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???? ?????c Tr???nh H??a: S??? gi??? h??a b??nh hay t???i ph???m chi???n tranh?

B??n c???nh vi???c ti???n h??nh m???t cu???c ????n ??p l???n ch???ng l???i ng?????i H???i gi??o, ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c c??n ??ang l??m s???ng d???y huy???n tho???i v??? Tr???nh H??a (Zheng He) ??? m???t ???? ?????c h???i qu??n, ng?????i ch??? huy c??c chuy???n h???i tr??nh h??ng tr??ng v??o ?????u th??? k??? 15 xuy??n qua ????ng Nam ??, ???n ?????, Trung ????ng v?? xa h??n th??? n???a.
???? ?????c Tr???nh H??a: S??? gi??? h??a b??nh hay t???i ph???m chi???n tranh?

???? ?????c Tr???nh H??a: S??? gi??? h??a b??nh hay t???i ph???m chi???n tranh?

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Ngu???n: Max Walden, ???Peaceful explorer or war criminal: Who was Zheng He, China???s Muslim symbol of diplomacy?,??? ABC News, 22/09/2019.

Bi??n d???ch: Tr???n M???n Linh | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

B??n c???nh vi???c ti???n h??nh m???t cu???c ????n ??p l???n ch???ng l???i ng?????i H???i gi??o, ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c c??n ??ang l??m s???ng d???y huy???n tho???i v??? Tr???nh H??a (Zheng He) ??? m???t ???? ?????c h???i qu??n, ng?????i ch??? huy c??c chuy???n h???i tr??nh h??ng tr??ng v??o ?????u th??? k??? 15 xuy??n qua ????ng Nam ??, ???n ?????, Trung ????ng v?? xa h??n th??? n???a.

Khi ????a ra s??ng ki???n V??nh ??ai v?? Con ???????ng t??? ch??u ?? sang ch??u ??u, Ch??? t???ch T???p C???n B??nh ???? th?????ng xuy??n g???i Tr???nh H??a l?? bi???u t?????ng cho s??? tr???i d???y h??a b??nh c???a Trung Qu???c, v?? cho t??nh h???u ngh??? v???i th??? gi???i, ?????c bi???t l?? ????ng Nam ??.

???????c m???nh danh l?? ???Columbus Trung Qu???c???, nh?? th??m hi???m th???m ch?? ???? truy???n c???m h???ng cho m???t qu??n c?? ph?? th???i th?????ng ??? Melbourne.

Th??? nh??ng, li???u ??ng c?? th???c s??? l?? m???t bi???u t?????ng ngo???i giao nh?? c??ch B???c Kinh mu???n ch??ng ta tin kh??ng?

M??n bi???u di???n g???i nh???c v??? h??nh tr??nh c???a Tr???nh H??a t???i Olympics B???c Kinh 2008.

Tr???nh H??a l?? ai?

Ch??? huy nh???ng chuy???n du h??nh v??ng quanh ?????a c???u m???t th??? k??? tr?????c khi Christopher Columbus t??m ra ch??u M???, Tr???nh H??a ???????c m?? t??? l?? m???t trong nh???ng nh?? th??m hi???m v?? ?????i nh???t m???i th???i ?????i.

??ng sinh n??m 1371 t???i t???nh V??n Nam, mi???n nam Trung Qu???c, ???????c ?????t t??n l?? M?? H??a (Ma He). Cha m??? ??ng theo ?????o H???i v?? thu???c nh??m ng?????i H???i thi???u s???.

Trong khi ??t ai bi???t g?? v??? gia ????nh ??ng, th?? c??? cha v?? ??ng c???a Tr???nh H??a ?????u t???ng th???c hi???n chuy???n h??nh h????ng ?????n th??nh ?????a Mecca t???i ??? R???p X??-??t ng??y nay ??? c??ch Trung Qu???c h??n 5.000 km.

