Edward Lansdale: Ng?????i b??o tr?????c tr???n T???t M???u Th??n

Di???n ra t??? 50 n??m tr?????c v?? ng??y nay ???????c nh??? ?????n nh?? m???t b?????c ngo???t trong Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam, s??? ki???n T???t M???u Th??n th???c s??? ???? khi???n ng?????i M??? b???t ng???. M???t trong s??? ??t ng?????i d??? b??o ???????c ??i???u s???p x???y ra l?? Edward Lansdale, nh??n v???t t??nh b??o huy???n tho???i v?? v??? t?????ng Kh??ng qu??n h???i h??u, ng?????i ???? gi??p ki???n t???o nh?? n?????c Nam Vi???t Nam sau khi Ph??p r??t lui.
Edward Lansdale: Ng?????i b??o tr?????c tr???n T???t M???u Th??n

Edward Lansdale: Ng?????i b??o tr?????c tr???n T???t M???u Th??n

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Ngu???n: Max Boot, ???The American Who Predicted Tet???, The New York Times, 30/01/2018.

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

Di???n ra t??? 50 n??m tr?????c v?? ng??y nay ???????c nh??? ?????n nh?? m???t b?????c ngo???t trong Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam, s??? ki???n T???t M???u Th??n th???c s??? ???? khi???n ng?????i M??? b???t ng???. M???t trong s??? ??t ng?????i d??? b??o ???????c ??i???u s???p x???y ra l?? Edward Lansdale, nh??n v???t t??nh b??o huy???n tho???i v?? v??? t?????ng Kh??ng qu??n h???i h??u, ng?????i ???? gi??p ki???n t???o nh?? n?????c Nam Vi???t Nam sau khi Ph??p r??t lui. ??ng tr??? l???i S??i G??n v??o n??m 1965 v???i t?? c??ch l?? m???t quan ch???c l??m vi???c t???i ?????i s??? qu??n M???, c??? g???ng s??? d???ng m???i quan h??? c???a m??nh ????? c???u v??n n??? l???c chi???n tranh ??ang r??i v??o th???t b???i.

V??o th???i ??i???m m?? nhi???u nh?? l??nh ?????o M??? ??ang l???c quan m???t c??ch th???n tr???ng v??? chi???n tranh, ch?? ??t l?? tr??n ph????ng di???n c??ng khai, Lansdale ???? nhi???u l???n ????a ra c??c l???i c???nh b??o. Cu???i th??ng 10/1967, ??ng b??o c??o cho Ellsworth Bunker, ?????i s??? t???i S??i G??n, ???T??i tin l?? H?? N???i ??ang ????nh c?????c v??o ?????nh ??i???m cu???c chi???n trong n??m 1968.??? ??ng ???? d??? ??o??n r???ng c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o B???c Vi???t s??? c??? g???ng l???p l???i th??nh c??ng c???a h??? tr?????c ng?????i Ph??p: ???C??c nh?? ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch v?? s??? gia ??? H?? N???i nh???n th???y r???ng th???t b???i c???a l???c l?????ng Ph??p ?????t t???i ??i???m quy???t ?????nh l?? nh??? v??o t??nh c???m ch???ng chi???n tranh ??? th??? ???? n?????c Ph??p, ch??? kh??ng ph???i nh??? t??nh h??nh tr??n chi???n tr?????ng Vi???t Nam; Vi???t Minh ra s???c chi???n ?????u ??? ??i???n Bi??n Ph??? ch??? y???u l?? nh???m ?????nh h??nh d?? lu???n ??? Paris, c???y d???a v??o s??? k???ch t??nh h??n l?? chi???n l?????c qu??n s??? h???p l??. ??i???u ???? ???? ph??t huy hi???u qu???.??? ??ng c???nh b??o, H?? N???i s??? th???c hi???n m???t k??? ho???ch t????ng t??? ????? ???khi???n ng?????i M??? ????? m??u??? v?? ???khi???n c??ng ch??ng M??? bu???c ch??nh ph??? ph???i r??t qu??n,??? b???i ???h??? tin r???ng c??ng ch??ng M??? d??? b??? thao t??ng t??m l?? v??o n??m 1968.???

