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13/08/1521: Th??? ???? Aztec r??i v??o tay ng?????i T??y Ban Nha

V??o ng??y n??m 1521, sau m???t cu???c bao v??y k??o d??i ba th??ng, l???c l?????ng T??y Ban Nha d?????i quy???n c???a Hern??n Cort??s ???? chi???m ???????c Tenochtitl??n, th??? ???? c???a ????? ch??? Aztec. L??nh c???a Cort??s ???? san b???ng th??nh ph??? v?? b???t gi??? Cuauhtemoc, Ho??ng ????? Aztec.
13/08/1521: Th??? ???? Aztec r??i v??o tay ng?????i T??y Ban Nha

13/08/1521: Th??? ???? Aztec r??i v??o tay ng?????i T??y Ban Nha

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Ngu???n: Aztec capital falls to Cort??sHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??m 1521, sau m???t cu???c bao v??y k??o d??i ba th??ng, l???c l?????ng T??y Ban Nha d?????i quy???n c???a Hern??n Cort??s ???? chi???m ???????c Tenochtitl??n, th??? ???? c???a ????? ch??? Aztec. L??nh c???a Cort??s ???? san b???ng th??nh ph??? v?? b???t gi??? Cuauhtemoc, Ho??ng ????? Aztec.

Th??nh Tenochtitl??n ???????c l???p v??o n??m 1325 b???i m???t b??? t???c s??n b???n v?? h??i l?????m lang thang tr??n c??c h??n ?????o ??? H??? Texcoco, nay l?? khu v???c g???n Th??nh ph??? Mexico. Ch??? trong v??ng m???t th??? k???, n???n v??n minh n??y ???? ph??t tri???n th??nh ????? ch??? Aztec, ph???n l???n l?? nh??? h??? th???ng n??ng nghi???p ti??n ti???n. H??? s???m th???ng tr??? mi???n trung Mexico v?? khi Ho??ng ????? Montezuma II l??n ng??i v??o n??m 1502 th?? ?????t ?????n th???i k??? h??ng th???nh nh???t, m??? r???ng h??n v??? ph??a nam, ?????n t???n Nicaragua ng??y nay.

V??o th???i ??i???m ????, ????? ch??? ???????c b???o v??? ch??? y???u b???i s???c m???nh qu??n s??? c???a ng?????i Aztec, v?? Montezuma II b???t ?????u thi???t l???p m???t b??? m??y quan li??u, th??nh l???p ra c??c t???nh ????? c???ng n???p v??? th??? ???? Tenochtitl??n. C??c b??? t???c b??? chinh ph???c ???? ph???n n??? tr?????c nh???ng y??u c???u c???a ng?????i Aztec, ????i h???i v???t c???ng n???p c??ng nh?? c??c n???n nh??n ????? hi???n t??? cho t??n gi??o, nh??ng qu??n ?????i Aztec ???? d???p y??n qu??n n???i lo???n.

Trong khi ????, Hern??n Cort??s, m???t qu?? t???c tr??? tu???i g???c T??y Ban Nha, ???? ?????n Hispaniola ??? T??y ???n v??o n??m 1504. N??m 1511, ??ng gi????ng bu???m c??ng Diego Vel??zquez ?????n chinh ph???c Cuba v?? hai l???n ???????c b???u l??m th??? tr?????ng c???a Santiago, th??? ???? c???a Hispaniola. N??m 1518, ??ng ???????c b??? nhi???m l??m ch??? huy m???t ??o??n th??m hi???m T??y Ban Nha m???i ?????n l???c ?????a M???. Vel??zquez, th???ng ?????c Cuba, sau ???? ???? h???y b??? s??? m???nh n??y, v?? Cort??s ???? l??n ???????ng m?? kh??ng ???????c ph??p.

