t ?????ng FON c???a Ph??p v?? Anh kh??c nhau, h??? g???i ??i c??ng m???t th??ng ??i???p, ????p ???ng nh???ng l???i ??ch c???a t???t c??? c??c n?????c th??nh vi??n EU. Do nh???ng c??ng th???ng gia t??ng ??? Bi???n ????ng k??? t??? ?????u n??m 2019, vi???c c??c n?????c c?? c??ng t?? t?????ng h??nh th??nh m???t m???t tr???n th???ng nh???t b???o v??? FON v?? tu??n th??? lu???t ph??p qu???c t??? chung ???????c coi l?? ??i???u quan tr???ng. M???c d?? Brussels v?? Washington c?? th??? kh??c nhau v??? l???p tr?????ng v?? c??ch ?????i x??? hi???n nay c???a h??? v???i Trung Qu???c, nh??ng h??? ?????u c?? chung l???i ??ch trong vi???c duy tr?? m???t m??i tr?????ng h??ng h???i to??n c???u t??? do, d???a tr??n nguy??n t???c.
H??n bao gi??? h???t, quy???t t??m n??y c?? th??? ???????c c???m nh???n ??? ?????i tho???i Shangri-La m???i ????y. Trong b???i c???nh ?????i ?????ch c??ng khai gi???a M??? v?? Trung Qu???c, c??c ?????i di???n t??? Paris, London v?? Brussels ?????u ph??t t??n hi???u th??? hi???n s??? quan t??m m???nh m??? v?? vai tr?? c???a ch??u ??u trong s??? ???n ?????nh khu v???c. Trong m???t b??i ph??t bi???u h??ng h???n, B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng Ph??p Parly ???? t??i ?????m b???o s??? ki??n tr?? c???a Ph??p trong vi???c b???o v??? quy???n t??? do c???a c??c v??ng bi???n khu v???c v?? cam k???t s??? gia t??ng nhi???u l???n c??c h??nh ?????ng c???a Ph??p t???i Bi???n ????ng. B???ng vi???c ?????n Singapore v???i t??u s??n bay Charles de Gaulle v?? m???t ?????i t??u t???n c??ng ?????y ?????, Ph??p ??ang t??m c??ch nh???n m???nh uy t??n v?? ?? ?????nh c???a m??nh l?? ???n??i ??i ????i v???i l??m???.
Kh??ng ch??? l?? v??? b??? ngo??i
M???c d?? t??u chi???n tr??? th??nh tin t???c h??ng ?????u v?? c??c cu???c t???p tr???n h???i qu??n c?? t???m quan tr???ng then ch???t mang t??nh bi???u t?????ng, nh??ng FON kh??ng ph???i l?? v???n ????? duy nh???t ??? Bi???n ????ng. T??nh tr???ng b??? t???c v??? ngo???i giao do nh???ng tranh ch???p ch??? quy???n ch??a ???????c gi???i quy???t, vi???c khai th??c c?? qu?? m???c, ????nh b???t c?? b???t h???p ph??p, kh??ng th??ng b??o v?? v?? nguy??n t???c (IUU), t???n di???t m??i tr?????ng t??? nhi??n bi???n v?? nh??n chung thi???u s??? qu???n l?? ch??? l?? m???t v??i v?? d??? v??? nh???ng th??ch th???c kh??ng th??? gi???i quy???t ???????c th??ng qua bi???n ph??p qu??n s???.
N???u ch??u ??u tr??n th???c t??? ????ng g??p v??o s??? ???n ?????nh khu v???c, th?? h??? s??? ph???i t???n d???ng t???t nh???t kinh nghi???m m??? r???ng c???a m??nh trong vi???c ng??n ch???n kh???ng ho???ng, gi???i quy???t h??a b??nh c??c tranh ch???p, c??ng tham gia ph??t tri???n c??c ngu???n l???c, ????a ra ?? ki???n chuy??n m??n v??? lu???t ph??p qu???c t??? v?? qu???n tr??? t???t tr??n bi???n. T??ng c?????ng n??ng l???c v?? chia s??? c??ch l??m t???t nh???t trong t???t c??? c??c l??nh v???c tr??n ch??nh l?? th??? m?? ch??u ??u ph???i l??m v?? c??? g???ng l??m: c??? ??? c???p ????? ??a ph????ng, v???i ASEAN v?? trong n???i b??? ARF, c??ng nh?? v???i m???i n?????c ????ng Nam ??.
