Cho kh??ng nh?? - Kh???ng t???

Trong danh m???c M?????i cu???n s??ch l???n (xu???t b???n t???i Trung Qu???c) n??m 2007 do H???i B??nh lu???n s??ch Trung Qu???c (China Book Review Academy) c??ng b???, x???p ?????u b???ng l?? cu???n s??ch ????????????????????????????????? Ch?? kh??ng nh??: T??i ?????c ???Lu???n Ng??????.

????y l?? k???t qu??? b??nh ch???n c???a 42 c?? quan truy???n th??ng, trong ???? c?? nhi???u t??? b??o l???n nh?? b??o Thanh ni??n Trung Qu???c,

V?? sao Kh???ng T??? ???????c g???i l?? ???ch?? kh??ng nh??????

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T??c gi???: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

Trong danh m???c M?????i cu???n s??ch l???n (xu???t b???n t???i Trung Qu???c) n??m 2007 do H???i B??nh lu???n s??ch Trung Qu???c (China Book Review Academy) c??ng b???, x???p ?????u b???ng l?? cu???n s??ch ????????????????????????????????? Ch?? kh??ng nh??: T??i ?????c ???Lu???n Ng??????.

????y l?? k???t qu??? b??nh ch???n c???a 42 c?? quan truy???n th??ng, trong ???? c?? nhi???u t??? b??o l???n nh?? b??o Thanh ni??n Trung Qu???c, nh???t b??o Quang Minh, Ph????ng Nam cu???i tu???n, b??o T??n Kinh??? S??ch l???n ??? ????y l?? s??ch (thu???c l??nh v???c v??n h???c, l???ch s??? ???) ???????c nhi???u b???n ?????c quan t??m v?? c?? ???nh h?????ng l???n v???i h???, c?? gi?? tr??? quan tr???ng v??? t?? t?????ng, v??n h??a. M???t s??? cu???c b??nh ch???n s??ch kh??c c??ng x???p Ch?? kh??ng nh?? ??? ?????u b???ng, v???i s??? nh???t tr?? cao c???a c??c h???c gi??? tham d??? b??nh s??ch.

Ch?? kh??ng nh??: T??i ?????c Lu???n Ng??? d??y 390 trang do Nh?? xu???t b???n Nh??n d??n S??n T??y (Trung Qu???c) xu???t b???n th??ng 5/2007, t??c gi??? l?? L?? Linh (sinh 1948), gi??o s?? ??H B???c Kinh, n???i ti???ng uy??n th??m trong l??nh v???c kh???o c???, gi???i th??ch t??? ng??? c???, v??n b???n c???. Hai t??c ph???m kh??c c???a ??ng xu???t b???n n??m 2005 v?? 2006 ?????u ???????c ch???n l?? s??ch hay c???a n??m. 

Ch?? kh??ng nh?? l???p t???c g??y ra m???t ???tr???n ?????ng ?????t??? tr??n v??n ????n Trung Qu???c. T???t c??? ch??? v?? t??c gi??? d??m b???o Kh???ng T??? ??? b???c ch?? th??nh ti??n s?? bao ?????i nay ng?????i Trung Qu???c th??? ph???ng ??? th???c ra ch??? l?? m???t ng?????i b??nh th?????ng, m???t ???Ch?? kh??ng nh?????.

Hai v??? c???a t??n s??ch

V??? ch??nh l?? ba ch??? T??ng gia c???u (Sangjiagou) in r???t to ngo??i b??a. T??c gi??? gi???i th??ch T??ng gia c???u l?? ch?? kh??ng c?? nh?? ????? v???, c??n g???i l?? ch?? lang thang, ti???ng Anh homeless, c??ng d??ng ????? ch??? ng?????i kh??ng c?? nh?? ????? v???. ???B???t c??? ng?????i n??o ???p ??? l?? t?????ng m?? kh??ng t??m ???????c qu?? nh?? tinh th???n c???a m??nh trong th??? gi???i hi???n th???c th?? ?????u l?? Ch?? kh??ng nh????? ??? h??ng ch??? nh??? n??y in ngay ngo??i b??a s??ch, ch???c ????? ng?????i ?????c ????? s???c v??? m???y ch??? Ch?? kh??ng nh??.