??ng ???? ?????n b??? bi???n Yucat??n v?? v??o th??ng 03/1519 th?? ?????n Tabasco ??? V???nh Campeche c???a Mexico, v???i 500 binh s??, 100 th???y th??? v?? 16 con ng???a. T???i ????y, ??ng ???? chi???n th???ng ng?????i da ????? ?????a ph????ng v?? ???????c trao cho m???t n??? n?? l???, Malinche ??? t??n th??nh l?? Marina ???  ng?????i tr??? th??nh t??nh nh??n c???a ??ng v?? sau ???? sinh cho ??ng m???t ?????a con trai. C?? bi???t c??? ti???ng Maya v?? Aztec n??n ???? gi??? vai tr?? phi??n d???ch vi??n. ??o??n th??m hi???m sau ???? ti???n l??n b??? bi???n Mexico, n??i Cort??s l???p th??nh Veracruz, ch??? y???u v???i m???c ????ch gi??p b???n th??n ???????c d??n thu???c ?????a b???u l??m ?????i t?????ng, do ???? g???t b??? quy???n l???c c???a Vel??zquez v?? khi???n Cort??s ch??? c??n ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m tr?????c vua Charles V c???a T??y Ban Nha.

T???i Veracruz, Cort??s hu???n luy???n qu??n ?????i v?? sau ???? ?????t ch??y t??u c???a m??nh ????? ?????m b???o m???i ng?????i trung th??nh v???i k??? ho???ch chinh ph???c. Hay tin xung ?????t ch??nh tr??? x???y ra ??? ????? ch??? Aztec, Cort??s li???n ????a qu??n v??o n???i ?????a Mexico. Tr??n ???????ng ?????n Tenochtitl??n, ??ng ?????ng ????? v???i c??c b??? t???c da ????? ?????a ph????ng, nh??ng nhi???u ng?????i trong s??? n??y, bao g???m c??? x??? Tlaxcala, ???? tr??? th??nh ?????ng minh c???a ??ng sau khi bi???t v??? k??? ho???ch chinh ph???c nh???ng k??? th???ng tr??? Aztec ????ng gh??t c???a h???. Nghe tin Cort??s ??ang ti???n ?????n g???n, mang theo nh???ng con ng???a ????ng s??? v?? lo???t v?? kh?? tinh vi, Montezuma II ???? c??? g???ng t??m c??ch mua chu???c, nh??ng Cort??s kh??ng d??? t??? b???. Ng??y 08/11/1519, qu??n T??y Ban Nha c??ng 1.000 chi???n binh Tlaxcaltec ???? ???????c ph??p v??o Tenochtitl??n m?? kh??ng b??? c???n tr???.

Montezuma ng??? r???ng ??o??n qu??n n??y l?? s??? gi??? c???a th???n Quetzalcatl, ng?????i m?? theo l???i ti??n tri s??? tr??? v??? t??? ph????ng ????ng trong n??m ???M???t C??y S???y???, t???c n??m 1519 theo l???ch Aztec. Ng?????i T??y Ban Nha ???????c ch??o ????n trong vinh d???, v?? Cort??s mau ch??ng n???m b???t c?? h???i, b???t Montezuma l??m con tin ????? c?? th??? cai tr??? ????? ch??? th??ng qua ??ng. Ng?????i t??nh Marina ???? ????ng vai tr?? to l???n trong n??? l???c n??y v?? ???? th??nh c??ng trong vi???c thuy???t ph???c Montezuma h???p t??c.

M??a xu??n n??m 1520, Cort??s bi???t ???????c s??? xu???t hi???n c???a m???t l???c l?????ng T??y Ban Nha t??? Cuba, do P??nfilo Narvez l??nh ?????o, ???????c Vel??zquez ph??i ??i ????? t?????c quy???n ch??? huy c???a Cort??s. ??ng d???n qu??n ?????i c???a m??nh ra kh???i Tenochtitl??n ????? ?????i ?????u, b??? l???i m???t ????n v??? ?????n tr?? g???m 80 ng?????i T??y Ban Nha v?? v??i tr??m ng?????i Tlaxcaltecs ????? cai tr??? th??nh ph???. Cort??s ????nh b???i Narvez v?? s??p nh???p l??nh c???a Narvez v??o qu??n ?????i c???a m??nh.