Tuy nhi??n, ASEAN v???n l?? b??n ?????i tho???i ch??nh. An ninh h??ng h???i l?? ??u ti??n then ch???t trong vi???c t??ng c?????ng h???p t??c ch??nh tr??? v?? an ninh trong K??? ho???ch h??nh ?????ng ASEAN-EU 2018-2022, nh???n m???nh t???m quan tr???ng c???a ph??p quy???n, FON v?? vi???c gi???i quy???t h??a b??nh c??c tranh ch???p c??ng v???i nh???ng v???n ????? kh??c. K??? t??? n??m 2013, EU ???? t??? ch???c 5 v??ng ?????i tho???i c???p cao EU-ASEAN v??? h???p t??c an ninh h??ng h???i, gi???i quy???t v???n ????? an ninh c???ng bi???n, th???c thi ph??p lu???t tr??n bi???n, qu???n l?? t??i nguy??n bi???n v?? ng??n ch???n xung ?????t. An ninh h??ng h???i, ngo???i giao ph??ng ng???a v?? trung gian h??a gi???i l?? t??m ??i???m c???a c??c cu???c h???i th???o EU-ASEAN v??? v???n ????? an ninh v?? ph??ng th??? ???????c tr?????ng ?????i h???c An ninh v?? Ph??ng th??? ch??u ??u (ESDC) t??? ch???c h??ng n??m k??? t??? n??m 2014. Cu???i c??ng, C??ng c??? ?????i tho???i EU-ASEAN khu v???c t??ng c?????ng (E-READI) l?? m???t n???n t???ng kh??c nh???m th??c ?????y s??? h???i nh???p ch??nh tr???-an ninh c???a ASEAN, t???p trung c??? th??? h??n v??o ch??nh s??ch ng?? nghi???p, ????nh b???t c?? IUU v?? m??i tr?????ng t??? nhi??n bi???n.
Trong n??ng l???c hi???n nay v???i t?? c??ch l?? ?????ng ch??? t???ch Nh??m gi???a k??? ARF v??? an ninh h??ng h???i (c??ng v???i Vi???t Nam v?? ??c), EU ???? v?? ??ang t??? ch???c m???t lo???t h???i th???o v??? th???c thi ph??p lu???t tr??n bi???n, th??c ?????y chia s??? c??ch th???c h??nh ?????ng t???t nh???t v?? c??c bi???n ph??p c??? th??? ????? gi???m b???t c??ng th???ng khu v???c, t??ng c?????ng nh???n th???c v??? bi???n (MDA), m???i li??n h??? gi???a ?????t li???n v?? bi???n, d??n s??? v?? qu??n s??? (c??ch ti???p c???n to??n di???n c???a EU ?????i v???i vi???c gi???i quy???t kh???ng ho???ng tr??n bi???n) v?? ????nh b???t c?? IUU.
An ninh h??ng h???i v?? ng??n ch???n xung ?????t n???m trong s??? nh???ng ??u ti??n h??ng ?????u c???a EU khi l??m vi???c v???i t???ng n?????c ?????i t??c ????ng Nam ??. H???p t??c v???i Vi???t Nam ?????c bi???t ???c???t c??nh??? k??? t??? n??m 2012. L?? m???t ph???n c???a vi???c l??m s??u s???c c??c m???i quan h??? song ph????ng, ???B??? ph???n ?????i tho???i chi???n l?????c EU-Vi???t Nam??? ???? t??? ch???c c??c cu???c h???i th???o c???p cao qu???c t??? h??ng n??m v??? v???n ????? an ninh h??ng h???i, gi???i quy???t c??c tranh ch???p l??nh th??? c??? th??? v?? chia s??? k??? n??ng v?? c??ch l??m t???t nh???t.