T??ng gia c???u ?????????ti???ng Vi???t l??? ra ph???i d???ch l?? ???ch?? m???t nh?????, nh??ng nh?? th??? kh??ng ????ng v???i Kh???ng T???, v?? c??? v???n c?? khu nh?? ??? r???t to ??? Kh??c Ph??? ?????y ch???. V??? l???i ???nh????? ??? ????y l?? ???qu?? nh?? tinh th???n??? ch??? kh??ng ph???i nh?? ????? ???; t??c gi??? c??n n??i th??m ??: Ng?????i tr?? th???c Trung Qu???c c??ng l?? Ch?? kh??ng nh??. Nguy??n ngh??a T??ng gia c???u th???i c??? l?? ???ch?? c???a nh?? c?? vi???c tang???, t???c ch?? m???t ch??? (ch??? H??n???c?? hai ngh??a ???t??ng??? v?? ???tang???), nh??ng v??? sau d??n gian d??ng quen v???i ngh??a ???t??ng??? (m???t). T??? n??y kh??ng c?? ngh??a x???u, tr?????c ????y nh?? v??n V????ng Ti???u Ba d??ng ????? g???i nh???ng ng?????i lang thang trong n???i l??ng c?? ????n. C??ng c?? ng?????i tr??ch L?? Linh sao kh??ng d??ng ch??? ???khuy???n??? thanh nh?? h??n ch??? ???c???u???.

V??? th??? hai T??i ?????c Lu???n Ng??? in ch??? nh???, mu???n n??i n???i dung s??ch n??y r??t ra t??? vi???c ?????c s??ch Lu???n Ng??? (ti???ng Anh: The Analects of Confucius), ch??? kh??ng ph???i t??? c??c s??ch kh??c c???a Kh???ng T???. Tr?????c ????y ???? c?? kh?? nhi???u s??ch d??ng c??i t??n ?????c Lu???n Ng???. Trong khi nhi???u ng?????i ch??a ?????c Lu???n Ng??? ???? c?? ??m th??? t??m l?? coi ????y l?? s??ch th??nh hi???n cao si??u, v?? th??? khi ?????c s??? hi???u sai Kh???ng T???, suy di???n ra ????? th??? tri???t l?? k??? di???u v?? k??? qu???c, th?? L?? Linh coi Lu???n Ng??? l?? m???t cu???n l???ch s??? t?? t?????ng, kinh ??i???n quan tr???ng nh???t c???a Nho h???c; ??ng ?????c n?? l?? ????? t??m m???t Kh???ng T??? ch??n th???c, m???t ?????c Kh???ng s???ng, ch??? kh??ng ph???i m???t ?????c Kh???ng ng?????i ta t???o d???ng n??n (nh??n t???o). ??ng vi???t: T??i ?????c Lu???n Ng??? l?? ?????c nguy??n ??i???n (b???n g???c c???a kinh ??i???n); suy ngh?? c???a Kh???ng T??? th??? n??o, ph???i ?????c nguy??n t??c. M???i k???t lu???n c???a t??i ?????u ph??t bi???u b???ng l???i c???a ch??nh Kh???ng T???. ????y ch??nh l?? l?? do khi???n ng?????i ta kh?? l??ng ph???n b??c ??ng. Trong s??ch, nh???ng l???i ??ng vi???t ch??? l?? s??? h?????ng d???n ?????c nguy??n b???n. S??ch g???m hai ph???n:

    • gi??o tr??nh L?? Linh vi???t;
    • nguy??n b???n Lu???n Ng???, c?? th??m Tr??ch l???c ch??? ?????, B???ng k?? nh??n v???t c???a Lu???n Ng??? v?? Ch??? d???n tra c???u nh??n v???t.