Khi tr??? l???i Tenochtitl??n v??o th??ng 6, ??ng th???y qu??n ?????n tr?? ??ang b??? bao v??y b???i ng?????i Aztec, nh???ng k??? ???? n???i d???y sau khi c???p d?????i m?? Cort??s giao gi??? quy???n ch??? huy th??nh ph??? ???? t??n s??t m???t s??? th??? l??nh Aztec, v?? d??n ch??ng c??ng tr??n b??? v???c n???i d???y. Ng??y 30/06, do ??p l???c v?? thi???u th???n l????ng th???c, Cort??s v?? qu??n ?????i c???a m??nh ???? chi???n ?????u ????? tho??t kh???i th??? ???? v???i c??i gi?? r???t ?????t. ???????c ng?????i T??y Ban Nha g???i l?? La Noche Triste, hay ????m c???a N???i bu???n, nhi???u ng?????i l??nh ???? ch???t ??u???i ??? h??? Texcoco khi con t??u ch??? h??? v?? kho b??u c???a ng?????i Aztec m?? Cort??s thu gi??? b??? ?????m. Montezuma ???? b??? gi???t trong cu???c chi???n ??? theo ghi ch??p v??? Aztec c???a ng?????i T??y Ban Nha c??ng nh?? c??c ghi ch??p v??? T??y Ban Nha c???a m???t nh??m ng?????i Aztec ph???n n??? v???i vi???c Montezuma ?????u h??ng ngo???i t???c. Ng?????i l??n k??? v??? ho??ng ????? l?? em trai c???a Montezuma, Cuitl??huac.

Tr??n ???????ng r??t lui, ng?????i T??y Ban Nha ???? ????nh b???i m???t ?????i qu??n Aztec l???n t???i Otumba v?? sau ???? g???p l???i c??c ?????ng minh Tlaxcaltec c???a h???. Th??ng 05/1521, Cort??s tr??? l???i Tenochtitl??n, v?? sau m???t cu???c bao v??y k??o d??i ba th??ng, th??nh ph??? cu???i c??ng c??ng ?????u h??ng. Chi???n th???ng n??y ????nh d???u s??? s???p ????? c???a ????? ch??? Aztec. Cuauht??moc, ng?????i k??? v??? Cuitl??huac, v???i t?? c??ch l?? Ho??ng ?????, b??? b???t l??m t?? binh v?? sau ???? b??? x??? t???, v?? Cort??s tr??? th??nh ng?????i cai tr??? c??? m???t ????? ch??? Mexico r???ng l???n.

Nh?? chinh ph???c T??y Ban Nha ???? d???n ?????u m???t cu???c th??m hi???m t???i Honduras n??m 1524 v?? n??m 1528 tr??? v??? T??y Ban Nha ????? g???p nh?? vua. Charles ???? phong t?????c H???u cho ??ng (Marqu??s del Valle) nh??ng t??? ch???i phong cho ??ng ch???c th???ng ?????c v?? nh???ng cu???c c??i v?? c???a ??ng v???i Vel??zquez v?? nh???ng ng?????i kh??c. N??m 1530, ??ng tr??? v??? Mexico, b???y gi??? ???????c g???i l?? T??y Ban Nha M???i (New Spain), v?? ch???ng ki???n ?????t n?????c trong t??nh tr???ng h???n lo???n. Sau khi kh??i ph???c tr???t t???, ??ng quy???t ?????nh ngh??? h??u, tr??? v??? khu nh?? c???a m??nh ??? ph??a nam Th??nh ph??? Mexico v?? tham gia c??c chuy???n th??m hi???m h??ng h???i t??? b??? bi???n Th??i B??nh D????ng. N??m 1540, ??ng tr??? l???i T??y Ban Nha nh??ng b??? ho??ng gia b??? r??i. Cort??s m???t n??m 1547.\
 