H??? ???M????? c???a ??ng ??? l?? h??? Trung Qu???c xu???t ph??t t??? h??? Muhammad ??? sau n??y ???????c thay b???ng h??? ???Tr???nh???, l?? h??? ???????c Ho??ng ????? nh?? Minh phong t???ng khi ??ng ?????t ?????n c???p b???c cao nh???t m?? m???t th??i gi??m c?? th??? c??.

M?? h??nh con t??u thu nh??? c???a Tr???nh H??a ???????c ?????t c???nh m?? h??nh con t??u c???a Columbus theo t??? l??? t???i m???t tri???n l??m ??? Dubai.

Tr???nh H??a ???? th???c hi???n m???t lo???t c??c chuy???n du h??nh ???n t?????ng t??? n??m 1405 ?????n n??m 1433, d???n ?????u h??n 20.000 ng?????i tr??n m???t h???m ?????i g???m h??n 100 t??u ??? r?? r??ng l?? l???c l?????ng h???i qu??n t??n ti???n nh???t th???i ????.

Sau n??y, ??ng ???????c cho l?? tr??? n??n quan t??m ?????n c??c gi??o l?? Ph???t gi??o, v?? qua ?????i ??? ???n ?????.

Trong khi h???m ?????i c???a Tr???nh th??? hi???n s???c m???nh v?? n??ng l???c h???i qu??n c???a Trung Qu???c, l???ch s??? Trung Qu???c ch??nh th???ng l???i m?? t??? nh?? th??? ??ng ch??a t???ng tham gia v??o ngo???i giao ph??o h???m, thay v??o ???? ch??? x??y d???ng t??nh h???u ngh??? v???i c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o n?????c ngo??i.

Tr???nh H??a ???????c cho l?? ???? t???i ch??u Phi nhi???u n??m tr?????c khi Columbus ??i t???i ch??u M???.

?????ng ta kh??ng chi???m m???t m???nh ?????t, th??nh l???p b???t k??? ph??o ????i hay chi???m gi??? b???t k??? c???a c???i n??o t??? c??c qu???c gia kh??c???, Th??? tr?????ng B??? Truy???n th??ng l??c b???y gi??? c???a Trung Qu???c l?? Xu Zu-yuan (T??? T??? Vi???n) cho bi???t v??o n??m 2004.

???Trong c??c ho???t ?????ng th????ng m???i, ??ng ???? h??nh th??nh th??i quen cho ??i nhi???u h??n nh???n l???i, v?? do v???y ??ng ???????c hoan ngh??nh v?? ca ng???i b???i ng?????i d??n nhi???u qu???c gia xuy??n su???t c??c chuy???n ??i c???a m??nh.???

????y r?? r??ng l?? c??ch B???c Kinh mu???n ???????c nh??n nh???n tr??n ph???m vi qu???c t??? ng??y nay, v???i H???i qu??n Qu??n ?????i Gi???i ph??ng Nh??n d??n ?????t t??n cho m???t trong nh???ng con t??u c???a m??nh l?? Tr???nh H??a.

N??m 2012, con t??u n??y ???? th???c hi???n m???t ???s??? m???nh h??a b??nh??? t???i c??c qu???c gia g???m Vi???t Nam, Malaysia, ???n ?????, ??, Canada v?? Indonesia, v???i m???c ????ch t??ng c?????ng quan h??? v???i h???i qu??n n?????c ngo??i.

T??u chi???n mang t??n Tr???nh H??a neo t???i Tr??n Ch??u C???ng n??m 2015.

T???m quan tr???ng c???a Tr???nh H??a ?????i v???i ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i Trung Qu???c l?? g???

T???p C???n B??nh ???? nh???c ?????n h???m ?????i c???a Tr???nh H??a trong b??i ph??t bi???u khai m???c di???n ????n V??nh ??ai v?? Con ???????ng n??m 2017.

???Nh???ng ng?????i ti??n phong n??y ???? ghi t??n m??nh v??o l???ch s??? kh??ng ph???i nh?? l?? nh???ng k??? chinh ph???c b???ng t??u chi???n, s??ng hay ki???m. Thay v??o ????, h??? ???????c nh??? ?????n nh?? nh???ng s??? gi??? th??n thi???n???, ??ng T???p n??i.

???Th??? h??? n??y qua th??? h??? kh??c, nh???ng ng?????i du h??nh tr??n con ???????ng t?? l???a ???? x??y d???ng m???t c??y c???u cho h??a b??nh v?? h???p t??c ????ng-T??y.???

?????n th??? Tr???nh H??a t???i Semarang, Indonesia.

Tr???nh H??a l?? ???m???t nh??n v???t ch??? ch???t ?????i di???n cho Con ???????ng t?? l???a tr??n bi???n???, Sow Keat Tok c???a Vi???n Ch??u ?? t???i ?????i h???c Melbourne cho bi???t.

Di s???n c???a nh?? th??m hi???m hi???n h???u ??? ????ng Nam ?? ??? m???t th???c t??? m?? B???c Kinh mu???n s??? d???ng l??m ????n b???y trong ngo???i giao c???a m??nh v???i khu v???c.

???N???u b???n nh??n v??o c??ch Tr???nh H??a ???????c n??i ?????n trong d??n gian v?? qua truy???n mi???ng, nh???ng ??i???u ???? nh??n chung l?? t??ch c???c???, Ti???n s?? Tok n??i v???i ABC.

??? Indonesia v?? Malaysia ??? n??i c???ng ?????ng ng?????i H???i gi??o chi???m ??a s???, Tr???nh H??a gi??? vai tr?? ?????c bi???t trong vi???c truy???n b?? ?????o H???i, ???????c t?????ng ni???m t???i c??c nh?? th??? H???i gi??o, ?????n th??? v?? b???o t??ng tr??n kh???p qu???n ?????o.

B??n trong nh?? th??? H???i gi??o Muhammad Cheng Hoo ??? Surabaya, Indonesia.

Nh?? s??? h???c c???a ?????i h???c H??? M??n ??? Liao Dake ??? ???? vi???t r???ng Tr???nh H??a ??????ng h??? n???n ?????c l???p c???a v????ng qu???c Melaka, t???o ?????ng l???c cho s??? lan r???ng c???a H???i gi??o???.

Khi ????a tin v??? chuy???n th??m c???a m???t ngh??? s?? Indonesia t???i n?????c n??y tu???n tr?????c, truy???n th??ng nh?? n?????c Trung Qu???c ????? c???p r???ng: ???Di s???n c???a Tr???nh H??a ??? nh???ng n??i nh?? Indonesia ti???p t???c cho th???y c??c cu???c th??m hi???m c???a ??ng ???? t???o d???ng nh???ng m???i li??n k???t quan tr???ng, v?????t ra ngo??i khu??n kh??? ngo???i giao v?? kinh t??? ????? bao tr???n kh??a c???nh v??n h??a v?? c??c m???i quan h??? kh??c???.

Tr?????c khi ?????n th??m Manila v??o th??ng 11/2018, ??ng T???p vi???t m???t b??i x?? lu???n ???????c c??c t??? b??o Philippines ????ng t???i r???ng r??i, tuy??n b??? r???ng: ???H??n 600 n??m v??? tr?????c, nh?? h??ng h???i Trung Qu???c Tr???nh H??a ???? th???c hi???n nhi???u chuy???n th??m t???i V???nh Manila trong b???y chuy???n h???i tr??nh ra n?????c ngo??i ????? t??m ki???m t??nh h???u ngh??? v?? h???p t??c.???

Th??? nh??ng, Th???m ph??n T??a ??n T???i cao Philippines Antonio Carpio tuy??n b??? h???i th??ng tr?????c r???ng c??c nh?? s??? h???c ???? ch???ng minh Tr???nh H??a ch??a bao gi??? ?????n Philippines, v?? r???ng huy???n tho???i n??y ch??? l?? m???t ph???n trong nh???ng n??? l???c c???a Trung Qu???c nh???m bi???n minh cho c??c y??u s??ch l??nh th??? c???a m??nh ??? Bi???n ????ng.

???T??i g???i ????y l?? c??u chuy???n l???ch s??? gi??? c???a thi??n ni??n k???, tin t???c gi??? c???a th??? k???,??? ??ng n??i.

Tr???nh H??a c?? ph???i l?? m???t nh?? th??m hi???m h??a b??nh hay kh??ng?

Theo Ti???n s?? Dok, vi???c B???c Kinh nh???c l???i c??u chuy???n v??? Tr???nh H??a ???truy???n t???i th??ng ??i???p r???ng Trung Qu???c ??ang tr??? th??nh m???t qu???c gia h??ng m???nh h??n m?? kh??ng g??y ra ??e d???a nhi???u h??n???.

D?? B???c Kinh nh???n m???nh b???n ch???t ???????c cho l?? h??a b??nh trong c??c chuy???n th??m hi???m c???a Tr???nh H??a, nh??ng m???t v??i nh?? quan s??t ph????ng T??y l???i nh??n nh???n Tr???nh nh?? l?? ?????i di???n cho m???t ??i???u g?? ???? kh??c.

N??m ngo??i, b??? tr?????ng qu???c ph??ng l??c ???? c???a Hoa K??? ??? James Mattis ??? ???? tuy??n b??? Trung Qu???c c?? ???k??? ho???ch d??i h???n ????? vi???t l???i tr???t t??? th??? gi???i hi???n c??.???

???Tri???u ?????i nh?? Minh d?????ng nh?? l?? h??nh m???u c???a h???, d?? theo ki???u c?? b???p h??n, ????i h???i c??c qu???c gia kh??c ph???i tr??? th??nh qu???c gia tri???u c???ng, kh??m n??m d?????i ch??n B???c Kinh; ??i theo M???t V??nh ??ai, M???t Con ???????ng.???

Geoff Wade, nh?? s??? h???c ng?????i ??c t???p trung nghi??n c???u s??? can d??? c???a Trung Qu???c v???i khu v???c ????ng Nam ??, l???p lu???n r???ng c??c chuy???n ??i c???a Tr???nh H??a th??? hi???n m???t d???ng th???c b???o l???c c???a ???ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n h??ng h???i.???

Ch???ng h???n, trong tr?????ng h???p c???a Vi???t Nam, Ti???n s?? Wade ???? vi???t: ???C?? x??m l?????c, chi???m ????ng, ??p ?????t m???t ch??nh quy???n d??n s??? v?? qu??n s???, b??c l???t kinh t??? v?? s??? th???ng tr??? b???i m???t tri???u ????nh ??? th??? ???? c???a qu???c gia x??m l?????c.???

Giai ??o???n cai tr??? c???a nh?? Minh ??? Vi???t Nam l?? m???t ph???n trong 1.000 n??m Trung Qu???c th???ng tr??? qu???c gia ????ng Nam ?? n??y, ??i???u cho ?????n nay v???n ????? l???i s??? c??m gi???n trong l??ng nh???ng ng?????i Vi???t Nam theo ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c.

Ti???n s?? Wade ???? vi???t r???ng nh???ng chuy???n h???i tr??nh c???a Tr???nh H??a ???li??n quan ?????n vi???c s??? d???ng l???c l?????ng qu??n s??? l???n ????? x??m l?????c c??c d??n t???c kh??c v???i d??n t???c Trung Hoa, ????? chi???m l??nh l??nh th??? c???a h???, chia l??nh th??? ???y th??nh c??c ????n v??? h??nh ch??nh nh??? h??n, ch??? ?????nh nh???ng ng?????i cai tr??? b?? nh??n v?? c??c ???c??? v???n???, t??? ???? b??c l???t kinh t??? c??c khu v???c b??? chi???m ????ng.???

C??c b???n ????? c???a Tr???nh H??a g??y ra nhi???u tranh c??i, c?? ng?????i cho r???ng ??ng ???? ??i t???i t???n ch??u M???.

Nh???ng c??ch gi???i th??ch kh??c nhau v??? l???ch s??? c???a Tr???nh H??a ph???n ??nh c??c cu???c tranh lu???n ??????ng ?????i ??? Ch??u ??, Ch??u Phi v?? Th??i B??nh D????ng.

Li???u Trung Qu???c l?? m???t c?????ng qu???c nh??n t??? ??ang t??m ki???m m???i quan h??? ????i b??n c??ng c?? l???i v???i c??c n?????c nh??? h??n, hay m???t k??? b???t n???t ??ang t??m c??ch b??c l???t kinh t??? t??? h????

M???t nh??n v???t H???i gi??o c?? th??? l?? m???t bi???u t?????ng ???????c ?????ng C???ng s???n t??n th??nh?

Trong khi h??nh ???nh c???a Tr???nh H??a ??ang ???????c ?????y m???nh tr??n tr?????ng qu???c t???, ?????ng C???ng s???n l???i ??ang ????n ??p H???i gi??o ??? trong n?????c.

Ng?????i H???i s??? h???u nhi???u s??? t????ng ?????ng h??n v??? m???t v??n h??a v???i ph???n l???n ng?????i H??n, v?? do v???y cho t???i  g???n ????y v???n kh??ng b??? B???c Kinh nh???m ?????n nh?? ng?????i Uyghur (Duy Ng?? Nh??).

Nh??ng T??? ch???c Theo d??i Nh??n quy???n ???? m?? t??? ???s??? gi??m s??t ng??y c??ng t??ng??? ?????i v???i ng?????i H???i ??? qu?? nh?? Ninh H??? (Ningxia) c???a h??? t???i mi???n trung b???c Trung Qu???c.

C??c nh?? ch???c tr??ch ???? ra l???nh thay th??? ho???c ph?? h???y c??c nh?? th??? H???i gi??o ???????c cho l?? mang ?????m phong c??ch ??? R???p, trong ch??nh s??ch ???H??n h??a H???i gi??o???.

N??m ngo??i, h??ng ng??n ng?????i H???i ???? ph???n ?????i vi???c ph?? h???y Nh?? th??? H???i gi??o L???n ??? th??? tr???n Weizhou thu???c Ninh H??? ??? m???t s??? kh??ng c??? hi???m hoi t??? nh??m ng?????i th?????ng ???????c m?? t??? l?? ???thi???u s??? H???i gi??o ki???u m???u.???

???Vi???c ch??nh quy???n Trung Qu???c khai th??c c??c cu???c th??m hi???m v?? ?????i c???a Tr???nh H??a, m???t ng?????i H???i gi??o, cho m???c ????ch ngo???i giao v?? th????ng m???i ??? trong khi l???i b???t giam h??ng tri???u ng?????i H???i gi??o ??? v??ng T??n C????ng ??? l?? ?????nh cao c???a s??? ?????o ?????c gi??? v?? v?? li??m,??? Sharon Hom, gi??m ?????c ??i???u h??nh c???a t??? ch???c Nh??n quy???n t???i Trung Qu???c, tr??? l???i ABC.

Nh?? th??? H???i gi??o ??? qu?? nh?? Tr???nh H??a t???i Kunyang, V??n Nam, Trung Qu???c.

???N?? c??ng ph??i b??y m???c ti??u th???c s??? c???a vi???c x??y d???ng ????? ch??? v?? t???o ra c??c qu???c gia ch?? h???u d???c theo V??nh ??ai v?? Con ???????ng.???

???Vi???c truy???n b?? ?? th???c h??? li??n t???c c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c t???i m???i giai t???ng trong x?? h???i Trung Hoa b???ng ???t?? t?????ng T???p C???n B??nh???, v?? n??? l???c H??n h??a t??n gi??o t???o ra s??? ch??? gi???u ?????i v???i b???t k??? tuy??n b??? n??o c???a ch??nh quy???n v??? vi???c t??n tr???ng ch??? ngh??a ??a nguy??n,??? b?? Hom n??i.

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