Cu???i c??ng, gi?? tr??? quy chu???n c???a ch??u ??u kh??ng n??n b??? ????nh gi?? th???p. N???u vi???c b???o v??? m???t tr???t t??? d???a tr??n nguy??n t???c to??n c???u l?? l???i ??ch chi???n l?????c r?? r??ng, th?? s??? can d??? c???a n?? v??o vi???c th??c ?????y qu???n tr??? ?????i d????ng qu???c t??? l???i ??t ???????c bi???t ?????n. N??m 2016, EU ???? ??i ?????u trong vi???c th???c hi???n Ch????ng tr??nh ngh??? s??? ph??t tri???n b???n v???ng 2030 c???a Li??n h???p qu???c v?? M???c ti??u ph??t tri???n b???n v???ng (SDG) 14 (???ch????ng ?????i d????ng???) tr??n to??n c???u. M???c d?? c??c v???n ????? nh?? ch??nh tr??? y???u k??m, qu???n l?? mang t??nh c???ng t??c, d???a tr??n h??? sinh th??i ?????i v???i c??c ngu???n t??i nguy??n bi???n s???ng, c??ng nghi??n c???u v?? thu th???p d??? li???u, c??ng nh?? h???p t??c ????? b???o v??? m??i tr?????ng bi???n gi??u c?? c???a Bi???n ????ng, kh??ng ch??? c?? ?? ngh??a s???ng c??n ?????i v???i vi???c duy tr?? Bi???n ????ng, ch??ng c??n ng??y c??ng ???????c th???a nh???n v??? kh??? n??ng l??m gi???m b???t c??ng th???ng khu v???c.
K???t lu???n
Y??u c???u c???a EU ????i ph???i ???????c th???a nh???n l?? m???t b??n tham gia v??? ch??nh tr??? v?? an ninh ??? ch??u ?? kh??ng ph???i l?? m???i. Tham v???ng c???a h??? c?? m???t gh??? t???i EAS v?? g???n ????y h??n l?? ?????a v??? quan s??t vi??n t???i Nh??m chuy??n gia ADMM+ l?? ch??? ????? c???a nhi???u cu???c th???o lu???n, xoay quanh ????i h???i ch??nh l?? th???a nh???n gi?? tr??? th???c t??? c???a EU ?????i v???i an ninh khu v???c. B???i v???y, vi???c xem x??t k??? l?????ng c??c ch??nh s??ch v?? h??nh ?????ng c???a EU ??? Bi???n ????ng ??? ??i???m n??ng an ninh nghi??m tr???ng nh???t c???a khu v???c ??? l?? ??i???u h???p l??g??ch.
Trong th???i gian d??i, l???p tr?????ng c???a ASEAN ?????i v???i t?? c??ch th??nh vi??n c???a EU t???i c??c di???n ????n n??y l?? nghi ng??? v??? s??? g???n k???t c???a Li??n minh, do th??nh t??ch kh??ng may m???n c???a n?? l?? h???a qu?? nhi???u m?? kh??ng l??m ???????c bao nhi??u. H??n n???a, b??? l??i k??o b???i c??c b??n tham gia b??n ngo??i quan tr???ng kh??c (M???, Nh???t B???n, ???n ????? v?? ??c), ASEAN kh??ng coi ch??u ??u, v???n v???n l?? m???t b??n tham gia kh??ng ????ng k??? ?????i v???i an ninh to??n c???u, l?? b??n tham gia ch??? ch???t ????? can d???.