17/07/1996: Chuy???n bay 800 ph??t n??? tr??n kh??ng ph???n Long Island

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Ngu???n: Flight 800 explodes over Long IslandHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1996, ngay sau khi c???t c??nh t??? S??n bay Qu???c t??? Kennedy, New York, m???t chi???c m??y bay ph???n l???c Boeing 747 c???a TWA bay ?????n Paris ???? ph??t n??? tr??n ?????i T??y D????ng, l??m thi???t m???ng to??n b??? 230 ng?????i tr??n m??y bay. Chuy???n bay 800 v???a nh???n ???????c l???nh cho ph??p b???t ?????u t??ng ????? cao h??nh tr??nh th?? ph??t n??? m?? kh??ng c?? c???nh b??o n??o tr?????c. B???i v?? chi???c m??y bay ???????c n???p nhi??n li???u cho h??nh tr??nh xuy??n ?????i T??y D????ng, n?? b???c h??i trong ch???c l??t, t???o th??nh m???t qu??? c???u l???a ???????c nh??n th???y g???n nh?? t??? kh???p n??i d???c b??? bi???n Long Island.

Th???m k???ch x???y ra ch??? hai ng??y tr?????c khi khai m???c Th??? v???n h???i Olympic m??a h?? l???n th??? 26 ??? Atlanta, Georgia, v?? c?? nhi???u nghi ng??? v??? kh???ng b???. Nh???ng nghi ng??? v??? h??nh vi ph???m ph??p d?????ng nh?? ???? ???????c x??c nh???n khi m???t s??? nh??n ch???ng b??o c??o r???ng h??? ???? nh??n th???y m???t th??? tr??ng gi???ng nh?? t??n l???a ???????c b???n v??? ph??a chi???c m??y bay ngay tr?????c khi v??? n??? x???y ra. H???i qu??n Hoa K??? v?? FBI, k???t h???p v???i ???y ban An to??n V???n t???i Qu???c gia, ???? m??? m???t cu???c ??i???u tra tr??n di???n r???ng v??? v??? vi???c n??y, thu th???p c??c m???nh v??? c???a m??y bay t??? ?????i T??y D????ng v?? d???ng l???i chi???c m??y bay trong m???t nh?? kho ???????c b???o v??? c???n m???t. M???c d?? li??n ti???p c?? c??c b??o c??o t??? nh??n ch???ng, c??c nh?? ch???c tr??ch ???? kh??ng ????a ra ???????c b???t k??? b???ng ch???ng n??o v??? t??n l???a ho???c bom, v?? cu???c ??i???u tra ti???p t???c k??o d??i.

Khi c?? th??ng tin ti???t l??? r???ng m???t s??? t??u H???i qu??n Hoa K??? ???? th???c hi???n di???n t???p t???i khu v???c Long Island v??o ????m x???y ra v??? n???, m???t s??? ng?????i b???t ?????u nghi ng??? r???ng Chuy???n bay 800 ???? v?? t??nh b??? b???n r??i b???i m???t t??n l???a th??? nghi???m c???a h???i qu??n. Ch??nh quy???n Hoa K??? ???? lo???i tr??? kh??? n??ng v??? m???t cu???c t???n c??ng t??n l???a do sai l???m c???a H???i qu??n, nh??ng m???t s??? ng?????i theo thuy???t ??m m??u, bao g???m c??? c???u Ph??t ng??n vi??n Nh?? Tr???ng Pierre Salinger, ???? ???ng h??? gi??? thuy???t n??y. Cu???c ??i???u tra ch???u nhi???u ch??? tr??ch v??? Chuy???n bay 800 ???? k???t th??c v??o cu???i n??m 1998, v???i vi???c c??c ??i???u tra vi??n k???t lu???n r???ng v??? n??? x???y ra l?? do h???ng h??c c?? h???c, kh??ng ph???i do bom hay t??n l???a.

Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây