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Ng?????i Vi???t v?? ng?????i H??n: Ai m???i l?? t??? ti??n c???a ai?

V??o ?????u th??? k??? XXI, di truy???n h???c kh??m ph?? lo??i ng?????i xu???t hi???n ??? ch??u Phi kho???ng 200.000 n??m tr?????c r???i t??? ???? lan t???a ra th??? gi???i, l??m n??n nh??n lo???i. Ri??ng vi???c con ng?????i ?????n ch??u ??, gi???a c??c nh?? di truy???n l???i c?? hai quan ??i???m kh??c nhau. Ph??i con ???????ng ph????ng Nam cho r???ng, t??? ch??u Phi, ng?????i ti???n s??? sang b??n ?????o A R???p r???i theo ven bi???n ???n ????? t???i Vi???t Nam 70.000 n??m tr?????c. 40.000 n??m c??ch nay, nh??? kh?? h???u ???m h??n, ng?????i t??? Vi???t Nam ??i l??n ????ng ??.
Ng?????i Vi???t v?? ng?????i H??n: Ai m???i l?? t??? ti??n c???a ai?

Ng?????i Vi???t v?? ng?????i H??n: Ai m???i l?? t??? ti??n c???a ai?

T??c gi???: H?? V??n Th??y

L???i t??c gi???: L??u nay nghe d?? lu???n x??n xao: ng?????i Trung Qu???c khuy??n d??n Vi???t ???l??ng t??? h???i ?????u!??? Ngh?? r???ng ???? l?? vi???c r???t nghi??m tr???ng, v???a xuy??n t???c l???ch s??? v???a x??c ph???m t??? ti??n, ch???c c?? quan ch???c n??ng nh?? Tuy??n gi??o, H???i S??? ph???i nhanh nh???y ra tay??? Nh??ng ch??? m??i ch??? th???y im ???ng, d?????ng nh?? ch???ng c?? v???n ?????, kh??ng ????ng ch???p! Trong khi ???? d??n t??nh nh??o nh??c, kh??ng hi???u do c??n c??? n??o ng?????i ta khuy??n nh?? v???y v?? khuy??n v???y l?? c?? ?? g??? M???i ????y ng?????i b???n chuy???n cho b??i B??c b??? lu???n ??i???u Trung Qu???c khuy??n Vi???t Nam ???L??ng t??? h???i ?????u??? tr??n Nghi??n c???u qu???c t???, b???o ?????c r???i cho ?? ki???n n??n ch??ng t??i vi???t b??i n??y.

***

V??o ?????u th??? k??? XXI, di truy???n h???c kh??m ph?? lo??i ng?????i xu???t hi???n ??? ch??u Phi kho???ng 200.000 n??m tr?????c r???i t??? ???? lan t???a ra th??? gi???i, l??m n??n nh??n lo???i. Ri??ng vi???c con ng?????i ?????n ch??u ??, gi???a c??c nh?? di truy???n l???i c?? hai quan ??i???m kh??c nhau. Ph??i con ???????ng ph????ng Nam cho r???ng, t??? ch??u Phi, ng?????i ti???n s??? sang b??n ?????o A R???p r???i theo ven bi???n ???n ????? t???i Vi???t Nam 70.000 n??m tr?????c. 40.000 n??m c??ch nay, nh??? kh?? h???u ???m h??n, ng?????i t??? Vi???t Nam ??i l??n ????ng ??. T??? ????ng ?? c?? m???t d??ng r??? sang ph??a T??y, t???i Trung ?? r???i v??o ch??u ??u. T???i ????y h??? g???p ng?????i Europid t??? Trung ????ng t???i. Hai d??ng ng?????i h??a huy???t cho ra t??? ti??n ng?????i ch??u ??u. 30.000 n??m tr?????c, t??? ????ng ?? ng?????i ti???n s??? v?????t qua eo Bering chi???m l??nh ch??u M???. D??ng di c?? n??y l??m n??n ?????i b??? ph???n lo??i ng?????i ngo??i ch??u Phi. (1)

?????i ch???i v???i n?? l?? ph??i ch??? tr????ng con ???????ng ph????ng B???c, cho r???ng, c?? chuy???n di c?? theo con ???????ng ph????ng Nam nh??ng chuy???n ra ??i 45.000 n??m tr?????c, ng?????i ti???n s??? t??? ch??u Phi, v??o Trung ????ng, l??n Trung ?? r???i sang ph????ng ????ng m???i quan tr???ng v?? t???o ra ?????i b??? ph???n nh??n lo???i ngo??i ch??u Phi. (2)

Nhi???u nh?? di truy???n Trung Qu???c theo tr?????ng ph??i con ???????ng ph????ng B???c, cho r???ng, ng?????i t??? ch??u Phi v??o Trung Qu???c t???o n??n c???ng ?????ng B??ch Vi???t m?? ng?????i H??n l?? trung t??m. D???a theo t??i li???u c???a ng?????i Ph??p vi???t: ??? N??m 333 TCN, n?????c S??? di???t n?????c Vi???t, m???t b??? ph???n ng?????i Vi???t ch???y v??o B???c Vi???t Nam, tr??? th??nh ng?????i Vi???t Nam.??? (3)T??? ???kh??m ph?? l???ch s?????? ???? d???n t???i ch??? tr????ng k??u g???i ????m con ??i hoang h??y tr??? v??? nh??!

Tuy nhi??n ???? l?? s??? l???m l???n ?? ch??? c???a gi???i khoa h???c. Th???c t??? kh???o c???u cho th???y, c?? con ???????ng ph????ng B???c nh??ng d??ng di c?? n??y kh??ng h??? l??m n??n d??n c?? ????ng ??. ??? tr??n ch??ng t??i n??i, 40.000 n??m tr?????c, c?? d??ng ng?????i t??? ????ng ?? qua Trung ?? v??o ch??u ??u. Kho???ng 15.000 n??m tr?????c, m???t d??ng ng?????i t??? ch??u ??u qua Trung ??, ??i ng?????c l???i con ???????ng c?? ????? t???i ph????ng ????ng.(1) Nh??ng kho???ng 10.000 n??m tr?????c, ng?????i ??? ph??a T??y Hoa l???c ???? ????ng v?? c?? nh???ng b??? t???c d??ng m??nh nh?? b??? t???c T???n ???? ng??n kh??ng cho ng?????i di c?? ph????ng T??y v??o Trung Qu???c. ??o??n di c?? n??y bu???c ph???i chia ????i: m???t b??? ph???n tr?????t xu???ng T??y Nam, tr??? th??nh d??n thi???u s??? Uighur sau n??y. M???t nh??nh l??n ph??a B???c r???i t???i ????ng B???c Trung Qu???c, l??m n??n c??c s???c d??n thi???u s??? ??? B???c Trung Qu???c hi???n nay. Th???t b???i trong vi???c x??m nh???p Trung Qu???c nh??ng v??? m???t di truy???n, cu???c di c?? v???n ????? l???i nh???ng d???u hi???u (marks) trong b??? gen c???a d??n c??. Do v???y, m???t s??? nh?? di truy???n h???c khi kh???o s??t b??? gen con ng?????i ???? sa v??o c??i b???y c???a cu???c x??m nh???p b???t th??nh. N???u d??ng di c?? n??y v??o ???????c Hoa l???c, s??? ????? l???i ba h??? qu???:

1. Ng?????i Trung Qu???c ph???i mang m?? di truy???n ???n-??u m?? kh??ng ph???i M??ng C??? ph????ng Nam nh?? hi???n nay.

2. Ng?????i Trung Qu???c s??? c?? ch??? s??? ??a d???ng sinh h???c (Bio-diversity) cao nh???t ch??u ?? (sinh v???t c?? tu???i sinh h???c c??ng gi?? t???c c??ng g???n t??? ti??n th?? ch??? s??? ??a d???ng sinh h???c c??ng cao.) Trong khi th???c t??? cho th???y, ch??? s??? ??a d???ng sinh h???c c???a ng?????i H??n g???n nh?? th???p nh???t ch??u ??.

3. V???i con ???????ng di c?? t??? T??y B???c xu???ng ????ng Nam nh?? v???y, m???c nhi??n nh???ng di ch??? kh???o c??? ??? T??y B???c s??? c?? tu???i cao h??n v?? ti???n b??? h??n c??c di ch??? ??? ????ng Nam. Tuy nhi??n, s??? th???c ng?????c l???i. Nh???ng di ch??? kh???o c??? ph??a Nam kh??ng ch??? s???m h??n m?? c??n ti???n b??? h??n so v???i ??? T??y B???c. N??m 2016, sau 80 n??m khai qu???t v?? nghi??n c???u v??n h??a L????ng Ch??? v??ng Th??i H???, h???c gi??? Trung Qu???c k???t lu???n: ???Nh?? n?????c L????ng Ch??? s???m v?? ti???n b??? nh???t ph????ng ????ng. Tri???u ?????i H??? v?? Th????ng tr?????c ????y ???????c coi l?? s???m nh???t, nay ph???i tr??? l???i danh hi???u ???? cho L????ng Ch???.???V?? ???V??n h??a L????ng Ch??? l?? c???i ngu???n c???a v??n minh Trung Qu???c.???(4)

K???t lu???n ???????c r??t ra l?? kh??ng c?? chuy???n ng?????i ch??u Phi theo con ???????ng ph????ng B???c l??m n??n d??n c?? ????ng ??.

B???n ????? ph??n b??? c??c nh??m ng?????i t??? Vi???t Nam ??i l??n chi???m l??nh Hoa l???c  (O: Indonesian, C: Melaanesian, N: Mongoloid v?? D: Negritoid) (8)

Tr??n th???c t???, ch??? c?? duy nh???t con ???????ng ph????ng Nam ????a ng?????i ti???n s??? t???i Vi???t Nam 70.000 n??m tr?????c l??m n??n d??n c?? ch??u ??. T???i ????y hai ?????i ch???ng Australoid v?? Mongoloid h??a huy???t sinh ra b???n ch???ng ng?????i Vi???t c??? Indonesian, Melanesian, Vedoid v?? Negritoid. Ng?????i Indonesian chi???m ??a s???, gi??? vai tr?? l??nh ?????o v??? x?? h???i v?? ng??n ng???, sau n??y ???????c g???i l?? L???c Vi???t. C??ng c?? m???t s??? nh??m ng?????i Mongoloid do ???thi???u tinh th???n t???p th?????? kh??ng ch???u ch??i v???i ai n??n ??i t???i T??y B???c ????ng D????ng v?? s???ng c??ch bi???t trong m??i tr?????ng l???nh gi??. 40.000 n??m c??ch nay, do kh?? h???u ???m l??n, ng?????i t??? Vi???t Nam ??i l??n Qu???ng ????ng r???i lan t???a ra tr??? th??nh d??n c?? Hoa l???c. T???i di ch??? ??i???n Nguy??n ?????ng th??nh ph??? Chu Kh???u ??i???m ph??t hi???n x????ng ch??n ng?????i ????n ??ng 40.000 n??m tu???i, ???????c x??c nh???n l?? t??? ti??n ng?????i ????ng ?? v?? l?? th???y t??? ng?????i ch??u M??? b???n ?????a (5) Ri??ng nh??m ng?????i Mongoloid t??? T??y B???c ????ng D????ng theo h??nh lang ph??a T??y ??i l??n T??y B???c Trung Qu???c v?? ?????t M??ng C???. Ban ?????u h??? s???ng b???ng s??n b???n h??i l?????m. Khi k??? B??ng h?? k???t th??c, h??? chuy???n sang du m???c ??? b??? B???c Ho??ng H??. Do gi??? ???????c ngu???n gen thu???n ch???ng n??n sau n??y ???????c g???i l?? ch???ng Mongoloid ph????ng B???c (North Mongoloid). Kho???ng 9000 n??m tr?????c, t???i l??u v???c Ho??ng H?? v?? D????ng T???, d??n Vi???t ???? ????ng, l??m n??n n???n v??n h??a n??ng nghi???p tr???ng l??a, tr???ng k??, nu??i gia s??c ??? Gi??? H??? H?? Nam??? Kho???ng 7000 n??m tr?????c, t???i b??? Nam Ho??ng H??, ng?????i Vi???t Australoid g???p g??? ng?????i du m???c M??ng C??? b??n b??? B???c ????? trao ?????i h??ng h??a. Vi???c h??n ph???i luy???n ??i di???n ra, l???p con lai M??ng-Vi???t ra ?????i, mang m?? di truy???n Mongoloid ph????ng Nam. (6) Ng?????i Mongoloid ph????ng Nam t??ng s??? l?????ng, d???n thay th??? ng?????i Australoid, th??nh ch??? th??? d??n c?? l??u v???c Ho??ng H??. H??? s??ng t???o v??n h??a Long S??n, x??y d???ng hai trung t??m v??n h??a r???c r??? Th??i S??n v?? Trong Ngu???n (?????ng b???ng H??n Th???y), sau n??y ???????c g???i l?? ng?????i H??n.

Kho???ng gi???a thi??n ni??n k??? III TCN, m???t b??? ph???n ng?????i Vi???t t??? l??u v???c Ho??ng H?? di c?? v??? ph????ng Nam, ??em ngu???n gen Mongoloid chuy???n h??a d??n c?? Nam D????ng T??? v?? Vi???t Nam sang ch???ng Mongoloid ph????ng Nam. T??? kho???ng 2000 n??m TCN, ?????i b??? ph???n ng?????i Vi???t Nam mang m?? di truy???n Mongoloid ph????ng Nam. Nh?? v???y, ng?????i Vi???t Nam v?? ng?????i Trung Qu???c tr?????c ????y c??ng ch???ng t???c Australoid th?? t??? 2000 n??m TCN c??ng ch???ng t???c Mongoloid ph????ng Nam. (7)Tuy nhi??n, v?? ng?????i Vi???t Nam ???????c sinh ra t??? t??? ti??n 70.000 n??m tr?????c n??n c?? tu???i sinh h???c gi?? h??n do ???? c?? ch??? s??? ??a d???ng sinh h???c cao nh???t trong d??n c?? ch??u ??.

Do ???????c h??nh th??nh nh?? v???y, n??n ti???ng Vi???t l?? ti???ng n??i chung c???a d??n c?? ph????ng ????ng. Nh??ng ??? l??u v???c Ho??ng H??, do ti???p x??c v???i ng?????i M??ng C??? n??n ti???ng n??i chuy???n theo c??ch n??i M??ng C??? (ph??? tr?????c ch??nh sau) ?????ng th???i bi???n ??m theo gi???ng M??ng C???. C??n ch??? vi???t th?? ch??? Gi??p c???t xu???t hi???n 9000 n??m tr?????c ??? v??n h??a Gi??? H???. Kho???ng 4000 n??m tr?????c, t???i C???m Tang, L????ng Ch???, ch??? Gi??p c???t ???? tr?????ng th??nh. V??o ?????i Th????ng 1300 n??m TCN, Gi??p c???t v??n ???????c n??ng c???p, sau ???? ???????c chu???n h??a th??nh v??n t??? ch??nh th???c c???a Trung Qu???c. Nh?? v???y, v??? b???n ch???t, ti???ng Vi???t l?? ch??? th??? l??m n??n ng??n ng??? Trung Hoa, ch??? Vi???t l?? ch??? th??? l??m n??n ch??? vi???t Trung Hoa, v??n h??a Vi???t l?? ch??? th??? c???a v??n h??a Trung Qu???c.

B??ch Vi???t l?? g??? S??ch ?????u ti??n n??i v??? B??ch Vi???t l?? cu???n L?? th??? Xu??n Thu, cho bi???t: n??m 333 TCN, n?????c S??? di???t n?????c Vi???t, con ch??u vua Vi???t l?? ?????u l??nh t???ng v??ng, c??ng ?????ng l??n l???p qu???c, l???y t??n ?????t l??m t??n n?????c, nh?? M??n Vi???t, ????ng Vi???t???b??n c???nh nh???ng n?????c Vi???t c?? t??? tr?????c nh?? L???c Vi???t v?? nh???ng n?????c Vi???t tr??n ?????t Th??i Lan, Mi???n ??i???n ng??y nay. C??? nhi??n, trong chi???n tranh con ng?????i ph???i ch???y lo???n. Nh??ng kh??ng h??? c?? chuy???n d??n n?????c Vi???t ch???y xu???ng th??nh ng?????i Vi???t Nam. B???i l???, ng?????i Giang Nam v?? ng?????i Vi???t Nam ?????u l?? L???c Vi???t, c??ng m?? di truy???n Mongoloid ph????ng Nam t??? 2000 n??m tr?????c. D??n s??? Vi???t Nam l??c n??y ???? ????ng n??n v??o ?????u th???i  thu???c H??n, nhi???u h??n s??? d??n hai t???nh Qu???ng ????ng v?? Qu???ng T??y. B??ch Vi???t l?? nh???ng n?????c nh???, ri??ng l??? ch??? t???n t???i 200 n??m (333-111 TCN). Sau n??y, c??c s??? gia nh?? H??n c??n c??? theo t??n Vi???t, g???p th??nh B??ch Vi???t. L???c Vi???t c??ng ???????c g???p v??o B??ch Vi???t m???t c??ch t??? nhi??n nh?? v???y. Khi B??ch Vi???t ra ?????i th?? ng?????i T???n ch??a v?????t qua D????ng T??? n??n n??i r???ng ???ng?????i H??n l?? trung t??m c???a c???ng ?????ng B??ch Vi???t??? l?? kh??ng ????ng s??? th???t.

D?? th???a nh???n hay kh??ng th???a nh???n th?? c??ng kh??ng ai c?? th??? ph??? ?????nh s??? th???t n??y:

1. ?????t Vi???t Nam l?? n??i ph??t t??ch c???a t???t c??? c??c d??n t???c ch??u ??.

2. Ra ?????i t??? 70.000 n??m tr?????c n??n ng?????i Vi???t Nam g???n v???i T??? ti??n nh???t, c?? tu???i sinh h???c cao nh???t. Sinh ra t??? 7000 n??m tr?????c, ng?????i H??n l?? l???a con ch??u mu???n m???n c???a t???c Vi???t.

3. Do c???i ngu???n nh?? v???y n??n ti???ng Vi???t l?? ch??? th??? l??m n??n ng??n ng??? Trung Hoa. Ch??? Vi???t l?? ch??? th??? l??m n??n ch??? vi???t Trung Hoa. V??n h??a Vi???t l?? ch??? th??? l??m n??n v??n h??a Trung Hoa.

T??? s??? th???c tr??n, vi???c khuy??n ng?????i Vi???t Nam ???l??ng t??? h???i ?????u??? l?? vi???c l??m xuy??n t???c l???ch s???, ?????o l???n t??n ty, x??c ph???m T??? ti??n. Nh???ng k??? v?? h???u nh?? v???y s??? b??? qu??? b??o.

S??i G??n, Thu 2019

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T??i li???u tham kh???o:

1. Stephen Oppenheimer. Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World.

https://www.amazon.co.uk/Out???Stephen-Oppenheimer/dp/184119894

2. Spencer Wells. The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey.

https://www.amazon.com/Journey-Man-Genetic???/dp/069111532X

3. L??onard Aurousseau. Theo Tr???n Tr???ng kim Vi???t Nam s??? l?????c.

4. ????????????_???????????? baike.com/wiki/

5. Sergio Prostak. DNA Analysis Reveals Common Origin of Tianyuan Humans and Native Americans, Asians. Jan 24, 2013

http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/anthropology/article00842.html

6. YANGSHAO CULTURE (5000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.) | Facts and Details

factsanddetails.com/china/cat2/sub1/item32.html

7. H?? V??n Th??y. G??p ph???n nh???n th???c l???i l???ch s??? v??n h??a Vi???t. NXB H???i Nh?? v??n, H.2016

8. Chuan-Chao Wang, Hui Li. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomeshttps://investigativegenetics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2041-2223-4-11
 

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