Nh??ng th???i gian ???? thay ?????i v?? m??i tr?????ng an ninh khu v???c ???? tr??? n??n ??a d???ng v?? ph???c t???p h??n. Trong khi nh???ng c??ng th???ng ?????a ch??nh tr??? v???n l?? ?????c ??i???m d??? nh???n th???y nh???t c???a b???c tranh chi???n l?????c ????ng Nam ??, c??c v???n ????? an ninh h??ng h???i phi truy???n th???ng ??ang n???i l??n ng??y c??ng ??m ???nh ban l??nh ?????o ASEAN, v?? nh???ng n??? l???c nh???m g???t v???n ????? ch??? quy???n sang m???t b??n v?? t???p trung v??o ng??n ch???n xung ?????t, h???p t??c v?? ?????i tho???i ch???c n??ng ??? Bi???n ????ng ???? v?? ??ang gi??nh ???????c ch??? ?????ng.
Quan tr???ng h??n, th??i ????? c???a ch??u ??u ?????i v???i ASEAN v?? c??c n?????c th??nh vi??n c???a t??? ch???c n??y ???? c?? ti???n tri???n. M???t khi t??? ?????t m??nh v??o v??? tr?? l?? m???t ????????i t??c t??? nhi??n??? t??? phong, Brussels ???? nh???n th???y r???ng n???u h??? mu???n ???????c nh??n nh???n m???t c??ch nghi??m t??c, h??? ph???i v?????t ra kh???i nh???ng c??? ch??? ch??nh tr??? s??o r???ng, v?? thay v??o ???? c?? nh???ng h??nh ?????ng c??? th???, th???c t??? ????? ch???ng minh kh??? n??ng c???a m??nh ??em ?????n s??? thay ?????i t??ch c???c.
B???t ch???p s??? b??n lu???n v??? v???n ????? an ninh ???????c kh??i ph???c ??? Brussels, EU v???n kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t b??n tham gia truy???n th???ng v??? an ninh v?? ch???c ch???n kh??ng ph???i l?? ng?????i l??m thay ?????i cu???c ch??i chi???n l?????c ??? ???n ????? D????ng-Th??i B??nh D????ng. Tuy nhi??n, t?? duy s??ng t???o c???a n?? v??? c??c v???n ????? phi truy???n th???ng, ch???ng h???n nh?? ???????ng h?????ng to??n di???n ?????i v???i vi???c x??? l?? kh???ng ho???ng (r?? nh???t l?? trong s??? m???nh ch???ng c?????p bi???n ATALANTA), s??? tinh th??ng v??? m???t tr???t t??? t???t ?????p ngo??i bi???n, gi??p ????? nh??n ?????o v?? c???u tr??? th???m h???a, c??ng ph??t tri???n c??c ngu???n t??i nguy??n v?? qu???n l?? ng?? nghi???p c?? th??? l?? m???t s??? ????ng g??p c?? gi?? tr??? v?? l??u d??i cho an ninh bi???n khu v???c ??? ??? Bi???n ????ng v?? xa h??n n???a.
ADMM + l?? m???t n???n t???ng l?? t?????ng ????? c??c b??n tham gia b??n ngo??i can d??? v???i ASEAN trong c??c v???n ????? an ninh phi truy???n th???ng, v?? ch???c ch???n l?? EU c?? nh???ng k??? n??ng t??c chi???n ?????y ?????, s??? tinh th??ng v?? ngu???n l???c ????? cung c???p ?????u v??o c?? gi?? tr???. Gi??? ????y khi ASEAN nh???n ra nh???ng l???i ??ch ti???m t??ng c???a c??c n?????c kh??ng thu???c ADMM+ ??ang quan s??t c??c h??nh ?????ng c???a Nh??m chuy??n gia, s??? can d??? c???a Brussels ????ng ???????c c??n nh???c trong b???i c???nh an ninh m???i v?? v???i m???t t?? duy c???i m???.
Eva Pejsova, Vi???n Nghi??n c???u An ninh, Li??n minh ch??u ??u. B??i vi???t ????ng tr??n Vi???n nghi??n c???u ????ng Nam ?? (ISEAS), Singapore.
Ngu???n: Nghi??n c???u Bi???n ????ng g???i b???n b??o
 
Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây