v??? ??n Nh??n v??n giai ph???m - Th??i K??? To???i...

V??? NH??N V??N GIAI PH???M T??? G??C NH??N C???A ?????I T?? C??NG AN
TH??NG T?? 10, 2011 ?????T CHU???I NON ????? L???I PH???N H???I
V??? NH??N V??N ??? GIAI PH???M T??? G??C NH??N C???A ?????I T?? C??NG AN
???????c ????ng b???i nguyentrongtao
NTT: Nh?? v??n L?? Ho??i Nguy??n t??n th???t l?? Th??i K??? To???i, nguy??n ?????i t?? c??ng an, c??ng t??c t???i A25 (chuy??n theo gi??i v??n ngh??? s?? v?? v??n h??a) ???? g???i t???i NTT.ORG m???t chuy??n lu???n d??i v??? Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m, v?? ch??ng t??i ???? ????ng l??m 5 k??? t??? ?????u th??ng 8/2010, ???????c nhi???u trang m???ng ????ng l???i. Nay t??c gi??? ???? ch???nh s???a l???i b??i vi???t c???a m??nh v?? nh??? NTT.ORG ????ng l???i tr???n v???n b??i vi???t n??y. C??c b???n h??y ?????c n?? nh?? ?????c m???t ???g??c nh??n??? v??? s??? th???t.
v??? ??n Nh??n v??n giai ph???m - Th??i K??? To???i...
V??? NH??N V??N GIAI PH???M T??? G??C NH??N C???A ?????I T?? C??NG AN
TH??NG T?? 10, 2011 ?????T CHU???I NON ????? L???I PH???N H???I
V??? NH??N V??N ??? GIAI PH???M T??? G??C NH??N C???A ?????I T?? C??NG AN
 ???????c ????ng b???i nguyentrongtao

NTT: Nh?? v??n L?? Ho??i Nguy??n t??n th???t l?? Th??i K??? To???i, nguy??n ?????i t?? c??ng an, c??ng t??c t???i A25 (chuy??n theo gi??i v??n ngh??? s?? v?? v??n h??a) ???? g???i t???i NTT.ORG m???t chuy??n lu???n d??i v??? Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m, v?? ch??ng t??i ???? ????ng l??m 5 k??? t??? ?????u th??ng 8/2010, ???????c nhi???u trang m???ng ????ng l???i. Nay t??c gi??? ???? ch???nh s???a l???i b??i vi???t c???a m??nh v?? nh??? NTT.ORG ????ng l???i tr???n v???n b??i vi???t n??y. C??c b???n h??y ?????c n?? nh?? ?????c m???t ???g??c nh??n??? v??? s??? th???t.
V??? NH??N V??N ??? GIAI PH???M M???T TR??O L??U D??N CH???, M???T CU???C C??CH T??N V??N H???C KH??NG TH??NH
I ??? M???y v???n ????? c?? t??nh ph????ng ph??p lu???n
Hi???n nay c??n t???n t???i nhi???u c??ch ????nh gi?? v??? v??? Nh??n V??n-Giai Ph???m. C?? ng?????i c???c ??oan cho r???ng c???t l??i ????y l?? v??? ??n ch??nh tr??? ph???n ?????ng kh??ng d??nh l??u g?? ?????n v??n h???c, m?? ch??? c?? m???t s??? anh em v??n ngh??? s?? b??? l??i k??o v??o, ?????ng v?? nh?? n?????c ???? kh??ng x??? ??n v??n ngh??? s?? (1). Ng?????i th?? cho l?? m???t v??? ??n v??n h???c, thu???n t??y oan sai v??? v??n h???c, ????? ????n ??p v??n ngh??? s??, nh?? n?????c ???? bi???n m???t v??? vi???c v??n h???c th??nh m???t v??? ??n ch??nh tr???. (2).T??t nhi??n l?? ????? b???o v??? c??c khuynh h?????ng, ????? ????nh gi?? ????ng th???c ch???t c???a Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m kh??ng ph???i d??? d??ng, m?? ph???n b??c ho??n to??n c??ng c???n h???t s???c th???n tr???ng.
V???i t???t c??? nh???ng g?? ???? x???y ra xem x??t v??? Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m n??n ???????c ????nh gi?? d?????i g??c ????? l?? m???t tr??o l??u t?? t?????ng d??n ch???, m???t cu???c c??ch t??n v??n h???c kh??ng th??nh th?? ????ng h??n. ????? ??i t??m c??ch c???t ngh??a n??. G??n gi??? nh???ng g?? n?? ?????t ra, n?? ????? l???i cho ?????i s???ng ch??nh tr???, cho n???n v??n h???c n?????c nh??. C??n n???u coi l?? v??? ??n ch??nh tr??? ph???n ?????ng th?? kh??ng c???n t???n gi???y m???c ????? vi???t v??? n?? trong l???ch s??? v??n h???c l??m g??.
Xem x??t t??? c???t l??i c??c v???n ????? ch??? y???u, t???c l?? h???n c???t v??? ??n, t???c l?? h??nh th??i c???a n??, c??c ??i???u ki???n l???ch s??? c???a n??, c??c nh??n v???t c???a n??, c??c v???n ????? n?? ?????t ra cho x?? h???i ?????u th???c s??? l?? t?? t?????ng v?? v??n h???c.
V??i v???n ????? v??? ph????ng ph??p lu???n:
??? ????nh gi?? Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m nh?? m???t tr??o l??u v??n h???c nh??ng v???n ph???i ghi nh???n r???ng kh??ng c?? th??? v??n h???c thu???n t??y v??n h???c. T??? trong thu???c t??nh c???a v??n h???c Nh?? v??n bao gi??? c??ng l?? ng?????i nh???y c???m v?? c?? tr??ch nhi???m tr?????c c??c v???n ????? c???a th???i ?????i, c???a d??n t???c m??nh. Nh?? v???y v??n h???c mang t??nh ch??nh tr??? theo ?? ngh??a ????. M???t tr??o l??u v??n h???c ra ?????i, tr?????c ???? n?? ???? ch???u t??c ?????ng c???a th???i cu???c, c???a ch??nh tr???. Ch??nh v?? l?? do ???? v??n h???c x???ng ????ng l?? m???t lo???i h??nh cao c???p trong c??c lo???i h??nh v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t.
??? ????nh gi?? NVGP trong ti???n tr??nh t?? t?????ng Vi???t Nam t??? 1945- 1948- 1954- 1960 cho ?????n 1986- v?? nay 2010. Ti???n tr??nh t?? t?????ng c??ch m???ng VN c?? ?????c ??i???m ri??ng, khi du nh???p ch??? ngh??a M??c L??nin. Tr?????c khi ng??? h???n , thu???n h??a ch??? ngh??a Mao, n?? c?? tr???ng th??i l?????ng ph??n v?? giao tranh gi???a t?? t?????ng d??n ch??? v???i t?? t?????ng c???ng s???n, t?? t?????ng to??n tr??? v???i t?? t?????ng ph??p quy???n (3).
??? C??c v???n ????? c???a NVGP ?????t ra ?????u c?? ngu???n g???c t??? c??c th???i k??? tr?????c ???? trong ti???n tr??nh c??ch m???ng, ti???n tr??nh v??n h???c Vi???t Nam. NVGP xu???t hi???n v??o l??c h???i ????? ??i???u ki???n c??? kh??ch quan v?? ch??? quan. V?? mang t??nh t???t y???u, nh???ng g?? m?? NVGP ch??a l??m xong th?? c??c th??? h??? sau s??? ph???i ti???p t???c th???c hi???n s??? m???nh c???a n??.
??? ????nh gi?? b???n ch???t c???a NVGP c??n ph???i d???a tr??n t???p qu??n h??nh x??? ch??nh tr??? c???a h??? th???ng XHCN, c???a x?? h???i VN tr??n c?? s??? th??? ch??? hi???n h??nh. T???c l?? kh??ng th??? tin c???y v??o c??c l?????ng th??ng tin ch??nh th???ng, v?? lo???i th??ng tin ???? ???? b??? bi???n d???ng v?? th?????ng l?? kh??ng ph???n ??nh trung th???c, to??n di???n b???i c???nh x?? h???i l??c ????, kh??ng ph???n ??nh ????ng b???n ch???t c??c con ng?????i, s??? vi???c l??c ????. C???n ph???i ti???p c???n NVGP t??? nhi???u ph??a, nhi???u ngu???n t?? li???u kh??c nhau trong v?? ngo??i n?????c, quan tr???ng nh???t l?? th??ng tin c???a nh???ng ng?????i trong cu???c, th???m ch?? c??? ??? nh???ng t??c ph???m v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t sau n??y ph???n ??nh v??? th???i k??? n??y.
??? Xem x??t v??? NVGP ph???i l???y vi???c xem x??t n???i dung v??n b???n v??n h???c c???a n?? l??m ch??nh, c??i n???i dung ???y ph???n ??nh t??nh tr???ng v??n h???c l??c ???? th??? n??o, ch??? kh??ng l??? thu???c v??o vi???c nh?? n?????c c??ng b??? n?? l?? ch???ng ?????i, t???c ch???ng ?????i l?? kh??ng c?? gi?? tr??? v??n h???c. T??? tr?????c ?????n nay nh???ng ng?????i vi???t v??? NVGP g???n nh?? theo quan ni???m n??y v?? ???? kh??ng xem x??t gi?? tr??? v??n h???c c???a c??c s??ng t??c c???a n?? trong ti???n tr??nh v??n h???c Vi???t Nam, c??ng tham v???ng ?????i m???i n???n v??n h???c mi???n B???c c???a n??.
Tr?????c h???t c?? th??? kh??i qu??t nh?? sau:

NVGP tr?????c h???t l?? m???t tr??o l??u t?? t?????ng, m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng v??n h???c ????i h???i d??n ch??? h??a ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam n??m 1954- 1960 c?? ngu???n g???c v?? ???? x???y ra trong n???i b??? ?????ng CSVN, trong b??? m??y Ch??nh ph??? Kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p do H??? Ch?? Minh l??nh ?????o trong qu?? tr??nh ??i t??? ch??? ngh??a d??n ch??? t?? s???n ?????n ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n h??nh th??i Mao Tr???ch ????ng ( 1948 ??? 1954), b??ng ph??t v??o th???i ??i???m ?????c bi???t 1955-1957 tr??n c??c l??nh v???c tri???t h???c, t?? t?????ng, ph??p lu???t, gi??o d???c, v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t, b??o ch?? ch??? y???u tr??n c??c ???n ph???m b??o Nh??n V??n , S??ng T???o, Tr??m Hoa, T??? Do Di???n ????n, ?????t M???i- Chuy???n Sinh Vi??n, V??n??? v?? c??c s??ch d???ng t???p ch?? Giai Ph???m M??a Xu??n, Giai Ph???m M??a Thu, Giai ph???m M??a ????ng, S??ch T???t, V?? Tr???ng Ph???ng???do kh???i x?????ng h???u h???t l?? s??? v??n ngh??? s???, tr?? th???c t??i n??ng, c?? nhi???u c??ng lao trong kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p, trong qu??n ?????i , b??? ????n ??p v?? x??t x??? c??ng khai b???ng m???t v??? ??n T??? ch???c ch??nh tr??? ho???t ?????ng gi??n ??i???p l???t ????? ch??nh quy???n nh??n d??n v???i c??i t??n Nh??n V??n- Giai Ph???m, ti???p theo l?? vi???c x??? l?? b???ng c??c h??nh th???c tr???ng ph???t n???i b??? v???i h??ng tr??m gi??o s??, th??y gi??o, sinh vi??n, nh?? v??n, ngh??? s??? ??i???n ???nh s??n kh???u, nh???c s???, h???a s???, ki???n tr??c s??, ph??ng vi??n, xu???t b???n , c??n b??? l??nh ?????o, nh??n vi??n m???t s??? b??? ng??nh, c?? quan nh?? n?????c???

Sau khi b??? ????n ??p, NVGP kh??ng ch???t ngay l???p t???c, n?? c??n t???n t???i dai d???ng trong m???t s??? s??ng t??c c???a Ph??ng Cung, Ho??ng C???m , Tr???n D???n, L?? ?????t, H???u Loan???th???m ch?? c??? Nguy???n Ch?? Thi???n (4), nh??m V??n ngh??? Ch??n ?????t ??? H?? N???i nh???ng n??m 70- 80 (5),cho ?????n v??? Ho??ng C???m, Ho??ng H??ng b??? b???t n??m 1982 (6), cho ?????n l??c ?????i m???i, trao Gi???i th?????ng Nh?? n?????c, Gi???i th?????ng H??? Ch?? Minh cho m???t s??? nh??n v???t ch??? ch???t c???a v??? NVGP 50 n??m v??? tr?????c. C??n m???c ti??u t??? do t?? t?????ng, t??? do s??ng t??c, d??n ch??? x?? h???i ph??p quy???n, c??ch t??n ngh??? thu???t m?? NVGP ???? ?????t ra th?? v???n ??ang l?? c??u h???i cho c??c th??? h??? ng?????i Vi???t Nam cho ?????n h??m nay???

????? c?? th??? xem x??t v??? NVGP m???t c??ch th???a ????ng kh??ng b??? r??ng bu???c v??? kh??a c???nh v??? ??n ch??nh tr???, t??i ch???n c??ch nh??n n?? v???i t?? c??ch l?? m???t tr??o l??u t?? t?????ng, m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng v??n h???c.
II ??? C??c ti???n ????? d???n ?????n v??? NVGP
1- B???i c???nh ch??nh tr??? Vi???t Nam 1945- 1954 v?? nh???ng t??c ?????ng c???a qu?? tr??nh Mao h??a h??? t?? t?????ng ph???n ??nh v??o ?????i s???ng v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t.
Ph???n ??nh c???a c??c s??? gia Vi???t Nam v??? C??ch m???ng Th??ng T??m 1945 v?? giai ??o???n kh??ng chi???n ch???ng th???c d??n Ph??p l?? m???t c??ch vi???t s??? ????n gi???n, d?????ng nh?? ch??? l???y m???c ????ch t?????ng thu???t c??c chi???n th???ng qu??n s??? c???a ch??nh ph??? H??? Ch?? Minh v???i ngu???n s??? li???u ngh??o n??n, m???t ph??a, ho???c v???i nh???ng ????nh gi?? kh??ng kh??ch quan, thao t??c t?? duy l???ch s??? c???a ch??? ngh??a M??c L?? nin. Kh??c v???i c??c s??? gia Vi???t Nam, c??c s??? gia n?????c ngo??i, ch??? y???u l?? ph????ng T??y , c?? ngu???n t?? li???u t??? hai ph??a, nh???t l?? h??? s?? c???a Ph??p, Nga, Trung Qu???c, M???, ????ng ??u, h??? s?? c??c cu???c ph???ng v???n tr???c ti???p c??c c?? nh??n tham gia c??c s??? ki???n l???ch s???, t??? ch??? ?????ng kh??ch quan v???i ph????ng ph??p t?? duy ph???c t???p h??n h??? c?? th??? nh??n ra s??? th???t ti???n tr??nh l???ch s??? ???? d?????i nhi???u g??c ????? kh??c nhau, ?????c bi???t l?? s??? v???n ?????ng c???a h??? t?? t?????ng ??? nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n Vi???t Nam ???? t???o ra t??nh tr???ng ph??n h??a n???i b??? trong gi???i l??nh ?????o v?? qu???n ch??ng, t???o ra c??c ch??nh s??ch tr?????c sau m??u thu???n, c??c m??u s???c ch??nh tr??? ?????i ngo???i, c??c v??? ??n ki???u nh?? NVGP (7)???
C?? hai ??i???m l??m cho qu?? tr??nh Mao h??a h??? t?? t?????ng ??? VN d??ng d???ng ??? tr???ng th??i l?????ng ph??n trong m???t th???i gian d??i:
??? M???t l?? trong th???i ??i???m 1945 Vi???t Minh gi??nh ???????c ch??nh quy???n trong t????ng quan c??ng c?? nhi???u l???c l?????ng qu???c gia y??u n?????c tham gia. VM kh??ng ????? th??? l???c qu???n l?? ?????t n?????c khi h??? ch??a c?? ???????c s??? c??ng nh???n, h???u thu???n c???a phe XHCN, HCM v???n c??n ph???i t??nh to??n con ???????ng t???n t???i trong kh???i Li??n hi???p Ph??p. Xu th??? n??y ph???n ??nh trong ch??nh b???n Tuy??n ng??n ?????c l???p do HCM ?????c tai Ba ????nh ng??y 2- 9- 1945 v?? trong th??nh ph???n ch??nh ph??? li??n hi???p sau ????. Ngay c??? khi cu???c chi???n to??n qu???c ???? n??? ra, 19- 12- 1946, VM l???p m???t ch??nh ph??? m???i ho??n to??n l?? c???a h??? nh??ng v???n c??n m???t t??? l??? l???n l?? th??nh ph???n tr?? th???c do Ph??p ????o t???o, ???? t???ng c???ng t??c v???i ch??nh ph??? Tr???n Tr???ng Kim, thu???c c??c ?????ng D??n ch??? v?? X?? h???i, trong ???? c?? c??c nh??n s??? ch??? ch???t c???a c??c ng??nh t?? ph??p, y t???, gi??o d???c, x?? h???i, th???m ch?? c??? m???t ph???n c??ng an, qu??n ?????i n???a. Ph????ng ??n mu???n duy tr?? b??? m???t kh??? ??i c???a ch??nh s??ch cai tr??? ????? ??i theo kh???i Li??n hi???p Ph??p c??n ???????c ?????y m???nh v??o c??c th???i ??i???m gi???a n??m 1947, gi???a n??m 1957 khi mi???n B???c VN v???n c??n hy v???ng hi???p th????ng th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c(8).
??? Qu?? tr??nh x??y d???ng nh?? n?????c VNDCCH theo h?????ng d??n ch??? b??? bi???n d???ng v?? b??? ph?? v??? b???i s??? th???ng l???i c???a CNXH ch??u ?? ??? Trung Qu???c. Kh??ng ph???i HCM kh??ng th???y h???t m???t tr??i c???a ch??? ngh??a Mao nh??ng do r???t c???n ngu???n vi???n tr??? v?? do Stalin kh??ng m???n m?? v???i ??ng, giao h???n tr??ch nhi???m cho c??ch m???ng Trung Qu???c gi??p ????? c??ch m???ng Vi???t Nam, ??ng ph???i m??? c???a cho c??c c??? v???n c???ng s???n Trung Qu???c mang theo ch??? ngh??a Mao x??m nh???p v??o ?????t n?????c. ??i???u n??y d???n ?????n s??? l??? thu???c c???a c???ng s???n Vi???t Nam v??o c???ng s???n Trung Qu???c, t???o c?? h???i cho Mao ??p ?????t h??? t?? t?????ng c???a ??ng ta l??n H??? Ch?? Minh v?? nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n Vi???t Nam (9).
B??? m???t c???a qu?? tr??nh n??y th??? hi???n ??? c??c m??u thu???n trong n???i b??? c???ng s???n Vi???t Nam, c??c cu???c thanh tr???ng phe ph??i l??c th?? phe th??n Li??n X??, l??c phe th??n Trung Qu???c, ??? c??c cu???c ch???nh hu???n, c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t, tranh lu???n v??? v??n h???c, lu???t ph??p, t?? ph??p, ??? c??c cu???c thanh tr???ng nh???ng tr?? th???c ki??n tr?? v???i t?? t?????ng d??n ch??? m???i ho???c CNXH ch??n ch??nh nh?? V?? ????nh H??e, V?? Tr???ng Kh??nh, Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng, D????ng ?????c Hi???n, Nguy???n H???u ??ang??? L??nh v???c gi???i h??a lu???t ph??p v?? NVGP l?? ??i???n h??nh c???a qu?? tr??nh ????.
?????i v???i v??n ngh??? do c???ng s???n Vi???t Nam l??nh ?????o Tr?????ng Chinh l?? ng?????i ???? ????a c??c quan ??i???m v??n ngh??? c???a Mao Tr???ch ????ng v??o ho???t ?????ng V??n h??a C???u qu???c t??? n??m 1943, ki??n tr?? b???o v??? n?? cho t???i khi ?????i m???i, ???? t???o ra r???t nhi???u v??? ??n v??n ngh??? kh??c n???a, l?? nh??n t??? ch??nh l??m cho n???n v??n ngh??? Vi???t Nam ho??n th??nh nhi???m v??? tuy??n truy???n nh??ng t???t h???u so v???i s??? ph??t tri???n chung c???a v??n ngh??? nh??n lo???i.
Trong th???i k??? ban ?????u Tr?????ng Chinh kh??ng th??? chi ph???i ???????c m???i ho???t ?????ng c???a VHCQ do ??a s??? nh???ng ng?????i th???c hi???n l?? c??c tr?? th???c c?? ???nh h?????ng t?? t?????ng DCTS. Do ??i???u ki???n kh??ng chi???n, VM kh??ng th??? th??nh l???p b??? m??y v??n h??a ri??ng ????? ??p ?????t ???????ng l???i c???a m??nh. ?????c M???t n???n v??n h??a m???i c???a Nguy???n H???u ??ang , Nguy???n ????nh Thi vi???t xong th??ng 6-1945 ????? tr??nh b??y trong H???i ngh??? Qu???c d??n T??n Tr??o th??ng 8-1945, xu???t b???n t???i H?? N???i cu???i 1945, ng?????i ta th???y ??i???m kh??c bi???t c?? b???n gi???a hai ??ng v?? Tr?????ng Chinh l?? y???u t??? t?? t?????ng D??n ch???.
Nguy???n H???u ??ang v?? Nguy???n ????nh Thi quan ni???m:
???????? th???c hi???n n???n v??n h??a m???i, tr?????c h???t ch??ng ta ph???i c???ng c??? n???n ?????c l???p ho??n to??n v?? l??m th???c hi???n ch??nh th??? d??n ch??? c???ng h??a tri???t ?????.
???Ban b??? tri???t ????? quy???n t??? do t?? t?????ng v?? t??? do ng??n lu???n, ch??nh l?? c???i m??? cho v??n h??a tr??? n??n s???m u???t, v?? ??em m???t lu???ng sinh kh?? m???nh m??? th???i v??o c??i v??n h??a bao l??u ph???i s???ng trong nh???ng ph??ng ng???c ch???t h???p, thi???u ??nh s??ng,thi???u h??i n??ng c???a m???t tr???i. S??ch v??? v?? b??o ch?? ???????c xu???t b???n t??? do, n???n v??n ngh??? c???a ta m???i c?? th??? d???i d??o phong ph??.

C??n Tr?????ng Chinh th?? xuy??n su???t c??c v??n ki???n t??? kh???i th???y cho ?????n sau n??y ?????u d???a tr??n c??c nguy??n l?? v??n ngh??? c???a Mao Tr???ch ????ng, b???t v??n ngh??? ph???c v??? ch??nh tr???, l???y m???c ti??u s??ng t???o v??n ngh??? l?? ph???c v??? c??ng n??ng binh, ph???c v??? tuy??n truy???n nh?? l?? m???t m???nh l???nh tuy???t ?????i cho v??n ngh??? s??. Ch??a bao gi??? th???y ??ng ????a ra c??c y???u t??? t??? do t?? t?????ng, t??? do s??ng t??c, t??? do ng??n lu???n l??m ??i???u ki???n cho s??? th??nh c??ng c???a n???n v??n h??a x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a. ???y l?? ch??a n??i ?????n ph????ng ph??p l???p lu???n c???a Tr?????ng Chinh ?????y ch???t ng???y bi???n, gi??? d???i, ph???n khoa h???c, th???c d???ng v??? ch??nh tr???. R???t nhi???u m???nh ????? c???a ??ng khi ????a v??o v???n h??nh qu???n l?? v??n ngh??? ?????u ??i ng?????c l???i v???i tinh th???n c???a n??. V?? ch??nh b???n th??n ??ng trong m???t s??? tr?????ng h???p c??? th??? ?????i v???i m???t s??? t??c ph???m ???? th??? hi???n th??i ????? h???p h??i, thi???n c???n, quy ch???p, tr?? d???p v??n ngh??? s??.
M??u thu???n ???? b???c l??? ra gi???a Nguy???n H???u ??ang v?? Tr?????ng Chinh ngay t??? l??c t??? ch???c H???i ngh??? VHCQ to??n qu???c th??ng 10 n??m 1946 v?? c?? th??? n??i k???t th??c b???ng H???i ngh??? V??n h??a to??n qu???c l???n th??? II x??a b??? VHCQ, th??nh l???p H???i V??n ngh??? Vi???t Nam ho??n to??n theo qu??? ?????o c???a ???????ng l???i v??n ngh??? Maois v??o th???i ??i???m th??ng 7- 1948 (10). T??? th???i ??i???m n??y s??? r???n n???t trong ?????i ng?? v??n ngh??? kh??ng chi???n c??ng tr??? n??n tr???m tr???ng h??n. Nhi???u ng?????i b???t ?????u b??? v??? th??nh, s??? l?????ng nhi???u h??n khi c??c cu???c ch???nh hu???n theo ki???u Mao m??? ra (11). S??? n??y sau tr??? th??nh l???c l?????ng n??ng c???t c???a v??n ngh??? S??i G??n : T??? T???, Mai Th???o, Nguy???n ?????c Qu???nh, Nguy???n Ti???n L??ng, Nguy???n M???nh C??n, ??inh H??ng, V?? Ho??ng Ch????ng, Do??n Qu???c S???, Ph???m Duy, V?? Phi???n, Thanh T??m Tuy???n, Nguy??n Sa, D????ng Nghi???m M???u, L?? V??n V?? B???c Ti???n ???Trong s??? VNS ??? l???i v??ng kh??ng chi???n c??c cu???c tranh lu???n v??? t??? do s??ng t??c v?? d??n ch??? v???n c??n di???n ra v???i c??c ??ng Tr????ng T???u, Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng, T?? Ng???c V??n, V??n Cao, S??? Ng???c???C?? khi tr??? th??nh ????n ????nh nhau c??ng khai nh?? vi???c ph?? b??nh th?? kh??ng v???n c???a Nguy???n ????nh Thi, tranh l???p th??? c???a V??n Cao, T??? T??????Tuy v???y trong b??? m??y c???a Ch??nh ph??? kh??ng chi???n HCM v???n kh??ng c?? B??? V??n h??a, H???i V??n ngh??? ???? ph???i l??m thay ch???c n??ng cho b??? n??y cho t???i th??ng 2- 1955. ??a s??? v??n ngh??? s?? trong kh??ng chi???n ?????u gia nh???p qu??n ?????i v?? thu???c qu???n l?? c???a Ph??ng V??n ngh??? qu??n ?????i v???i c??c ch??nh s??ch v??n ngh??? ???????c qu??n s??? h??a d?????i s??? l??nh ?????o c???a c??c ch??nh ???y.
Hy v???ng v??? m???t cu???c s???ng tho???i m??i h??n v??? v???t ch???t v?? tinh th???n sau khi h??a b??nh l???p l???i b??? h??o ??a v??? cu???c C???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t v?? nh???ng kh?? kh??n trong ?????i s???ng, do c??ch th???c qu???n l?? x?? h???i nh?? h??? kh???u, c???i t???o t?? s???n, th????ng nghi???p qu???c doanh???  Trong v??n ngh??? ???? l?? t??? l??nh ?????o ch??nh tr??? th?? b???o, ??p bu???c tuy??n truy???n m???t chi???u, t??? b?? ph??i c?? h???i, t??c phong l??nh ?????o h???ng h??ch, s??ng t??c ????n gi???n s?? l?????c ???

2 ??? B???i c???nh qu???c t???, cu???c c??ch m???ng d??n ch??? l???n th??? nh???t c???a phe XHCN t??c ?????ng ?????n CMDC ??? Vi???t Nam.
Sau 1945 kh??ng ph???i Li??n X?? ???? ho??n to??n chi ph???i ???????c ch??nh quy???n c??c n?????c ????ng ??u. ??? m???t v??i n?????c v???n c??n ch??nh ph??? DCTS. ?????n ?????u nh???ng n??m 50 c??c cu???c ch??nh bi???n c???ng s???n ??? c??c n?????c n??y n??? ra l???t ????? c??c ch??nh ph??? DCTS th?? m???i c?? ???????c m???t h??? th???ng XHCN thu???n nh???t theo s??? l??nh ?????o c???a Stalin.
C??ng nh?? ??? Li??n X?? to??n b??? c??c n?????c XHCN d?????i s??? ch??? ?????o c???a Stalin ???? b???c l??? c??c m??u thu???n gay g???t trong n???i b??? l??nh ?????o c??c ??CS, gi???a nh??n d??n, tr?? th???c, v??n ngh??? s?? v???i ??CS v??? c??c v???n ????? ph??p quy???n d??n ch???. Nhi???u cu???c ????n ??p n???i b??? nh???m v??o tr?? th???c, v??n ngh??? s??, nh???ng ng?????i b???t ?????ng ch??nh ki???n??? Ch??? ?????i ?????n l??c Stalin ch???t th???n t?????ng Stalin m???i b??? h??? b???, b??? k???t t???i v??? nh???ng t???i ??c ???? g??y ra trong th???i k??? cai tr??? Li??n X?? b???ng ch??? ????? ?????c t??i v?? c??c cu???c thanh tr???ng n???i b??? ?????m m??u. Trong ?????i h???i l???n th??? XX ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? th??ng 2- 1956 T???ng b?? th?? Kh?? R??t s???p ???? ?????c b??o c??o t???ng k???t c??c t???i ??c th???i Stalin v?? ????? xu???t chi???n l?????c m???i cho phe XHCN chung s???ng h??a b??nh c??ng c?? ngh??a l?? m??? ra cho c??c n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a m???t th???i k??? d??n ch??? (12).
Kh??ng ph???i ?????i ?????n khi Kh?? R??t S???p ch??nh th???c tuy??n b???, ??? c??c n?????c XHCN ?????u ???? c?? c??c y???u t??? ????i h???i ph???i c???i c??ch d??n ch???. Nh??ng ti???c r???ng khi hoa d??n ch??? n??? r??? ng???n s??ng d??n ch??? ???? l??m cho c??c ??CS ??? ????y lo s??? v??? nguy c?? kh???ng ho???ng. C??c ph???n t??? b???o th??? ???? t??m m???i c??ch l??m cho nh???ng ng?????i kh???i x?????ng, ???ng h??? c???i c??ch do d??? r???i l???t ng?????c th??? c???. M???t s??? cu???c n???i d???y b??? ????n ??p, c??c v??n ngh??? s?? c???p ti???n b??? x??? l??, th???m ch?? b??? k???t t???i ho???t ?????ng l???t ????? ch??nh quy???n nh??n d??n. C?? th??? g???i ???? l?? Cu???c c??ch m???ng d??n ch??? XHCN l???n th??? nh???t. Sau hai m????i n??m cu???c C??ch m???ng d??n ch??? l???n th??? hai ???? n??? ra c??ng kh???i ?????u t??? Li??n X?? v???i ng???n c??? C??ng khai- C???i t??? c???a Go??c Ba Ch???p T???ng b?? th?? ??CSLX v?? ???? d???n ?????n s??? s???p ????? c???a h??? th???ng XHCN .
V???y cu???c c???i c??ch d??n ch??? l???n th??? nh???t ??? Vi???t Nam ch??nh l?? Phong tr??o Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m m???t tr??o l??u t?? t?????ng, trong ???? theo truy???n th???ng ?? ????ng ?????c tr??ng c?? b???n c???a n?? l?? ph???n ???ng v??? ng??n t??? ch??? kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t v??? b???o lo???n. T???t nhi??n khi y??u c???u c??ch m???ng n??y ?????t l??n vai v??n h???c th?? t??? b??n trong v??n h???c xu???t hi???n nh???ng y??u c???u thay ?????i v??? h??nh th???c ????? ????p ???ng y??u c???u x?? h???i.
3- B???i c???nh v??n ngh??? mi???n B???c 1945- 1954.
N???n v??n h??a Vi???t Nam v???n t??? v???n t??? m???t n???n v??n h??a nho gi??o tr?? tr??? trong nhi???u th??? k??? trung c???n ?????i b???t ?????u ???????c hi???n ?????i h??a v???i ch??? qu???c ng??? t??? gi???a th??? k??? XIX, ph??t tri???n t??? cu???i th??? k??? XIX ?????u th??? k??? XX v???i c??c cu???c khai s??ng, ?????nh cao l?? du nh???p b??o ch??, h???i h???a, m??? thu???t, ??m nh???c T??y ??u, ????? c?? ??m nh???c ti???n chi???n, Th?? M???i v?? T??? L???c V??n ??o??n. Hai phong tr??o v??n h???c n??y l??m cho v??n h???c Vi???t Nam v????n t???i m???t n???n v??n h???c c?? c??c ph????ng ph??p s??ng t??c c???a v??n h???c hi???n ?????i th??? gi???i c??? v??? ng??n ng???, nh??n v???t, thi ph??p bi???u hi???n, ch??? ngh??a c?? nh??n???
N???u n??i v??? ti???n tr??nh v??n h???c, C??ch m???ng Th??ng T??m 1945 ???? l??m gi??n ??o???n, n???u kh??ng n??i l?? ?????t ??o???n qu?? tr??nh hi???n ?????i h??a c???a v??n h???c Vi???t Nam. ??? ????y kh??ng n??i to??n b??? n???n v??n h???c m?? l?? b??? ph???n v??n h???c do nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n Vi???t Nam th???c hi???n qu???n l??. C??c ch??nh s??ch v??? VHVN c???a ??CSVN b??? ???nh h?????ng n???ng n??? ch??? ngh??a Mao, sau n???a l?? ch??? ngh??a L?? nin, Stalin ???? ??o???n tuy???t g???n nh?? ho??n to??n v???i qu?? kh??? nh???t l?? b??? ph???n di s???n v??n ngh??? quan tr???ng nh???t, 1930- 1945, ???? tuy???t ?????i h??a ch???c n??ng tuy??n truy???n, l???y qu???n ch??ng c??ng n??ng binh l??m m???c ti??u , l??m th?????c ??o gi?? tr??? c???a v??n ngh???, ???? th??? ti??u m???i ?? t?????ng th??? hi???n ngh??? thu???t b???ng k?? hi???u ngh??? thu???t c???a ng?????i ngh??? s??. Ch??nh v?? v???y ng?????i ta m???i c?????ng ??i???u vi???c t??m ???????ng, nh???n ???????ng cho v??n ngh??? s??, g???i n?? cu???c l???t x??c ??au ?????n, l?? cu???c s??ng t???o m???i v???i c??u tuy??n ng??n gi???t ch???t c??i c?? trong con ng?????i h???.
Ch??nh v?? th???, v??n ngh??? kh??ng chi???n ???? ????nh m???t nhi???u t??i n??ng trong c??c cu???c ch???nh hu???n, c??c cu???c ph?? b??nh t??m h???n ti???u t?? s???n ho???c ph?? b??nh m???t s??t c??c lo???i h??nh ngh??? thu???t hi???n ?????i. M???t b??? ph???n ????ng k??? tr?? th???c, v??n ngh??? s?? c?? t?? t?????ng t??? do trong ???? ??a s??? l?? g???c B???c ???? ly khai v??n ngh??? kh??ng chi???n. C??n c??c v??n ngh??? s?? ti???n chi???n th?? co m??nh l???i, hoang mang kh??ng bi???t vi???t c??i g??, v??? c??i g??. L???p v??n ngh??? s?? do c??ng n??ng binh sinh ra ch??a th??? tr??? th??nh nh???ng c??y b??t c?? t???m v??c. Nh??n v??o ch???t l?????ng c??c Gi???i th?????ng v??n ngh??? trong kh??ng chi???n th?? th???y r?? ??i???u ????, c?? th??? g???i l?? xu???t s???c v???i v??i b??i th??, m???t v??i ti???u thuy???t c?? ph???n ????n gi???n.
B?????c sang giai ??o???n h??a b??nh trong khi b??? m??y qu???n l?? v???n c??n ??ang theo qu??n t??nh c??, th?? cu???c s???ng ???? ?????t ra nh???ng v???n ????? m???i.
C??ch m???ng ???? chuy???n giai ??o???n. Th???i k??? qu?? ????? ti???n l??n ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i, ai c??ng bi???t l?? m???t th???i k??? c?? nhi???u bi???n chuy???n s??u s???c tri???t ????? h??n t???t c??? c??c th???i k??? c??ch m???ng tr?????c. Cu???c s???ng thay ?????i r???t nhanh v?? m???t ??i???u l??m cho nhi???m v??? c???a nh?? v??n tr??? n??n ph???c t???p h??n, l?? c??ng cu???c c???i t???o x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a v?? x??y d???ng ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i ??? mi???n B???c c??n ??????ng ti???n h??nh, kh?? ph??n bi???t trong ???? c??i g?? ??????ng x??y d???ng ch??a xong, v?? c??i g?? ??????ng ????? s???p???
(Nh??n l???i b?????c ???????ng ???? qua, Tuy???n t???p Nh?? Phong).

Trong b???i c???nh v??n h???c ri??ng c???a mi???n B???c nh?? th???, trong b???i c???nh v??n h???c th??? gi???i, v??n h???c S??i G??n ??ang chuy???n sang c??c ch??? ngh??a hi???n ?????i, b???i c???nh cu???c c??ch m???ng d??n ch??? c???a to??n phe XHCN t???t c??c v??n ngh??? s?? ph???i ?????t ra vi???c c??ch t??n v??n h???c c??? n???i dung v?? h??nh th???c. ?????c bi???t c???a NVGP l?? s??? m???nh c???i c??ch l???i do ch??nh nh???ng tr?? th???c, v??n ngh??? s?? con ????? c???a c??ch m???ng, nh???ng ng?????i ???? ??? tuy???n ?????u trong cu???c kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p kh???i x?????ng.
N???u c??? tho??t ra kh???i l???i m??n, nh??n theo ti???n tr??nh ph??t tri???n v??n h???c th??? gi???i, c?? th??? th???y r???ng ??? Vi???t Nam nh??m th?? Xu??n Thu Nh?? T???p c???a Nguy???n Xu??n Sanh ???? b??o hi???u s??? b??? t???c c???a ch??? ngh??a l??ng m???n, ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c ph?? ph??n ????? chuy???n qua ch??? ngh??a si??u th???c. ???? kh??ng ph???i l?? d??ng v??n h???c ti??u c???c m?? l?? t??ch c???c theo ?? ngh??a n?? l?? m???t c??? g???ng c???a nh???ng nh?? v??n ??i t??m l???i tho??t ????a v??n h???c Vi???t Nam ti???n l??n m???t tr??nh ????? t?? duy cao h??n.
Ti???p theo m???i ng?????i c??n nh??? sau trong nh???ng ng??y m???p m?? b??? v???c chi???n tranh c???a n?????c Vi???t Nam m???i ti???p t???c xu???t hi???n nh??m th?? D??? ????i c???a Tr???n D???n, V?? Ho??ng Ch????ng, ??inh H??ng, Tr???n Mai Ch??u, V?? Ho??ng ?????ch??? Trong B???n Tuy??n Ng??n T?????ng Tr??ng nh??m D??? ????i ???? n??i r?? th??i ????? ph??? ?????nh v??n h???c giai ??o???n c?? v?? kh??ng d???u di???m ?? ????? mu???n t???o ra m???t d??ng v??n h???c m???i:
V?? th???, c??i thi ca c??? r??ch, c??i thi ca t??nh c???a ti???n nh??n ng??m v???nh, c???a b???n l??ng m???n kh??c b???n ch???ng l??m ch??ng ta qu??n, v?? ch???ng c?? th??? ?????y ????a ch??ng ta theo nh???ng nh???p ??i???u b???ng b???nh c???a b???n thanh ??m ho??n v??.
Th??? cho n??n ch??ng t??i ??? thi s?? t?????ng tr??ng ??? ch??ng t??i s??? ????n v??? ????y t???t c??? nh???ng th??? gi???i quay cu???ng, ch??ng t??i s??? b???t m???t v???ng tr??ng ph???i l???n, m???t ??nh sao ph???i m??? ??i, m???t ch??? ????? ph???i t??n vong v?? m???t b??i th?? ph???i v?? c??ng linh ?????ng.

Tr???n D???n th??? l??nh c???a nh??m D??? ????i sau m?????i n??m, ??? m???t ng?? ba, ng?? t?? th???i ?????i l???i ???? ???????c tr???i ?????t cho ngu???n c???m h???ng v??? m???t cu???c l???t x??c cho n???n v??n h???c.
H???n l?? Tr???n D???n ???? mang c??i kh??t v???ng s??i s???c ???y v??o c??c tr?????ng ca C??ch m???ng Th??ng T??m, ??i- Vi???t B???c, Nh???t ?????nh th???ng??? v?? l??i cu???n c??c ng?????i b???n c??ng theo. Trong nh???t k?? Ghi 1954 ??ng vi???t:
L??c t??i mu???n m???t th??? Th?? d??? d??i. L??c m???t th??? Th?? kh??ng c?? v???n. L??c m???t th??? Th?? nh?? m???t h???t ng???c. L??c m???t th??? Th?? k??? chuy???n. L??c m???t th??? Th?? g??? gh???. L??c m???t th??? Th?? hi???n l??nh, c?? c??i kh???e c???a nh???ng b???p th???t h???ng. L??c m???t th??? Th?? na n?? nh?? c???a anh l??nh, n?? m??t m?? l??nh, n?? hi???n m?? kh???e, n?? th???c t???. L??c l?? m???t th??? Th?? na n?? nh?? b??i n??i c???a anh c??n b???, n?? ????? th??ng, n?? gi???c gi??, n?? l?? lu???n.
T??i th??ch Th?? th???i s???, theo s??t c??i h???i h???p, lo l???ng c???a ?????ng t??i, d??n t??i, tri???u tri???u qu??? tim d??n ch??ng v?? qu??n ?????i, chi???n s?? v?? c??n b???, l??nh t??? v?? qu???n ch??ng.
T??i l???i c??ng th??ch Th?? kh??ng th???i s???, Th?? bao tr??m ?????t n?????c v?? th???i gian, Th?? ??n l???n sang m???i th??? k???, v?? Th?? nh???p c??? v??o c??i bi???n ch???ng bao la c???a s??? v???t.
V?? v???y b??y gi??? t??i mu???n m???t th??? Th?? n??o ???? l???y ????? t??i ngay ??? nh???p ?????p tr?????c m???t c???a tr??i tim d??n t???c Vi???t Nam. Nh??ng trong ????? t??i ???? t??i ????o m??i ????o m??i t???i khi t??i t??m th???y qu??? tim Nh??n Lo???i. ???? l?? th???c s??? m?? c??ng l?? ?? mu???n c???a t??i. Qu??? tim d??n t???c t??i c?? ngh??a l?? qu??? tim Nh??n Lo???i. Nh???p ?????p c???a n?? l?? nh???p ??i c???a Bi???n Ch???ng. C??i ng??y h??m nay l?? d???n ??p c???a h??ng tri???u n??m v??? tr?????c v?? m??? ra tri???u th??? k??? v??? sau. T??i mu???n m???t th??? Th?? n??o ???? v???ch ra ???????c s??? th???c ????. H???t b???i, s???i t??c m??y l?? c??? m???t v?? tr???. M???t kho???nh kh???c l?? c??? l???ch s??? c???a tr???n gian. M???t th???c m???c c???a em l?? t???t c??? lo ??u nh??n lo???i.

Qua nh???ng d??ng n??y kh??ng ai c?? th??? ngh?? ???? l?? m???t quan ni???m suy ?????i. Th???i ?????i ???? cho Tr???n D???n m???t quan ni???m th?? ca m???i m??? v?? r???t bi???n ch???ng, r???t t??ch c???c ?????i v???i cu???c s???ng.
Nh?? v???y c?? l??? tr?????c ti??n NVGP ??i t??? c???m h???ng c???a m???t cu???c c??ch t??n v??n h???c, b??? k??ch th??ch b???i th???i cu???c Vi???t Nam 1954- 1956. Tuy v???y, v???n ph???i n??i th??m r???ng n???u kh??ng c?? c??i th???i cu???c ???? s??? kh??ng c?? NVGP!
Trong NVGP tr??o l??u t?? t?????ng ch??nh tr??? v?? tr??o l??u t?? t?????ng v??n h???c g???p nhau ???? t???o ra m???t s???c m???nh x?? h???i to l???n l??m ch??nh quy???n nh??n th???y m???t nguy c?? ??e d???a nguy hi???m c???n ph???i lo???i b??? h??n l?? ????? n?? t???n t???i. L??c ???y mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam ch??a h???n l?? ch??a ????? ??i???u ki???n ????? l??m m???t cu???c c???i c??ch d??n ch???, m???t cu???c c???i c??ch v??n h???c. Nh??ng ????ng ti???c c?? h???i b??? b??? l??? v?? tham v???ng c???a b??? ph???n t??? khuynh c???a ??CSVN mu???n ngay l???p t???c th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c, th??? ti??u ch??nh quy???n ph??a b??n kia b???ng v?? l???c. Tham v???ng n??y g???p ???????c b??? ph???n nh???ng ng?????i ch??? tr????ng, t??? ch???c th???c hi???n CCR?? l???y nguy c?? d??n ch??? ????? bi???n minh cho ???????ng l???i v?? h???u qu??? vi???c l??m c???a h???.
Hai m????i n??m sau khi NVGP b??? ????nh d???p, 1979 v??n ngh??? Vi???t Nam l???i l??m v??o b??? t???c khi chuy???n giai ??o???n th???i chi???n sang th???i b??nh. Nh?? v??n Nguy??n Ng???c v???i s??? gi??p ????? c???a c??c chi???n h???u ?????ng nghi???p mi???n Trung ???? vi???t b???n ????? c????ng ????? d???n th???o lu???n ??? H???i ngh??? ?????ng vi??n b??n v??? s??ng t??c v??n h???c. ??C??D ???? th???ng th???n n??i ra nh???ng m???t y???u k??m b??? t???c c???a n???n v??n h???c Vi???t Nam l??c ???? ( tr??? v??n h???c mi???n Nam d?????i ch??? ????? c???ng h??a) v?? ????a ra m???y v???n ????? b???c thi???t c?? ?? ngh??a c??ch t??n trong ???? c?? v???n ????? d??n ch???, t??? do s??ng t??c. T???t nhi??n l?? s??? di???n ?????t c???a Nguy??n Ng???c c??n ??? m???c ????? l??? ph??p, ph???i ?????o nh??ng ngay l???p t???c ??ng ???? b??? T??? H???u c??ch ch???c B?? th?? ?????ng ??o??n HNVVN. ??C ??D b??? c??c ph???n t??? b???o th??? c?? h???i ph?? ph??n k???ch li???t nh??ng n??m 2010 trong khi vi???t l???ch s??? HNVVN c??c ??ng H???ng Di???u, H???u Nhu???n, Th??i K??? To???i, L?? Quang Trang??? ???? coi ??C??D l?? hi???n t?????ng ti???n ?????i m???i c???a v??n h???c Vi???t Nam.
Ba m????i n??m sau, b??? t??c ?????ng b???i cu???c c??ch m???ng d??n ch??? l???n th??? hai c???a phe x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a, ?????ng tr?????c nguy c?? kh???ng ho???ng nghi??m tr???ng, ??CSVN m???i ????a ra s??ch l?????c ?????i m???i. Tr?????ng Chinh ???? l??m ???????c vi???c kh???i x?????ng ?????i m???i, n???n kinh t??? ?????t n?????c ???? c?? ??t nhi???u thay ?????i, nh??ng v??? ch??nh tr??? th?? ???? l?? cu???c ?????i m???i n???a v???i ph??? thu???c v??o c??c b?????c ??i c???a ??CS Trung Qu???c. V?? th??? nh???ng di s???n v??n h??a Maois m?? Tr?????ng Chinh ???? ??p ?????t l??n ?????t n?????c t??? 70 n??m nay d?? ??ang hoen g??? nh??ng b??? khung c???a n?? th?? v???n c??n t?? h??m ?????i s???ng tinh th???n c???a d??n t???c Vi???t Nam.
4- C??c ??i???u ki???n n???y sinh NVGP
M???c d?? ch??? ngh??a Mao ???? ???????c ch??nh th???c th???a nh???n trong c????ng l??nh ??CSVN t???i ?????i h???i l???n th??? II th??ng 2- 1951 nh??ng do c??c ??i???u ki???n c???a th???i k??? ???? n???i b??? l??nh ?????o ?????ng v???n c??n b??? r??ng bu???c b???i c??c s??? ki???n sau:
H??? c??n ??ang cho??ng v??ng v??? h???u qu??? c???a sai l???m do CCR?? g??y ra, ?????ng ph???i c??ng khai xin l???i nh??n d??n, T???ng b?? th?? Tr?????ng Chinh ph???i t??? ch???c, m???t s??? c??n b??? l??nh ?????o CCR?? b??? k??? lu???t (13). ?????ng bu???c ph???i l??n ti???ng c??ng khai th???a nh???n sai l???m v??? ???????ng l???i, v??? c??c c??n b???nh tr???m tr???ng trong ?????ng v?? trong b??? m??y ch??nh quy???n, ph???i ????a ra vi???c m??? r???ng t??? do d??n ch??? cho c??c t???ng l???p nh??n d??n.
H??? c??n b??? r??ng bu???c nh???ng ??i???u ki???n ????? hy v???ng ti???p t???c qu?? tr??nh hi???p th????ng th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c v?? gi??nh th???ng l???i trong cu???c T???ng tuy???n c??? cho n??n ph???i c??? g???ng t???o b??? m???t s???ch s??? cho ch??nh th??? VNDCCH nh?? ti???p t???c s??? d???ng nhi???u nh??n s?? tr?? th???c trong Ch??nh ph???, Qu???c h???i, ban h??nh c??c ?????o lu???t c?? t??nh ch???t d??n ch??? c???i m??? nh?? Lu???t t??? do b??o ch??, t??? do xu???t b???n, t??? do h???i h???p, t??? do l???p h???i???Cho ?????n gi???a n??m 1957 HCM v???n c??n t??nh ?????n kh??? n??ng Vi???t Nam xin gia nh???p Kh???i Li??n hi???p Ph??p (14).
Nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n Vi???t Nam, tuy c?? m???c ????? kh??c nhau nh??ng ?????u ch???u ???nh h?????ng chung c???a kh???i XHCN v??? qu?? tr??nh d??n ch??? h??a ?????c bi???t l?? t??? ??CS Li??n X?? v?? sau l?? ??CS Trung Qu???c. ?????i v???i c??c n?????c XHCN l??c ???? d??n ch??? h??a l?? ????i h???i c???p b??ch nh??ng ch??a ch??n mu???i, th??? gi???i ??ang ??? tr???ng th??i chi???n tranh l???nh. V?? th??? d???n ?????n vi???c h??nh ?????ng d??n ch??? h??a trong tr???ng th??i m??u thu???n n???i b??? v?? ng???p ng???ng, d???n ?????n th???t b???i khi b??? phe b???o th??? l???t l???i th??? c???. Qu?? tr??nh ch???p ch???n n??y ???????c ph???n ??nh v??o c??ch h??nh ?????ng n???a v???i c???a Kh?? r??t s???p, qu?? tr??nh gi???i quy???t v??? Tr??m hoa ??ua n??? ??? Trung Qu???c v?? v??? NVGP ??? Vi???t Nam. C?? m???t v??i nh???n ?????nh r???ng Mao Tr???ch ????ng v?? H??? Ch?? Minh d??ng th??? ??o???n l??m cho tr?? th???c v??n ngh??? s?? m???c b???y r???i ti??u di???t. ???? l?? nh???n ?????nh ch??a ????ng v??? b???n ch???t h??nh th??i d??n ch??? h??a trong l??ng XHCN. ?????c ??i???m n??y c??n ???????c ph???n ??nh r?? r??ng h??n v???i v??? h??? b??? Kh?? R??t S???p n??m 1964, Trung Qu???c trong v??? Thi??n An M??n n??m 1989 v???i vi???c h??? b??? hai T???ng b?? th?? ??CSTQ c?? t?? t?????ng c???i c??ch l?? H??? Di???u Bang v?? Tri???u T??? D????ng, v???i v??? h??? b??? Tr???n Xu??n B??ch, Tr???n ????? ??? Vi???t Nam n??m 1990.
C??c ?????c ??i???m n??y c?? th??? c??ng l??m r?? th??m ??i???u ki???n xu???t hi???n c???a Phong tr??o NVGP, ?? ngh??a ch??nh tr??? t???t ?????p c???a n??. C??c nh?? v??n, tr?? th???c NVGP ???? d??ng c???m l??m tr???n s??? m???nh c??ng d??n c???a h???. C??c m???c ti??u m?? h??? h?????ng t???i ?????u l?? m???c ti??u t???t y???u c???a ??CSVN, trong khuynh h?????ng c???i c??ch do ch??nh ??CSVN ????? ra, mu???n c??ng ?????ng th???c hi???n x??y d???ng m???t x?? h???i d??n ch???. Nhi???u ng?????i trong NVGP l?? ?????ng vi??n v?? c?? c??? v??? tr??, ch???c v??? qu???n l?? v??n h??a v??n ngh???. V?? v???y kh??ng vi???c g?? ph???i n?? tr??nh ?? ngh??a v?? m???c ????ch ch??nh tr??? c???a phong tr??o NVGP khi ng?????i ta c?? trong tay c??c v??n b???n ngh??? quy???t c???a ??CSVN trong th???i k?? ????. Bi k???ch c???a NVGP l?? do m???t s??? ng?????i c?? tr??ch nhi???m v??? c??ng t??c t?? t?????ng ???????c giao xem x??t v??? NVGP ???? v?? m???c ??ich c?? nh??n d??ng c??c th??? ??o???n m??? ??m l???a d???i Ban l??nh ?????o v?? ?????ng vi??n c???a ?????ng ??i ng?????c l???i tinh th???n ch??? ?????o c???a Trung ????ng ?????ng, bi???n NVGP t??? m???t hi???n t?????ng b???t ?????ng ch??nh ki???n m??u thu???n n???i b??? th??nh m???t v??? ??n ch??nh tr??? gi??n ??i???p ph???n ?????ng c?? m???c ????ch l???t ????? ch??nh quy???n.
C?? th??? t??m th???y s??? t????ng ph???n n??y trong ch??nh ?????i h???i v??n ngh??? to??n qu???c l???n th??? hai th??ng 2-1957. Th?? c???a Ban ch???p h??nh trung ????ng ?????ng lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam g???i ?????i h???i ???? ????nh gi?? t??nh h??nh v??n ngh??? nh?? sau:
Th???t v???y s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng v??? m???t v??n ngh??? ???? c?? nh???ng thi???u s??t v??? ???????ng l???i ch??nh s??ch. V?? b??n c???nh nh???ng c??? g???ng, c?? quan tr???c ti???p ph??? tr??ch v??n ngh??? ???? c?? nh???ng l???ch l???c, nh?? coi nh??? vi???c l??nh ?????o t?? t?????ng trong h??a b??nh, h???p h??i trong l??nh ?????o s??ng t??c, c?? ?????c c?? t??nh b?? ph??i trong l??nh ?????o v??? t??? ch???c. Nh???ng khuy???t ??i???m ???y ???? ???????c th???ng th???n ph?? b??nh v?? c???n ph???i ki??n quy???t s???a ch???a.
V??? ph???n c??c b???n v??n ngh??? s?? th?? hi???n nay c??n nh???ng khuy???t ??i???m v??? m???t t?? t?????ng v?? ngh??? thu???t c???n ph???i kh???c ph???c, v?? d??? nh??: l???p tr?????ng c??ch m???ng ch??a ???????c d???t kho??t, r?? r??ng, s??? hi???u bi???t v??? ?????i s???ng nh??n d??n ch??a ???????c s??u s???c, c??n ph???m ch??? ngh??a h??nh th???c, ch??? ngh??a t??? nhi??n v?? ch??? ngh??a s?? l?????c trong s??ng t??c.

N??i v??? ph????ng h?????ng x??y d???ng n???n v??n ngh??? b???c th?? n??u:
Sau c??ng m???t ??i???u quan tr???ng l?? ??o??n k???t nh???t tr?? t???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i c??ng t??c v??n h???c y??u n?????c v?? ti???n b??? th??nh m???t m???t tr???n r???ng r??i v?? ch???t ch??? d?????i s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng v?? ?????ng trong M???t tr???n d??n t???c th???ng nh???t c???a ta. Nh???ng nh?? v??n ngh??? y??u n?????c v?? ti???n b??? mi???n B???c v?? mi???n Nam, ??? trong n?????c c??ng nh?? ??? ngo??i n?????c, kh??ng ph??n bi???t d??n t???c, khuynh h?????ng ch??nh tr??? v?? t??n gi??o, kh??ng ph??n bi???t B???c Nam, kh??ng chi???n hay kh??ng kh??ng chi???n, kh??ng ph??n bi???t khuynh h?????ng ngh??? thu???t, kh??ng ph??n bi???t c??, m???i, g??i , trai, gi??, tr???, c??c nh?? v??n ngh??? n???i ti???ng c??ng nh?? c??c ngh??? s?? d??n gian, t???t c??? ??o??n k???t h??n n???a, th??nh m???t ?????i qu??n v??n h??a m???nh m???, ????ng ?????o, d??ng c???m v?? nh???t tr??, ????? ph???c v??? T??? qu???c v?? nh??n d??n ?????c l???c h??n.
B???c th?? n??y kh??ng c?? m???t d??ng n??o ch??? tr??ch v??? Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m. Th??? m?? trong b??i ph??t bi???u c???a Tr?????ng Chinh v???i t?? c??ch c?? nh??n ??ng ta ???? k???t t???i NVGP r???t n???ng n???:
T??nh ch???t nguy h???i nh???t c???a b??o ??? Nh??n v??n??? ch??nh l?? ??? ch??? n?? n??u chi??u b??i theo ch??? ngh??a M??c-L?? nin m?? s??? th???t ???? xuy??n t???c ch??? ngh??a M??c-L?? nin, n??i l?? ch???u s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng m?? m?? k??? th???c ????? k??ch s??? l??nh ?????o ????, r??u rao l?? b???o v??? ch??? ????? nh??ng c??? nh???m b??i ??en ch??? ?????. T??nh ch???t nguy h???i c???a b??o ???? c??n ??? ch??? n?? d???a v??o nh???ng ?? ki???n t??? ph?? b??nh ????ng ?????n c???a ?????ng r???i b??m to l??n ????? n???nh d??n, v?? h??nh ?????ng ph?? ho???i v??? m???t t?? t?????ng, ngh??? thu???t v?? d???n d???n ??i t???i ph?? ho???i v??? m???t ch??nh tr??? n???a.
K???t qu??? b???u c??? Ban ch???p h??nh H???i li??n hi???p VHNT v?? sau ???? Ban ch???p h??nh c??c h???i chuy??n ng??nh kh?? nhi???u nh??n v???t c?? t??n tu???i c???a phong tr??o NVGP ?????u tr??ng c???, ch???ng t??? ?? ki???n c???a Tr?????ng Chinh kh??ng ??p ?????o ???????c gi???i v??n ngh??? s??. Nhi???u ng?????i v???n hy v???ng v??o m???t cu???c chuy???n bi???n v??? d??n ch??? trong ?????i s???ng v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t. Kh??ng ai ngh?? r???ng ???? ch??? l?? kh??c d???o ?????u c???a Tr?????ng Chinh chu???n b??? cho m???t k??? hoach nham hi???m h??n v???i ?????y ????? c??c th??? ??o???n Maoism sau ???? ????? ????a NVGP ra tr?????c v??nh m??ng ng???a. L??? ra v???i nh???ng t???i ??c m?? CCR?? ???? g??y ra, ??? m???t ?????t n?????c c?? lu???t ph??p th???c s???, Tr?????ng Chinh v?? c??c c???ng s??? ???? ph???i b??? khai tr??? ?????ng ho???c ra ?????ng tr?????c v??nh m??ng ng???a. V?? n???u nh?? ng???n c??? c???a ch??? ngh??a Maoism ??? Vi???t Nam b??? ?????n g???c t??? ng??y ???y th?? c??i gi?? d??n t???c Vi???t Nam ph???i tr??? cho Trung Qu???c c?? l??? kh??ng ?????t nh?? hi???n nay.
III- DI???N BI???N V??? NVGP
1- Bi??n ni??n s??? ki???n
N??m 1953:
??? Stalin qua ?????i ng??y 5 ??? 3 ??? 1953
??? Ng??y 17- 6 ??? 1953 d??n ch??ng bi???u t??nh t???i C???ng h??a d??n ch??? ?????c. B. Brecht v?? J. R Becher ph?? ph??n ch??nh s??ch v??n ngh??? chuy??n ch??nh c???a ?????ng v?? nh?? n?????c.
??? Tr???n D???n b??? ph?? b??nh gi???ng sai ch??nh s??ch v??n ngh??? c???a ?????ng trong kh??a ????o t???o c??n b??? v??n c??ng do ??ng ph??? tr??ch.
??? Lu???t C???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t ???????c ban h??nh t??? th??ng 12-1953 nh??ng tr?????c ???? ??CSVN ???? t??? ch???c cu???c ch???nh hu???n l???n k??o d??i sang t???i 1954 ????? ????a kh?? th??? CCR?? c???a Trung Qu???c v??o c??n b??? tr?? th???c. M???t s??? n??i ???? ti???n h??nh th?? ??i???m. ??? mi???n Nam L?? Du???n ph???n ?????i ch??? tr????ng CCR?? v?? ???? ti???n h??nh theo c??ch c???a m??nh.
N??m 1954:
??? Chi???n th???ng ??i???n Bi??n Ph???.
??? C???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t. Sau ???? c??n b??? v?? d??n ch??ng c??n b??n lu???n ?????n ng??y nay v??? vi???c x??? b???n ?????a ch??? ?????u ti??n ??? chi???n khu l?? b?? Nguy???n Th??? N??m m???t ng?????i c?? nhi???u con tham gia kh??ng chi???n c?? ng?????i l?? ch??nh ???y trung ??o??n, ???? hi???n 100 l???ng v??ng cho ch??nh ph???, ???? nu??i H??? Ch?? Minh, B??? ch??nh tr??? v?? nhi???u ????n v??? qu??n ?????i. S??? ki???n n??y t???o ra ???n t?????ng kinh h??i v??? s??? b???t nh??n, l???t l???ng c???a H??? Ch?? Minh v?? c??c c???ng s??? c???a ??ng.
C???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t ???? x??? l?? ?????u t???, x??? b???n g???n n???a tri???u ?????a ch???, g???n tr??m ng??n ?????ng vi??n, g??y ??i??u d???ng cho h??ng tri???u ng?????i l?? con em c???a nh???ng gia ????nh n??y. ??i???u quan tr???ng l?? CCR?? ???? t??n ph?? c??c quan h??? ?????o ?????c, x?? h???i truy???n th???ng c???a l??ng x??m mi???n B???c.
??? Hi???p ?????nh Gi?? ne v??. Ch??nh ph??? Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a th??nh l???p t???i S??i G??n.
??? 700.000 ng??n ng?????i mi???n B???c di c?? v??o Nam trong ???? c?? nhi???u tr?? th???c v??n ngh??? s?? c?? t??n tu???i. ???? l?? m???t cu???c l???a ch???n-nh???n ???????ng, ph??n h??a c?? ?? ngh??a l???ch s??? v???i ?????i ng?? tr?? th???c, v??n ngh??? s??, c??n c?? ?? ngh??a v??n h???c l??u d??i. V?? Kh???c Khoan vi???t c??c truy???n ng???n Th???n Th??p R??a, Tr????ng Chi, Thi??n Thai, Ng?????i ?????p Trong Tranh v???i ch??? ????? v??? s??? ph??n v??n c???a tr?? th???c H?? N???i ??i t??m m???t c??n b???n t?? t?????ng. T???i sao l???i c??? b???t t??i ph???i ho???c l?? ??en ho???c l?? tr???ng.
??? Th??ng 7 H??? Phong c??ng b??? th?? ng??? g???i BCHT????CSTQ ph?? ph??n n??m l?????i dao ????m v??o ??c c??c nh?? v??n c??ch m???ng.
??? 10- 10 Ch??nh ph??? kh??ng chi???n ti???p qu???n H?? N???i
??? Tr???n D???n v?? ????? Nhu???n, Ho??ng Xu??n T??y ???????c c??? ??i Trung Qu???c vi???t l???i b??nh cho phim t??i li???u v??? ??i???n Bi??n Ph???. ?????n 12- 12 tr??? v??? H?? N???i. C?? th??? kh??ng kh?? y??u c???u c???i c??ch d??n ch??? ??? Trung Qu???c ???? c?? ???nh h?????ng ?????n Tr???n D???n v?? ????? Nhu???n.
N??m 1955:
??? Th??ng 1 H??? Phong c??ng khai t??? ph?? b??nh, ?????n th??ng 5 th?? b??? b???t v?? b??? k???t ??n c???i t???o.
??? 63 nh?? v??n Hung Ga Ry l??n ti???ng ph???n ?????i ch??? ????? ?????c quy???n.
??? Ng??y 4-3-1855 Ph??ng V??n ngh??? qu??n ?????i do Tr???n D???n, T??? Ph??c c??ng Ho??ng C???m L?? ?????t t??? ch???c Th???o lu???n ph?? b??nh t???p th?? Vi???t B???c c???a T??? H???u.
??? 11-3-1955 B??o V??n Ngh??? s??? 65 c??ng b??? m??? ??? t??? do di???n ????n??? th???o lu???n v??? t???p th?? Vi???t B???c. M??? ?????u b???ng vi???c ????ng b??i T???p th?? ??? Vi???t B???c??? c?? hi???n th???c kh??ng? C???a Ho??ng Y???n. Tranh lu???n k??o d??i ?????n th??ng 8-1955 v???i s??? c??ng th???ng c???a hai nh??m. Nh??m Tr???n D???n, L?? ?????t, Ho??ng C???m, Ho??ng Y???n???cho th?? T??? H???u ngh??o v???n s???ng th???c t???, ????n ??i???u, ???y m???. Nh??m c???a nguy???n ????nh Thi, T?? M???, Ho??i Thanh, Ho??ng Trung Th??ng??? ca ng???i th?? T??? H???u l?? ng???n c??? ?????u c???a th?? kh??ng chi???n Vi???t Nam . Th??ng 3-1956 t???p th?? Vi???t B???c v???n ???????c Gi???i Nh???t Gi???i th?????ng v??n h???c c???a H???i V??n Ngh??? Vi???t Nam 1954-1955. Cu???c th???o lu???n n??y sau ???????c coi nh?? l?? m???t c??i m???c m??? ?????u cho phong tr??o NVGP. Nh??m ph???n ?????i th?? T??? H???u sau tr??? th??nh l???c l?????ng ch??? ch???t c???a phong tr??o NVGP, nh??m ???ng h??? T??? H???u tr??? th??nh l???c l?????ng n??ng c???t ????nh NVGP. C??n T??? H???u th?? ???? nh??n vi???c NVGP th???ng tay v???i nh???ng k??? ???? d??m h??? b??? m??nh.
??? Th??ng 4 Tr???n D???n c??ng ????? Nhu???n, Ho??ng T??ch Linh, T??? Ph??c, Ho??ng C???m, Tr??c L??m??? ????? tr??nh D??? th???o ????? ngh??? cho m???t ch??nh s??ch v??n h??a l??n T???ng c???c ch??nh tr??? y??u c???u t??? do s??ng t??c, tr??? quy???n l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? v??? tay v??n ngh??? s??, th??? ti??u h??? th???ng ch??nh tr??? vi??n trong c??c ??o??n v??n c??ng qu??n ?????i, s???a ?????i ch??nh s??ch v??n ngh??? trong qu??n ?????i.
??? B??? ph?? b??nh Tr???n D???n vi???t ????n xin ra kh???i ?????ng, xin gi???i ng?? ?????ng th???i quy???t ?????nh k???t h??n v???i b?? B??i Th??? Khu?? gia ????nh Thi??n ch??a gi??o di c?? b???t ch???p s??? ph???n ?????i c???a qu??n ?????i.
??? Tr???n D???n b??? giam t???i doanh tr???i t??? 13- 6 ?????n 14- 9 ????? ki???m th???o, sau ???? tham gia c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t ?????t 5 t???i B???c Ninh.
??? Ng??y 2- 9- 1955 tu???n b??o Tr??m Hoa do Nguy???n M???nh Ph??c l??m Ch??? nhi???m ra s??? I , b??o t???n t???i ?????n th??ng 5 ??? 1956. B??o n??y c?? ????ng 3 b??i ph?? b??nh t???p th?? Ng??i sao c???a Xu??n Di???u.
??? M??i ?????n 20- 9- 1955 Ch??nh ph??? m???i th??nh l???p B??? V??n h??a tr??n c?? s??? B??? Tuy??n truy???n.
N??m 1956:
??? Th??ng 1 Ho??ng C???m, L?? ?????t ch??? tr????ng xu???t b???n s??ch d???ng t???p ch?? Giai Ph???m M??a Xu??n v???i c??c t??c ph???m: L??m th?? v?? M???i ??? G???i V??M???i ng??y m???i l???n- G???i k??? ho???ch nh?? n?????c 1956 c???a L?? ?????t, M??a xu??n ?????n r???i ????y, Th?? qua ????i ph??t thanh c???a Ho??ng C???m, Anh c?? nghe th???y kh??ng c???a V??n Cao, Nh???t ?????nh th???ng, L??o R???ng c???a Tr???n D???n, Thi s?? v?? c??ng nh??n c???a Ph??ng Qu??n, Hoa ????o v???n n??? c???a Nguy???n S??ng, S??? tay c???a S??? Ng???c v?? s??? c???ng t??c c???a T?? V?????
??? Ngay l???p t???c GPMX b??? t???ch thu.
??? L?? ?????t b??? g???i l??n Ban Tuy??n hu???n ki???m ??i???m.
??? H???i V??n ngh??? t??? ch???c H???i ngh??? ph?? b??nh b??i th?? Nh???t ?????nh th???ng c???a Tr???n D???n v???i 150 v??n ngh??? s?? tham d???. Tr???n D???n b??? k???t ??n l?? ????? ????? c???a H??? Phong, m???t l???p tr?????ng giai c???p, ??i ng?????c l???i ???????ng l???i v??n ngh??? c???a ?????ng.
??? Tr???n D???n v?? T??? Ph??c b??? giam ba th??ng t???i H???a L?? H?? N???i. Tr???n D???n d??ng dao lam c???a c??? t??? t???, ???????c t?????ng Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh can thi???p th??? hai ng?????i.
??? Ho??i Thanh vi???t b??i V???ch tr???n t??nh ch???t ph???n ?????ng trong b??i th?? Nh???t ?????nh th???ng c???a Tr???n D???n ????ng tr??n b??o V??n Ngh??? s??? 110 ra ng??y 7- 3- 1956.
??? Ng??y 24- 2- 1956 ?????i h???i XX ??CSLX c??ng b??? c??c t???i ??c c???a Stalin. Ch??? t???ch H???i nh?? v??n Li??n X?? Pha ???? ??p t??? s??t. Li??n X?? ph???c h???i danh d??? cho c??c v??n ngh??? s?? b??? k???t ??n v?? b??? gi???t d?????i th???i Stalin. V??n ngh??? Li??n X?? g???i th???i k??? n??y l?? lu???ng gi?? ???m, sinh ra m???t th??? h??? v??n ngh??? s?? t??i n??ng xu???t s???c nh?? Paxtecnhac, X??njenitsin, ??p tu senko, Tru kh?? rai, B??n ??a suc, V??zn??xenxky, R??tdextvenxky, Aimat??p???v???i c??c t??c ph???m nh?? B??c s?? Jivago, ????n s???u bay qua, Hai ng?????i l??nh, Ng?????i th??? 41, Kh??ng th??? s???ng b???ng b??nh m??, Ng??y c???a binh nh???t Ivan???
??? D?? lu???n v??n ngh??? s?? b???t b??nh v??? vi???c trao Gi???i th?????ng v??n ngh??? 1954- 1955. M???t s??? nh?? v??n cho l?? ch???m gi???i theo b?? ph??i, nh???ng ng?????i trong Ban gi??m kh???o t??? ch???m gi???i cho m??nh, nhi???u t??c ph???m ch??a x???ng ????ng v???i gi???i, trong ???? c?? t??c ph???m c???a T??? H???u, Xu??n Di???u, Ho??i Thanh, nguy???n Huy T?????ng, Tr???n Kim Tr???c, H??? Kh???i ?????i???C?? nhi???u t??c ph???m c?? ti???ng vang r???ng r??i trong kh??ng chi???n kh??ng ???????c gi???i.
??? V???n ????? sai l???m CCR?? ??ang ???????c ?????t ra, tr??? th??nh b???c x??c l???n c???a x?? h???i, nh???t l?? l??m s??i s???c b???u kh??ng kh?? ??? n??ng th??n.
??? Ng??y 26- 5 Mao Tr???ch ????ng ph??t ?????ng phong tr??o Tr??m hoa ??ua n??? tr??m nh?? ??ua ti???ng.
??? Ng??y 28- 6 c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh ??? Ba Lan.
??? T???i Vi???t Nam ??CS ng??? theo khuynh h?????ng n???i r???ng t??? do. Nguy???n H???u ??ang l??c ???? l?? Bi??n t???p c???a t???p ch?? V??n Ngh??? ???????c giao t??? ch???c l???p h???c d??n ch??? 18 ng??y c???a H???i V??n ngh???. V??n ngh??? s?? ch??? tr??ch gay g???t ???????ng l???i l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? c???a ?????ng. T??? H???u, Nguy???n ????nh Thi th???a nh???n nh???ng sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng v?? h???a h???n s???a ch???a. Ho??i Thanh vi???t b??i nh???n l???i t??? khuynh trong ph?? b??nh Tr???n D???n. Sau ???? ?????n th??ng 10 Th?????ng v??? H???i V??n Ngh??? Vi???t Nam ra th??ng b??o nh???n sai l???m trong vi???c ph?? b??nh b??i th?? Nh???t ?????nh th???ng.
??? Th??ng 7- 1956 k???t th??c CCR??.
??? Th??ng 9 H???i ngh??? l???n th??? 10 BCHT?? ????nh gi?? di h???i cu???c CCR?? r???t n???ng n???, b??n v??? s???a ch???a sai l???m trong CCR??, nh???n m???nh vi???c t??ng c?????ng m??? r???ng t??? do d??n ch??? cho nh??n d??n. Tr?????ng Chinh t??? ch???c T???ng b?? th?? ??CSVN. K??? lu???t Ho??ng Qu???c Vi???t, L?? V??n L????ng, H??? Vi???t Th???ng???V?? Nguy??n Gi??p thay m???t H??? Ch?? Minh xin l???i nh??n d??n v??? sai l???m trong CCR??.
??? Ng??y 29- 8 Giai ph???m M??a thu t???p I ra ?????i v???i c??c b??i Ph?? b??nh l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? c???a Phan Kh??i, T???nh gi???c chi??m bao c???a Nguy???n B??nh, Ti???ng s??o ti???n ki???p c???a Tr???n Duy, Nh???t k?? ????m h?? c???a Huy Ph????ng, B???c th?? g???i m???t ng?????i b???n c?? c???a Tr???n L?? V??n???
??? Ng??y 15- 9 ra m???t b??o Nh??n V??n ra s??? 1 do Phan Kh??i l??m Ch??? nhi???m, Tr???n Duy l??m Th?? k?? t??a so???n, Nguy???n H???u ??ang, Ho??ng C???m, L?? ?????t l??m Bi??n t???p. C?? b??i Ph???ng v???n Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng v??? v???n ????? n??? l???c m??? r???ng t??? do v?? d??n ch???Nh??n c??u chuy???n m???y ng?????i t??? t??? c???a L?? ?????t, Con ng?????i Tr???n D???n c???a Ho??ng C???m, Ch???ng b?? ph??i trong v??n ngh??? c???a Tr???n C??ng, tranh minh h???a c???a Nguy???n S??ng.
??? B??o Nh??n V??n 15 ng??y m???t k??? ra ti???p s??? 2 v??o ng??y 30- 9- 1956 v???i c??c b??i Ph???ng v???n ????o Duy Anh v??? m??? r???ng t??? do d??n ch???, Ph???n ?????u cho Tr??n hoa ??ua n??? c???a Tr???n Duy, Tr??? l???i Nguy???n Ch????ng v?? b??o Nh??n d??n c???a Nguy???n H???u ??ang???
??? Giai ph???m M??a thu t???p II v???i c??c b??i B???nh s??ng b??i c?? nh??n c???a Tr????ng T???u, ??ng b??nh v??i c???a Phan Kh??i, Nh???ng ng?????i kh???ng l??? c???a Tr???n Duy, Ch???ng tham ?? l??ng ph?? c???a Ph??ng Qu??n???
??? T???p th?? C???a Bi???n xu???t b???n c?? c??c tr?????ng ca Ti???ng h??t quan h??? c???a Ho??ng C???m, Nh???ng ng??y tr??n c???a bi???n c???a V??n Cao, C??ch m???ng Th??ng T??m c???a Tr???n D???n v?? c??c b??i th?? M??y, ?????ng long m???ch, Cha t??i ??? c???a L?? ?????t .
??? Ng??y 8- 10 t??i b???n Giai ph???m M??a xu??n.
??? Ng??y 15- 10 B??o Nh??n V??n ra s??? 3. K??? ni???m ng??y V?? Tr???ng Ph???ng m???t v?? c??c b??i N??? l???c ph??t tri???n t??? do d??n ch??? c???a Tr???n ?????c Th???o, Ph???ng v???n b??c s?? ?????ng V??n Ng??? v??? m??? r???ng t??? do v?? d??n ch??????
??? T?????ng Nguy???n S??n ng?????i b???n c???a v??n ngh??? s?? kh??ng chi???n Khu B???n qua ?????i.
??? Ng??y 20- 10 b??o Tr??m Hoa b??? m???i do nh?? th?? Nguy???n B??nh l??m Ch??? nhi???m ki??m Ch??? b??t ra s??? I, ph??t h??nh ???????c 11 s???, ?????n th??ng 1- 1957 th?? ????nh b???n. Tr??n b??o n??y c?? b??i V?? nh???ng sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng c???n ph???i x??t l???i to??n b??? Gi???i th?????ng v??n h???c 1954- 1955 c???a ch??nh Nguy???n B??nh, b??i b??nh v???c b??i th?? Chi???c l?????c c???a Th???y An s??ng t??c theo l???i k??u g???i c???a H??? Ch??? t???ch m?? c??c b??o kh??ng nh???n ????ng, b??i Ch??ng t??i ????? ngh??? b??? l??? khai b??o trong ch??nh s??ch qu???n l?? h??? kh???uTh??ng b??o c???a H???i ngh??? T?? 10 v??? sai l???m trong CCR??, b??i ????? ph??t tri???n ch??? ????? ta, ph???i b???o ?????m cho nh??n d??n ???????c tham gia qu???n l?? ki???m so??t t??ch c???c m???i c??ng vi???c c???a nh?? n?????c???
??? Ng??y 30- 10 Giai Ph???m M??a Thu t???p III v???i c??c b??i V??n ngh??? v?? ch??nh tr??? c???a Tr????ng T???u, Mu???n ph??t tri???n h???c thu???t c???a ????o Duy Anh v?? b??i c???a Phan Kh??i, Ph??ng Qu??n, Chu Ng???c, Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng???
??? C??ng ng??y n??y Gi??o s?? Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng ?????c b??i tham lu???n r???t quan tr???ng Qua nh???ng sai l???m trong c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t x??y d???ng quan ??i???m l??nh ?????o t???i cu???c h???p c???a Trung ????ng M???t tr???n T??? qu???c, H?? N???i.
??? Th??ng 11 n??? ra b???o lo???n c???a gi??o d??n Thi??n ch??a gi??o t???i Qu???nh L??u Ngh??? An.
??? B???o lo???n t???i Hung Ga Ri, Ch??nh ph??? d??n ch??? Nagy tuy??n b??? Hung Ga Ry trung l???p. Li??n X?? ????a qu??n v??o Hung Ga Ry, cu???c t???m m??u phong tr??o d??n ch??? x???y ra ??? Bu ??a pet. C??c nh?? v??n c???ng s???n c?? t??n tu???i ??? Ch??u ??u Laxness, Sartre, Beauvoir, Vercors??? l??n ti???ng ph???n ?????i Li??n X??.
??? T???i S??i G??n, ra ?????i nh??m v??n h???c S??ng T???o g???m Mai Th???o, Thanh T??m Tuy???n, Do??n Qu???c S?????? Nh??m n??y ch??? y???u g???m c??c nh?? v??n tr??? t??? mi???n B???c v??o ???? l??m th??nh c??ng cu???c c??ch m???ng ng??n ng??? th?? ca hi???n ?????i ??? Vi???t Nam th??? k??? XX.
??? Ng??y 5- 11 b??o Nh??n V??n s??? 4 v???i b??i C???n ch??nh quy h??n n???a c???a Nguy???n H???u ??ang, Th??nh th???t ?????u tranh cho d??n ch??? c???a Tr???n Duy, Con ng???a gi?? c???a ch??a Tr???nh c???a Ph??ng Cung, Nh???ng ng??y b??o hi???u m??a xu??n c???a V??n Cao, S??? th???t v??? v??? x??c ph???m thi s?? Nguy???n B??nh v?? b??o Tr??m Hoa c???a Ng?????i Quan s??t???
??? C??ng ng??y n??y xu???t hi???n th??m t??? S??ng T???o , b??o ??i???n ???nh- S??n kh???u c???a nh??m S??ng T???o v???i Ban bi??n t???p g???m Ho??ng T??ch Linh, Tr???n C??ng, Cao Nh???, Thanh Ch??u, N???ng Mai H???ng, Tr??c L??m, Phan V??, Phan T???i, Nguy???n ????nh Ph??c, S??? Ng???c, Ph???m K??? Nam, Trung S??n, V?? Ph???m T???, Anh T??m, L???a M???i, Nguy???n S??ng.
??? Ng??y 10- 11 T???p san ?????t m???i t???p I ??? Chuy???n sinh vi??n ???????c NXB Minh ?????c xu???t b???n v???i b??i Ph?? b??nh l??nh ?????o sinh vi??n c???a Q.Ng???c v?? T.H???ng, c??c b??i c???a D????ng Vi???t ??, Nguy???n Bao, B??i Quang ??o??i, Th??c H??, V??n T??m, L?? T??? Gia, Nguy???n ?????c Ti???u.
??? Ng??y 20- 11 b??o Nh??n V??n s??? 5 v???i c??c b??i Hi???n ph??p Vi???t Nam n??m 1946 v?? Hi???n ph??p Trung Hoa b???o ?????m t??? do d??n ch??? th??? n??o? c???a Nguy???n H???u ??ang, B??i h???c Ba Lan v?? Hung Ga Ri c???a L?? ?????t k?? Ng?????i Quan S??t???
??? Th??ng 12- 1956 Ra m???t Giai Ph???m M??a ????ng t???p I v???i c??c b??i : T?? t?????ng t??? do c???a v??n ngh??? s?? v?? s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n B??n- s??- v??ch c???a Tr????ng T???u, N???i dung x?? h???i v?? h??nh th???c t??? do c???a Tr???n ?????c Th???o v?? b??i c???a Tr???n D???n, Ho??ng C???m, T??? Ph??c, S?? Ng???c, Tr??c L??m, H???u Loan, Tr???n C??ng, Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng.
??? Ng??y 24- 1- 1957 K??? h???p th??? 6 Qu???c h???i kh??a I th??ng qua c??c Lu???t v??? quy???n t??? do h???i h???p, Lu???t v??? quy???n t??? do l???p h???i, Lu???t quy???n t??? do b??o ch??...?????n k??? h???p th??? 7 th??ng 9- 1957 l???i th??ng qua Lu???t v??? quy???n t??? do xu???t b???n??? C??c lu???t n??y m???t m???t th??? hi???n tinh th???n t??? do t?? t?????ng, v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t b??o ch??, th???a nh???n t??? do b??o ch?? xu???t b???n t?? nh??n nh??ng m???t kh??c l???i c?? nh???ng ??i???u c???m k??? ????? c??c c?? quan quy???n l???c d???a v??o h??nh x??? v???i nh???ng ng?????i mu???n m??? r???ng gi???i h???n c???a t??? do d??n ch???.
??? Ng??y 15- 12- 1956 b??o Nh??n V??n s??? 6 ??ang in b??? ????nh ch???. Ng??y 18- 12 ch??? th??? ng???ng ph??t h??nh b??o Nh??n V??n v?? Giai ph???m c??ng c??c ???n ph???m kh??c c???a nh??m NVGP, ????ng c???a NXB Minh ?????c, t???ch thu c??c s??? b??o c??, c???nh c??o nh???ng ng?????i c??n l??u gi??? v?? ph??n ph???i c??c b??o n??y. M???t chi???n d???ch b??o ch?? ???? ???????c tung ra ????? h??? uy t??n c??c t??? b??o v?? nh???ng ng?????i trong nh??m NVGP.
??? Cu???i th??ng 12- 1956 T???p san T??? do di???n ????n do NXB Minh ?????c ph??t h??nh b??? c???m. TDD?? c?? c??c b??i Qua sai l???m c???a C???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t, x??y d???ng quan ??i???m l??nh ?????o c???a Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng, T???i sao qu???n ch??ng nh??n d??n tha thi???t v???i cu???c ?????u tranh v??n ngh???? C???a Nguy???n H???u ??ang, Nhi???m v??? c???a v??n h???c kh??ng ph???i l?? gi???i th??ch ch??nh s??ch c???a Phan Ng???c, Ch?? b?? l??m v??n c???a Tr???n D???n, V??i ?? ngh?? sau khi ?????c b??i th?? ?????ng Long M???ch c???a Ho??ng C???m, Sinh ho???t v??n h??a c???a Tr????ng T???u- Tr???n ?????c Th???o.
N??m 1957:
??? Trong d???p T???t 1957 NXB Minh ?????c c??n xu???t b???n cu???n S??ch T???t coi nh?? ti???p t???c c???a Giai Ph???m v???i c??c t??c ph???m c???a Quang D??ng, Tr???n L?? V??n, Huy Ph????ng, L?? ?????i Thanh, Ho??ng Tich Linh, T?? V??, T??? Ph??c, Thanh Ch??u, H???u Loan, L??u Quang Thu???n, Tr???n C??ng, Tr???n D???n, H???ng L???c, Tr???n Th???nh, Tr??c L??m, T??? H???u Thi???n, L???ng Ch????ng, Ho??ng Hu???, Phan Kh??i, S??? Ng???c, Cao Nh???, Tr???n Huy???n Tr??n, Nguy???n H???u ??ang, Nguy???n Kh???c D???c, Nguy???n S??ng, Ho??ng C???m.
-Ng??y 20 ?????n 28- 2- 1957 ?????i h???i v??n ngh??? to??n qu???c l???n th??? II t???i H?? N???i v???i g???n 500 ?????i bi???u. Tr?????ng Chinh sau th???t b???i c???a CCR?? ??ang mu???n t??m m???t s??? ki???n ????? l???t l???i th??? c??? trong ?????ng, k??u g???i ?????u tranh ?????p n??t lu???n ??i???u ph???n ?????ng Nh??n V??n Giai ph???m. Th??nh l???p H???i Li??n hi???p v??n h???c Ngh??? thu???t Vi???t Nam. Trong Ban ch???p h??nh v???n c?? m???t s??? ng?????i tham gia, li??n quan NVGP nh?? hai Ph?? T???ng th?? k?? V??n Cao, L????ng Xu??n Nh????????? nhi???u H???i kh??c c??c ??ng Nguy???n S??ng, Nguy???n V??n T??, Ho??ng C???m, Ho??ng T??ch Linh, Nguy???n v??n T???,???v???n tr??ng Ban ch???p h??nh.
??? Ri??ng H???i Nh?? v??n Vi???t Nam, nh?? v??n T?? Ho??i l??m T???ng th?? k??. Ho??ng C???m, Ho??ng T??ch Linh v???n tr??ng BCH. B??o V??n c?? quan ng??n lu???n c???a H???i Nh?? v??n ra s??? I t??? 10- 5 do Nguy???n C??ng Hoan l??m Ch??? b??t, Nguy???n Tu??n l?? Ph?? Ch??? b??t, Nguy??n H???ng l??m T???ng th?? k?? t??a so???n. Nh?? xu???t b???n H???i Nh?? v??n c??ng ???????c th??nh l???p do T?? Ho??i l??m Gi??m ?????c, Ho??ng C???m l??m Ph?? Gi??m ?????c.
Nh?? v???y vi???c ????nh NVGP ?????t II ???? k???t th??c nh??ng ch??a c?? k???t qu??? kh??? quan. T???i c??c H???i VHNT m???t s??? ng?????i c?? vai tr?? t??ch c???c trong NVGP v???n c??n ???????c ?????ng nghi???p t??n nhi???m b???u v??o c??c v??? tr?? cao, b???t ch???p nh???ng tai ti???ng h??? ???? g??y ra tr??n m???t c??c s??? Nh??n V??n v?? Giai Ph???m v?? s???c ??p t??? l???i k??u g???i c???a Tr?????ng Chinh. B???n th??n Tr?????ng Chinh c??ng kh??ng th??? ?????y cao h??n t???c ????? cu???c chi???n ch???ng NVGP v?? ??ng ta kh??ng c??n ?????y ????? quy???n l???c nh?? tr?????c n???a. M???t kh??c Li??n X?? v?? Trung Qu???c sau khi d???p xong v??? Ba Lan- Hung Ga Ry v???n ch??a ti???n ?????n ?????nh dao ?????ng, ch??a d???t kho??t ti???n c??ng v??o nh???ng v??n ngh??? s?? tr?? th???c b??? g???i l?? ph??i h???u. B???n th??n nh???ng ng?????i NVGP v???n c??n ???????c s??? ???ng h??? c???a l??nh ?????o b??o V??n , h??? v???n c?? th??? ti???p t???c ????ng c??c s??ng t??c m???i tr??n b??o n??y. V??o th??ng 7 th??ng 8- 1957 khi t???p ch?? H???c T???p, c?? quan ng??n lu???n c???a ??CSVN l??n ti???ng ph?? ph??n b??o V??n, Nguy??n H???ng, Nguy???n Tu??n, T?? Ho??i c??n ?????ng ra tranh lu???n b???o v??? quan ??i???m d??n ch??? c???a m??nh.
??? ???nh h?????ng c???a tr??o l??u NVGP c??n lan sang m???t t??? b??o nh?? n?????c v???a ra ?????i l?? t??? b??n nguy???t san ??i???n ???nh, s??? 1 ra ng??y 20- 7- 1957. Trong 10 s??? ?????u b??o ??i???n ???nh v???n c??n ph?? ph??n b???nh c??ng th???c s?? l?????c c???a phim Li??n X?? v?? Trung Qu???c ????? ph???i ki???m ??i???m c??ng khai trong s??? T???t 1958.
??? Ng??y 27- 9 b??o V??n s??? 21 in b??i L???i m??? d???n c???a Ph??ng Qu??n.
??? Ng??y 15- 11 b??o V??n s??? 28 in b??i th?? H??y ??i m??i c???a Tr???n D???n
??? Trong th???i gian n??y t???i Trung Qu???c, chi???n d???ch ch???ng ph??i h???u ???? b???t ?????u. M???t s??? nh?? v??n b??? ph?? ph??n: Tr???n X?? H??, ?????ng Th??c??? N??? nh?? v??n ??inh Linh ng?????i ???????c Gi???i th?????ng v??n h???c Stalin v???i ti???u thuy???t M??a xu??n tr??n s??ng Tang C??n b??? khai tr??? kh???i ??CSTQ, sau ???? b?? b??? ng???i t?? cho t???i n??m 1975.
??? Trong th???i gian n??y H??? Ch?? Minh ??i th??m Li??n X??, M??ng C???, CHDCND Tri???u Ti??n c?? gh?? th??m B???c Kinh, ch???ng ki???n v?? c?? th??? h???c h???i c??c kinh nghi???m t??? ch???c phong tr??o ????nh ph??i h???u . Vi???t Nam c??? T??? H???u, Huy C???n v?? H?? Xu??n Tr?????ng sang h???c t???p kinh nghi???m, ch??nh s??ch c???a Trung Qu???c.
??? C??c chi???n d???ch ch???nh hu???n v??n ngh??? di???n ra ??? Li??n X??, Ba Lan, CHDC ?????c.
??? T???i S??i G??n nh??m tr?? th???c B??ch Khoa c???a V?? Phi???n, V?? H???nh, Nguy???n Hi???n L??, nguy???n Ngu ?????ra ?????i.
N??m 1958:
??? Ng??y 6- 1- 1958 ??CSVN ra Ngh??? quy???t 30 v??? vi???c ch???n ch???nh c??ng t??c v??n ngh???. Ngh??? quy???t n??y l?? m???t ??i???n h??nh cho t??nh tr???ng c???c ??oan v??? l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? c???a ??CSVN, sau n??y n?? g???n nh?? b??? lo???i b??? kh??ng th???y ????a v??o c??c t???p v??n ki???n l??nh ?????o v??n h??a v??n ngh??? c???a ?????ng.
??? Ng??y 10- 1- 1958 b??o V??n s??? 36 in truy???n ng???n ??ng N??m Chu???t c???a Phan Kh??i. ????y l?? s??? b??o V??n l??m gi???t n?????c tr??n ly. ?????n s??? 37 b??o b??? ????nh b???n. T??? ????y k???t th??c th???i k??? ph??t ng??n c??ng khai c???a nh??m NVGP. N??m 1958 l?? n??m ??en t???i c???a h???, ?????u t???, k??? lu???t, ng???i t??, c???i t???o lao ?????ng???
??? T??? cu???i th??ng 1 ?????n cu???i th??ng 2- 1958 L???p h???c ?????u tranh t?? t?????ng l???n th??? 1 t???i Th??i H?? ???p v???i 272 v??n ngh??? s?? ?????ng vi??n tham d???.
??? T??? 3- 3 ?????n 14- 4 L???p h???c ?????u tranh t?? t?????ng l???n 2 c??ng t???i Th??i H?? ???p v???i 304 c??n b??? v??n h??a v??n ngh??? tham d???. Trong khi h???p th?? ng??y 10-4 c??ng an H?? N???i b???t giam Nguy???n H???u ??ang, Th???y An, Tr???n Thi???u B???o..
C??ch t??? ch???c hai l???p h???c n??y l?? d??ng th??? ??o???n ?????u t??? v?? ??p l???c t??m l?? t???p th???, s??? vu c??o b???a ?????t t???i l???i cho nh???ng th??nh vi??n nh??m NVGP. K???t qu??? l?? kh??ng c???n ??i???u tra ng?????i ta ???? c?? ?????y ????? t???i tr???ng c???a c??c nh??n v???t ????? quy???t ?????nh b???t h???, k??? lu???t h???.
??? Ng??y 4- 6 H???i ngh??? Ban ch???p h??nh H???i Li??n hi???p VHNTVN h???p t???ng k???t cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng NVGP. T??? H???u ?????c b??o c??o Qua cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng nh??m ph?? ho???i Nh??n V??n- Giai Ph???m tr??n m???t tr???n v??n ngh??? (15). B???n b??o c??o n??y l?? nh??t g????m ch??nh th???c k???t li???u s??? ph???n Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m tr??n c??ng lu???n v???i s??? h???n h???c gh?? g???m c???a m???t t??n ??ao ph??? ch??? kh??ng ph???i c???a m???t nh?? th?? v???i ?????ng nghi???p c???a m??nh. ??ng ta vi???t: ???????ng l???i th??? hai, l?? ???????ng l???i v??n ngh??? c???a nh???ng ph???n t??? ph???n ?????ng m?? ?????i bi???u l?? b???n c???m ?????u nh??m ph?? ho???i Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m . ???? l?? ???????ng l???i l??m ?????i tr???y v??n ngh??? s??, ???????ng l???i ??en t???i ph???n c??ch m???ng.
??? Ng??y 5- 6 Ngh??? quy???t v???i ch??? k?? c???a 800 v??n ngh??? s?? nh??ng kh??ng c?? danh s??ch hoan ngh??nh k???t qu??? th???ng l???i c???a cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng NVGP.
??? Ng??y 2- 7 Ban ch???p h??nh m???i c???a H???i Nh?? v??n Vi???t Nam b???u T???ng th?? k?? m???i l?? Nguy???n ????nh Thi. Ch??? t???ch BCH nguy???n C??ng Hoan, Ph?? Ch??? t???ch T?? M???, T???ng th?? k?? T?? Ho??i ch??? c??n l?? ???y vi??n Ban th?????ng v???. Ph?? T???ng th?? k?? Nguy???n Xu??n Sanh , ???y vi??n th?????ng v??? Nguy??n H???ng, T??? Hanh, ??o??n Gi???i ch??? c??n l?? ???y vi??n BCH. Ho??i Thanh ???????c b??? xung v??o Ban ch???p h??nh v?? v??o th???ng Ban th?????ng v???. NXB H???i Nh?? v??n s??p nh???p v??o NXB V??n h???c c???a B??? V??n h??a. NXB n??y c??ng b??? k???t t???i ???? xu???t b???n m???t s??? t??c ph???m b??? coi l?? non y???u v??? t?? t?????ng, m???t s??? t??c ph???m t??? tr?????c 1945 thi???u ch???n l???c, ho???c xu???t b???n m???t s??? t??c ph???m n?????c ngo??i c?? ?? tuy??n truy???n cho t?? t?????ng tr??i v???i ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a.
??? Ng??y 7- 7 Th??ng b??o k??? lu???t c??c v??n ngh??? s?? ???? tham gia NVGP. Ho??ng C???m b??? c???nh c??o, khai tr??? kh???i BCH HNV, khai tr??? 1 n??m kh???i HNV. Cho Ho??ng T??ch Linh r??t kh???i BCH. Phan Kh??i, Tr????ng T???u, Th???y An b??? khai tr??? v??nh vi???n kh???i HNV. Khai tr??? trong th???i h???n 3 n??m ?????i v???i L?? ?????t, Tr???n D???n. Khai tr??? 1 n??m kh???i HNV ?????i v???i Ph??ng Qu??n. C???nh c??o m???t s??? ng?????i:
??? H???i M??? thu???t c???nh c??o S?? Ng???c, cho S?? Ng???c v?? Nguy???n S??ng r??t kh???i BCH. Khai tr??? Tr???n Duy kh???i HMT.
??? H???i Nh???c s?? cho V??n Cao, Nguy???n V??n T?? r??t kh???i BCH.Khai tr??? 3 n??m T??? Ph??c, ?????ng ????nh H??ng ra kh???i HNS.
??? T???i c??c ?????t h???c t???p ch???nh hu???n t???i c??c tr?????ng S?? ph???m v?? T???ng h???p H?? N???i c??c Gi??o s?? Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng, ????o Duy Anh, Tr????ng T???u, Tr???n ?????c Th???o c??ng b??? ????a ra cho gi??o vi??n v?? sinh vi??n ?????u t???, b??? mi???n nhi???m th??i gi???ng d???y. Ngo??i ra c??n nhi???u ng?????i kh??c c??ng ch???u k??? lu???t nh?? Cao Xu??n H???o, Phan Ng???c, Cao Xu??n Huy, ???M???t s??? sinh vi??n c??ng b??? k??? lu???t nh?? B??i Quang ??o??i ( Th??i V??), V??n T??m, Phan K??? Ho??nh, H?? Th??c Ch??? ( Th??c H?? )???
??? M???t s??? tr?? th???c l?? nh??n s?? ???? c?? th??i ????? ???ng h??? NVGP c??ng ch???u c??c h??nh th???c ?????i x??? nh?? D????ng ?????c Hi???n, V?? ????nh H??e, ????? ?????c D???c, Ho??ng V??n ?????c, ?????ng v??n Ng???, Nguy???n T???n Gi Tr???ng???Ngo??i ra t???i c??c ?????a ph????ng nh???ng gi??o vi??n, c??n b??? , h???c sinh c?? h?????ng ???ng NVGP mua b??o NVGP ?????u b??? x??? l?? v???i nhi???u hinh th???c.
??? Trong v??ng ba ?????n s??u th??ng c??c VNS ??i c???i t???o lao ?????ng t???i c??c nh?? m??y, n??ng tr?????ng, h???p t??c x?????M???t s??? ng?????i ph???i c?? tr?? l??u d??i t???i c??c ?????a ph????ng nh?? Ho??ng T??? Nguy??n, Nguy???n B??nh, H???i B???ng, Tr???n L?? V??n, Nguy???n Kh???c D???c???
N??m 1959:
??? Ti???p t???c c??c ?????t lao ?????ng c???i t???o
??? Phan Kh??i t??? tr???n ng??y 16 th??ng Gi??ng 1959 th??? 73 tu???i.
??? Sau khi b??o V??n b??? ????nh b???n, b??o V??n H???c ra ?????i do Nguy???n ????nh Thi l??m Ch??? nhi???m. B??o V??n H???c kh??ng thu???c H???i Nh?? v??n qu???n l?? m?? do HLHVHNTVN. H???i NVVN b??? t?????c h???t c?? quan ng??n lu???n xu???t b???n cho t???i sauu 1975.
??? Nh?? xu???t b???n H???i Nh?? v??n b??? s??p nh???p v??o Nh?? xu???t b???n V??n H???c c???a B??? V??n h??a.
??? Nh???t Linh th??nh l???p nh??m V??n H??a Ng??y Nay ??? S??i G??n.
??? Mao Tr???ch ????ng ph??t ?????ng chi???n d???ch ?????i nh???y v???t.
??? Pasternak nh?? v??n x?? vi???t ?????u ti??n ???????c Gi???i th?????ng v??n h???c Nobel, kh??ng ???????c sang Th???y ??i???n nh???n gi???i.
??? Ng??y 10- 12- 1959 T??a ??n nh??n d??n H?? N???i khai m???c phi??n t??a x??? V??? ??n gi??n ??i???p ho???t ?????ng ph?? ho???i hi???n h??nh.
??? N???i dung b???n ??n k???t t???i nh?? sau:
Ch??ng l?? nh???ng t??n gi??n ??i???p ph???n c??ch m???ng, ph?? ho???i hi???n h??nh,ho???t ?????ng c?? t??? ch???c, th???c hi???n ??m m??u c???a ?????ch, ti???n h??nh nh???ng ho???t ?????ng chi???n tranh t??m l?? ???? h??n nh???t, nh???ng ho???t ?????ng ph?? ho???i th??m ?????c nh???t, ????? cu???i c??ng l???t ????? ch??? ????? ch??ng ta ??? mi???n B???c.

??? K???t qu??? tuy??n ??n nh?? sau:
Nguy???n H???u ??ang 15 n??m t?? giam, 5 n??m qu???n ch??? sau khi ra t??.
L??u Th??? Y???n t???c Th???y An 15 n??m t?? giam, 5 n??m qu???n ch??? sau khi ra t??,
Tr???n Thi???u B???o t???c Minh ?????c 10 n??m t?? giam, 5 n??m qu???n ch??? sau khi ra t??.
Phan T???i 6 n??m t?? giam, 3 n??m qu???n ch???.
L?? Nguy??n Ch?? 5 n??m t?? giam, 3 n??m qu???n ch???.
N??m 1960:
??? B???t ?????u xung ?????t hai n?????c l???n trong phe XHCN Li??n X?? v?? Trung Qu???c.
??? ?????i h???i ??CSVN l???n th??? III. L?? Du???n ???????c b???u l??m T???ng b?? th??. Tr?????ng Chinh ch??? c??n ph??? tr??ch c??ng t??c l?? lu???n v?? T???p ch?? H???c T???p.
N??m 1961:
??? Ph??ng Cung b??? b???t. L?? do: Ti???p t???c s??ng t??c c??c truy???n ng???n c?? n???i dung b???t m??n, ch???ng ?????i, ph???n ?????ng.
N??m 1968:
??? V??? ??n x??t l???i ch???ng ?????ng. B???t giam Ho??ng Minh Ch??nh, V?? ????nh Hu???nh, ?????ng Kim Giang, Tr???n Minh Vi???t, Tr???n Th??, V?? Th?? Hi??n, L?? Tr???ng Ngh??a, Huy V??n???Nhi???u v??n ngh??? s?? nh???t l?? nh???ng ng?????i ??i h???c ??? Li??n X?? v??? ho???c c?? quan h??? v???i Li??n X?? b??? ????a v??o di???n ph??n bi???t ?????i x???.
N??m 1973:
-Th???y An, Nguy???n H???u ??ang ra t??.
??? Ph??ng Cung ra t??.
N??m 1982:
-Ho??ng C???m b??? b???t c??ng Ho??ng H??ng v?? vi???c ?????nh ????a t???p th?? V??? Kinh B???c ra n?????c ngo??i. Ho??ng C???m b??? giam 18 th??ng, Ho??ng H??ng b??? giam 39 th??ng.
N??m 1986:
??? ?????i h???i ??CSVN l???n th??? VI v???i ???????ng l???i ?????i m???i, c???i tr??i cho VHNT.
??? Tr???n ????? ???????c c??? l??m Tr?????ng ban V??n h??a v??n ngh??? trung ????ng.
??? T???ng b?? th?? Nguy???n V??n Linh g???p g??? v??n ngh??? s??, tr?? th???c ti??u bi???u, v???i l???i ph??t bi???u n???i ti???ng: H??y t??? c???u m??nh tr?????c khi tr???i c???u. C?? m???t s??? ng?????i ?????t v???n ????? xem x??t l???i v??? NVGP.
??? Ngh??? quy???t 05 B??? Ch??nh tr??? ??CSVN : ?????i m???i v?? n??ng cao tr??nh ????? l??nh ?????o, qu???n l?? v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t v?? v??n h??a, ph??t huy kh??? n??ng s??ng t???o, ????a v??n h???c, ngh??? thu???t v?? v??n h??a ph??t tri???n l??n m???t b?????c m???i.
??? C??ng an v?? c??c ban ng??nh li??n quan ti???n h??nh l??m ch??nh s??ch cho c??c ?????i t?????ng NVGP. T??c gi??? vi???t b??o c??o v??? t??nh h??nh c??c ?????i t?????ng NVGP v?? ????? xu???t ph????ng h?????ng gi???i quy???t ch??? ????? ch??nh s??ch.
??? Ph???c h???i h???i t???ch cho Tr???n Duy, Tr???n D???n, Ho??ng C???m, Ho??ng T??ch Linh, L?? ?????t, Ph??ng Qu??n. Gi???i quy???t ch??? ????? l????ng h??u cho Nguy???n H???u ??ang, Ph??ng Cung.
N??m 1987:
??? Ho??ng C???m in t???p th?? tr??? l???i ?????u ti??n M??a Thu???n Th??nh, NXB V??n h??a.
??? Ph??ng Qu??n in tr??? l???i c??ng khai ?????u ti??n tr??n b??o Qu???ng Nam- ???? N???ng Tr?????ng ca C??y C??.
N??m 1988:
-V??n Cao xu???t b???n t???p th?? L??, NXB T??c ph???m m???i, v???i s??? ???y nhi???m cho c??c thi h???u ????n em Nguy???n Tr???ng T???o, Nguy???n Th???y Kha, Thanh Th???o tuy???n ch???n bi??n t???p.
??? Nguy???n H???u ??ang ???????c chuy???n l??n H?? N???i, ???????c c???p nh??.
N??m 1991:
??? Th??ng 4 , BCHT?? ??CSVN ra th??ng b??o v??? hai v??? ??n NVGP v?? X??t l???i ch???ng ?????ng. Quan ??i???m c???a ?????ng l?? kh??ng th???a nh???n sai l???m, v???n ????nh gi?? hai v??? ??n nh?? tr?????c ????y.
??? Tr???n D???n xu???t hi???n tr??? l???i v???i t???p th?? B??i th?? Vi???t B???c, NXB H???i Nh?? v??n
??? T??? 23-11 ?????n 10- 12 H???i Ngh??? s?? t???o h??nh Vi???t Nam m??? Tri???n l??m tranh Tr???n Duy t???i Nh?? tri???n l??m tranh 16 Ng?? Quy???n H?? N???i.
N??m 1992:
??? L???n ?????u ti??n in K??? y???u nh?? v??n Vi???t Nam , danh s??ch c?? t??n Phan Kh??i
??? Ho??ng C???m xu???t b???n k???ch th?? Ki???u Loan
N??m 1993:
??? Ho??ng C???m xu???t b???n B??n kia s??ng ??u???ng, NXB V??n h??a
N??m 1994:
??? L?? ?????t xu???t b???n t??c ph???m tr??? l???i ?????u ti??n B??ng ch???, NXB H???i Nh?? v??n.
??? Ho??ng C???m in ???????c t???p th?? V??? Kinh B???c, NXB V??n H???c.
-NXB V??n H???c in Tuy???n t???p V??n Cao 
-Tr???n D???n in Ti???u thuy???t th?? C???ng T???nh, NXB H???i Nh?? v??n.
N??m 1995:
-Ph??ng Cung xu???t hi???n tr??? l???i l???n ?????u ti??n v???i t???p th?? Xem ????m, NXB V??n h??a ??? Th??ng tin.
??? NXB H???i Nh?? v??n in Tuy???n t???p th?? Ph??ng Qu??n.
N??m 1996: T???ng Gi???i th?????ng H??? Ch?? Minh cho ?????ng V??n Ng???, Cao Xu??n Huy, V??n Cao, nguy???n T?? Nghi??m, B??i Xu??n Ph??i, Nguy???n S??ng.
N??m 1997:
??? B???t ?????u in l???i c??c t??c ph???m c?? tr?????c 1945 c???a Phan Kh??i. ????ng ch?? ?? l?? L???i Nguy??n ??n ???? s??u t???m v?? cho xu???t b???n T??c ph???m ????ng b??o h??ng n??m c???a Phan Kh??i, c??c t???p 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931???
??? B???t ?????u in m???t v??i t??c ph???m m???i c???a Tr???n ?????c Th???o.
N??m 2000: Trao Gi???i th?????ng H??? Ch?? Minh cho ????o Duy Anh, Tr???n ?????c Th???o, Ngy???n B??nh, Nguy???n V??n T???, Nguy???n S??? Ng???c, L???ng Ch????ng, Nguy???n V??n T??.
N??m 2001- 2002 :
??? NXB h???i Nh?? v??n in Ho??ng C???m T??c ph???m 3 t???p.
N??m 2003:
??? NXB V??n h??a- Th??ng tin xu???t b???n cu???n Nguy???n B??ch Khoa- Khoa h???c v??n ch????ng. (NBK l?? m???t b??t danh c???a Tr????ng T???u).
N??m 2007:
??? T???ng Gi???i th?????ng Nh?? n?????c cho Tr???n D???n, Ho??ng C???m, L?? ?????t, Ph??ng Qu??n, Y???n Lan, Ph???m K??? Nam.
-NXB Lao ?????ng xu???t b???n TR????NG T???U- Tuy???n t???p nghi??n c???u ph?? b??nh 1088 trang kh??? 16-24.
N??m 2008:
??? Tuy???n t???p Tr???n D???n Th?? 492 trang kh??? 15-23 ???????c NXB ???? N???ng xu???t b???n. G???m t???t c??? nh???ng b??i th?? ti??u bi???u c???a ??ng, k??? c??? c??c b??i ???? in trong b??o NV- GP. C?? quan ch???c n??ng can thi???p, b??? c??ng lu???n ph???n ?????i, sau x??? ph???t vi ph???m h??nh ch??nh.
??? T???i Ng??y Th?? Vi???t Nam ??? V??n Mi???u c?? C??y Th?? Thanh T??m Tuy???n.
N??m 2009:
??? Tuy???n t???p th?? L?? ?????t ???????ng Ch??? 644 trang kh??? 16-24 do NXB H???i Nh?? v??n in. C??ng g???m t???t c??? c??c b??i th?? ???? in v?? b??? c???m trong th???i k??? NVGP.
N??m 2010:
??? Th??ng 4 t???i ?????i h???i c?? s??? c??c Chi h???i ??i???n ???nh l???c l?????ng v?? trang c??c ?????i bi???u Nguy???n Th??nh L???p, L?? Thi, Th??i K??? To???i l??n ti???ng ????? ngh??? xem x??t t???i nh???ng ngh??? s?? ??i???n ???nh ???? tham gia NVGP nh?? Ph???m K??? Nam, Phan V??, H???ng L???c, Tr???n C??ng, Tr???n Th???nh, Cao Nh???, V?? Ph???m T???, N???ng Mai H???ng???
??? Chu???n b??? cho ?????i h???i l???n th??? VIII H???i Nh?? v??n Vi???t Nam t??? ch???c vi???t Bi??n ni??n s??? ki???n v?? L???ch s??? H???i b??n ?????n vi???c vi???t v??? NVGP nh?? th??? n??o.
??? Tr?????c ?????i h???i Nh?? v??n Vi???t Nam l???n th??? VIII BCH kh??a VII ra quy???t ?????nh k???t n???p l???i nh?? v??n Tr????ng T???u. Tr?????c ????, t??? K??? y???u 1992 nh?? v??n Phan Kh??i ???? m???c nhi??n c?? t??n trong danh s??ch h???i vi??n HNVVN. C??n Th???y An ch??a ???????c ph???c h???i h???i vi??n HNVVN.

2- Nh???n x??t nh??n s???
S??? ng?????i g???i l?? tham gia NVGP t???i H?? N???i do B??? C??ng an v?? C??ng an H?? N???i qu???n l?? do t??c gi??? th???ng k?? ???????c g???m kho???ng 170 ng?????i. S??? b??? x??? l?? n???ng kho???ng g???n 100 ng?????i, c??n s??? b??? ????a v??o danh s??ch ????? ph??n l???ai x??? l?? t??nh tr??n to??n mi???n B???c ??? t???t c??? c??c l??nh v???c ph???i t???i h??ng ng??n ng?????i (16). B???i v?? c??c ???n ph???m c???a phong tr??o NVGP ???? ???????c ????n nh???n n???ng nhi???t, ???????c h?????ng ???ng kh??ng ch??? ??? H?? N???i, m?? xu???ng ?????n t???n c??c v??ng n??ng th??n mi???n n??i. T??c gi??? ??? Ti???n H???i Th??i B??nh c?? ng?????i th???y h???c l?? ??ng Tr???nh H???ng Ph??t con c??? c???a nh?? nho Tr???nh ????nh R?? l?? sinh vi??n v??n ??HTH HN do h?????ng ???ng t???p san ?????t M???i ph???i v??? Ti???n H???i d???y c???p II. T??c gi??? c?? ng?????i c???u th??? hai d???y c???p I th???i ???? l?? T?? Nh???t M??? ???? cho ?????c b??o V??n, cho ?????n nay t??c gi??? v???n c??n gi??? ???n t?????ng v??? s??? b??o V??n in truy???n ??ng N??m Chu???t.
??a s??? h??? l?? tr?? th???c v??n ngh??? s?? c?? t??i n??ng ???? tham gia t??ch c???c trong kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p, nhi???u ng?????i c??n tham gia ho???t ?????ng c??ch m???ng t??? th???i V??n h??a C???u qu???c.
Theo th???ng k?? c???a t??c gi??? trong s??? 64 ?????i t?????ng ch??nh l?? v??n ngh??? s?? c?? t??n tu???i ch??? ri??ng trong l??nh v???c VHNT, ch??a t??nh s??? tr?? th???c b??n ng??nh gi??o d???c ???? c?? :
-23 ng?????i l?? h???i vi??n H???i vi??n H???i Nh?? v??n
??? 4 ng?????i l?? H???i vi??n H???i S??n kh???u
??? 6 ng?????i sau l?? H???i vi??n H???i ??i???n ???nh
??? 12 ng?????i l?? H???i vi??n H???i M??? thu???t
??? 4 ng?????i l?? h???i vi??n H???i nh???c s??

3- Nh???n x??t n???i dung t?? t?????ng c??c t??c ph???m c???a nh??m NVGP
C?? ng?????i n??i r???ng c??ch th???c ti???n h??nh ????nh NVGP m?? ph???ng l???i c??ch Trung Qu???c ?????u t??? ph??i h???u. C?? th??? ch??nh H??? Ch?? Minh ???? ch???ng ki???n vi???c n??y ??? B???c Kinh v?? T??? H???u, Huy C???n, H?? Xu??n Tr?????ng mang c??c b??i h???c c???a Trung Qu???c v??? ??p d???ng ??? Vi???t Nam. ?????c bi???t l?? h??nh th???c ch???nh hu???n ?????u t??? t???p th???, tra t???n tinh th???n ????? ?????i t?????ng t??? nh???n t???i. C??c v??n b???n ph?? ph??n ?????u mang m??u s???c CCR?? r???t r?? v???i c??c quan ??i???m t??? khuynh v??? ch??nh tr???, n???ng v??? m???t s??t m??? l???, quy k??t ch???p m??, th???m ch?? c?? ch??? vu kh???ng, b???a ?????t tr???ng tr???n. Trong c??c b??i tham lu???n, ph??t bi???u tr??ch d???n v??n b???n th?? c???t x??n, suy lu???n xuy??n t???c ?? nghi?? ch??? quan c???a t??c ph???m. C??c b???n t??? ki???m ??i???m do s???c ??p n???ng n??? v??? t??m l?? v?? ????? nhanh ch??ng tho??t kh???i c??c h??nh th???c tra t???n v??? tinh th???n ?????u nh???n t???i qu?? l??n, t??? x??? v??? m??nh v?? ?????ng nghi???p. V?? th??? khi ng?????i ta mu???n t??m hi???u s??? th???t trong c??c v??n b???n n??y n??n th???n tr???ng v?? ph???i ?????i chi???u v???i c??c ngu???n th??ng tin kh??c.
K???t t???i nh??m NVGP c?? 3 ngu???n ch??nh th???c nh?? sau:
-Ngh??? quy???t 30 c???a BCT??CSVN ng??y 6- 1- 1958 v??? vi???c ch???n ch???nh c??ng t??c v??n ngh???.
??? B??o c??o t???ng k???t cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng nh??m ph?? ho???i Nh??n V??n- Giai Ph???m c???a T??? H???u ta??? H???i ngh??? Ban ch???p h??nh H???i li??n hi???p v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t Vi???t Nam ng??y 4- 6- 1958.
??? B???n ??n c???a T??a ??n nh??n d??n H?? N???i ng??y 19- 1- 1960 x??? v??? gi??n ??i???p Nguy???n H???u ??ang, Th???y An.

D?? c?? c??ch ????nh l???c h?????ng nh??ng c??o tr???ng ?????u to??t l??n tinh th???n c??c ?????i t?????ng d??ng b??o ch??, v??n ngh??? s?? k??ch ?????ng t?? t?????ng ch???ng ch??? ????? t???c l?? tinh th???n c???a m???t v??? ??n v??n h???c ch??? ch??a ph???i l?? m???t v??? ??n h??nh s??? v??? an ninh qu???c gia.
G??c l???i m???t b??n, c??c quy k???t, tr??o l??u t?? t?????ng NVGP c?? nh???ng g???

C???t l??i c???a NVGP v???n l?? v???n ????? d??n ch???, c??u h???i mu??n th????? ?????i v???i c??c x?? h???i to??n tr???. Nhu c???u v??? m???t cu???c s???ng c?? t??? do d??n ch??? l??c ???y l?? kh??t v???ng chung cho t???t c??? c??c t???ng l???p nh??n d??n mi???n B???c, nh??ng n?? ???????c bi???u hi???n m???t c??ch m??nh li???t ??? nh???ng tr?? th???c c?? nhi???u ???nh h?????ng c???a t?? t?????ng d??n ch??? t?? s???n, ??? nh???ng v??n ngh??? s??? c??ng th???n, nh???y c???m, d??ng c???m v?? l??ng m???n.
R?? r???t nh???t l?? ??? c??c l??nh v???c sau:
V??? ch??nh tr??? :
M???y d??ng ra m???t b??o Nh??n V??n s??? 1 vi???t:
V??o l??c ?????ng v?? Ch??nh ph??? ??ang c?? k??? ho???ch ph??t tri???n v??n h??a, c???i thi???n sinh ho???t x?? h???i, ch??ng t??i cho ra t??? b??o Nh??n V??n ????? ????ng g??p m???t ph???n nh??? m???n v??o c??ng vi???c ????.
V?? v???y n??n ph???n ng??n lu???n ch??? y???u c???a n?? ???????c n??u l??n l??: v??n h??a v?? x?? h???i.
Ngo??i ra, trong n?????c nay mai s??? c?? ?????i h???i V??n ngh??? to??n qu???c. B??o Nh??n V??n c??ng coi tr???ng vi???c ???y, d??nh m???t ph???n t??? b??o cho vi???c th???o lu???n c??c v???n ????? v??n ngh??? ????? g??p ph???n x??y d???ng ?????i h???i.
T??m l???i, b??o Nh??n V??n ?????ng d?????i s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam, theo ch??? ngh??a M??c- L??nin v???i tinh th???n th???c ti???n, ????? x??c ti???n c??ng cu???c c???ng c??? mi???n B???c, th???ng nh???t n?????c nh??, ????? d???n ???????ng ??i ?????n th???c hi???n ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i, theo nh?? ?? mu???n c???a ?????ng c??ng l?? ?? mu???n c???a nh??n d??n c??? n?????c.

Nguy???n H???u ??ang vi???t trong b??i C???n ph???i ch??nh quy h??n n???a, b??o Nh??n V??n s??? 4:
H??a b??nh l???p l???i ???? hai n??m, d?? cu???c ?????u tranh th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c c?? ph???c t???p, gay go th??? n??o th?? c??ng kh??ng th??? coi mi???n b???c nh?? ??? m???t ho??n c???nh b???t th?????ng ????? duy tr?? m??i m???t n???n ph??p tr??? h???n hoi.
???Do ph??p tr??? thi???u s??t m?? C???i c??ch Ru???ng ?????t h???ng to ?????n th???. Do ph??p tr??? thi???u s??t m?? qu??n ?????i ch??a c?? ch??? ????? binh d???ch h???p l??, c??ng an h???i gi???p gi?? th?? ????i v??? ch??ng ng???i ng???m c???nh tr??ng l??n ??? b??? h???, h??? kh???u r??nh b??n c???a s??? khi???n ng?????i ta m???t ??n m???t ng???, c??n b??? thu??? t??? ti???n v??o kh??m nh?? ng?????i kinh doanh, ??? khu ph??? c?? chuy???n ??u???i nh?? lung tung ho???c ??p bu???c ng?????i ??? nh?? r???ng ph???i nh?????ng m???t ph???n cho c??n b??? hay c?? quan ???. Do ph??p tr??? thi???u s??t m?? nhi???u c?? quan b??c xem th?? c???a nh??n vi??n v?? m???t ng??nh r???t quan tr???ng no?? ????i th??ng qua nh???ng b??i b??o n??i ?????n m??nh, l??m nh?? m???t b??? ph???n c???a Nh?? n?????c l???i c?? quy???n ph???c h???i ch??? ????? ki???m duy???t m?? ch??nh nh?? n?????c ???? b??i b???. Do ph??p tr??? thi???u s??t, ng?????i ta ???? l??m nh???ng vi???c vu c??o v?? ??e d???a ch??nh tr??? tr???ng tr???n, ng??n c???n vi???c mua ?????c b??o Nh??n V??n, h??nh hung b??o Tr??m hoa v.v???
T?????ng ???? ?????n l??c nh??n d??n ph???i t??ch c???c b???o v??? ch??? ????? b???ng c??ch t??? c??o nh???ng h??nh ?????ng phi ph??p ??? b???t c??? tr?????ng h???p n??o ???? c?? lu???t l??? r???i.
V??? m???t x??c ti???n x??y d???ng ngay m???t ch??? ????? ph??p tr??? ?????y ????? tinh vi, ch??ng t??i ????? ngh???:
1- Thi h??nh Hi???n ph??p ( ho???c l?? Hi???n ph??p 1946 s???a ?????i cho th??ch h???p v???i ho??n c???nh ng??y nay, ho???c l?? Hi???n ph??p m???i s??? ?????t ra), Tr??n c?? s??? Hi???n ph??p, Qu???c h???i s??? bi???u quy???t c??c ?????o lu???t thay cho c??c s???c l???nh v?? nhi???u v??n ki???n kh??c.
2- Qu???c h???i h???p ?????u s??u th??ng m???t k???. Kh??ng c?? l?? do trong ho??n c???nh h??a b??nh m?? c??ng vi???c c???a Qu???c h???i v???n kho??n tr???ng cho m???t Ban th?????ng tr???c g???n nh?? kh??ng ho???t ?????ng g??.
3-Ch???n ch???nh ng??nh t?? ph??p, ch??? y???u l?? t??ng quy???n h??nh th???c s??? c???a B??? t?? ph??p.
Trong b??i Hi???n ph??p Vi???t Nam n??m 1946 v?? Hi???n ph??p Trung Hoa b???o ?????m t??? do d??n ch??? th??? n??o? ??ng l???i vi???t:
Hi???n ph??p 1946 c???a ta sau khi ???????c Qu???c h???i th??ng qua li???n b??? ho??n thi h??nh v?? t??nh h??nh trong n?????c nghi??m tr???ng. Nh??ng t??? sau Hi???p ?????nh Gi?? ne v??, t??nh h??nh mi???n B???c, m???c d???u c??n nhi???u kh?? kh??n kinh t??? v?? cu???c ?????u tranh th???c hi???n th???ng nh???t gau go ph???c t???p, c??ng ph???i coi l?? ???? tr??? l???i b??nh th?????ng r???i. v???y ch??ng ta c?? th??? ????? ra ho???c vi???c thi h??nh Hi???n ph??p 1946 s???a ?????i l???i, ho???c vi???c ?????t m???t Hi???n ph??p m???i.
??? ??? ????y t??i ch??? mu???n c??? quy???t m???t ??i???u l?? d?? Hi???n ph??p s??? ???????c ban b??? c?? n???i dung th??? n??o ??i n???a, c??i ph???n b???o ?????m t??? do d??n ch??? c???a n?? v??? c??n b???n v???n kh??ng th??? thay ?????i so v???i Hi???n ph??p 1946. V?? ???? l?? m???t ??i???u ki???n ??? kh??ng c?? kh??ng ???????c??? c???a m???t ch??nh th??? d??n ch???.
???Ch??ng ta th???y c??c quy???n t??? do d??n ch??? b??? h???n ch??? qu?? nhi???u. V?? ch??ng ta nhi???t li???t hoan ngh??nh ngh??? quy???t c???a h???i ngh??? l???n th??? 10 c???a Trung ????ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng ???? nh???n m???nh s??? c???n thi???t ph???i m??? r???ng t??? do d??n ch???.
???Chuy??n ch??nh v???i ?????ch th?? bao nhi??u c??ng ch??a ????? v?? t??? tr?????c ?????n nay ch??ng ta c?? l??c n??o bu??ng l???ng ????u m?? ph???i h?? h??o? C??n chuy??n ch??nh v???i nh??n d??n th?? c???n x??t k???. N???u kh??ng h???u qu??? s??? tai h???i l???n. Nguy??n nh??n s??u xa c???a nh???ng bi???n c??? ??? Ba Lan v?? Hung ga ri l?? v?? thi???u d??n ch???, t???i sao l???i hi???u ra l?? v?? thi???u chuy??n ch??nh?
Gi??o s?? Tr???n ?????c Th???o vi???t trong b??i N??? l???c ph??t tri???n t??? do d??n ch??? , b??o Nh??n V??n s??? 3 :
Sau khi ch??ng ta ???? ????nh b???i ????? qu???c v?? ho??n th??nh C???i c??ch Ru???ng ?????t ??? mi???n B???c, ch??nh b???nh quan li??u, b?? ph??i, s??ng b??i c?? nh??n l?? nh???ng di t??ch c???a ch??? ????? c?? trong t??? ch???c m???i. ?????u tranh ch???ng nh???ng b???nh ???y l?? nhi???m v??? c???a nh??n d??n v?? ???????ng l???i c???a ?????ng, m???t tr???ng t??m c??ng t??c ????? ?????y m???nh c??ng cu???c ki???n thi???t kinh t??? v?? v??n h??a, nhanh ch??ng ti???n l??n ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i.
???Trong nhi???m v??? th???c hi???n ph????ng ch??m c???a ?????i h???i XX c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X??, ?????ng h?????ng ???ng l???i k??u g???i c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam, h?????ng ???ng phong tr??o ph??t tri???n t??? do d??n ch??? trong nh???ng n?????c d??n ch??? nh??n d??n anh em, ng?????i tr?? th???c Vi???t Nam c?? ph???n tr??ch nhi???m quan tr???ng. Ng?????i tr?? th???c ho???t ?????ng v??n h??a, c???n t??? do nh?? kh?? tr???i ????? th???. C?? t??? do m???i ?????y m???nh ???????c s??ng t??c v??n ngh???, nghi??n c???u khoa h???c, c???i ti???n k??? thu???t. Ph??t tri???n t??? do l?? nhu c???u thi???t th??n ?????ng th???i c??ng l?? nhi???m v??? s??? 1 c???a ng?????i tr?? th???c c??ng nh?? c???a to??n d??n.
Trong b??i N???i dung x?? h???i v?? h??nh th???c t??? do , Giai ph???m M??a ????ng t???p I ??ng vi???t c??? th??? h??n v??? ngu???n g???c c???a c??n b???nh sai l???m nh?? sau:

???C?? c???u c???a b??? m??y l??nh ?????o c?? h?????ng m???t chi???u, r???t n???ng v??? t??? ch???c v?? ph????ng ti???n ????? th??ng, c?????ng b??ch , m?? nh???ng ?? ki???n ph?? b??nh c???a nh??n d??n hay c???p d?????i th?? l???i ho??n to??n ????? cho c???p tr??n quy???t ?????nh c?? n??n x??t ?????n v?? th???o lu???n hay kh??ng, cho n??n nh???ng b???nh quan li??u, b?? ph??i, s??ng b??i c?? nh??n trong t??? ch???c l??nh ?????o ???? c?? ??i???u ki???n kh??ch quan ????? ph??t tri???n, ?????y m???nh t??c phong ????n ??p t?? t?????ng, ph???t qua quy t???c d??n ch???, bi???n nh???ng ?? ki???n ch??? quan th??nh l???p tr?????ng b???t di b???t d???ch. Nh??? nh???ng s??? ki???n ???y m?? nh???ng ph???n t??? l???c h???u b???o th???, ???? ng??n c???n ?? ki???n c???a qu???n ch??ng, c???n tr??? vi???c s???a ch???a sai l???m, cho ?????n l??c t??c h???i l???n qu??, c?? s??? ???? b??? t???n th????ng n???ng n???, ch???nh ?????n t??? ch???c ??? huy???n v?? t???nh ph??t tri???n theo m???t th??? ch??? ngh??a n??ng d??n l??u manh h??a. R?? r??ng nh???ng ph???n t??? quan li??u b?? ph??i ???? l???y th??nh ki???n c???a h??? l??m ???????ng l???i l???ch s??? , bi???n nh???ng sai l???m c???a h??? th??nh b??nh xe v?? t??nh c???a l???ch s???. M???t b??? m??y h??ng m???nh, x??y d???ng ????? di???t k??? th??, ?????n l??c kh??ng th???y th?? th?? l???i quay v??? b???n, l???y b???n l??m th?? m?? ?????p ph?? b???a b??i.
???Kh??ng c?? l?? do g?? m?? kh??ng tin t?????ng ??? nh??n d??n, kh??ng tin t?????ng r???ng nh???ng th???c m???c ????? ra, nh???ng ?? ki???n ph?? b??nh c??n b???n l?? nh???m ph???c v??? m???c ????ch chung, l???y kinh nghi???m th???c ti???n m?? s???a ch???a sai l???m, ch???n ch???nh t??? ch???c, c???i ti???n ch??nh s??ch. Nh???ng ?? ki???n ???y ph??t bi???u t??? do c?? th??? ph???m v??o ?????a v???, th??nh ki???n ho???c th??i quen c???a m???t s??? ng?????i trong t??? ch???c l??nh ?????o, nh??ng nh???t ?????nh ?????y kh??ng ph???i l?? tho??t ly l??nh ?????o, m?? ch??nh l?? c???ng c??? l??nh ?????o.

V??? ph??p lu???t :
Lu???t s?? Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng qua b??i ph??t bi???u r???t quan tr???ng tr?????c M???t tr???n T??? qu???c H?? N???i ng??y 30- 10- 1956 ???? ph??n t??ch nh???ng sai l???m c???a ch??nh quy???n ??i t??? sai l???m CCR?? ??? n??ng th??n sang sai l???m trong ch??? ????? m???u d???ch ??? th??? th??nh,, t???t c??? n???m trong b???n ch???t thi???u d??n ch???. ??ng ch??? ra ngu???n g???c c??c sai l???m ???? v?? tr??nh b??y nh???ng nguy??n t???c ????? s???a s???ng l???i b??? m??y ph??p lu???t, ch??nh tr??? c???a ?????t n?????c (17).
??ng ph?? ph??n kh???u hi???u Th?? ch???t 10 ng?????i oan c??n h??n ????? s??t m???t ?????ch kh??ng nh???ng qu?? t??? m???t c??ch v?? l?? m?? c??n ph???n l???i c??ch m???ng.
??ng nh???c l???i nh???ng nguy??n t???c c?? b???n c???a ph??p l?? ???? kh??ng ???????c ??p d???ng trong CCR??:
-Kh??ng ph???t c??c t???i ???? l??u ng??y m?? b??y gi??? m???i kh??m ph?? ra.
??? Ch??? m???t m??nh ph???m nh??n ch???u tr??ch nhi???m c???a vi???c m??nh l??m, kh??ng c?? tr??ch nhi???m chung c???a v??? con, gia ????nh.
??? Mu???n k???t ??n m???t ng?????i ph???i c?? b???ng c??? x??c ????ng.
??? Th??? t???c ??i???u tra x??t x??? ph???i ?????m b???o quy???n l???i c???a b??? t??? nh??n. B??? t??? nh??n c?? quy???n nh??? lu???t s?? b??o ch???a cho m??nh.

S??? d?? c?? sai l???m nh?? v???y v?? 3 nguy??n nh??n:
Quan ??i???m ta- ?????ch, th??-b???n m?? h???
B???t ch???p ph??p lu???t
B???t ch???p chuy??n m??n.

Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng cho r???ng l??? ra Qu???c h???i l?? c?? quan l???p ph??p nh??ng l???i b??? quan ni???m r???ng ???? ch??? c?? quy???n th??ng qua c??c ch??nh s??ch m?? th??i.
??ng ????? ngh??? h?????ng s???a ch???a sai l???m l?? ph???i x??y d???ng m???t ch??? ????? ph??p tr??? ch??n ch??nh, m???t ch??? ????? d??n ch??? th???c s???. ??ng kh???ng ?????nh :
M???t ch??? ????? d??n ch??? th???c s??? trong ???? ng?????i d??n ???????c l??m ch??? tr??n ?????t n?????c kh??ng nh???ng trong hi???n ph??p m?? c??? trong th???c t??? n???a.
L???ch s??? c??c phong tr??o c??ch m???ng trong h??n m???t th??? k??? nay, ch??a bao gi???, ch??a ai c?? th??? ng??n c???n ???????c m???t phong tr??o qu???n ch??ng ????i t??? do d??n ch???.

V??? V??n h??a, v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t :
????o Duy Anh , ?????ng V??n Ng??? trong tr??? l???i ph???ng v???n c???a b??o Nh??n V??n (18) nh???n m???nh ?????n vi???c th???c h??nh d??n ch??? cho ?????i ng?? nh???ng ng?????i nghi??n c???u, gi???ng d???y ??? c??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c, ?????i ng?? b??c s??, tr?? th???c c???n ???????c ?????u t?? ph?? h???p, c???n c?? quan ni???m ????ng v??? vai tr?? chuy??n m??n, c?? ph????ng ph??p ????nh gi?? ????ng th???c ch???t ng?????i tr?? th???c, tr??nh l??nh ?????o th?? b???o b???ng ch??nh tr???. C??c ??ng ????i c??ng t??c chuy??n m??n c?? b???n ph???i do nh???ng ng?????i chuy??n m??n ph??? tr??ch (19).
L??n s??ng ph?? b??nh sai l???m trong l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? v?? c??ng m???nh m???. Nh???ng ph??t s??ng ?????u ti??n l???i xu???t ph??t t??? Ph??ng v??n ngh??? Qu??n ?????i , n??i qu???n l?? c??? m???t ?????i ng?? VNS h??ng h???u b???ng ch??? ????? ch??nh ???y.
T??? th??ng 4- 1955 Tr???n D???n c??ng v???i ????? Nhu???n, Ho??ng T??ch Linh, Ho??ng C???m, T??? Ph??c, Tr??c L??m???g???i D??? th???o ????? ngh??? cho m???t ch??nh s??ch v??n h??a l??n T???ng c???c chinh tr???. B???n D??? th???o y??u c???u ????? cho v??n ngh??? s?? t??? do s??ng t??c, tr??? l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? cho v??n ngh??? s??, ????i th??nh l???p m???t chi h???i v??n ngh??? tr???c thu???c H???i V??n ngh??? kh??ng qua C???c tuy??n hu???n v?? T???ng c???c ch??nh tr???, b??? h??? th???ng ch??nh tr??? vi??n trong c??c ??o??n v??n c??ng qu??n ?????i, b??? m???i ch??? ????? qu??n s??? hi???n h??nh trong v??n ngh??? qu??n ?????i. Sau ???? l?? s??? ki???n T??? Ph??c, Tr???n D???n b??? b???t giam, Tr???n D???n d??ng dao lam c???a c??? t??? t???, vi???t th?? g???i Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh. ??ng Thanh ph???i ra l???nh th??? hai ng?????i. Vi???c b???t giam hai ng?????i, Ho??ng C???m ch???ng ki???n T??? H???u ra l???nh cho V??n Ph??c: B???t n?? v???, t???ng giam n??!
V???i b??i Ph?? b??nh l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? (20) Phan Kh??i kh??ng ng???n ng???i ph?? ph??n t??c phong l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? quan li??u, h??ch d???ch, b?? ph??i, s??ng b??i c?? nh??n c???a Tr?????ng Chinh, T??? H???u, Ho??i Thanh, Nguy???n ????nh Thi.
Khan Kh??i cho r???ng t??? khi v??? H?? N???i trong v??n ngh??? ???? h??nh th??nh hai phe l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? v?? qu???n ch??ng v??n ngh??? m?? L??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? ???? x??m ph???m m???i ng??y m???t h??n v??o quy???n ri??ng ngh??? thu???t c???a v??n ngh??? s?? ?????c bi???t l?? vi???c ??p bu???c v??n ngh??? s?? m???t c??ch nghi???t ng?? ph???i ph???c v??? ????ng ???????ng l???i ch??nh tr???. V???i vi???c H??? Ch?? Minh vi???t truy???n m???u cho c??c nh?? v??n vi???t theo, ??ng nh???n x??t:
Nh?????c b???ng b???t m???i ng?????i ph???i vi???t theo m???t l???i v???i m??nh, th?? r???i ?????n m???t ng??y kia, h??ng tr??m th??? hoa c??c ?????u ph???i n??? ra c??c v???n th??? h???t.
??ng ch???t v???n vi???c H???i V??n ngh??? t??? ch???c ph?? ph??n b??i th?? Nh???t ?????nh th???ng c???a Tr???n D???n mang t??nh ???u tr?? quy ch???p, ????n ??p.
Phan Kh??i d?????c m???i tham gia Ban gi??m kh???o Gi???i th?????ng v??n h???c 1954- 1955 ????? l??m v??. ??ng t??? c??o s??? th???i n??t c???a Ban Gi??m kh???o, nh???ng ng?????i nh?? Ho??i Thanh, Xu??n Di???u, Nguy???n Huy T?????ng c?? t??c ph???m d??? thi m?? ?????u ??? Ban s?? kh???o v?? Ban chung kh???o, ?????u ???????c gi???i th?????ng m?? ch???t l?????ng t??c ph???m c???a h??? kh??ng x???ng ????ng v???i gi???i.

C??ng v???i Khan Kh??i, Tr????ng T???u c??ng quy???t li???t ph?? ph??n B???nh s??ng b??i c?? nh??n trong gi???i l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? (21). Xin n??i r?? h??n l?? trong ngh??? quy???t c???a H???i ngh??? T?? 10 th??ng 10-1856 c??ng nh???n m???nh vi???c ch???ng s??ng b??i c?? nh??n ??ang r???t n???ng n??? trong ?????ng, trong ???? c?? vi???c s??ng b??i H??? ch?? Minh.
Tr????ng T???u x??c ?????nh b???nh s??ng b??i c?? nh??n l?? m???t b???nh ph??? bi???n trong gi???i l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??????T??i kh??ng n??i ???? l?? b???nh c???a v??n ngh??? s??, v?? r???ng h??m qua c??ng nh?? h??m nay , ng?????i v??n ngh??? s?? t??? tr???ng kh??ng bao gi??? th???a nh???n s??? s??ng b??i c?? nh??n. Ngh??? thu???t l?? s??ng t???o, l?? t??? do. S??ng b??i c?? nh??n l?? ph???c t??ng m?? qu??ng, l?? n?? l???. Hai th??? ???? nh?? n?????c v???i l???a, c?? c??i n??y th?? kh??ng c?? c??i kia ???????c.
Tr????ng T???u n??u l??n t???m g????ng kh??ng ch???u s??ng b??i c?? nh??n c???a T?? Ng???c V??n, S?? Ng???c ?????i v???i Tr?????ng Chinh. ??ng quy t???i cho s??? l??nh ?????o v??n ngh???:
Gi???ng nh?? b???n th???y b??a phong ki???n, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? c???a ch??ng ta mu???n y???m t???t c??? t??m h???n c???ng r???n v?? t??? do cho ?????n tr??? th??nh nh???ng h??n ?????t th?? tr??n m??o m???c d???u tay k??? n???n. Nh???ng l?? b??a c???a h??? ch??? t???o ra k??? c??ng ???? kh?? nhi???u: m???t l???p tr?????ng, ph???m ch??nh s??ch,ph?? ??o??n k???t, ph?? t??? ch???c, v?? k??? lu???t, ch???ng ?????ng, ?????ch l???i d???ng, c?? v???n ?????, b???t m??n c?? nh??n, ??c ?????a v???,v,v??? c??n g?? n???a?
Theo ??ng ch??nh l??nh ?????o ???? t???o ra m???t t??nh tr???ng u ??m trong v??n ngh???:
M???t s??? v??n ngh??? s?? non gan???bi???n th??nh nh???ng t??n th?? l???i v??n ngh??? xu n???nh tr???c l???i. M???t s??? kh??c tr???n v??o th??i ????? ti??u c???c, ch??n n???n c??ng t??c, t??m t?? tr??u n???ng h???n o??n v?? u???t ???c. M???t s??? kh??c n???a c???t k??n c?? t??nh v?? ngh??? thu???t xu???ng ????y ba l??, y??n l???ng l??m b???n ph???n m???t ng?????i c??ng d??n kh??ng chi???n b???ng b??t, b???ng m??u s???c, b???ng d??y ????n, b???ng s??n kh???u- ????nh gi???c ????!C??n m???t s??? kh??ng khu???t ph???c, k???ch li???t ph?? ph??n t??c phong v?? ???????ng l???i l??nh ?????o c???a th?????ng v??? H???i th?? b??? ch???p m??, b??? ch??n ??p, b??? tr??, b??? h??nh h???, b??? g???t sang m???t b??n???
Tr????ng T???u ????? ngh???:
???? ?????n l??c ph???i sa th???i nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o thi???u t?? c??ch m?? qu???n ch??ng tuy???t ?????i kh??ng tin t?????ng n???a ????? qu???n ch??ng v??n ngh??? t??? tay m??nh ??i???u khi???n c??ng vi???c chuy??n m??n c???a m??nh m???t c??ch th???c s??? d??n ch???.
???? ?????n l??c ph???i thanh to??n l???i ????n ??p t??? do t?? t?????ng, khinh mi???t qu???n ch??ng, m???nh l???nh, ?????c ??o??n, b?? ph??i ch??? ngh??a do b???nh s??ng b??i c?? nh??n ????? ra, ????? m??? ???????ng cho tr??m hoa ??ua n???, tr??m nh?? ??ua n??i.

Tr????ng T???u k??u g???i tr??? l???i s??? t??? do cho v??n ngh??? s??:
Mu???n s??ng t???o ra m???t th??? gi???i ?????c ????o, v??n ngh??? s?? ph???i c?? m???t c??i nh??n ?????c ????o, m???t nh???n th???c ?????c ????o v??? th???c t???i, m???t tr?? t?????ng t?????ng ?????c ????o, m???t l???i n??i ?????c ????o. Ph???i duy tr?? b???o v??? t??nh ?????c ????o ???y kh??ng ????? m???t s???c m???nh b??n ngo??i n??o x??m ph???m ?????n hay l??m cho m???t ??i. Ph???i t??? do nh??n s??? th???c, t??? do x??c c???m, t??? do suy ngh??, t??? do t?????ng t?????ng, t??? do v???n d???ng ng??n ng??? ngh??? thu???t- ????? c?? th??? ph???n ??nh hi???n th???c m???t c??ch trung th??nh.T??? do ??? ????y c?? ngh??a l??: ch???ng l???i m???i ??p b???c t?? t?????ng, m???i m???nh l???nh, m???i c??ng th???c, m???i quy???n uy b???t m??nh n??i ??i???u minh kh??ng mu???n n??i,ngh?? di???u m??nh kh??ng mu???n ngh??, nh???n l?? ????ng ??i???u m??nh cho l?? sai, kh??ng y??u nh???ng c??i m?? m??nh gh??t, kh??ng ca t???ng nh???ng c??i m?? m??nh ph???n ?????i. Kh??ng c?? t??? do ???y, s??? s??ng t??c c???a v??n ngh??? s?? s??? gi??? t???o.
C??ng v???i tinh th???n ph?? ph??n c??c sai l???m c???a l??nh ?????o v??n ngh???, ????? ngh??? c??c gi???i ph??p cho t??? do s??ng t??c c??n c?? c??c b??i c???a:
Ho??ng Hu??? : M???t b???n ????? ??n v??? ?????i h???i V??n ngh??? l???n th??? hai.
Tr???n Duy: Ph???n ?????u cho tr??m hoa ??ua n???. Th??nh th???t ?????u tranh cho t??? do d??n ch???. G??p ?? ki???n v??? ph???n t??? do d??n ch??? trong Ngh??? quy???t T.?? l???n th??? m?????i.
Chu Ng???c: Nguy???n S??n , ng?????i ??i ?????u trong ???????ng l???i v??n ngh??? r???ng r??i.
S?? Ng???c: L??m cho hoa n??? b???n m??a.
  1. Ng???c v?? T. H???ng: Ph?? b??nh l??nh ?????o sinh vi??n.
D????ng Vi???t ??: Nh???ng b??ng m??y ??en ???? bay qua. Ch??ng ta h??y gi??? l???y ??nh s??ng m???i.
V??n T??m: Nh???ng ng?????i ???y mu???n g??.
B??i Quang ??o??i: Ch??? ngh??a nh??n v??n c???a ??ng Ho??ng Xu??n Nh???
H.L: Kh??ng c?? l?? g?? m?? kh??ng t??n th??nh Tr??m hoa ??ua n???.
Tr???n C??ng: Ch???ng b?? ph??i trong v??n ngh???.
Tr???n C??ng: M???y ?? ki???n v??? v???n ????? l??nh ?????o ??? Ph??ng v??n ngh??? qu??n ?????i.
Ng?????i Quan s??t: M???t ?????t h???c t???p v?? ?????u tranh c???a gi???i v??n ngh???. B??i h???c Ba Lan v?? Hung ga ri.
Tr???n L?? V??n: Ch??ng ta ???? b??n t???i nh???ng v???n ????? g?? trong ?????i h???i?. C???n m??? r???ng ph?? b??nh ????? ?????y v??n ngh??? ti???n l??n.
C??n m???t s??? b??i v??? ??i???n ???nh c???a Cao Nh???, V?? Ph???m T???, Ph???m K??? Nam, Phan V??, Chu Ng???c, Tr???n C??ng, N???ng Mai H???ng, Tr???n Th???nh???

Tr???n C??ng: Ti???n t???i th??nh l???p H???i c???a nh???ng ng?????i c??ng t??c ??i???n ???nh.( ST1)
N???ng Mai H???ng: C???n x??t l???i quan ni???m c???a nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ?????o ngh??? thu???t ??i???n ???nh.( ST 1+2)

Cao Nh???: N???a th??ng li??n hoan phim Li??n X??: M???y b??? phim d???. (NV 5)
Nh?? v???y sau v??n h???c nh???ng ph???n ???ng m???nh m??? ??? tr??n ???? l??m n??ng di???n ????n ??i???n ???nh. L??c ???? Ban v???n ?????ng th??nh l???p H???i

??i???n ???nh ???? ho???t ?????ng nh??ng m??i ?????n n??m 1970 nh???ng ng?????i l??m ??i???n ???nh m???i c?? h???i ngh??? nghi???p c???a m??nh. C?? hai l?? do :
Th??? nh???t c??c ??CS theo l?? thuy???t c???a L?? nin ????? cao ??i???n ???nh l?? v?? kh?? s??? m???t c???a ngh??? thu???t v?? s???n. H??? lu??n lu??n n???m ch???t v?? kh?? n??y cho ?????n hi???n nay c??? v??? ch??? ?????o v?? c??? v??? ?????u t??.

Th??? hai l?? sau NVGP ??i???n ???nh ph???i h???ng ch???u ti???p c??n b??o th??? hai l???n h??n l?? V??? ??n x??t l???i. H???u h??t c??c ngh??? s?? v?? qu???n l?? ??i???n ???nh ?????u ???????c ????o t???o ??? Li??n X?? v???, nhi???u ng?????i ???? b??? coi l?? c?? t?? t?????ng x??t l???i. Ch??? sau khi gi???i quy???t xong v??? ??n x??t l???i 1968 th?? ?????n th??ng 1- 1970 H???i ??i???n ???nh m???i ???????c th??nh l???p.
Tr??n l??nh v???c s??ng t??c phong tr??o NVGP c??n c?? c??c t??c ph???m ti??u bi???u nh?? sau:
Th???y An: Truy???n ng???n Tr?????ng h???p t??ng qu??n c???a thi???u ??y L??m, Bich xu ra.
Nguy???n B??nh:Th?? T???nh gi???c chi??m bao.
V??n Cao:Tr?????ng ca Nh???ng ng?????i tr??n c???a bi???n. Th?? Anh c?? nghe th???y kh??ng.
Ho??ng C???mB??t k?? Con ng?????i Tr???n D???n. Tr?????ng ca Ti???ng h??t quan h???. K???ch th?? Ti???ng h??t.
Ph??ng Cung: Truy???n ng???n Con ng???a gi?? c???a ch??a Tr???nh
Tr???n D???n: Tr?????ng ca Nh???t ?????nh th???ng. H??y ??i m??i.
Tr???n Duy: Truy???n ng???n Nh???ng ng?????i kh???ng l???. Ti???ng s??o ti???n ki???p.
L?? ?????tTh?? Nh??n c??u chuy???n m???y ng?????i t??? t???. C???a h??ng L?? ?????t.
Minh Ho??ng: Truy???n ng???n ?????ng m??y
Phan Kh??i: T???p v??n ??ng b??nh v??i. Truy???n ng???n ??ng N??m Chu???t.
H???u Loan: Th?? Nh???ng th???ng n???nh h??t.
Nh?? Mai: Truy???n ng???n Thi s?? m??y
Ph??ng Qu??n: Th?? Ch???ng tham ?? l??ng ph??. L???i m??? d???n.
Tr???n L?? v??n: T??y b??t B???c th?? g???i m???t ng?????i b???n c??.
V???y ?????c ??i???m c???a cu???c c??ch m???ng v??n h???c NVGP l?? g???
V??? n???i dung:
Trong l??c ??a s??? v??n ngh??? s?? ??ang b??n kho??n kh??ng bi???t vi???t v??? cu???c s???ng hi???n t???i nh?? th??? n??o ????? kh??ng tr??i v???i y??u c???u tuy??n truy???n, vi???t ti???p v??? kh??ng chi???n th?? kh?? vi???t, c??c t??c gi??? NVGP ch??? tr????ng s??ng t??c c???a m??nh tr???c ti???p ph???n ??nh nh???ng v???n ????? c???p thi???t c???a x?? h???i v???i th??i ????? th???ng th???n, trung th???c. H??? cho r???ng n???u v???i th??i ????? ???? v??n h???c s??? gi??p ??ch nhi???u cho nh??n d??n, cho ?????ng, cho nh?? n?????c. H??? kh??ng n?? tr??nh s??? ??au kh??? c???a nh??n d??n, ngh??o t??ng, oan ???c trong c???i c??ch ru???ng ?????t, s??? b??? t???c c???a ng?????i ngh??? s??. H??? l??n ??n c??c t???t x???u c???a c??n b???, n???n tham ?? l??ng ph??, trong ???? c?? c??n b??? l??nh ?????o v??n ngh???, ch??? ?????o ch??nh tr??? th?? b???o, s??ng b??i c???p tr??n, b?? ph??i, ??p b???c c???p d?????i v?? nh??n d??n, l??m ???nh h?????ng ?????n s??ng t???o, ?????n ch???t l?????ng ngh??? thu???t. H??? g??p ?? th???ng th???n v??? c??c ch??? tr????ng ch??nh s??ch kh??ng h???p v???i l??ng d??n ??ang l??m t???n th????ng l??ng tin v??o ch??? ????? m???i. H??? t??? c??o v???i ?????ng nh???ng k??? th?? m???i ????, nh???ng con ng?????i ??ang l??m h???i s??? nghi???p c???a ?????ng, kh???ng ?????nh ????y l?? m???t cu???c ?????u tranh m???i ?????y quy???t li???t:
Ch??ng n?? c??n ??? l???i 
Trong nh???ng ??o d??i ??en nham hi???m
B??? c??? b??? ch??n ??eo t???i ??c cho ng?????i
Ch??ng n?? c??n ??? l???i 
Trong nh???ng t??? s??ch gia ????nh 
??? nh???ng ??i???u thu???c tr??n m??i nh???ng em b?? m?????i l??m
T???ng b?????c ch??n c?? g??i
T???ng con ???????ng b??i c??? b??ng t???i
M???t qu???ng th??m c??n nh??? m??i ????m

Ch??ng n?? c??n ??? l???i
Trong nh???ng tu???i b???n m????i
??ang ??i v??o cu???c s???ng
Nh?? n???m m???c tr??n nh???ng th??n g??? m???c
V??n Cao- ( Anh c?? nghe th???y kh??ng)

Trong nh???ng ng??y kh?? kh??n ch???ng ch???t
K??? th?? c???a ch??ng ta xu???t hi???n 
Nh???ng con r???ng ?????t khi ????? khi xanh
L???n trong h??ng ng??

Nh???ng con b??i c??
?????u tr??n nh???ng d??y bu???m
??ang ??o m???c n?????c
Nh???ng con b???ch tu???c
Bao tay ch??n c??? d??m m???t con ng?????i

?????t n?????c ??ang l??n da l??n th???t
?????t n?????c c??n ??ang nh??? m??u ng??y ng??y
Ta mu???n g??i cu???c ?????i g???n g??ng nh?? tr??i v???i
???? th???y lo??i s??u n???m tr??n trong cu???ng
Ch??ng mu???n c??c em nh??? m???i bi???t ??i ph???i r???ng
M??n m???i d???n s???c v??? ?????t khai hoang
L??m r???ng nh???ng con ng?????i l???i d???n ni???m hy v???ng
H??o d???n m???m s??ng ta??? m???t ph???m gi?? con ng?????i
Ch??ng n?? ??? b??n ta trong ta l??n l??t
????o r???ng t???ng kho ti???n g???o thu???c men
T??i ???? th???y t???ng m???t t???ng t??n x??u chu???i
T??i s??? v???ch m???t t???ng t??n
V??n Cao- (Tr?????ng ca Nh???ng ng?????i tr??n c???a bi???n)

H??? c??ng s???m l??n ??n s??? can thi???p th?? b???o v??o ?????i s???ng ri??ng t?? con ng?????i:
Ch??? ????? ta kh??ng c???m h??? y??u nhau
M?? sao h??? ch???t?
Ng?????i c??ng an ?????ng ng?? t??
???????ng ph???
Ch??? huy
b??n tr??i
b??n ph???i
Xe ch???y
Xe d???ng
R???t c???n cho vi???c giao th??ng
Nh??ng ??em b???c c??ng an 
m??y m??c 
?????t gi???a tim ng?????i
B???t t??nh c???m ng?????c xu??i
Theo ????ng lu???t ??i ???????ng nh?? n?????c
C?? th??? g??y r???t nhi???u chua x??t 
ngo??i ?????i
L?? ?????t- (Nh??n c??u chuy???n m???y ng?????i t??? t???)

V???i ng??y nay nh???ng c??u th?? tr??n l?? r???t b??nh th?????ng nh??ng v??o l??c ???? n?? b??? c???t x??n, suy di???n g??n gh??p k???t t???i, l??m cho nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ?????o c??? tin v??o ?????i ng?? th?? l???i m???t b??nh t??nh. C??ng nh?? v???y, k??? c??? c??u T??i b?????c ??i . Kh??ng th???y ph??? , kh??ng th???y nh??. Ch??? th???y m??a sa tr??n m??u c??? ?????. ???? b??? c???t ra kh???i k???t c???u c???a b??i th?? d??i Nh???t ?????nh th???ng v?? g??n cho ?? ngh??a ph???n ?????ng. C??u th?? n??y l?? t??m tr???ng t??c gi??? l??c cu???c s???ng kh?? kh??n nh???t. Cu???i b??i th?? l??c mi???n B???c v?????t qua kh?? kh??n, v???i tinh th???n nh???t ?????nh th???ng t??c gi??? l???i th???y :
N???ng l??n ????? ph??? ????? c???
????? c??? bu???ng tim l?? ph???i.

Trong n???i dung c??c t??c ph???m n??y, c?? th??? th???y t??nh ch???t th???t, cu???c s???ng th???t c???a ?????i s???ng nh??n d??n. C??c s??ng t??c NVGP c??ng gi???ng nh?? l???i c??c b??i h??t c???a Ph???m Duy trong giai ??o???n ?????u kh??ng chi???n nh?? B?? m??? Gio Linh, N????ng chi???u, ???????ng v??? mi???n Trung...?????y h??i th??? cu???c s???ng kh??ng chung chung nh?? c??c b??i th??, c??c nh???c ph???m c???a c??c v??n ngh??? s?? kh??ng chi???n kh??c.
Hi???n th???c m?? v??n h???c NVGP bi???u hi???n r?? r??ng tr??i ng?????c v???i th??? hi???n th???c c???a v??n h???c kh??ng chi???n, n?? l?? cho v??n h???c tr??? l???i v???i ?????i s???ng nh??n d??n, l??m n??n nh???a s???ng cho ng?????i ngh??? s??.
V??? Ngh??? thu???t:
C??c nh?? v??n NVGP mu???n t???o ra s??? chuy???n bi???n v??? h??nh th???c s??ng t???o. Tr?????c h???t v??? th??? th?? h??? ti???p t???c m??? r???ng th??? th?? t??? do m?? trong kh??ng chi???n Nguy???n ????nh Thi ???? t???ng b??? ph?? ph??n nh??ng Ho??ng C???m ???? th??nh c??ng r???c r??? v???i B??n kia s??ng ??u???ng. M???nh m??? h??n h??? c??n th??? nghi???m l???i th?? b???c thang c???a Maiacopski. M???c ????? th??nh c??ng c?? kh??c nhau, nh??ng ??? Tr???n D???n c?? l??c ???? c?? th??nh c??ng, nh???t l?? v???i Tr?????ng ca Vi???t B???c.
Vi???t B???c!
S??ng L??
n?????c xanh
tr??ng tr??nh m???nh nguy???t!
B??nh Ca
S????ng xu???ng
con ????!

C???n th???y ??? vi???c h???c t???p th?? Maia ngo??i ?? ????? c??ch t??n ngh??? thu???t, Tr???n D???n, L?? ?????t c??n mu???n th?? ph???i c?? t??nh chi???n ?????u quy???t li???t nh?? Maia.
??? m???t h?????ng c??ch t??n kh??c V??n Cao, Ho??ng C???m, H???u Loan, Ph??ng Qu??n c??ng c?? nhi???u th??nh c??ng.
V??? b??t ph??p, v??n xu??i NVGP ???? kh??ng c??n l?? l???i v??n t??? th???c, t?????ng thu???t ????n gi???n. N?? th???c s??? ???? c?? nh???ng ???n d???, bi???u t?????ng c?? ?? ngh??a s??u s???c m?? trong v??n h???c kh??ng chi???n c??n v???ng b??ng. C??c h??nh t?????ng ngh??? thu???t c???a h??? ???? ti???n t???i s??? kh??i qu??t ngh??? thu???t, ??a ngh??a, mang ???n d??? t?? t?????ng . ???? l?? c??c truy???n ng???n Ti???ng s??o ti???n ki???p, Nh???ng ng?????i kh???ng l??? c???a Tr???n Duy, ??ng N??m Chu???t c???a Phan Kh??i, Con ng???a gi?? c???a Ch??a Tr???nh c???a Ph??ng Cung, Em b?? l??m v??n c???a Tr???n D???n, ti???u lu???n ??ng b??nh v??i c???a Phan Kh??i, Thi s?? m??y c???a Nh?? Mai???
T??? c??c ???n d??? c???a NVGP ng?????i ta nh???n ra th??i ????? ph?? ph??n ???????ng l???i l??nh ?????o v??n ngh??? c???a ??CSVN, c??c c??n b???nh c???a b??? m??y l??nh ?????o v??n ngh???, c???a c??n b??? ch??nh tr???, b???t c???p c???a c??c ch??nh s??ch c???ng s???n tr???i l??nh ??p d???ng v??o ?????i s???ng th???i b??nh, tinh th???n d??ng c???m ch???ng c??i x???u, c??i ??c, kh??t v???ng t??? do d??n ch??? v?? c??? s??? th???t v???ng v??? bi k???ch ti???n ?????nh c???a th??n ph???n ngh??? s??.
Trong th???i k??? ?????u tranh v???i NVGP, c??c ?????ng nghi???p ???? t???n c??ng quy???t li???t v??o b??t ph??p c???a NVGP. H??? k???t t???i NVGP x??? xi??n m?????n x??a n??i nay, m?????n th?? v???t n??i ng?????i, l???y c?? n??i m???i... S??? quy k???t n??y ???? ???????c l???y l??m chu???n m???c trong m???t th???i gian d??i cho ph????ng ph??p ph?? b??nh g???i l?? hi???n th???c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a, t???o ra c??c v??? ph??t hi???n ph?? ph??n nhi???u t??c ph???m ti??u c???c trong c??c th???i k??? ti???p theo ???? l??m thui ch???t c??c ?? t?????ng th??? nghi???m ngh??? thu???t, ?? t?????ng s??ng t???o h??nh th???c th??? hi???n c???a m???t th??? h??? v??n ngh??? s?? tr??n t???t c??? c??c th??? lo???i v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t v??n ch????ng, m??? thu???t, ??m nh???c, s??n kh???u, ??i???n ???nh???
Nh?? v???y c??c nh?? v??n NVGP ???? c?? ?? th???c l??m m???i m???t n???n v??n h???c ???? b??? x?? c???ng v?? ch??? tr????ng ph???c v??? tuy??n truy???n, v?? b??? l??nh ?????o quan li??u g?? ??p m???nh l???nh trong 9 n??m kh??ng chi???n. Nh??n l???i s??ng t??c c???a c??c nh?? th?? ti???n chi???n nh?? Xu??n Di???u, Huy C???n, Th??? L???, Nguy???n Xu??n Sanh, Anh Th????? trong th???i k??? n??y d??? nh???n th???y h??? v???n c??n b??? t???c c??n ch??a vi???t l???i ???????c nhu???n nhuy???n.
V??o th???i ??i???m ???? tr??n th??? gi???i c??ng b?????c v??o m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng v??n h???c v???i s??? xu???t hi???n c???a c??c tr??o l??u hi???n ?????i m???i. ??? S??i G??n, nh???ng v??n ngh??? s?? tr??? di c?? t??? H?? N???i v??o ???? l???p n??n nh??m v??n h???c S??ng T???o, nh??m tr?? th???c B??ch Khoa ???? t???o ra cu???c c??ch m???ng ng??n ng??? th?? ca tr???u t?????ng v?? v??n h???c hi???n sinh. Ph???i n??i r???ng ng??n ng??? v??n h???c mi???n Nam ???? ??i tr?????c hi???n ?????i h??a so v???i ng??n ng??? v??n h???c mi???n B???c m???y ch???c n??m. Ph???i ch??ng ???? l?? h???u qu??? c???a vi???c th??? ti??u cu???c c??ch m???ng v??n h???c c???a NVGP?
Th??nh qu??? c???a cu???c c??ch m???ng v??n h???c c???a NVGP ti???c r???ng ch??a g??y ???????c ???nh h?????ng r???ng l???n trong m???t th???i gian ng???n ng???i. N?? t???o ra s??? ho???ng s??? ??? nh???ng v??n ngh??? s?? b???o th??? quen vi???t theo ch??? th??? c???p tr??n. N?? ???? ?????t ra cho n???n v??n h???c mi???n B???c nh???ng ti???n ????? quan tr???ng, ????? l???i ???nh h?????ng ?????n nhi???u th??? h??? v??n ngh??? s?? m???c d?? ngay sau ???? n?? b??? che ph??? trong b??ng t???i. Nh???ng nh?? v??n ch??? ch???t c???a n?? v???n kh??ng ch???u tho??i lui. H??? c??? th??? trong l?? c???t c?? nh??n c???a ri??ng m??nh, v???t l???n v???i ngh??o t??ng, ????i kh??t, v???n ti???p t???c th??? nghi???m v?? ???? bi???n ?? t?????ng th??nh hi???n th???c, cu???i c??ng d?? mu???n m??ng ???? ???????c ghi nh???n l?? nh???ng nh?? c??ch t??n th??nh c??ng th?? hi???n ?????i Vi???t Nam . ???? l?? nh???ng Tr???n D???n, L?? ?????t, Ho??ng C???m, ?????ng ????nh H??ng???
C??ng nh?? c??c tr??o l??u d??n ch??? ??? c??c n?????c XHCN kh??c t???t c??? c??c t?? t?????ng s??ng t??c c???a NVGP ?????u b??? quy k???t ??m ch???, ????? k??ch, l?? ph?? ho???i ph???n ?????ng. C??ng nh?? H??? Phong, ??inh Linh, c??ng nh?? Tru kh?? rai, Paxternac, Xonj??nitxin, Lu cat, Owen, K???t sl??.. m?? sau n??y ?????n th???i k??? c???i t???, ?????i m???i ng?????i ta ph???i tr??? l???i danh d??? cho h???.
T?? t?????ng c???a h??? ph?? h???p v???i c??c ti??u ch?? chung v??? ti???n b??? x?? h???i c???a nh??n lo???i, c???a m???t x?? h???i v??n minh, m???t x?? h???i con ng?????i ???????c t??? do t?? t?????ng, m???t n???n ngh??? thu???t ???????c t??? do s??ng t???o???
4-T??nh ch???t v?? h??nh th??i ho???t ?????ng
Trong c??c v??n b???n v?? ph??t bi???u c?? nh??n ng?????i ta k???t t???i NVGP l?? t??? ch???c ph???n ?????ng , ho???t ?????ng gi??n ??i???p, nh???n ti???n v?? ???????c ch??? ?????o c???a n?????c ngo??i, d??ng v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t ho???t ?????ng ph???n tuy??n truy???n , k??ch ?????ng qu???n ch??ng n???i lo???n l???t ????? ch??nh quy???n.
V??? t?? t?????ng th?? ??? tr??n ???? tr??nh b??y cho ch??ng ta th???y r?? nh???ng ????i h???i c???i c??ch d??n ch??? c???a h??? l?? ph?? h???p v???i ti???n tr??nh l???ch s???. N???u ??CSVN ??i theo con ???????ng ???? th?? c?? th??? kh???ng ho???ng ???? kh??ng th??? x???y ra, ?????t n?????c kh??ng ??? t??nh tr???ng nh?? hi???n nay. C?? ng?????i l???y vi???c gi???i ph??ng mi???n Nam ????? bi???n minh cho vi???c ????n ??p NVGP l?? ch??nh ????ng. Nh??ng sau khi c?? s??? s???p ????? c???a phe XHCN, sau khi n?????c ?????c th???ng nh???t th?? l?? do n??y kh?? ?????ng v???ng.

V??? t???p th??? h??ng tr??m tr?? th???c, v??n ngh??? s??? v???i nh??n th??n ???? bi???t ??? tr??n v?? nh???t l?? ??a s??? l?? nh???ng tr?? tu??? t??i n??ng h??ng ?????u ??? mi???n B???c th?? kh??ng th??? n??i r???ng h??? l?? m???t t???p th??? m?? qu??ng. B??y gi??? th?? l???ch s??? ???? ch???ng minh r???ng nh???ng ??i???u h??? d??m n??i ra l??c ???? ???? ??i tr?????c 30 n??m.
Qua c??c t??i li???u v?? c??c cu???c ph???ng v???n sau n??y c?? th??? ????nh gi?? nh?? sau:
NVGP kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t t??? ch???c v?? th???c s??? kh??ng c?? m???t ng???n c??? n??o ch??? ?????o, ??i???u khi???n NVGP. N?? l?? m???t xu th???, c??ng b??ng l??n ??? nhi???u l??nh v???c, ???????c nhi???u ng?????i h?????ng ???ng quy t??? xung quanh nh??m s??ng t??c ch??nh c???a b??o Nh??n V??n v?? t???p ch?? Giai Ph???m. Theo l???i c??c ch??? ch???t th?? d?????ng nh?? ch??? c?? hai ng?????i l?? Nguy???n H???u ??ang v?? L?? ?????t c?? t??nh ch???t th??? l??nh v??? tinh th???n, c??n trong c??ng vi???c th?? th?????ng xuy??n h??? m??u thu???n v???i nhau. H??? kh??ng c?? m???t ngh??? quy???t, m???t ch????ng tr??nh h??nh ?????ng c??? th???, m???t m?? h??nh t??? ch???c n??o. Theo ??ng Tr???n Duy h??? lu??n lu??n trong t??nh tr???ng c??i nhau v??? ch??? tr????ng, kh??ng ai b???o ???????c ai (22).
NVGP kh??ng ho???t ?????ng gi??n ??i???p. C??i t???i g???i l?? ho???t ?????ng gi??n ??i???p ??? ????y l?? s??? g??n gh??p suy di???n bu???c t???i. Nguy???n H???u ??ang kh??ng li??n quan g?? ?????n nh???ng ng?????i Ph??p c??n ??? H?? N???i. C??n Th???y An th?? ???????c m???t c?? quan giao nhi???m v??? n???m ?? ????? c???a m???y ng?????i Ph??p ?????i v???i t??nh h??nh H?? N???i l??c ????. Sau ???? nh???ng l???i b??o c??o c???a b?? tr??? th??nh ch???ng c??? bu???c t???i b?? ho???t ?????ng gi??n ??i???p. H??? c??ng kh??ng c?? t??i li???u b?? m???t ????? chuy???n giao cho c??i g???i l?? c?? quan t??nh b??o Ph??p.
NVGP kh??ng nh???n ti???n c???a n?????c ngo??i

C?? m???t ngu???n gi??p ????? cho t???p ch?? Giai Ph???m l?? NXB Minh ?????c. Ch??? nh??n c???a n?? l?? Tr???n Thi???u B???o con m???t gia ????nh kh?? gi??? ??? Th??i B??nh, tr?????c 1945 c?? nh?? in ??? H?? N???i. ??ng B???o c?? tham gia VHCQ, t???n c?? v??? Th??i B??nh sau th??ng 12- 1946 l?? ???y vi??n BCH HVHCQ Khu III, sau t???n c?? v??o v??ng t??? do Thanh H??a l???i l???p Nh?? xu???t b???n Minh ?????c c?? Nguy???n H???u ??ang gi??p, xu???t b???n s??ch kh??ng chi???n cho ?????n 1954 th?? mang nh?? xu???t b???n n??y v??? H?? N???i.
C??n ngu???n t??i ch??nh cho b??o Nh??n V??n th?? do c??c c?? nh??n t??? vay g??p ti???n ????? l??m b??o. ??ng Tr???n Duy, Th?? k?? t??a so???n b??o cho bi???t:
C?? ng?????i n??i r???ng t??i nh???n ti???n c???a Durand, t??i c?? n??i v???i m???i ng?????i l?? t??i kh??ng bi???t ??ng Durand. H??n n???a n???u n??i ??ng Durand l?? m???t nh?? tr?? th???c th?? ng?????i tr?? th???c Ph??p kh??ng bao gi??? l??m m???t th??m ????u. Tr?? th???c Ph??p l?? tr?? th???c Ph??p nhi???u khi h??? c??n ch???ng c??? m???t th??m. T??i kh??ng tin ??ng Durand, m???t nh?? nghi??n c???u v??? m??? thu???t Vi???t Nam, v??? c??? h???c Vi???t Nam m?? l???i l?? m???t th??m.
C?? ng?????i l???i cho r???ng t??i nh???n ti???n c???a ???y Ban Qu???c T???. T??i b???o t??i kh??ng bi???t ???y Ban Qu???c T??? n???m ??? ????u m?? t??i nh???n ti???n. Trong qu?? tr??nh l??m b??o t??i kh??ng ti???p x??c v???i m???t ng?????i ch??u ??u n??o c???, m???t ng?????i ngo???i qu???c n??o h???t??? Ngh??a l?? Nh??n V??n tay tr???ng kh??ng c?? m???t ?????ng xu n??o c???, t??? khi n?? l??n l?? tay tr???ng, v?? khi ????? th?? c??ng ch???ng c?? m???t ?????ng xu n??o trong qu??? c???.(23)

5-K???t lu???n v??? b???n ch???t NVGP. Ni???m tin c???a t??c gi???
V???y b???n ch???t c???a NVGP l?? g???
NVGP l?? m???t ?????t b???t ph??t tr??o l??u t?? t?????ng d??n ch??? ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam c?? ti???n ????? ngay t??? khi h??nh th??nh nh?? n?????c VNDCCH l?????ng sinh gi???a DCTS v?? to??n tr??? c???ng s???n ti???n d???n ?????n m?? h??nh ki???u ch??? ngh??a Mao, ph??t sinh tr??n nhi???u l??nh v???c ?????i s???ng x?? h???i nh??ng m???nh m??? nh???t l?? l??nh v???c ng??n lu???n m?? l???c l?????ng h??ng h??i nh???t l?? tr?? th???c khoa h???c x?? h???i v?? v??n ngh??? s???, t???p trung xung quanh hai ???n ph???m l?? b??o Nh??n V??n v?? t???p san Giai Ph???m.
C?? l??? c???n ph???i cho m???i ng?????i nghe ?? ki???n c???a ??ng Nguy???n H???u ??ang tr??? l???i Th???y Khu?? ng??y th??ng 9- 1995 khi b?? h???i th???c ch???t c???a phong tr??o Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m l?? g?? :
Th???c ch???t phong tr??o Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m, n???u ?????ng v??? m???t ch??nh tr???, th?? ???? l?? m???t cu???c ?????u tranh c???a m???t s??? ng?????i tr?? th???c, v??n ngh??? s?? v?? m???t s??? ?????ng vi??n v??? ch??nh tr??? n???a, l?? ch???ng, kh??ng ph???i ch???ng ?????ng c???ng s???n ????u, m?? l?? ch???ng c??i ch??? ngh??a Staline v?? ch???ng ch??? ngh??a Mao Tr???ch ????ng. S??? th??m nh???p c???a ch??? ngh??a Staline v?? ch??? ngh??a Mao tr???ch ????ng ????a ?????n nhi???u hi???n t?????ng- n??i l?? chuy??n ch??nh th?? ch??a ?????- ph???i n??i l?? c???c quy???n to??n tr???, n?? gay g???t gh?? l???m???N?? gay g???t gh?? l???m!
T??c gi??? l?? ng?????i ???? ???????c ?????c l???i to??n b??? h??? s?? nghi???p v??? chuy??n ??n NVGP, ti???p x??c v???i h???u h???t th??nh vi??n ch??? ch???t c???a v??? ??n, m???t s??? v??n ngh??? s??? tham gia v??o ?????u tranh v???i NVGP, ti???p x??c s???m nh???t v???i c??c t??i li???u nghi??n c???u, c??c b??i vi???t v??? NVGP t??? n?????c ngo??i, ti???p x??c t????ng ?????i ?????y ????? c??c b??i vi???t v??? c??c nh??n v???t NVGP ??? trong n?????c t??? sau ?????i m???i. T??c gi??? tin r???ng NVGP kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t v??? ??n gi??n ??i??p ph???n ?????ng. C??c v??n ngh??? s??? tr?? th???c NVGP kh??ng c?? m???c ????ch l???t ????? ch??? ?????. H??? ch??? mong mu???n ??CSVN, ch??nh ph??? s???a ch???a nh???ng sai l???m v?? x??y d???ng ngay m???t n???n d??n ch??? ph??p tr???, m???t ?????i s???ng tinh th???n c?? t??? do t?? t?????ng, m???t ?????i s???ng v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t t??? do s??ng t???o.
C??n v??? ??n ???????c ??em x??t x??? c??ng khai c?? th??? n??i ?????y l?? m???t v??? ??n x??? v?? m???c ????ch ch??nh tr??? ch??a ????? ch???ng c??? c???u th??nh t???i danh ho???t ?????ng gi??n ??i???p m?? ?????ng c?? c???a n?? c?? th??? c?? s??? l???i d???ng ????? khu???t l???p tai ti???ng v?? b???o v??? v??? tr?? c???a ch??nh nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ?????o ?????ng ???? m???c sai l???m trong CCR??.
6-Nh???n x??t v??? c??c bi???n ph??p ?????u tranh ch???ng NVGP, nh???ng ng?????i ?????u tranh
C??c bi???p ph??p ??p d???ng ????? ?????u tranh ch???ng NVGP ???????c g???i l?? bi???n ph??p t???ng h???p, l?? ch??? ????? th??ng th?????ng ?????i v???i c??c v??? ??n ch??nh tr??? c?? quy m?? l???n c???a c??c n?????c XHCN.
G???m nh?? sau:
-Huy ?????ng h???u h??t c??c ph????ng ti???n th??ng tin ?????i ch??ng c???a ch??nh quy???n tham gia ph?? ph??n. B??o Nh??n D??n, H?? N???i M???i, Qu??n ?????i Nh??n d??n, T???p ch?? H???c T???p, T???p ch?? V??n Ngh???, ????i ph??t thanh Ti???ng n??i Vi???t Nam, V??n Ngh??? Qu??n ?????i, T???p ch?? ??i???n ???nh??? ?????c tr??ng c???a c??c c?? quan ng??n lu???n c???ng s???n l?? ch??? cho ph??p s??? ph?? b??nh ch??nh th???ng, kh??ng cho ph??p ng?????i b??? ph?? b??nh ???????c n??i l???i.
-Huy ?????ng c??c c?? quan qu???n l?? tr?? th???c, v??n ngh??? s??? t??? ch???c c??c cu???c ki???m th???o, ph?? b??nh ?????u t??? nh???ng ng?????i tham gia NVGP, sau khi ?????u t??? ??????ng s??? ph???i vi???t b???n t??? th?? t???i ????? c??ng khai h??a tr??n c??c ph????ng ti???n tuy??n truy???n.
-S??? d???ng c??c bi???n ph??p nghi???p v??? c???a h??? th???ng c??ng an.
-S??? d???ng c??c bi???n ph??p qu???n l?? h??nh ch??nh nh?? khai tr??? ?????ng, khai tr??? BCH khai tr??? h???i vi??n c??c h???i VHNT, treo b??t kh??ng cho xu???t b???n t??c ph???m c?? th???i h???n ho???c v??nh vi???n, c??ch ch???c, chuy???n c??ng t??c, h??? l????ng, ????a ra kh???i bi??n ch???, b???t bu???c c?? tr?? ??? nh???ng v??ng xa H?? N???i, ????a ??i c???i t???o b???ng lao ?????ng ch??n tay ??? n??ng tr?????ng, nh?? m??y, h???p t??c x?? n??ng nghi???p???
??? Ngo??i ra gia ????nh c??c ?????i t?????ng c??n ph???i ch???u s??? ?????i x??? kh???c nghi??t c???a c??c c?? quan qu???n l?? x?? h???i v?? to??n x?? h???i nh?? vi???c h???c h??nh, thi c???, ph??n c??ng c??ng t??c, l???y v??? l???y ch???ng???
????ng l??? c?? nh???ng h??nh th???c k??? lu???t ch??? c?? th???i h???n v??i ba n??m nh??ng cu???i c??ng k??o d??i cho t???i th???i k??? ?????i m???i. C??c ?????i t?????ng h???t h???n t?? v?? qu???n ch??? ??ang l?? c??ng d??n b??nh th?????ng nh??ng v???n b??? qu???n l?? nh?? ng?????i m???t quy???n c??ng d??n.
N??i chung l?? c??i bi???n ph??p t???ng h???p ???y c?? m???t m??nh l???c v?? h??nh gh?? g???m, n?? l??m t?? li???t m??n m???i s???c l???c v?? tinh th???n c???a m???t b??? ph???n tr?? th???c tinh hoa trong th???i gian d??i 30 n??m.

Vi???c ?????u tranh ???? t???o ra nhi???u bi h??i k???ch cho c??c tr?? th???c v??n ngh??? s???, t???o ra nh???ng v??t th????ng ??au ?????n gi???a th???y v?? tr?? (24), gi???a nh???ng ng?????i b???n th??n c??ng chi???n ?????u trong m???t chi???n h??o ng??y h??m qua (25), gi???a v??? ch???ng, cha con, anh em (26), gi???a con ch??u v???i ch?? b??c ru???t (27). Nh???ng v???t th????ng ???y c??ng k??o d??i su???t ba m????i n??m, c?? bi???t t???n th????ng c??n t???i ng??y nay.
Trong s??? c??c quan h??? l??m cho v???n ????? NVGP ph???c t???p l??n, nghi??m tr???ng h??n c?? th??? c??n c?? s??? th?? gh??t c?? nh??n nh?? quan h??? Tr?????ng Chinh- Nguy???n H???u ??ang, quan h??? T??? H???u- H???u Loan, T??? H???u- Ph??ng Qu??n, Tr???n D???n, Ho??ng C???m, L?? ?????t..v?? c??c tham v???ng c?? nh??n nh?? ???? n??i ??? ph???n tr??n???(28)
M???t ?????ng vi??n c???ng s???n ch??u ??u ???? c?? nhi???u n??m s???ng ??? Vi???t Nam trong c??? kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p v?? ch???ng M??? ???? v?? r???ng v??? NVGP v?? v??? ??n X??t l???i sau n??y l?? hai c??n b??o l???n qu??t qua b???u tr???i tr?? th???c Vi???t Nam.
IV- H???u Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m
Nh??n v??n Giai Ph???m tuy b??? d???p t???t nh??ng n?? c?? s???c s???ng b???t di???t, c??? ??m th???m thao thi??t ch???y d?????i b??? m???t c???a ch??? ????? to??n tr???. Nh???ng g?? tinh t??y c???a n?? ???? k???t tinh l???i ????? r???i ?????n khi c???i tr??i c??c b???o v???t ???y l???i ???????c s???ng ti???p cu???c s???ng c??ng khai gi???a x?? h???i.
1-Th???i k??? 1960- 1986
Trong th???i gian d??i c??c t??c ph???m c???a c??c th??nh vi??n ch??? ch???t NVGP kh??ng ???????c in ???n c??ng khai tr??n m???t s??ch b??o. H??? ???????c tr??? m???t ch??t l????ng ????? l??m c??ng vi???c d???ch thu???t. C??c v??n b???n do h??? th???c hi???n kh??ng ???????c mang t??n th???t. Tranh v??? mang t??n ng?????i kh??c, th?? v?? truy???n n???u ph?? h???p v???i ???????ng l???i tuy??n truy???n c?? th??? xu???t b???n ???????c th?? mang t??n m???t ng?????i c??? th??? kh??c. ???? l?? s??ng t??c thu??, h??? ch??? ???????c m???t ph???n nhu???n b??t. Nguy???n H???u ??ang th?? ???????c tr??? c???p l??nh qua ????n v??? nghi???p v??? c??ng an. Ng?????i n??o ra kh???i bi??n ch??? th?? t??? ki???m s???ng. C?? nh?? nh?? T??? Ph??c ???? r??i v??o ho??n c???nh c???c k??? th?? th???m.
Tuy v???y h??? v???n s??ng t??c , t???t nhi??n l?? c???m h???ng s??ng t??c b??? thu h???p v?? g???n li???n v???i t??m tr???ng c?? nh??n. ????ng ch?? ?? nh???t l?? c??c tr?????ng h???p Ph??ng Cung, Ho??ng C???m, Ph??ng Qu??n.

Ph??ng Cung sinh n??m 1928 t???i V??nh Y??n, tham gia kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p, sau h??a b??nh b??? ??ng b??? quy sai ?????a ch??? b??? ch??t trong t??, ??ng c??ng t??c ??? V??n ph??ng H???i Nh?? v??n. Khi c?? phong tr??o NVGP ??ng cho ????ng truy???n ng???n Con ng???a gi?? c???a Ch??a Tr???nh tr??n b??o Nh??n V??n s??? 4. Th???i gian n??y ??ng b??? ????nh ch??? c??ng t??c, ki???m ??i???m. Th??ng 5- 1961 ??ng b??? b???t , b??? giam ?????n ?????u 1973 m???i ???????c th??? ra. Trong c??c b???n th???o c???a Ph??ng Cung c?? kho???ng ch???c truy???n ng???n mang n???i dung ph?? ph??n gay g???t CCR??, cu???c s???ng hi???n t???i, tha nh??n c???a c??n b???, v??n ngh??? s?????N??m 2003 tuy???n t???p t??c ph???m c???a ??ng ???????c xu???t b???n t???i M??? g???m t???p th?? Xem ????m ???? xu???t b???n trong n?????c, 10 truy???n ng???n v?? t???p th?? Tr??ng Ng???c v???i nh???ng b??i th?? ??ng vi???t trong 12 n??m t?? ?????y. ??ng ???? m???t n??m 1997.
Sau th???i gian ??i c???i t???o lao ?????ng, Ho??ng C???m tr??? v??? B???c Ninh qu?? h????ng ??ng. V?????t qua nh???ng d???n v???t ??au ?????n di ch???n c???a v??? NVGP ??ng s???ng ?????m m??nh v??o v??n h??a Kinh B???c c??i m???ch ngu???n ???? cho ??ng l??m n??n B??n kia s??ng ??u???ng. T???p th?? li??n h??an V??? Kinh B???c c?? th??? n??i l?? m???t l??u ????i th?? ca tr??ng l??? c?? kh??ng gian v??n h??a c??? k??nh h??a tr???n v???i t??m linh hi???n ?????i, nh???ng ???n ???c v??? th??n ph???n con ng?????i c??ng v???i kh??t v???ng s???ng c???a n??.V??? Kinh B???c l?? ?????nh cao trong s??? nghi???p th?? ca c???a Ho??ng C???m, ti???c r???ng 35 n??m sau n?? m???i ???????c ra m???t b???n ?????c, sau khi Ho??ng C???m ph???i ng???i t?? 1 n??m r?????i c??ng ng?????i b???n th?? Ho??ng H??ng ng???i t?? 39 th??ng v?? h??? l???y t???p th??. Trong th???i gian 35 n??m ???y m???t v??i b??i c???a V??? Kinh B???c, ?????c bi???t l?? L?? di??u b??ng ???? ???????c gi???i y??u th??, thanh ni??n H?? N???i chuy???n tay nhau c??ng b???n nh???c ph??? l???i b??i th??, t??i bi???t ch??nh x??c c?? b??i c???a nh???c s?? Ng???c Thanh, nh???c s?? L?? Y??n, sau n??y c?? b??i c???a nh???c s?? Ph???m Duy. Chuy???n t??nh c???a L?? di??u b??ng c??ng nh?? Qu??? v?????n ???i, C??y tam c??cC??? B???ng thi ch??? l?? m???t ph????ng ti???n th??? hi???n, ?????t c??c b??i th?? ???y trong b???i c???nh 1958- 1960 m???i hi???u ???????c ch??? ngh??a nh??n v??n, ??m ???nh th??n ph???n ng?????i ngh??? s??, n???i th???t v???ng to l???n gi???a l?? t?????ng v?? cu???c ?????i c???a m???t th??? h??? nh?? v??n?????ng v???a m???i m???t ng??y 6- 5- 2010.
H??nh tr??nh t?? t?????ng c???a Ph??ng Qu??n th???c ra ????n gi???n. Su???t ?????i ??ng ca ng???i l?? t?????ng, k??u g???i ng?????i ta chi???n ?????u cho ?????c l???p d??n t???c, cho h???nh ph??c c???a nh??n d??n. Nh??ng t??nh b???c tr???c, l??ng nhi???t th??nh khi ????ng b??i tr??n NVGP ???? l??m ??ng ch???u nhi???u oan ???c. V???a c??u c?? tr???m ??? h??? T??y ????? s???ng ??ng ph???i vi???t h??ng tr??m truy??n thi???u nhi, truy???n tranh cho c??c nh?? xu???t b???n v???i b??t danh m???i ho???c m?????n t??n ng?????i kh??c.
Trong nhi???u n??m ??ng ???? ho??n th??nh b??? ti???u thuy???t 3 t???p g???n 1000 trang v??? qu??ng ?????i ni??n thi???u chi???n ?????u trong ????n v??? ????? ?????i do ????m Quang Trung ch??? huy v???i t??n Tu???i th?? d??? d???i xu???t b???n l???n ?????u ??? Hu??? v???i b??t danh ????o Ph????ng. Tu???i th?? d??? d???i ???????c Gi???i th?????ng c???a H???i Nh?? v??n n??m 1987. ??ng ???? m???t n??m 1995.
V??n Cao g???n nh?? kh??ng c??ng b??? th?? c???a m??nh tr??n b??o, ch??? chuy??n l??m b??a s??ch v?? v??? minh h???a cho c??c b??o. B???t ?????u ?????i m???i ??ng c??ng b??? b??i th?? d??i N??m bu???i s??ng kh??ng c?? trong s??? th???t tr??n t???p ch?? S??ng H????ng t???o ra s??? ng???c nhi??n c???a d?? lu???n. ??ng ???? m???t n??m 1995.
?????ng ????nh H??ng c??ng ??m th???m th??? nghi???m m???t th??? th?? hi???n ?????i tr??n ch???t li???u ch??nh cu???c s???ng m??n m???i, t?? t??ng c???a ??ng, sau n??y in th??nh t???p ?? Mai v?? B???n L???.
T??i l???i ??i???
Ji???a c??i nong h??nh d??ng l??ng t??i, m???t b???ng ??en tr?????c m???t, m???t v??ng ph???n d?????i ch??n, z??nh z??nh??? nh???ng con 8 l???n z???c nh???n th??n nam ch??m g??i tronghatj th??c z???ng c???a kh??ng bi???t
??? T??i h??? bi???t
/ k??? c??? qu??? m??t n???t
T??i ???? t??m ??? sau c??i g????ng/ c??ng kh??ng c?? j?? h???t
T??i ???? ti???p ??au th????ng nh???ng nh??? nh??? 
th?????ng th?????ng
???? h??p ra ??i t???ng b??t nh???ng nh???t nh???t 
m???m m???m

,v?? r???t ngon
??ng ???? m???t n??m 1990 t???i th??nh ph??? HCM.
Tr??n Duy t??? b??? v??n ch????ng tuy kh??ng ph???i ngh??? ch??nh nh??ng ??ng c??ng ???????c ????nh gi?? cao v???i truy???n ng???n Ti???ng s??o ti???n ki???p tr??n Giai ph???m M??a Thu t???p I. ??ng chuy??n t??m v???i tranh l???a m?? ????? t??i l?? c??c di t??ch v??n h??a l???ch s???, c??c danh th???ng v?? c?? ???????c m???t b??? s??u t???p c?? gi?? tr???. ??ng ???????c kh??i ph???c H???i vi??n H???i ngh??? s?? t???o h??nh n??m 1988, m??? Tri???n l??m tranh n??m 1991. G???n ????y ??ng l???i t??i xu???t giang h??? v???i v??i truy???n ng???n v?? ??o???t ngay gi???i th?????ng truy???n hay trong n??m c???a b??o V??n Ngh???.
Nguy???n H???u ??ang ra t?? t??? n??m 1973 nh??ng b??? qu???n ch??? k??o d??i ??? qu?? ??ng V?? Th?? Th??i B??nh. ??ng nghi??n c???u v??? tri???t h???c Trung Qu???c, ?????c bi???t l?? L??o Trang, v??? L???ch s??? ?????ng c???ng s???n Li??n X??. ??ng c?? vi???t, ????ng m???t s??? b??i b??o v??? H???i truy???n b?? qu???c ng???, v??? V??n h??a C???u qu???c, v??? ??i???n ???nh tr?????c 1945 v?? m???t v??i truy???n ng???n. ??ng ???? m???t n??m 2007.
Th???y An c??ng ra t?? t??? 1973, an tr?? t???i qu?? l??ng H??a X?? H?? T??y, sau chuy???n v??o th??nh ph??? H??? ch?? Minh s???ng v???i con ch??u. C?? ngu???n n??i r???ng trong th???i gian ??? t?? b?? c?? l??m ???????c m???t s??? b??i th?? nh??ng ch??a th???y c??ng b???. Con trai c???a b?? l?? B??i Th???y B??ng ??? Ca Na ??a ???? c??ng b??? cu???n h???i k?? v??? b??. B?? ???? m???t n??m 1989 t???i th??nh ph??? H??? Ch?? Minh. N??i th??m v??? Th???y An: B?? ???? c?? m???t trong Nh?? v??n hi???n ?????i c???a V?? Ng???c Phan x???ng ????ng v???i t?? c??ch l?? m???t nh?? v??n n??? vi???t ti???u thuy???t. B?? c??n l?? m???t nh?? b??o c?? n??ng l???c, d??ng c???m ?????u tranh cho n??? quy???n, t???ng l?? Ch??? nhi???m b??o ????n b?? m???i, Quy???n T???ng Gi??m ?????c Vi???t t???n x??, l?? h???i vi??n HNVVN kh??a I 1957.
Tr???n D???n l?? ng?????i t??? ra b???n b??? v?? d???o dai ki??n tr?? v???i ???????ng l???i th?? c??ch t??n si??u th???c theo m???t k??? ho???ch nghi??m t??c. ??ng c?? nhi???u t???p th?? sau n??y ???? in trong Tr???n D???n Th?? n??m 2008, ti???u thuy???t th?? C???ng T???nh xu???t b???n 1994 ???????c Gi???i th?????ng HNVVN n??m 1995, ti???u thuy???t Nh???ng ng?? t??, nh???ng c???t ????n, M???t ng??y C???m Ph????????ng ???? m???t n??m 1997.
L?? ?????t sau th???i gian d???ch s??ch v?? ?????c s??ch ph????ng T??y ???? t???p trung v??o c??ch t??n h??nh th???c th?? m?? sau ?????i m???i ??ng ???? in th??nh t???p B??ng ch??? g??y nhi???u tranh c??i. ?????ng th???i ??ng c??n s??ng t??c truy???n ng???n ph???n l???n m?????n ????? t??i l???ch s??? ho???c ph????ng T??y. ??ng ???? m???t n??m 2008.
C??c nh?? v??n, h???a s??, ngh??? s?? kh??c b??? x??? l?? nh??? h??n v???n ti???p t???c s??ng t??c v?? c??ng b??? t??c ph???m nh?? b??? t??? Nguy???n T?? Nghi??m ??? D????ng B??ch Li??n- Nguy???n S??ng ??? B??i Xu??n Ph??i, Nguy???n B??nh, Tr???n L?? V??n, Huy Ph????ng, Th??i V?? ( B??i Quang ??o??i), Phan V??, Quang D??ng, Ho??ng T??? Nguy??n, Y???n Lan, Nguy???n Th??nh Long, H???i B???ng, Nguy???n V??n T??, Ph???m K??? Nam, V??n T??m, Ho??ng Y???n ???
C?? m???t s??? ng?????i sau NVGP kh??ng ho???c h???u nh?? kh??ng s??ng t??c ho???c kh??ng c??ng b??? t??c ph???m cho ?????n th???i k??? ?????i m???i nh?? Nhuy???n Kh???c D???c, Chu Ng???c, S?? Ng???c, L?? ?????i Thanh, H???u Loan, Thanh Ch??u, Ho??ng T??ch Linh, Tr???n C??ng, Tr???n Th???nh, Ho??ng Hu???, Th??c H??, Tr????ng T???u???
Trong th???i gian n??y c?? m???t s??? ki???n ????ng ch?? ?? l?? ??? H?? N???i xu???t hi???n m???t nh??m v??n ngh??? s?? tr??? l???y t??n l?? nh??m V??n ngh??? ch??n ?????t v???i tuy??n ng??n n??u g????ng c??c ????n anh NVGP, ????i t??? do s??ng t??c v?? th??? nghi???m ngh??? thu???t. Nh??m n??y ch??? sinh ho???t b?? m???t, t??y h???ng ch??a c?? t??? ch???c nh??ng ?????n n??m 1983 m???t th??nh vi??n l?? Di???u T?? Minh l??m vi???c ??? ????i Ph??t thanh TNVN v?????t bi??n v?? c??ng b??? tr?????c m???t t??a ??n nh??n quy???n ??? Paris b???n Tuy??n ng??n c???a nh??m V??n Ngh??? Ch??n ?????t, t??i li???u M???t n???n th?? ly khai ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i ??? H?? N???i, trong ???? c?? nhi???u ng?????i sau n??y ???? tr??? th??nh h???i vi??n HNVHN, HNVVN nh?? L?? Huy Quang, Chu Ho???ch, Phan ??an, L????ng V??nh???(29)
2-Th???i k??? 1987 ?????n nay
Sau khi c?? Ngh??? quy??t 05 c???a B??? Ch??nh tr??? ??CSVN V??? ?????i m???i c??ng t??c qu???n l?? v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t trong t??nh h??nh hi???n nay v???n ????? NVGP ???? ???????c ?????t ra ??? g??c ????? xem x??t ph???c h???i h???i t???ch cho s??? ng?????i b??? khai tr??? c?? th???i h???n nh??ng k??o d??i v?? th???i h???n, ?????ng th???i gi???i quy???t ch??? ????? ch??nh s??ch nh?? c???p nh??, n??ng l????ng cho m???t s??? ng?????i. Nguy???n H???u ??ang ???????c t??? do ??i l???i,???????c b??? tr?? chuy???n l??n H?? N???i ???????c c???p nh?? ???. T???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i tham gia NVGP ???????c c??ng b??? t??c ph???m n???u nh?? t??c ph???m c???a h??? kh??ng vi ph???m c??c ??i???u c???m theo quy ?????nh. H??? tham gia v??o c??c sinh ho???t v??n h???c ngh??? thu???t b??nh th?????ng. V?? kh??ng th???y trong ho???t ?????ng c???a h??? c?? v???n ????? g?? ph???c t???p nh?? th???i k??? NVGP tr?????c ????y.
C??c ??ng V??n Cao, Tr???n D???n, Ho??ng C???m, L?? ?????t, Ph??ng Qu??n, H???u Loan, L?? ?????i Thanh, Ph??ng Cung, ?????ng ????nh H??ng, Tr???n ?????c Th???o Tr???n Duy???l???n l?????t cho in t??c ph???m ta??? c??c nh?? xu???t b???n trong n?????c. C?? quy m?? v?? b??? th??? l?? tuy???n t???p c???a c??c ??ng Tr???n D???n, Ho??ng C???m, L?? ?????t, Ph??ng Qu??n, Tr????ng T???u, Phan Kh??i???
Gi???i th?????ng H??? Ch?? Minh v??? VHNT ???? ???????c trao cho c??c ??ng V??n Cao, Nguy???n V??n T??, Nguy???n S??ng, Nguy???n T?? Nghi??m, B??i Xu??n Ph??i, D????ng B??ch Li??n, Nguy???n S?? Ng???c, Nguy???n V??n T???, ????o Duy Anh, Tr???n ?????c Th???o, Nguy???n B??nh, L???ng Ch????ng, ?????ng V??n Ng??????
Gi???i th?????ng Nh?? n?????c v??? VHNT ???? ???????c trao cho c??c ??ng Tr???n D???n, Ho??ng C???m, L?? ?????t, Ph??ng Qu??n, Y???n Lan, Ph???m K??? Nam, Nguy???n Th??nh Long ??? v?? nhi???u ??ng kh??c.
D?? lu???n ????i h???i ??CSVN, Nh?? n?????c kh??ng n??n m???p m??? m?? ph???i b??y t??? c??ng khai vi???c ????nh gi?? l???i v??? NVGP c??ng nh???ng sai l???m trong x??? l?? v??? ??n n??y.
Vi???c chi??u tuy???t cho c??c nh??n v???t c??n l???i v???n ???????c ti???p t???c nh?? ?????i v???i Phan Kh??i,Tr????ng T???u, Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng, H???u Loan, Th???y An, T??? Ph??c, Tr???n Thi???u B???o, Phan T???i???
3-Ngu???n t?? li???u v?? c??c k???t qu??? nghi??n c???u v??? NVGP
???? sinh ra m???t t???p qu??n k??? l??? trong gi???i VHNT v?? NCKHXH l?? ng?????i ta n?? tr??nh NVGP su???t th???i gian d??i ?????n 55 n??m. Cho ?????n nay t??i ch??a th???y trong n?????c c?? b???t c??? b??i vi???t c?? h??? th???ng ho???c c??ng tr??nh nghi??n c???u n??o v??? NVGP ???? ???????c c??ng b???. V?? th??? t??i li???u v??? c??c ???n ph???m NVGP b??? r??i r???ng g???n h???t. T??i li???u c???a c??c c?? nh??n NVGP th?? ???? b??? t???ch thu ho???c ??em giao n???p, c??c gia ????nh kh??ng d??m t??ng tr???, ch??? c??c th?? vi???n qu???c gia m???i ???????c b???o qu???n v?? c??ng kh??ng ph???c v??? b???n ?????c. Ch??? c??n trong h??? s?? c??ng an m???t s??? ???n ph???m v?? m???t s??? b???n th???o th???i k??? NVGP v?? sau NVGP. V?? d??? khi t??c gi??? ??ang ph??? tr??ch c??ng t??c v??? chuy??n ????? NVGP ???? trao l???i cho ??ng L?? ?????t b???n th???o b??i C???a h??ng L?? ?????t, trao l???i cho ??ng Nguy???n H???u ??ang b???c ???nh c?? ??ng ?????ng tr??n l??? ????i ?????c L???p c??ng H??? Ch??? t???ch ng??y 2- 9- 1945, trao l???i cho Tr???n D???n b???n th???o ti???u thuy???t th?? C???ng T???nh, b???n th???o ti???u thuy???t Nh???ng ng?? t??, nh???ng c???t ????n???
M???i ????y ??ng L???i Nguy??n ??n ??i t??m d???u v???t c???a t??? S??ng T???o c??ng cho bi???t r???ng t???i Th?? vi???n Qu???c gia c??ng kh??ng t??m th???y 2 s??? b??o hi???m hoi n??y. M?? n???i dung c???a n?? h???u nh?? kh??ng ???????c ????? c???p ?????n trong c??c b??i nghi??n c???u ??? n?????c ngo??i.
V???y c?? th??? m???t s??? ???n ph???m NVGP c??n n???m r???i r??c trong m???t s??? c??c nh??n, ng?????i ch??i s??ch, b??n s??ch c?? t??? th???i NVGP.
T???i mi???n B???c cu???n B???n Nh??n V??n Giai ph???m tr?????c t??a ??n d?? lu???n l?? t??i li???u duy nh???t t???p h???p c??c b??i t???ng k???t ph?? ph??n ch??nh th???ng v??? NVGP. M???t s??? ng?????i nghi??n c???u do kh??ng c?? t?? li???u th?????ng d???a vi???t theo cu???n n??y khi ph???i n??i v??? giai ??o???n 1954- 1960. Ti???c r???ng h???u h???t c??c b??i trong t???p s??ch ?????u vi???t theo l???i t??? kh??? CCR??, r???t thi???u tinh th???n kh??ch quan khoa h???c.

T???i mi???n Nam, c??ng tr??nh s???m nh???t v??? NVGP l?? cu???n Tr??m hoa ??ua n??? tr??n ?????t B???c c???a Ho??ng V??n Ch??, m???t ng?????i ch??u r??? c???a Phan Kh??i. Cu???n n??y c?? m???t b??i t???ng quan v?? tuy???n t???p c??c b??i v??n c?? b???n c???a NVGP nh??ng tr??? ra 4 ng?????i quan tr???ng l?? Th???y An, Nguy???n H???u ??ang, Tr????ng T???u, L?? ?????t. B??n c???nh cu???n n??y m???t v??i tuy???n thi ca chung c?? m???t s??? b??i c???a c??c nh?? th?? NVGP. C??c s??ch n??y tr?????c 1975 l??u h??nh ??? mi???n Nam, c??n sau 1975 th?? d?????c coi l?? s??ch c???m trong c??? n?????c.
Nh?? v???y trong n?????c ch??a c?? m???t c?? quan nghi??n c???u n??o, m???t nh?? nghi??n c???u n??o th???c s??? b???t tay nghi??n c???u v??? NVGP. H???u nh?? to??n b??? c??c th??? h??? sau kh??ng bi???t m???t m??i c??c ???n ph???m NVGP l?? th??? n??o, ng?????i ta ch??? l???p l???i c??c lu???n ??i???u ch??nh th???ng m???i khi n??i v??? n??.

G???n ????y Ng??nh ??i???n ???nh ???? bi??n so???n xong v?? ph??t h??nh cu???n L???ch s??? ??i???n ???nh Vi???t Nam t????ng ?????i c??ng phu d??y h??n 1000 trang, nh??ng coi nh?? kh??ng c?? hi???n t?????ng NVGP trong l??ng ??i???n ???nh th???i k??? 1955- 1958.
C??ng may l?? trong s??? c??c h??ng binh ch??u ??u khi h???i h????ng c?? ng?????i ???? mang ???????c m???t s??? ???n ph???m NVGP v??? Paris. Trong ??i???u ki???n ????, ??? ????i RFI, BBC m???t v??i nh?? nghi??n c???u v??n h???c, s??? h???c ???? k??t h???p c??c t??i li???u n??y v???i c??c cu???c ph???ng v???n b???ng ??i???n tho???i ho???c tr???c ti???p t???i Paris, m???i b???t ?????u c??ng b??? nh???ng ph??c th???o g????ng m???t NVGP ho???c ????nh g??a v??? giai ??o???n n??y.
Cho ?????n nay ???? c?? c??c c??ng tr??nh v?? c??c t??c ph???m c???a nh???ng ng?????i tham gia NVGP xu???t b???n ??? n?????c ngo??i nh?? sau:
??? Cent fleurs ??closes dans la nuit du Vietnam ( Tr??m hoa ??ua n??? trong ????m Vi???t Nam ) c???a Georges Boudarel xu???t b???n n??m 1991. Tr????? c ???? n??m 1987 ?????u 1988 ??ng ???? vi???t b??i t???a ????? Disidences intellectueles au Vietnam L ??faire Nh??n V??n- Giai Ph???m ( Tr?? th???c ph???n kh??ng t???i Vi???t Nam, v??? Nh??n V??n ??? Giai Ph???m) in tr??n hai s??? t???p san ??? Paris Sudestasie v?? Politique Aujourdhui en Europe. Boudarel l?? h??ng binh ???? tham gia c??ng t??c cho kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p, sau h??a b??nh ??ng l??m bi??n d???ch bu???i ph??t thanh ti???ng Ph??p ??? ????i Ti???ng n??i Vi???t Nam ?????n n??m 1966 th?? h???i h????ng. ??ng l?? b???n c???a nhi???u nh??n v???t NVGP trong qu??n ?????i.
??? Th???y Khu?? ??? Paris cu???i n??m 2004 c?? b??i Phong tr??o Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m v?? c??ng b??? lo???t b??i ph???ng v???n Nguy???n H???u ??ang, L?? ?????t, Ho??ng C???m, Tr???n Duy. T??? gi???a n??m 2009 b?? c??ng b??? t???ng ph???n tr??n website ????i RFI nh?? m???t c??ng tr??nh nghi??n c???u t????ng ?????i ho??n ch???nh v???i t???a ????? T??m hi???u Phong tr??o Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m. ?????c bi???t sau ph???n nghi??n c???u chung b?? ???? d???ng l???i ch??n dung tinh th???n NVGP t???ng c?? nh??n tr?? th???c v??n ngh??? s??? ti??u bi???u c???a phong tr??o.
??? C??ng tr??nh m???i nh???t xu???t b???n n??m 2009 t???i Berlin Funfzig Jahre danach: Hundert Blumen in Vietnam 1954- 1960( N??m m????i n??m sau:Tr??m hoa ??ua n??? ??? Vi???t Nam 1954- 1960) c???a nh?? nghi??n c???u Heinz Schutte gi???ng d???y t???i Khoa ????ng Nam ?? ?????i h???c Hamburger. ?????c ????o c???a c??ng tr??nh n??y l?? t??c gi??? ???? khai th??c ???????c h??? s?? c???a S??? qu??n ????ng ?????c t???i H?? N???i ph???n ??nh s??? ki???n NVGP, ?????ng th???i t??c gi??? ???? v??o Vi???t Nam nhi???u l???n v?? ki???m ch???ng t?? li???u c??ng nh?? ????nh gi?? c???a m??nh qua r???t nhi???u nh??n v???t ch??nh kh??ch, v??n ngh??? s?? th???i k??? ????.
??? N??m 1992 t???i Paris nh?? xu???t b???n Qu?? m??? c???a V?? V??n ??i in cu???n h???i k?? b???ng ti???ng Ph??p c???a Lu???t s?? Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng Un Excommunie ( K??? b??? khai tr???) v???i ti???u t???a Hanoi 1954- 1991: Proces d ??n intellectuel ( H?? N???i 1954- 1991: K???t ??n m???t nh?? tr?? th???c).
??? N??m 2001 Nh?? xu???t b???n V??n Ngh??? California Hoa K??? xu???t b???n cu???n nh???t k?? c???a Tr???n D???n t??n l?? Tr???n D???n ghi tr??ch nh???ng ghi ch??p c???a Tr???n D???n trong hai th???i k??? CCR?? v?? NVGP 1954- 1960. ?????c bi???t ????y l?? m???t cu???n s??ch th???t nh???t v??? NVGP, v??? cu???c s???ng th???i k??? n??y c???a d??n t???c m?? ng?????i ta kh??ng th??? t??m th???y c??c h??nh ???nh r???m m??u ???y trong c??c t??c ph???m tuy??n truy???n c??ng khai ??? mi???n B???c.
??? Ngo??i ra c??n c?? m???t s??? cu???n kh??c ????? c???p ?????n NVGP nh?? : H???i k?? ????m gi???a ban ng??y c???a V?? Th?? Hi??n do NXB V??n ngh??? ??? Hoa K???, c???a Nguy???n Minh C???n, Tr???n Trung Ph???ng, B??i T??n, Ho??ng Giang, Kim.N.B. Ninh, Website c???a Tr???n H???u D??ng, Talawas, m???t s??? b??i vi???t trong n?????c, ngo??i n?????c v??? c??c nh??n v???t ch??? ch???t NVGP v?? b??i vi???t c???a ch??nh h??? v??? h???.
??? ????? hi???u th???u ????o b???i c???nh x?? h???i c???a phong tr??o NVGP c??n c?? m???t s??? t??i li???u l???ch s??? n?????c ngo??i nghi??n c???u v??? Vi???t Nam giai ??o???n 1945- 1954 ?????c bi???t l?? quan h??? gi???a ch??? ngh??a Mao v?? c??ch m???ng Vi???t Nam c???a V?? Ng??? Chi??u (30), V?? T?????ng (31), Tr??nh ??nh H???ng (32), Davis Mar (33), Hu???nh Kim Kh??nh , Ninh Kim N. B (34),???
Tuy nhi??n do ??i???u ki???n thi???u t?? li???u v?? kh??? n??ng ki???m ch???ng, k??? c??? Schutte, trong c??c t??c ph???m n??i tr??n c?? m???t s??? chi ti???t kh??ng ch??nh x??c. C??ng do ?????ng c?? ????nh gi?? ch??a th???t s??? kh??ch quan c??c t??c gi??? th?????ng nh??n to??n b??? phong tr??o Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m qua h??? quy chi???u ?????i kh??ng v???i ??CSVN, v???i ch??nh quy???n Vi???t Nam. ??i???u n??y c?? th??? l??m sai l???ch n???i dung c??c v??n b???n v?? g??y m???t thi???n c???m ?????i v???i m???t th??? h??? ?????c gi??? trong n?????c.
??? C??ng n??n n??i th??m ??? trong n?????c ???? c?? ng?????i ??ang t???p h???p h??? s?? v??? NVGP. ???? l?? nh?? nghi??n c???u L???i Nguy??n ??n. ??ng ???? c??ng b??? m???t ph???n s??u t???p n??y tr??n Talawas v?? m???t v??i b??i vi???t v??? c??c t??? b??o Tr??m hoa, S??ng T???o, v??? H???i Nh?? v??n Vi???t Nam trong th???i k?? n??y (35).
??? ??? c??c ???n ph???m kh??c m???i xu???t b???n g???n ????y, ?????c bi???t l?? c??c tuy???n t???p c???a c??c nh?? v??n c?? vai tr?? nh???t ?????nh trong th???i k?? NVGP ng?????i ta ???? c???t b??? nh???ng b??i vi???t v??? NVGP, c??n trong tuy???n t???p c???a c??c nh?? v??n NVGP v???n c??n c?? nh???ng tr?????ng h???p lo???i b??? t??c ph???m m???c d?? n?? kh??ng sai tr??i theo quan ??i???m hi???n nay nh?? c???a Tr????ng T???u, Phan Kh??i, Tr???n Duy. ??? m???t s??? cu???n h???i k?? khi ?????n giai ??o???n n??y ng?????i ta ch??? l?????t qua m???t v??i d??ng, k??? c??? h???i k?? c???a ????o Duy Anh, V?? ????nh H??e, Gia ????nh Khan Kh??i, V?? Ng???c Phan, T??? H???u, . Ngh??a l?? vi???c n??i l???i m???t c??ch r??nh m???ch v??? NVGP v???n c??n l?? m???t vi???c c???m k??? ho???c ??t ra l?? kh?? n??i!
4-M??n n??? v???i l???ch s???
C??ng cu???c ?????i m???i c???a ?????t n?????c ???? ??em l???i nh???ng thay ?????i to l???n v??? tinh th???n cho nh??n d??n v?? v??n ngh??? s??. Ngh??? quy???t 05 c???a B??? ch??nh tr??? kh??a VI v???i c??c ti??u ch?? d??n ch??? kh??ng nh???ng ???? cho c??c nh?? nghi??n c???u v?? v??n ngh??? s?? t?? t?????ng t??? do trong s??ng t??c m?? c??n ?????nh h??nh l???i nh???ng gi?? tr??? tinh th???n c???a d??n t???c ???? b??? b??? qua. C??c di s???n v??n h??a khoa h???c ????ng g??p v??o h??nh tr??nh hi???n ?????i h??a ng??n ng???, t?? duy d??n t???c c???a T??? L???c V??n ??o??n, c???a Tr????ng V??nh K??, Ph???m Qu???nh, Nguy???n V??n V??nh, H??? Bi???u Ch??nh, Lan Khai ??? ???? ???????c xem x??t ????nh gi?? l???i.
????ng l?? ra nh???ng v??? ??n ch??nh tr??? trong qu?? kh??? c???a n?????c ta sau m???t th???i gian d??i ???? ph???i ???????c c??ng khai v??? t?? li???u, minh b???ch v??? k???t lu???n. N???u ??CSVN v?? ch??nh quy???n sai l???m th?? ph???i s???a ch???a c??c sai l???m ???? nh?? Li??n X??, Nga, c??c n?????c ????ng ??u v?? Trung Qu???c ???? l??m. Nh??ng t???t c??? v???n m?? m???. Nh???ng ng?????i tham gia ?????u tranh v?? c??c ?????i t?????ng h???u h???t ???? ch???t m?? nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ?????o hi???n nay v???n im l???ng, c??c nh?? nghi??n c???u kh??ng d??m khai th??c t??i li???u ho???c ph???ng v???n c??c nh??n ch???ng. H???u h???t c??c b??i vi???t c?? b???n c???a NVGP tr?????c ????y b??? quy k???t l?? c?? t?? t?????ng ph???n ?????ng ?????u ???? ???????c in l???i trong c??c tuy???n t???p v??n h???c, tuy???n t???p c?? nh??n c???a h???, tr??n m???t s??? trang m???ng v?? b??o vi???t. H??? ???????c ca ng???i , ???????c gi???i th?????ng HCM, GTNN nh??ng c??ng khai th?? kh??ng ai d??m n??i NVGP l?? v??? ??n g???
Trong l???n tr??? l???i ph???ng v???n RFI l??o ho??? s??? Tr???n Duy n??i:
C??i g?? trong cu???c ?????i c??ng d??? dang, con ng?????i m??nh c??ng d??? dang, n??m nay 90 tu???i r???i, kh??ng bi???t m??nh ??i ????ng hay m??nh ??i sai, m??nh ??i ????ng th?? s???ng ?????n 90 tu???i r???i, m?? m??nh ??i sai th?? ???? ch???t t??? 50 tu???i r???i. B??y gi??? s???ng ?????n 90 tu???i th?? c??ng kh??ng bi???t con ???????ng ???? ??i l?? con ???????ng n??o. Ai gh??t m??nh? Ai y??u m??nh? M??nh n??n y??u ai, n??n gh??t ai? Th???c t??? ra s???ng ?????n ch???ng n??y tu???i t??i kh??ng ngh?? l?? t??i gh??t ai c???, nh??ng y??u ai th?? c??ng r???t kh??.(36)
??? b??i T?????ng ni???m Phan Kh??i ??ng vi???t:
??ng Phan Kh??i kh??ng c??n n???a, n???i oan khu???t c???a ?????i ??ng v???n ch??a c?? l???i gi???i!
N???i oan c???a n??ng ?????u Nga trong Kinh d???ch n???i ti???ng c???a Trung Qu???c ???? ???????c minh oan. N???i oan c???a gia ????nh Nguy???n Tr??i ??? Th??? L??? ???? ???????c minh gi???i. Nguy???n Du ch??a ?????n ba tr??m n??m sau ???? ???????c ?????ng b??o m??nh th???u hi???u. Ri??ng n???i oan c???a Phan Kh??i , c??i m?? ??ng qu?? nh???t, g??n gi??? nh???t l?? ph???m gi?? th?? ???? b??? b??i nh??? , b??? ch?? ?????p. Ai l?? ng?????i minh gi???i?
Ti???ng th??? d??i v?? ti???ng ch??p mi???ng c???a ??ng trong nh???ng ng??y cu???i c??ng nh?? c??n v???ng l???i. Sinh th???i m???i l???n ??ng n??i ?????n n???i oan khu???t n??o ???? c???a ng?????i ?????i, ??ng v???n th?????ng nh???c ?????n ti???ng c??c k??u v???i tr???i! Gi?? m??a l?? do chuy???n h??a ????ng- T??y c???a th???i ti???t, nh??ng v???n c?? ng?????i t???t b???ng tin r???ng: Tr???i m??a l?? nh??? c?? c??c k??u. (37)

C??n Ph??ng Qu??n sau ?????i m???i c?? vi???t :
T??i ch???t gi???a H???ng H?? s??ng ?????
Ba m????i n??m sau
T??i h???i sinh gi???a xanh th???m H??n giang. (38)

Trong t?? li???u c???a t??c gi??? c?? l?? th?? Tr???n D???n vi???t g???i m???t ng?????i l??nh ?????o ngay sau chi???n th???ng 1975. ???? l?? m???t c??i gi???ng r???t t???i nghi???p ki???u Tr???n D???n, kh??ng th??? ngh?? l?? t??m t?? c???a m???t k??? ph???n tr???c.
R???i ????m ch??y t???t. ?????t n?????c d???p t???t c??i ????m ch??y ngo???i x??m ???y. M??? c??t???T??i hy v???ng???v???n ????? cu???c ?????i t??i l???i ?????t ra, ??t nh???t c??ng v???i t??i, v??? con, gia ????nh, ??? ng?????ng c???a c???a ?????t n?????c chi???n th???ng??? T??i v???n hy v???ng. T??i c??n ??t nhi???u n??m th??ng. C??n m???t ph???n ?????i. M???t ph???n ?????i, m???t ng??y c??ng ????ng s???ng. D?? m???t bu???i chi???u. Nh???t l?? trong khi ng??y ???y, bu???i chi???u ???y, ph???n ?????i ???y d?? b?? b???ng nh??ng n???m ??? ng?????ng c???a Kh???i ho??n m??n??? T??i hy v???ng. T??i c??n m???t ph???n ?????i. ????? s???ng n??. ????? l??m vi???c. Con c??i. S??? g??y d???ng. S??? chu???c l???i???T??i xin s??? gi??p ?????. S??? r???ng l?????ng. ??? c??c anh. ??? t??? ch???c. (39)
????ng ti???c l?? l???i k??u c???u c???a Tr???n D???n, c??ng l?? nguy???n v???ng chung c???a c??c n???n nh??n NVGP ???? r??i v??o im l???ng. H??? ph???i ?????i th??m 12 n??m n???a m???i c?? ng???n gi?? ?????i m???i.
Tr???n D???n t??? tr???n t???i H?? N???i ng??y 17- 1- 1997. M?????i n??m sau 2007 ??ng ???????c truy t???ng Gi???i th?????ng Nh?? n?????c v??? V??n h???c Ngh??? thu???t.
D?? sao Tr???n D???n, c??ng nh?? Ho??ng C???m, L?? ?????t, Ph??ng Qu??n c??n ???????c may m???n h??n nhi???u ng?????i kh??c.
C???n c?? c??u tr??? l???i cho t???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i ???? l??m B??ng h???ng n??? s???m (40) cho m??a xu??n c???a ?????t n?????c.
V- Ph???n k???t
Trong m???t x?? h???i ???? k??o d??i h??n n???a th??? k??? v??? s??? m?? mu???i d??n tr??, v??? s??? ?????c t??i v??? ch??nh tr???, s??? l???a d???i, s??? ?????u ?????c ????? c?? s??? ?????ng thu???n v??? v??? NVGP v?? c??c nh??n v???t c???a n?? th???t kh?? nh?? ????y b??? m?? kim???Nh??ng trong ????m t???i kh??ng ph???i kh??ng c?? nh???ng ng?????i ???? nh??n th???y ??nh s??ng c???a ch??n l??. S??? c?? nhi???u ng?????i ph???n ?????i t??i. Nh??ng ch???ng l??? c??? im l???ng m??i. M???i ng?????i ch??? l?? m???t g??c c???a th??? gi???i, v?? ng?????i ta b??? th??i mi??n n???a, ng?????i ta c??? tin. T??i ngh?? ??au kh??? nh???t c???a con ng?????i l?? ????nh m???t l?? tr??, l?? kh??ng hi???u , kh??ng th???y ???????c th??? gi???i th???t ??ang ??? b??n m??nh. H??? ???? s???ng v?? t??n s??t ?????ng lo???i v?? t??? bi???n ninh b???ng m???t c??i m???c ????ch h??o huy???n v?? nh??n t??nh. V??o nh???ng n??m ?????u ?????i m???i t??i ???? vi???t trong b??i th?? Th??? gi???i ??ang t???n t???i:
Bi k???ch thay cho nh???ng d??n t???c ch??? tin v??o nh???ng th???n t?????ng, nh???ng t??n ??i???u.
Ng?????i ta ???? tr??? gi??
M???t tu???i thanh xu??n, m???t ?????i ng?????i, m???t th??? h???, m???t thi??n ni??n k??? ????? hi???u ra c??i gi???n ????n gi???a bao m?? cung r???c r???i: Con ng?????i.

C???t th??? gi???i ra t???ng kh??c, t???ng ??o???n ??? Hay ????? nguy??n n?? m?? tr???m t?????ng, m?? chi??m ng?????ng.
T??i l?? m???t ph???n kh??ng th??? chia c???t kh???i th??? gi???i.
T??i hi???u:
C???n ph???i ?????i x??? v???i th??? gi???i nh?? n?? ??ang t???n t???i. (41)

Cu???c ?????i c???a c??c nh??n v???t NVGP cho t??i c???m h???ng vi???t b??i th?? B??ng h???ng n??? s???m. B??i th?? ???????c in trong Tuy???n t???p V??n h???c hi???n ?????i Vi???t Nam 1945- 1993. NXB VH 1993.
Hai m????i l??m n??m qua t??i ???? c??? g???ng h??a th??n v??o h??ng ngh??n trang t??i li???u, v??o h??ng tr??m con ng?????i ????? hi???u m???t c??u h???i duy nh???t NVGP l?? c??i g???.
Nay t??i th???y c???n ph???i l??n ti???ng v??? s??? ki???n n??y. N???u kh??ng th?? ???? qu?? ch???m tr???, l?? c?? t???i v???i vong linh nh???ng ng?????i ???? khu???t. C??? nh???ng ng?????i l?? NVGP. C??? nh???ng ng?????i ???? v??i d???p NVGP v?? cu???ng t??n ng??y th?? ho???c nh??? ????n ??p NVGP m?? ti???n th??n. H??? c?? th??? c???n n??i m???t l???i s??m h???i v???i c??c b???n b?? ?????ng nghi???p oan khu???t c???a m??nh, nh???ng ng?????i b??? m??nh s??t h???i m???t c??ch l????ng thi???n m?? v???n c??n b??? ??m ???nh b???i n???i s??? h??i v?? h??nh, ???? nh???m m???t m?? v???n ch??a n??i ???????c.
V???i ch???c nghi???p ??o le c???a m??nh, t??i ???? c???u ???????c nhi???u ng?????i, ???? gi??? b??nh y??n cho n???n VHNT nhi???u n??m nh??ng t??i ???? tr??? gi?? cu???c ?????i m??nh cho nh???ng nh?? v??n ???? d??m ?????t m??nh l??n tr?????c v???n m???nh c???a ?????t n?????c, c???a nh??n d??n.(42)
T??i kh??ng m???y may ??n h???n, luy???n ti???c v??? vi???c ???? l??m.
Ch?? th??ch
1-T??? H???u: X??y d???ng m???t n???n v??n ngh??? l???n x???ng ????ng v???i nh??n d??n ta th???i ?????i ta, Nxb V??n h???c 1973, trang 132-219.
2- Ho??ng Ti???n: Nh??n l???i v??? ??n Nh??n V??n Giai Ph???m c??ch ????y 40 n??m, t??i li???u nghi??n c???u 1997.
3- V?? T?????ng: Ng??y nay c??ch m???ng ????ng D????ng ph???i hi???n nguy??n h??nh: B?????c ngo???t d???n ?????n cu???c ?????u tranh giai c???p v?? n???i chi???n Vi???t Nam v??o n??m 1948. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 40, 3 (10- 2009), 519- 542. B???n dich ti???ng Vi???t tr??n Talawas s??? M??a Thu chuy??n ????? Bao nhi??u ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c l?? ??????
4- Nh?? th??, sinh n??m 1939 qu?? H???i Ph??ng, s???ng ??? H?? N???i b??? b???t n??m 1980 v?? ????a t???p th?? Ti???ng v???ng t??? ????y v???c g???m 400 b??i v??o S??? qu??n Anh. Tr?????c ???? ???? b??? b???t v?? ??i t?? 2 l???n v?? t???i ph???n tuy??n truy???n. ???????c tr??? t??? do n??m 1991, t???ng c???ng ng???i t?? 27 n??m, ???????c nh???p c?? v??o M??? n??m 1995. T???p th?? c???a ??ng v???i c?? t???a ????? B???n Ch??c th?? c???a M???t Ng?????i Vi???t Nam ??? Hoa ??i??? Ng???c ???????c V??n B??t Qu???c T??? t???ng Gi???i th?????ng Th?? ca Qu???c t??? n??m 1985. ??ng c??n c?? t???p truy???n H???a L?? do T??? h???p xu???t b???n mi???n ????ng Hoa K??? xu???t b???n n???m 2001 v?? Tuy???n t???p th?? Nguy???n Ch?? Thi???n 700 b??i xu???t b???n n??m 2006.
5- C??c b??i Tuy??n ng??n c???a nh??m V??n ngh??? Ch??n ?????t, H???p b??o v??? phong tr??o ly khai ??? H?? N???i, L?? th?? c???a ng?????i H?? N???i, H?? N???i m???t m???i bu???n d??i, 30 n??m v??n h???c ly khai ??? mi???n B???c in trong t???p ch?? v??n h???c Qu?? M??? c???a ng?????i Vi???t H???i ngo???i ??? Paris s??? 40- 41- 42, 1980.
6- Nam Dao: Ho??ng C???m ( 1922 ??? 2010 ). Talawas th??ng 10- 2010
7- Tr??nh ??nh H???ng: Kh??ng ch??? c?? Moskva: ???nh h?????ng c???a Trung Qu???c ??? ????ng ??u v?? B???c Vi???t th???i k??? h???u Stalin. B???n d???ch L?? Qu???nh, Talawas. Tham kh???o th??m ??? N??m m????in??m sau: Tr??m hoa ??ua n??? ??? Vi???t Nam 1954 ??? 1960 c???a Heinz Schutte, Berlin 2009.
8- V?? T?????ng, B??d.
9- Tr??nh ??nh H???ng, B??d.
10- V?? T?????ng, B??d.
11- Ho??ng Giang: La R??volte des Intellectuels au Vi??t- Nam en 1956, The Vietnam Forum 13.
Georges Boudarel, Universit?? de Paris VII: Intellectual dissidence in the 1950s THE NH??N- V??N GIAI- PH???M AFFAIR. The Vietnam Frum 13.
12- Sau ?????i m???i t??i li???u n??y ???? ph??t h??nh c??ng khai tr??n B???n tin Th??ng t???n x?? Vi???t Nam. C?? th??? tham kh???o th??m trong H???i k?? Kh?? r??t S???p, tr??n m???ng.
13- Ngh??? quy???t H???i ngh??? l???n th??? 9+10 BCHT?? ??CSVN kh??a II. V??n ki???n ?????ng.
14- V?? T?????ng, Tr??nh ??nh H???ng B??d.
15- T??? H???u: S??d.
16- Th??i K??? To???i: Lu???n v??n t???t nghi???p ??HAN HN V??? c??c ?????i t?????ng NVGP v?? gi???i ph??p trong t??nh h??nh ?????i m???i hi???n nay, n??m 1987.
17- Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng: H???i k?? b???n ti???ng Vi???t K??? b??? m???t ph??p th??ng c??ng ??? H?? N???i 1954- 1991: B???n ??n cho m???t tr?? th???c. Tr??n m???ng.
18- Ph???ng v???n ????o Duy Anh, ?????ng V??n Ng??? v???i ch??? ????? N??? l???c ph??t tri???n t??? do d??n ch???, b??o Nh??n V??n s??? 2 ??? 3.
19- ????o Duy Anh: Mu???n ph??t tri???n h???c thu???t. Giai ph???m M??a Thu t???p III.
20- Phan Kh??i: Ph?? b??nh l??nh ?????o v??n ngh???, Giai ph???m M??a Thu t???p I.
21- Tr????ng T???u: B???nh s??ng b??i c?? nh??n trong gi???i l??nh ?????o v??n ngh???, Giai ph???m M??a Thu t???p II.
22- Th???y Khu??: N??i chuy???n v???i h???a s?? Tr???n Duy. Website Th???y Khu??.
23- Th???y Khu??: B??d.
24- Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng c?? nh???c ?????n vi???c b??? h???c tr?? ?????u t??? trong h???i k?? K??? b??? m???t ph??p th??ng c??ng???
25-Nguy???n Hu??? Chi trong b??i vi???t Trao ?????i c??ng Nguy???n V??n Ho??n tr??n Talawas v??? th???c m???c c???a ??ng tr?????ng h???p To??n t???p Tr???n Thanh M???i kh??ng c?? b??i ?????u tranh trong th???i k?? NVGP, cho bi???t b??? ??ng nh?? nghi??n c???u Nguy???n ?????ng Chi b??? ??p vi???t b??i ph?? ph??n Phan Kh??i coi ???? l?? m???t vi???c v???n l???y l??m x???u h???, m???t v???t nh?? kh??ng g???t n???i. Khi ch???t ??ng d???n con t??m c?? h???i g???t r???a gi??p m??nh.
T??c gi??? ???????c nghe t??? c??c nh??n v???t NVGP nhi???u chuy???n kh??i h??i v??? s??? quay qu???t tr??o tr??? c???a t??nh b???n v??n ngh??? s?? th???i NVGP.
26- Trong b??i tr??? l???i ph???ng v???n c???a Th???y Khu??, Tr???n Duy cho bi???t em ru???t m??nh, m???t s?? quan qu??n ?????i khai l?? l???ch ?????i t??n l??t truy???n th???ng c???a d??ng h???, kh??ng khai t??n ??ng v?? ch??? nh???n l?? con nu??i b??? ??ng.
27- Trong b??i ph???ng v???n c???a Th???y Khu?? v???i c??c ??ng Ho??ng C???m, L?? ?????t c?? nh???c tr?????ng h???p v??? ch???ng V?? Ngoc Phan- H???ng Ph????ng. H???ng Ph????ng g???i Phan Kh??i l?? b??c ru???t anh m???, khi x???y ra NVGP h??? vi???t b??i ?????u t??? Phan Kh??i, kh??ng d??m ??i ????a ma Phan Kh??i. M???t tr?????ng h???p n???a l?? quan h??? T??? H???u ??? Ph??ng Qu??n, T??? H???u l?? anh c??ng cha kh??c m??? v???i m??? Ph??ng Qu??n.
Phan Thao l?? con Phan Kh??i v???n ph???i k?? t??n v??o tuy??n b??? l??n ??n NVGP.
28- Trong ph???ng v???n c???a Th???y Khu?? v???i L?? ?????t, Tr???n Duy.
29- T???p ch?? Qu?? M??? ???? d???n.
30- V?? Ng??? Chi??u: H??? Ch?? Minh nh?? ngo???i giao 1945- 1946. 
Chuy???n ??i c???u vi???n b?? m???t n??m 1950 c???a H???. T???p ch?? H???p L??u
31- V?? T?????ng, B??d.
32- Tr??nh ??nh H???ng, B??d.
33- David G. Marr: Vietnam 1945 The quest for Power
34-Ninh Kim N.B: A World Transformed: The Politics of Culture in Revolutionary Vietnam, 1945- 1965. University ?? Michigan Press 2002.
35- L???i Nguy??n ??n c?? c??c b??i: H???i Nh?? v??n Vi???t Nam: S??? th??nh l???p v?? hai n??m ?????u ti??n t???n t???i ( 1957- 1958 ). ??i t??m d???u t??ch t??? S??ng T???o ( H?? N???i, 1956). Nguy???n B??nh v?? tu???n b??o Tr??m Hoa (1955- 1957). Xu??n Di???u trong nh???ng n??m 1954 ??? 1958.

36- Tr???n Duy tr??? l???i ph???ng v???n Th???y Khu??.
37- Tr???n Duy: T?????ng ni???m Phan Kh??i. Talawas.
38- Trong tr?????ng ca C??y C?? b??o ???? N???ng th??ng 1- n??m 1987. T??n Ph??ng Qu??n l???n ?????u ti??n tr??? l???i c??ng khai tr??n m???t b??o.
39- Th??i k??? To???i: B??d.
40- B??ng h???ng n??? s???m:
Sau m??a gi??ng b??o x??c x??
H??ng c??y thu m??nh trong gi?? r??t
????n anh v??? s??ng nay
V?????n m??? n??? b??ng h???ng.

M??u ????? th???m ch???m v??o n???i ??au c???a m???
Su???t m???t ?????i m??n m???i lo ??u
M??u ????? th???m ????nh th???c n???i bu???n c???a ?????t
Bao n??m m???t ?????t kh?? c???n

M??u ????? ch??y l??n k?? ???c c???a anh
M???t t??nh y??u v???t m???t hai m????i n??m
Bao m???ng m?? khao kh??t ??m th???m.

C?? ai n??i v???i anh:
Ng??y mai th??i b??ng h???ng s??? ch???t
Nh??ng h??? chi 
M??u ????? ki??u sa c??? ch??y trong gi?? r??t
V?? ??? ch??n tr???i
??ang th?? th???m c??n gi?? m??a xu??n.

41- T???p th?? Th??? gi???i ??ang t???n t???i, Nxb V??n h???c 1994
42- ???? l?? vi???c t??c gi??? v?? nh?? v??n Ma V??n Kh??ng b???o v??? cu???n ti???u thuy???t Ch??a Tr???i ng??? g???t c???a Nguy???n D???u in ??? Nh?? xu???t b???n Lao ?????ng n??m 1993 b??? c?? quan T???ng c??ng ??o??n lao ?????ng quy???t ?????nh nghi???n h???y l??m b???t gi???y. Ma V??n Kh??ng ???? vi???t l???i m???t ph???n v??? n??y, nh???ng g?? c?? th??? vi???t ???????c c??ng khai nh??ng b??? ki???m duy???t c???t b??? m???t s??? ??o???n trong h???i k?? N??m th??ng nh???c nh???n, n??m th??ng nh??? th????ng, NXB H???i Nh?? v??n xu???t b???n n??m 2009, trang 385- 400.

Qua v??? n??y c?? th??? r??t ra v??i ??i???u :
B??? m??y v??n ngh??? Vi???t Nam v?? Lu???t xu???t b???n Vi???t Nam ???? t???o ra r???t nhi???u c?? quan c???nh s??t v??n h??a v???i t?? c??ch l?? c?? quan ch??? qu???n c???a nh?? xu???t b???n. M???t khi s???c ??p tr???c ti???p v???i nh?? xu???t b???n c???a A25 v?? Ban Tuy??n gi??o kh??ng th??nh, ng?????i ta d??ng quy???n l???c c???a c?? quan ch??? qu???n ??p nh?? xu???t b???n ti??u h???y cu???n s??ch. Trong tr?????ng h???p c???a Ch??a Tr???i ng???g???t B??? VHTT do nh?? th?? Nguy???n Khoa ??i???m Th??? tr?????ng ???? c?? c??ng v??n ???ng h??? g???i Th??? t?????ng Ph???m V??n ?????ng xin v???n cho s??ch ???????c xu???t b???n. Nh??ng c??c ph???n t??? ch??? ch???t c???a A25 v???n g??y ???????c s???c ??p bu???c T???ng c??ng ??o??n lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam b??p ch???t cu???n s??ch.
L??ng M???c Th??ng Ba n??m Canh D???n

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