???Nguy??n ??i???n??? ???y c?? t??? m???y ng??n n??m tr?????c, vi???t tr??n th??? tre b???ng ch??? c???, v??n c??? (ch???ng c?? d???u ng???t c??u, xu???ng d??ng, to??n b??? t??c ph???m vi???t trong m???t c??u li???n t?? t?? ???), c???c k??? kh?? hi???u. C??c b???n Lu???n Ng??? ng??y nay ?????u ???? ???????c nhi???u h???c gi??? vi???t l???i, s???p x???p l???i, c?? th??m ????? lo???i d???u ng???t c??u, ngo???c ????n ngo???c k??p v???n kh??ng c?? trong v??n Trung Qu???c c???. L?? Linh c??? ?????i ???ki???m c??m??? b???ng ngh??? kh???o c???, gi???i th??ch t??? ng??? c??? v?? v??n b???n c???, chuy??n nghi??n c???u v??n t??? ch??p tr??n th??? tre khai qu???t t??? c??c m??? c???, d?? nhi??n c?? ti???ng n??i uy t??n nh???t trong gi???i nghi??n c???u s??ch c??? Trung Qu???c. Ch??nh v?? th??? m?? nh???ng ng?????i ph???n ?????i Ch?? kh??ng nh?? c??ng ?????u ph???i th???a nh???n s??ch n??y c?? gi?? tr??? h???c thu???t.

Ai n??i Kh???ng T??? l?? Ch?? kh??ng nh???

Trong Ch?? kh??ng nh??, L?? Linh vi???t v??? Kh???ng T??? nh?? sau (ch??ng t??i t??m g???n):

Lu???n Ng??? ch??p: T??? C???ng (m???t h???c tr?? c???a ?????c Kh???ng) n??i Kh???ng T??? l?? th??nh, ngay l??c ???y b??? Kh???ng T??? ph??? nh???n. Ng??i ch??? l?? m???t ng?????i xu???t th??n h??n m???n nh??ng l???i l???y c??c nh?? qu?? t???c c??? (ch??n qu??n t???) l??m ti??u chu???n l???p th??n, m???t ng?????i h???c kh??ng bi???t ch??n, d???y ng?????i kh??ng bi???t m???i, m???t ng?????i c?? ?????o ?????c, h???c v???n nh??ng l???i ch???ng c?? quy???n th??? g??, m???t ng?????i ??i kh???p n??i du thuy???t, lo ngh?? thay cho t???ng l???p th???ng tr???, r??t c??? b???ng h???ng thuy???t ph???c ch??ng c???i t?? quy ch??nh, gian nan phi??u b???t nh?? m???t con ch?? lang thang kh??ng c?? nh?? ????? v???.

N??m 492 tr?????c C??ng nguy??n, ?????c Kh???ng 60 tu???i xa r???i c??c m??n ????? c???a m??nh, b??n ba ?????n n?????c Tr???nh. C?? ng?????i b???o T??? C???ng r???ng b??n ngo??i c???ng th??nh c?? m???t ng?????i n???a tr??n c?? ch??t v??? th??nh nh??n nh??ng n???a d?????i th?? nh?? con ch?? kh??ng nh??. T??? C???ng nh???c l???i nguy??n v??n c??u ???? v???i Kh???ng T???, Ng??i ???? kh??ng kh?? ch???u m?? c??n c?????i n??i: H??nh ???nh kh??ng quan tr???ng, nh??ng b???o ta nh?? ???T??ng gia c???u??? th?? r???t ????ng.

Kh???ng T??? tuy???t v???ng v???i t??? qu???c m??nh, ??i kh???p c??c n?????c ch?? h???u, c?? t??i m?? ch???ng ???????c d??ng, cu???i c??ng v???n ph???i v??? sinh qu??n, cu???i ?????i s???ng trong n???i ??au, kh??c c???n n?????c m???t r???i ch???t trong nh?? m??nh ??? nh??ng c??? ????u c?? nh?? (c?? l??? t??c gi??? n??i m??i nh?? tinh th???n).

T??? Kh???ng T???, t??i (L?? Linh) nh??n th???y s??? ph???n c???a ng?????i tr?? th???c ???

C???m ngh?? c???a t??i sau khi ?????c Lu???n Ng??? l?? hai ch???: c?? ????n. Kh???ng T??? r???t c?? ????n. Ng??y nay c?? ng?????i m???i c??? l??m th???y thu???c t??m l??; th???t ra t??m b???nh c???a c??? c??n ch??a ???????c ai ch???a cho. Trong s??ch n??y t??i mu???n n??i r???ng Kh???ng T??? kh??ng ph???i l?? th??nh; ng?????i m?? bao ?????i vua ch??a ca ng???i ???y kh??ng ph???i l?? Kh???ng T??? ????ch th???c, ch??? l?? ???Kh???ng T??? nh??n t???o??? th??i.

D?????ng nh?? b??y gi??? nhi???u ng?????i m???i bi???t Kh???ng T??? t??? nh???n l?? T??ng gia c???u. Chuy???n n??y Lu???n Ng??? kh??ng ch??p, nh??ng T?? M?? Thi??n c?? vi???t trong ???S??? K????? (???T??? C???ng d?? th???c c??o Kh???ng T???. Kh???ng T??? h??n nhi??n ti???u vi???t: ???H??nh tr???ng, m???t d??. Nhi v??? t??? t??ng gia chi khuy???n, nhi??n tai! Nhi??n tai!???); c?? l??? ch??? c??c h???c gi??? m???i ????? ?? t???i. L??? thay, Kh???ng T??? vui v??? nh???n m??nh l?? Ch?? kh??ng nh??, nh??ng b??y gi??? c??c h???u du??? c??? l???i n???i gi???n v?? L?? Linh d??m ch??p l???i chuy???n ???y! Ph???i ch??ng ????y l?? s??? kh??c nhau gi???a qu??n t??? v???i ng?????i th?????ng?

Lu???n Ng??? vi???t g???

Theo L?? Linh, Lu???n Ng??? vi???t m???y chuy???n:

    • Th???y tr?? Kh???ng T??? s??i n???i b??n lu???n v??? l?? t?????ng v?? hi???n th???c;
    • Kh???ng T??? ??i chu du c??c n?????c, c?? t??i m?? ch???ng ???????c d??ng, m???t m???i nh?? con ch?? kh??ng nh??;
    • Sau khi th???y m???t, m???i m??n ????? c???a th???y h??ng c??? m???t m???ng, tranh gi??nh danh v??? ch??nh th???ng, song l???i ?????ng t??m hi???p l???c d???ng Kh???ng T??? l??m th??nh nh??n.

C??c suy ngh?? th???c s??? c???a Kh???ng T??? l??:

    • Ph???i h???c t???p, ch??? l??m ru???ng; h???c gi???i m???i ???????c l??m quan, m???i th???c s??? gi???i quy???t chuy???n ????i ngh??o;
    • Trong x??? th??? ph???i kh??n ngoan gi??? m??nh, n??i y??n ???n th?? ?????n, kh??ng y??n ???n th?? l??nh ??i, ???? kh??ng d???n th??n v??o n??i nguy nan c??ng ch???ng t??m ?????n ch??? ch???t;
    • C?? th??? m??u c???u gi??u sang, song gi??u sang m?? b???t ngh??a th?? ch??? l?? th??? ph?? v??n;
    • Ngh??o v?? gi??u, h??i h??a v?? b???t an, t???t v?? x???u, l?? t?????ng v?? hi???n th???c, tr??? ng?????i v?? b??? ng?????i tr???, d?????i b???u tr???i n??y ?????u l?? nh???ng th??? ch???ng kh??c nhau m???y.