???? l?? m???t d??? ??o??n ch??nh x??c ?????n l??? k???, nh??ng gi???ng nh?? h???u h???t nh???ng g?? Lansdale n??i, n?? c??ng b??? nh?? ch???c tr??ch ng?? l??. ??ng t???ng c???nh b??o v??o n??m 1963 r???ng vi???c l???t ????? ng?????i b???n v?? ng?????i ???????c ??ng b???o h???, T???ng th???ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m, l?? m???t sai l???m. ??ng ???? b??? ph???t l???, v?? sau c??i ch???t c???a Di???m trong m???t cu???c ?????o ch??nh qu??n s???, Nam Vi???t Nam nhanh ch??ng tu???t d???c kh??ng phanh, bu???c Lyndon Johnson ph???i ????a l??nh t??c chi???n c???a M??? ?????n ????? ng??n ch???n m???t chi???n th???ng c???a C???ng s???n. Khi ???y Lansdale ???? l??n ti???ng r???ng ch???ng ??ch g?? khi t??m c??ch tho??t kh???i v??ng l???y ch??? b???ng h??nh ?????ng qu??n s???; n?????c M???, ??ng n??i, c???n ph???i nu??i d?????ng m???t ch??nh ph??? h???p ph??p ??? S??i G??n ????? c?? th??? gi??nh ???????c s??? ???ng h??? c???a ng?????i d??n. M???t l???n n???a, ??ng l???i b??? ph???t l??? khi M??? m??? chi???c h???p Pandora ??? l???p c??c v??ng b???n ph?? t??? do (free-fire zones) c??ng nh?? th???c hi???n c??c nhi???m v??? t??m-v??-di???t (search-and-destroy missions). T?????ng William Westmoreland ???? b??? thuy???t ph???c r???ng ??ng c?? th??? gi???t Vi???t C???ng nhanh h??n t???c ????? h??? c?? th??? thay ng?????i.

Chi???n d???ch T???t M???u Th??n di???n ra v??o ng??y 30 v?? 31/01/1968, ???? ?????p tan ???o t?????ng c???a Westmoreland. ?????n t???n cu???i m??a thu n??m 1967, v??? t?????ng ng?????i M??? v???n n??i r???ng ??ng ???nh??n th???y ??nh s??ng ??? cu???i ???????ng h???m??? ??? nh??ng ???? ch??? l?? suy ngh?? vi???n v??ng. T??m m????i ngh??n qu??n Vi???t C???ng ???? t???n c??ng 36 trong s??? 44 th??? ph??? t???nh, 64 trong s??? 242 huy???n, 5 trong s??? 6 th??nh ph??? t??? tr??? v?? nhi???u th??n l??ng kh??c. Tr???n chi???n gi??nh quy???n ki???m so??t c??? ???? Hu??? ???? di???n ra su???t h??n m???t th??ng. Ngay c??? khu??n vi??n ?????i s??? qu??n M??? ??? S??i G??n c??ng b??? m???t nh??m l??nh Vi???t C???ng x??m nh???p.

Lansdale ?????n ?????i s??? qu??n ngay sau khi nh???ng ng?????i l??nh Vi???t C???ng x??m nh???p b??? gi???t ho???c b??? b???t. ??ng l??i xe d???c theo nh???ng con ???????ng v???ng v???, l?????t qua nh???ng chi???c xe ?????y v???t ?????n??? ???m???t trong s??? ch??ng, chi???c sedan v???i c???a m??? h??, c?? m???t c??i x??c tr?????t d??i t??? gh??? ng???i xu???ng v???a h??,??? ??ng k??? l???i. ???M???t ng?????i M??? m???c qu???n ??o th?????ng d??n, ???? ch???t. T???i t??a ?????i s???, ??ng ch???ng ki???n ???nh???ng m???nh k??nh v??? v?? g???ch v???n d?????i ch??n, c??ng v???i nhi???u l??? h???ng trong t??a nh?? m???i x??y v?? tr??n c??c b???c t?????ng do t??n l???a v?? thu???c n??? c???a Vi???t C???ng,??? nh???ng chi???c xe h??i b??n ngo??i th?? ???c???a s??? v??? tan, l???p xe x???p l??p, v?? th???t nhi???u l??? ?????n.???