G??o n?????c l???nh gi???i l??n nh???ng c??i ?????u n??ng

Ch?? kh??ng nh??: T??i ?????c Lu???n Ng??? xu???t b???n ????ng v??o l??c h??ng tr??m tri???u ng?????i Trung Qu???c t??? ng?????i l???n t???i tr??? con ??ang l??n C??n s???t Qu???c h???c, ?????nh cao m???i c???a phong tr??o ph???c h??ng v??n h??a truy???n th???ng Trung Hoa k??o d??i nhi???u n??m nay. Qu???c h???c d??ng ????? ph??n bi???t v???i T??y h???c; h???u h???t ng?????i Trung Qu???c ?????u cho r???ng n???i dung ch??nh c???a Qu???c h???c l?? Nho h???c (ta quen g???i Nho gi??o).

Trong c??n s???t ???y, ng?????i ta ??ua nhau ?????c Lu???n Ng??? ??? ???V???n th??? Kinh ??i???n??? c???a Nho gi??o, t????ng ??????ng Kinh Th??nh ??? ph????ng T??y. N??m 2004 Khoa Trung v??n ??H B???c Kinh n??i L?? Linh c??ng t??c c??ng m??? kh??a h???c Lu???n Ng???, chia 3 l???p; do nh???n nhi???m v??? d???y m???t l???p; L?? ???? ?????c l???i Lu???n Ng???, vi???t gi??o tr??nh, nay in th??nh s??ch tr??n.

C?? nhi???u ??i???u ????ng n??i v??? C??n s???t Qu???c h???c. L???ch s??? cho th???y, khi d??n tr?? ch??a cao, nhi???u phong tr??o qu???n ch??ng ??? giai ??o???n cu???i th?????ng n???y sinh nh???ng nh???n th???c n??ng n???i, ???u tr??, nh???t l?? khi m???i ng?????i ???? ???s???t???. Nh??ng ch???ng m???y b???c th???c gi??? n??o d??m gi???i n?????c l???nh l??n nh???ng c??i ?????u n??ng ???y, b???i l??? c?? s???c m???nh n??o ????ng s??? h??n s???c m???nh c???a qu???n ch??ng?

Phong tr??o ph???c h??ng v??n h??a Trung Qu???c khi l??n C??n s???t Qu???c h???c c??ng c?? t??nh tr???ng nh?? v???y. C??n s???t n??y t??ng nhi???t m???nh khi x???y ra Hi???n t?????ng Vu ??an. Qua Vu ??an, ng?????i Trung Qu???c th???y Kh???ng T??? t???ng n??i nhi???u c??u r???t h???u d???ng cho h???; Lu???n Ng??? tr??? th??nh m??n chicken soup (canh d?????ng sinh) kho??i kh???u ai c??ng th??ch; Kh???ng T??? tr??? th??nh v??? th???y thu???c t??m l?? ch???a b???nh cho ng?????i Trung Qu???c ??ang b?? v?? v??? l?? t?????ng v?? b??? t???c tr?????c c??c t??? n???n c???a kinh t??? th??? tr?????ng v?? l???i s???ng c??ng nghi???p.

Tr?????c c??n s???t ???y, h???u h???t gi???i h???c thu???t im l???ng; tuy l??c ?????u c?? 10 v??? ti???n s?? tuy??n b??? ch???ng l???i Vu ??an. S??? gia n???i ti???ng Chu Duy Tranh n??i Vu ??an ???d??m gi???ng gi???i c??? nh???ng ??i???u b?? kh??ng hi???u???. Song l???i n??i c???a h??? ch??m ngh???m gi???a mu??n ng??n ti???ng khen ng???i Vu ??an. Nhi???u h???c gi??? Trung Qu???c cho r???ng C??n s???t Qu???c h???c l?? m???t ??i???n h??nh c???a b???nh n??ng n???i v??n h??a; Vu ??an ch??? ph??? c???p v??n h??a, kh??ng ph???i l?? nghi??n c???u l?? lu???n; trong gi???i th??ch kinh ??i???n, c??c h???c gi??? c?? ???tr???n ?????a??? ri??ng, kh??c t???ng n???c v?? t??nh ch???t v???i ph??? c???p v??n h??a, v?? th??? h??? tr??nh ph?? ph??n ng?????i kh??c, kh??ng mu???n ti???p tay ho???c g??y r???c r???i cho ng?????i kh??c t???ng n???c.

Trong c??n s???t ????, ph??i T??n Nho gia ???? ??i xa qu?? ????ng, l???i th??m s??? c??? x??y v?? m???c ????ch th????ng m???i c???a c??c ?????u n???u truy???n th??ng xu???t b???n t???ng v??? b???m trong ???Hi???n t?????ng Vu ??an???. Qu???c h???c tr??? th??nh c??ng c??? ki???m ti???n; t??nh th????ng m???i l???n ??t t??nh v??n h??a ban ?????u; h???u qu??? c?? th??? kh??n l?????ng. Kh???ng T??? ???????c s??ng b??i qu?? m???c; Lu???n Ng??? ???????c ????a l??n v??? tr?? qu?? cao; Nho gi??o l???n ??t c??c gi?? tr??? v??n h??a kh??c nh?? ?????o gia, Ph??p gia, Ph???t gia???

GS Chu H???c C???n (??H Th?????ng H???i) nh???n x??t: Kh???ng T??? b??? n??ng l??n t???i ????? cao ????ng s???, ho??n to??n tho??t ly b??? m???t v???n c?? c???a Ng??i. D?? Anh Th???i (gi???i Kluge 2007, c??n g???i l?? gi???i Nobel khoa h???c x?? h???i nh??n v??n) n??i: T?? t?????ng Trung Qu???c ????u ch??? c?? Nho gia? Ch??? n??n coi Kh???ng T??? l?? ng?????i ?????u ti??n n??u ra gi?? tr??? tinh th???n, m???t ng?????i r???t b??nh th?????ng, ch??? n??n trang ??i???m Ng??i th??nh m???t ng?????i cao s??u kh??ng th??? ??o ???????c. V?? L?? Linh x??a nay ch??? vi???t nh???ng t??c ph???m h???c thu???t bu???c ph???i l??n ti???ng b???ng m???t cu???n s??ch vi???t r???t c??ng phu nh??ng c?? c??i t??n thi???u v??? h???c thu???t Ch?? kh??ng nh??. R?? r??ng, g??o n?????c l???nh n??y nh???m l??m h??? nhi???t c??n s???t Qu???c h???c.

Tranh c??i

Ch?? kh??ng nh?? tuy ch??? in 15 ngh??n cu???n nh??ng ???? g??y ti???ng vang l???n, ???????c gi???i v??n h??a v?? xu???t b???n tr??n tr???ng ????n nh???n, ng?????i ?????c tranh nhau t??m mua. Gi???i h???c thu???t ???? t??? ch???c m???t s??? bu???i h???i th???o v??? s??ch n??y. Ti???ng n??i ch???i tai, ????n ?????c c???a L?? Linh kh??ng h??? b??? nh???n ch??m gi???a bi???n ng?????i say s??a tung h?? Kh???ng T???.

GS Chu H???c C???n n??i s??ch n??y th??? hi???n tinh th???n ph?? ph??n c?? suy ngh?? ?????c l???p trong gi???i th??ch Lu???n Ng??? (?? n??i kh??ng a dua theo phong tr??o c?? s??? h???u thu???n c???a ch??nh quy???n); h???c thuy???t Nho gia gi???i l???m ch??? c?? ch???c n??ng ?????o ?????c tu th??n d?????ng t??nh m?? th??i ch??? kh??ng th??? thay th??? c??c gi?? tr??? ph??? qu??t hi???n ?????i l?? quan ni???m ch??nh tr??? d??n ch??? v?? ph??p ch???, l???i c??ng kh??ng tr??? qu???c b??nh thi??n h??? ???????c; ch??? c?? d???a v??o c??c gi?? tr??? ph??? qu??t ???y m???i gi??? ???????c s??? ???n ?????nh tinh th???n trong x?? h???i Trung Qu???c hi???n nay.

Ng?????i b??nh s??ch c???a nh???n ?????nh: Ch?? kh??ng nh?? cho th???y Kh???ng T??? l?? m???t ????n Kih??t?? (Don Quixote, ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a l?? t?????ng m???t c??ch ph?? phi???m, xem Cervantes); ?????c s??ch n??y, ta kh??ng th??? c??n l?? l???n m?? h??? n???a, l???i c??ng kh??ng th??? bi???t m?? v??? l?? l???n (l?? s??? l?? l???n c???a nh?? tr?? th???c); trong c??n s???t ?????c kinh ??i???n ???? xu???t hi???n nhi???u nh???n th???c n??ng n???i nh?? coi Lu???n Ng??? l?? ph????ng thu???c c???u ?????i, ho???c m???t th??? chicken soup t??m linh ch???a b??ch b???nh.

Ti???n L?? Qu???n vi???t: ?????c Ch?? kh??ng nh??, nhi???u ng?????i th???y ???????c c??c ch??? hi???u sai ho???c ch??a hi???u Lu???n Ng???. T???p ch?? Di???n ????n Khoa h???c s??? 10/2007 nh???n x??t: S??ch L?? Linh l?? t???ng thi??n th???ch r??i v??o t???m g????ng t?? t?????ng Kh???ng T??? c???a v??n h??a truy???n th???ng Trung Qu???c.

Nh???ng l???i ch?? s??ch ch??? y???u t???p trung v??o s??? b???t k??nh c???a L?? Linh ?????i v???i Kh???ng T???, ngo??i ra ch??a th???y c?? l?? l??? n??o b??c b??? ???????c c??c l???p lu???n c???a t??c gi???. Ph??i T??n Nho gia ph???n k??ch h??ng nh???t. T?????ng Kh??nh (t??c gi??? thuy???t ????a Nho gi??o v??o ch??nh quy???n) ch?? L?? Linh ???ng???o m???n khinh mi???t v?? s??? nh???c th??nh hi???n???. Tr???n B??ch Sinh n??i L?? Linh c?? th??i ????? ng???o m???n khinh ?????i c???a ?????o gia v?? b???t m??n s??u s???c v???i hi???n th???c; L?? Linh c?? quan ??i???m gi???i c???u tr??c Nho h???c m???t c??ch qu?? ????ng. Ng?????i duy nh???t vi???t b??i ph???n b??c l?? Tr???n Minh (GS ??H S?? ph???m B???c Kinh, T???ng Bi??n t???p t???p ch?? Nguy??n ?????o). ??ng vi???t: ???V??n t??i c???a nh?? v??n + t???m nh??n c???a nh?? gi???i th??ch t??? ng??? c??? + t??m tr???ng ???Ph???n thanh??? (????? t??nh c???m chi ph???i l?? tr??, ng??n ng??? ch??? tr??t t??nh c???m m?? kh??ng ch?? ?? t??nh h??nh th???c t???) = Ch?? kh??ng nh??: T??i ?????c Lu???n Ng??????. ??ng ch?? s??ch L?? Linh n??i v??n h??a m?? ch???i ch??nh tr???, trong s??ch ch???a ?????ng s??? h???n th??, c??m gh??t s??u s???c ?????i v???i t?? t?????ng Nho gi??o, tuy s??ch c?? t??nh h???c thu???t nh??ng vi???c ch???n t??n s??ch c?? t??nh c???t nh??? b???t k??nh, kh?? ch???p nh???n.

Tranh c??i v??? Ch?? kh??ng nh?? ch??? l?? s??? ti???p di???n cu???c ?????u tranh dai d???ng gi???a c??i g???i l?? ph??i theo ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? v??n h??a v???i ph??i theo ch??? ngh??a t??? do, ho???c ph??i S??ng Nho v???i ph??i Ph???n Nho (tr?????c ????y c??n c?? ph??i ch??? ngh??a M??c, nay kh??ng th???y l??n ti???ng). Th???c ch???t l?? v???n ????? ????nh gi?? vai tr?? c???a Nho gi??o, c???a Kh???ng T???. V???n ????? n??y r???t r???ng v?? th?? v???, n???u c?? d???p xin b??n sau.

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