Giao tranh v???n ti???p di???n, c??n trong c??n bi???t th??? c???a Lansdale ??? s??? 194 ???????ng C??ng L??, ???b???u kh?? c??? nh?? d??n du m???c??? (gypsy air) ??? nh?? ch??nh l???i v??? t?????ng. H???u h???t c??c nh??n vi??n ng?????i Vi???t ?????u v???ng m???t v?? ??ang ngh??? T???t, v?? v???y Lansdale v?? hai ph??? t?? ng?????i M??? c???a m??nh ph???i t??? t??m ki???m th???c ??n v?? t??? n???u n?????ng. M???t trong nh???ng c???p d?????i ???? t??m ???????c ch??? cung c???p b??nh m?? ??? Kh??ch s???n Brinks, n??i ??ang ???????c s??? d???ng nh?? ???c??? ??i???m??? c???a nh???ng l??nh M??? ?????c th??n. Lansdale v?? ph??? t?? ???? ?????n th??m nh???ng ng?????i b???n Vi???t Nam c???a h???, ??ang b??? m???c k???t trong nh??, ????? mang cho h??? b??nh m?? ???l???u???.

?????i s??? Bunker, ???????c ng?????i Vi???t Nam ?????t bi???t danh l?? ?????ng gi?? T??? l???nh??? (Old Man Refrigerator) v?? v??? ngo??i l???nh l??ng, ???? ?????n qua ????m c??ng l??nh g??c t???i nh?? c???a Lansdale, sau khi n??i ??? c???a ??ng ???????c ????nh gi?? l?? kh??ng an to??n. Lansdale ghi nh???n r???ng v??? ?????i s???, sau khi ch???p m???t, ??????? d???n quen v???i cognac F.O.V. t??? H???ng K??ng sau l???n ?????u n???m th???.??? Lansdale c??ng cho m???t s??? ng?????i Vi???t ?????n t??? n???n sau khi h??? tr??? th??nh ng?????i v?? gia c?? b???i cu???c chi???n ??? m???t c???u ?????u b???p c??ng v???i c?? con g??i nh??? v?? ch??u g??i c???a b??. ????? ch??c m???ng sinh nh???t l???n th??? 60 c???a Lansdale v??o ng??y 06/02, b???n b?? v?? gia ????nh ??ng ???? g???i ????? ??n l??m qu?? t???ng, t??? salami ?????n bia San Miguel. ???V???y n??n,??? ??ng vi???t, ???m???t v??i bu???i t??? h???p t???i ???????ng C??ng L?? thi???u v???ng tinh th???n bi k???ch l???n th?????ng th???y c???a ng?????i Vi???t, thay v??o ???? l???i tr??ng nh?? th??? m???y bu???i d?? ngo???i ki???u c??.???

Cu???i c??ng th?? T???t M???u Th??n ???? kh??ng th??nh c??ng trong vi???c ch??m ng??i cho m???t cu???c t???ng ti???n c??ng nh?? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o C???ng s???n hy v???ng. Th???ng k?? ch??nh th???c c???a M??? cho th???y 58.373 l??nh c???ng s???n ???? ch???t trong kho???ng th???i gian t??? 29/01 ?????n 01/03/1968, so v???i con s??? 3.895 l??nh M???, 4.954 l??nh Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a v?? 14.300 th?????ng d??n mi???n Nam. C??c t?????ng M??? tuy??n b??? ????y l?? m???t th???t b???i tuy???t ?????i c???a Vi???t C???ng. C??n Lansdale th?? ngh?? kh??c.

??ng th???a nh???n r???ng k??? th?? ??????? b??? nghi???n n??t v??? m???t qu??n s???,??? nh??ng v???n c???nh b??o v??o ng??y 27/03/1968 r???ng chi???n d???ch v???n c?? kh??? n??ng ?????t ???????c c??c m???c ti??u c???a H?? N???i: N?? c?? th??? ???gieo r???c n???i s??? cho ng?????i d??n th??nh th??? b???ng c??ch ch???ng minh s??? b???t l???c c???a ch??nh ph??? trong vi???c b???o ?????m an to??n,??? v?? c?? th??? ???gia t??ng ??p l???c bu???c M??? r??t qu??n, c??? trong v?? ngo??i n?????c, b???ng c??ch ch???ng minh r???ng chi???n th???ng l?? v?? v???ng v?? nguy??n do ????? chi???n ?????u l?? v?? ?????o ?????c (v?? d???, qua vi???c s??? d???ng h??nh ???nh h???a l???c c???a M??? ph?? h???y c??c th??nh ph??? th??n thi???n ??? Vi???t Nam). ???Y???u t??? c???m x??c trong chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam l???i c??ng l???n h??n k??? t??? sau c?? s???c T???t M???u Th??n,??? Lansdale c???nh b??o. Trong nh???ng th??ng t???i, ???n?? h???a h???n s??? tr??? th??nh y???u t??? xoay chuy???n t??nh th??? th???c s???.???

M???t l???n n???a, Lansdale ???? ti??n l?????ng ???????c nhi???u h??n h???u h???t c??c ?????i th??? c???a m??nh ??? S??i G??n, c??ng nh?? ??? Washington, nh???ng ng?????i ???? lo???i b??? ??ng v?? cho r???ng ??ng l?? k??? m?? m???ng, l?? ng?????i c???a qu?? kh???. C?? s???c M???u Th??n ???? thuy???t ph???c T???ng th???ng Johnson t??? ch???i ????? xu???t xin th??m 200.000 qu??n c???a Westmoreland, v?? ????a ??ng n??y v??? n?????c ????? tr??? th??nh Tham m??u tr?????ng Qu??n ?????i M???. Sau ????, trong m???t b??i ph??t bi???u ?????y k???ch t??nh tr??n truy???n h??nh v??o ng??y 31/03, Johnson tuy??n b??? r???ng thay v?? t??m ki???m c?? h???i t??i ?????c c???, ??ng s??? d??ng t???t c??? n??ng l?????ng c???a m??nh ????? k???t th??c cu???c chi???n.

H??nh tr??nh t??m ki???m chi???n th???ng c???a ng?????i M??? ??? Vi???t Nam ???? k???t th??c; c??u h???i duy nh???t c??n l???i l?? t???c ????? r??t lui. Nh??ng v???n c??n r???t nhi???u tr???n chi???n theo sau ??? nhi???u ng?????i M??? ch???t sau M???u Th??n h??n l?? tr?????c ???? ??? v?? Lansdale ???? ch???ng ki???n ??i???u ???y trong nh???ng th??ng cu???i c??ng trong nhi???m k??? c???a ??ng.

V??o ng??y 04/05/1968, Vi???t C???ng l???i t???n c??ng kh???p mi???n Nam trong c??i g???i l?? T???t-mini. ???Trong khi M???u Th??n di???n ra,??? Lansdale vi???t, ???c??y c???i v???n n??? hoa. B???ng c??ch n??o ????, v??? ?????p c???a ch??ng ch??? khi???n khung c???nh xung quanh tr??? n??n x???u x?? h??n bao gi??? h???t.??? T???t-mini c??ng b??? ?????y l??i v???i t???n th???t n???ng n???. Nh??ng b???n th??n Lansdale ???? ph???i kinh ho??ng tr?????c m???c ????? h???y di???t g??y ra b???i cu???c ph???n c??ng c???a M???.

Ph??? t?? c???a ??ng, Charlie Sweet, ???? ?????n th??m m???t khu d??n c?? thu???c t???ng l???p lao ?????ng ??? S??i G??n, ???????c g???i l?? Qu???n 8 v?? ???? gi???t m??nh b???i ???s??? gi???n d??? s??u s???c ?????i v???i t???t c??? ng?????i M?????? v?? h???a l???c t??n b???o m?? M??? s??? d???ng ????? ch???ng l???i 200 du k??ch Vi???t C???ng x??m nh???p khu ph??? c???a h???. ???Hai tr??m ng??i nh?? ???? b??? ph?? h???y cho m???i l??nh Vi???t C???ng b??? gi???t,??? m???t ng?????i ????n ??ng ph???n n???. Giao tranh ??? Qu???n 8 ???? ph?? h???y h??n 5.000 ng??i nh??, gi???t ch???t h??n 200 th?????ng d??n, l??m b??? th????ng th??m 2.000 ng?????i v?? t???o ra 40.000 ng?????i t??? n???n kh??c. ???T??i hy v???ng ch??ng ta kh??ng bao gi??? s??? d???ng nh???ng chi???n thu???t n??y trong c??c cu???c b???o lo???n ??? M???,??? Lansdale vi???t, ???n???u kh??ng ch??ng ta s??? m???t t???t c??? c??c th??nh ph??? c???a m??nh.???

C??c b??o c??o c???a Sweet v??? Qu???n 8 ???? ???c?? ???nh h?????ng???, theo l???i B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng Clark Clifford, v?? khi???n ng?????i k??? v??? Westmoreland, T?????ng Creighton Abrams, ng??n M??? s??? d???ng c??c cu???c kh??ng k??ch v?? ph??o binh. ????y l?? m???t ph???n trong n??? l???c c???a Abrams nh???m theo ??u???i nh???ng g?? m?? m???t nh?? s??? h???c g???i l?? ???m???t cu???c chi???n t???t h??n??? (a better war), nh??ng l??c ???? ???? qu?? mu???n: C??ng ch??ng M??? ???? quay l??ng l???i v???i cu???c chi???n.

?????n gi???a th??ng 06/1968, khi Lansdale chu???n b??? r???i Vi???t Nam, S??i G??n v???n l?? m???t th??nh ph??? b??? bao v??y. ??ng vi???t: ???H??ng lo???t d??y th??p gai, hi???n ??ang r??? s??t d?????i nh???ng c??n m??a t??? th??ng N??m, ???????ng ph??? b??? ch???n ch??? n??y ch??? n???. R??c th???i ch???t ?????ng tr??n v???a h?? b???i d???ch v??? c??ng c???ng ???? b??? tr?? tr???.??? T??n l???a Vi???t C???ng ???? ????m xu???ng th??? ????, gi???t ch???t v?? l??m b??? th????ng h??ng tr??m ng?????i. ???X??? th??? ?????ch th?????ng t???n c??ng b???t ng???,??? ??ng n??i th??m, ???khi???n c?? d??n s??? r???ng m??nh c?? th??? l?? m???c ti??u ti???p theo.???

Khi r???i kh???i s??n bay T??n S??n Nh???t v??o ng??y 16/06/1968, Lansdale ???? c??? g???ng th??? hi???n m???t b??? m???t d??ng c???m, nh??ng ??ng bi???t r???ng m??nh ???? thua trong cu???c chi???n. Nhi???u n??m sau, ??ng b??y t??? ???c???m gi??c ??au bu???n s??u s???c v??? vi???c t??i kh??ng ho??n th??nh nhi???m v??? c???a m??nh trong giai ??o???n 1965-1968 ??? Vi???t Nam, ????? gi??p ng?????i d??n ??? ???? ng??n ch???n th???m k???ch m?? cu???i c??ng ???? nh???n ch??m h???.???

Lansdale qua ?????i n??m 1987, v?? ?????n t???n ng??y cu???i c??ng, ??ng h???n v???n tin r???ng n???u l???i khuy??n c???a m??nh ??? t???p trung nhi???u h??n v??o c??c v???n ????? ch??nh tr??? v?? gi???m b???t h???a l???c ??? ???? ???????c nghe theo, M??? c?? th??? ???? tr??nh ???????c m???t v??ng l???y. Ch???ng c?? c??ch n??o ????? bi???t li???u ??ng c?? n??i ????ng hay kh??ng, v?? ch???c ch???n r???ng B???c Vi???t v???n s??? l?? m???t k??? th?? ????ng g???m trong b???t k??? tr?????ng h???p n??o, v???i kh??t khao chi???n th???ng l???n h??n nhi???u so v???i M???. Nh??ng th???t kh?? ????? tin r???ng con ???????ng m?? M??? ???? ch???n ??? m???t th???t b???i khi???n 58.000 ng?????i M??? v?? h??ng tri???u ng?????i Vi???t Nam ???? ch???t ??? l???i l?? m???t l???a ch???n t???t h??n.

Max Boot l?? th??nh vi??n c???p cao c???a H???i ?????ng Quan h??? ?????i ngo???i. B??i vi???t n??y ???????c tr??ch v?? chuy???n th??? t??? cu???n s??ch m???i c???a ??ng, ???The Road Not Taken: Edward Lansdale and the American Tragedy in Vietnam.???

H??nh: Edward G. Lansdale (b??n tr??i) ?????n S??i G??n v??o th??ng 8/1965. Ngu???n: AP.

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