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Chi???n d???ch ngo???i giao gi???i c???u nh?? khoa h???c Ti???n H???c S??m

Vi???n s?? Ti???n H???c S??m (Qian Xue-sen) l?? m???t nh?? khoa h???c l???n c???a Trung Qu???c, n???i ti???ng v??? t??i n??ng v?? l??ng y??u n?????c, ?????o ?????c ch??n th??nh, gi???n d??? khi??m t???n. ??ng c??n ???????c g???i l?? Cha ????? ng??nh t??n l???a v?? h??ng kh??ng v?? tr??? Trung Qu???c.
Chi???n d???ch ngo???i giao gi???i c???u nh?? khoa h???c Ti???n H???c S??m

Chi???n d???ch ngo???i giao gi???i c???u nh?? khoa h???c Ti???n H???c S??m

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T??c gi???: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

Vi???n s?? Ti???n H???c S??m (Qian Xue-sen) l?? m???t nh?? khoa h???c l???n c???a Trung Qu???c, n???i ti???ng v??? t??i n??ng v?? l??ng y??u n?????c, ?????o ?????c ch??n th??nh, gi???n d??? khi??m t???n. ??ng c??n ???????c g???i l?? Cha ????? ng??nh t??n l???a v?? h??ng kh??ng v?? tr??? Trung Qu???c.

Ti???n H???c S??m qua ?????i ng??y 31/10/2010, th??? 98 tu???i. To??n b??? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o cao nh???t ??? Trung Qu???c nh?? H??? C???m ????o, Giang Tr???ch D??n, Ng?? Bang Qu???c v.v??? ???? ?????n d??? ????m tang ??ng, ??i???u ???? cho th???y ??ng t???ng c?? m???t vai tr?? r???t quan tr???ng ??? Trung Qu???c.

Ti???n H???c S??m sinh ra trong m???t gia ????nh tr?? th???c c?? cha l?? m???t nh?? gi??o. N??m 1935 sau khi t???t nghi???p ?????i h???c Giao th??ng Th?????ng H???i ??ng ??i M??? du h???c. N??m 1939, Ti???n H???c S??m gi??nh h???c v??? ti???n s?? t???i H???c vi???n C??ng ngh??? California (Caltech) d?????i s??? h?????ng d???n c???a gi??o s?? Von Karman (ng?????i M??? g???c Hungary), sau ???? ??ng ??? l???i tr?????ng gi???ng d???y v?? tham gia nh??m nghi??n c???u thi???t k??? ch??? t???o t??n l???a, c??n ???????c g???i l?? Nh??m c???m t???, v?? vi???c th?? nghi???m t??n l???a r???t nguy hi???m. B??i b??o c???a ??ng vi???t l?? thuy???t ???Ch??? t???o t??n l???a c?? v???n t???c 10 ngh??n km??? ???? l??m gi???i khoa h???c t??n l???a th??? gi???i bi???t ?????n t??n tu???i Ti???n H???c S??m.

Trong th???i gian Th??? chi???n II, Ti???n H???c S??m tham gia c??ng t??c l??m bom nguy??n t??? trong d??? ??n tuy???t m???t Manhattan c???a ch??nh ph??? M???. Sau ???? ??ng ???????c phong gi??o s?? tr?????ng Caltech. Chi???n tranh k???t th??c, ??ng ???????c m???i tham gia c??ng t??c nghi??n c???u ch??? t???o t??n l???a c???a qu??n ?????i M??? v?? ???????c phong h??m ?????i t??. Trong l??nh v???c n??y Ti???n H???c S??m c?? nhi???u th??nh c??ng l???n, tr??? th??nh m???t chuy??n gia t??n l???a h??ng ?????u th??? gi???i, ???????c gi???i khoa h???c qu??n s??? M??? k??nh n???.

Cu???i n??m 1949, sau khi bi???t tin n?????c CHND Trung Hoa ra ?????i, Ti???n H???c S??m c??ng v??? l?? T?????ng Anh vui m???ng kh??n xi???t, ng??y ????m b??n chuy???n s???m tr??? v??? t??? qu???c.

H???i ???y c??i g???i l?? ch??? ngh??a ch???ng c???ng M???c C??c-thy (McCarthyism) ??ang ho??nh h??nh tr??n ch??nh tr?????ng n?????c M???, kh???p n??i c?? phong tr??o khuy???n kh??ch vi??n ch???c nh?? n?????c trung th??nh v???i ch??nh ph??? v?? t??? c??o nh???ng ng?????i th??n c???ng s???n. CIA nghi Ti???n H???c S??m theo c???ng s???n; v?? th??? ??ng b??? t?????c m???t quy???n ti???p t???c l??m c??c c??ng vi???c nghi??n c???u b?? m???t c?? li??n quan t???i qu??n s???. Ti???n H???c S??m v?? c??ng c??m t???c v?? suy ngh??: M??nh th?? v??? n?????c c??n h??n ??? l???i n?????c M??? trong t??nh tr???ng b??? nghi ng??? th??? n??y.

L???y l?? do ???y, ??ng xin v??? Trung Qu???c, nh??ng y??u c???u n??y b??? ch??nh ph??? M??? t??? ch???i. Th??? tr?????ng B??? H???i qu??n M??? n??i: ???Ti???n H???c S??m n???m ???????c t???t c??? c??c b?? m???t c???a c??ng tr??nh t??n l???a M???, con ng?????i ???y c?? gi?? tr??? ngang v???i m???y s?? ??o??n l??nh thu??? ????nh b???. T??i th?? b???n ch???t ng?????i n??y c??n h??n ????? cho ??ng ta v??? v???i Trung Qu???c c???ng s???n!???

Ch??nh quy???n M??? b???t ?????u theo d??i Ti???n H???c S??m. Nh?? ??ng b??? kh??m, th???m ch?? ??ng b??? b???t giam 2 tu???n. ??ng ch??? ???????c v??? nh?? sau khi tr?????ng Caltech n???p 15.000 USD ti???n b???o l??nh. C???nh s??t c??n t???ch thu 8 t??? s??ch ??ng s??u t???m ???????c trong bao n??m ?????nh mang v??? Trung Qu???c. T??? ???? Ti???n H???c S??m s???ng trong t??nh tr???ng b??? giam l???ng ??? nh?? l??u t???i 5 n??m.

Tin nh?? khoa h???c n???i ti???ng Ti???n H???c S??m b??? ch??nh ph??? M??? h??m h???i ???? l??m d?? lu???n Trung Qu???c c??m ph???n. Ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c ra tuy??n b??? ph???n ?????i h??nh ?????ng c???a ch??nh ph??? M???. Nh???m m???c ????ch ????n ???????c Ti???n H???c S??m v??? n?????c ph???c v??? c??c ch????ng tr??nh nghi??n c???u khoa h???c qu??n s???, Th??? t?????ng Trung Qu???c Chu ??n Lai t??? ch???c m???t chi???n d???ch ngo???i giao gi???i c???u Ti???n H???c S??m. Ch??nh quy???n Trung Qu???c b???t giam m???t s??? ki???u d??n M??? v?? ng?????i M??? x??m ph???m l??nh th???. To?? ??n Qu??n s??? Trung Qu???c ???? k???t ??n 13 gi??n ??i???p M???, v???i ?? ????? d??ng h??? ????? ?????i l???y Ti???n H???c S??m.

Ch??nh ph??? M??? r???t mu???n c??c c??ng d??n c???a h??? ???????c tr??? t??? do b??n th??ng qua c??c quan ch???c ngo???i giao Anh qu???c li??n l???c v???i ph??a Trung Qu???c.

Th??ng 4/1954, nh??n d???p h???p h???i ngh??? 5 n?????c M???, Anh, Ph??p, Trung Qu???c, Li??n X?? t???i Geneva b??n v??? vi???c gi???i quy???t v???n ????? Tri???u Ti??n v?? ch???m d???t chi???n tranh t???i Vi???t Nam, tr?????ng ??o??n Trung Qu???c l?? Th??? t?????ng Chu ??n Lai ch??? th??? ph??i ??o??n Trung Qu???c th??ng qua B??? Ngo???i giao Anh ????? li??n h??? v???i M???, ????? ngh??? ????m ph??n v???i M??? ????i th??? nh?? khoa h???c Ti???n H???c S??m. Ng?????i ph??t ng??n ph??i ??o??n Trung Qu???c ra tuy??n b??? y??u c???u ch??nh ph??? M??? tr??? t??? do cho c??c ki???u d??n v?? du h???c sinh Trung Qu???c b??? b???t ??? M???, ?????ng th???i ng???m t??? ?? Trung Qu???c s???n s??ng b??n v???i M??? v???n ????? ng?????i M??? b??? b???t t???i Trung Qu???c.

K???t qu??? l?? t??? ng??y 5 th??ng 6, ?????i bi???u Trung Qu???c V????ng B??nh Nam v?? th??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao M??? Johnson b???t ?????u ????m ph??n v??? v???n ????? ki???u d??n hai n?????c b??? b???t gi???. ???????c Th??? t?????ng Chu ??n Lai ch??? ?????o, trong phi??n h???p l???n th??? ba, ??o??n Trung Qu???c t??? th??i ????? c?? nh?????ng b??? l???n, ?????ng th???i y??u c???u M??? tr??? t??? do cho Ti???n H???c S??m v?? c??c du h???c sinh Trung Qu???c t???i M??? b??? b???t. Nh??ng y??u c???u c???a ph??a Trung Qu???c b??? M??? t??? ch???i.

H??m h???i ngh??? Geneva b??? m???c (21/7/1954), Th??? t?????ng Chu ??n Lai ch??? th??? trong h???i ngh??? Trung-M??? c???p L??nh s??? h???p ti???p v??o h??m sau, ph??a Trung Qu???c ph???i ch??? ?????ng quy???t ?????nh trao tr??? 4 phi c??ng M??? b??? Trung Qu???c b???t gi??? ????? t??? thi???n ch??.

Ng??y 25/7/1955, B??? Ngo???i giao Trung Qu???c th??nh l???p T??? ch??? ?????o ????m ph??n Trung-M???, do Th??? t?????ng Chu ??n Lai ph??? tr??ch, t??? tr?????ng l?? th??? tr?????ng Ch????ng H??n Phu, t??? ph?? l?? Ki???u Qu??n Hoa. T??? ng??y 1/8, cu???c ????m ph??n n??y n??ng l??n c???p ?????i s???. Tuy ph??a Trung Qu???c ???? c?? thi???n ch?? nh??ng ph??a M??? v???n c????ng quy???t kh??ng ch???u cho Ti???n H???c S??m v??? n?????c, vi???n c??? ph??a Trung Qu???c ch??a ????a ra ???????c l?? do th???t s??? c???a y??u c???u n??y.

??ang l??c Th??? t?????ng Chu ??n Lai v?? c??ng lo l???ng th?? may sao ??ng Tr???n Th??c Th??ng, m???t nh??n s?? y??u n?????c, ph?? Ch??? t???ch Qu???c h???i v?? ph?? Ch??? t???ch Trung ????ng H???i ngh??? Ch??nh tr??? hi???p th????ng (t????ng ??????ng trung ????ng M???t tr???n T??? qu???c ??? Vi???t Nam) chuy???n cho Th??? t?????ng m???t b???c th?? k?? t??n Ti???n H???c S??m g???i t??? M???. L?? th?? n??y vi???t tr??n t??? gi???y qu???n thu???c l?? m???ng d??nh ??p trong m???t cu???n s??ch Ti???n H???c S??m g???i cho ng?????i nh?? ??? B??? nh??? chuy???n t???i Tr???n Th??c Th??ng. Trong th??, Ti???n H???c S??m vi???t: ????? ngh??? ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c gi??p ??ng ???????c v??? n?????c.

Xem th??, Th??? t?????ng Chu v?? c??ng ph???n kh???i v?? ch??? th??? ho??? t???c chuy???n th?? n??y t???i ?????i s??? V????ng B??nh Nam, tr?????ng ??o??n Trung Qu???c ????m ph??n v???i M??? t???i Geneva.

Trong phi??n h???p ng??y 1 th??ng 8, V????ng B??nh Nam ph??t bi???u: ???Th??a ng??i ?????i s??? Johnson, tr?????c khi ch??ng ta b???t ?????u th???o lu???n, t??i xin th??ng b??o ng??i bi???t ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c h??m 31 th??ng 7 ???? quy???t ?????nh tr??? t??? do s???m cho 11 phi c??ng M???, trong ???? c?? ??ng Arnold. H??m 31 h??? ???? r???i B???c Kinh v?? ng??y 4 th??ng 8 s??? t???i Hong Kong. T??i mong r???ng quy???t ?????nh n??y c???a ph??a Trung Qu???c s??? c?? ???nh h?????ng t??ch c???c t???i cu???c h???i ????m c???a ch??ng ta.???

Th??? nh??ng ?????i s??? Johnson v???n nh???c l???i lu???n ??i???u c??: ???Hi???n v???n ch??a c?? ch???ng c??? n??o cho th???y ??ng Ti???n H???c S??m mu???n tr??? v??? Trung Qu???c; ch??nh ph??? M??? kh??ng th??? c?????ng b???c ??ng ???y l??m vi???c ????.???

?????i s??? V????ng B??nh Nam b??n gi?? l?? th?? Ti???n H???c S??m g???i Tr???n Th??c Th??ng ra v?? b??c b??? l?? l??? c???a Johnson: ???Ngay t??? th??ng 4 n??m 1955, ch??nh ph??? M??? ???? c??ng khai tuy??n b??? cho ph??p du h???c sinh Trung Qu???c ???????c t??? do ??i v???, th??? th?? t???i sao nh?? khoa h???c Trung Qu???c ti???n s?? Ti???n H???c S??m th??ng 6 v???a r???i c??n vi???t th?? ????? ngh??? ch??nh ph??? ch??ng t??i gi??p ??ng ???????c v??? n?????c? R?? r??ng l?? ph??a M??? v???n c???n tr??? c??c nh?? khoa h???c Trung Qu???c ???????c v??? n?????c.???

Tr?????c ch???ng c??? r??nh r??nh, ph??a M??? kh??ng th??? kh??ng ch???p nh???n y??u c???u v??? n?????c c???a Ti???n H???c S??m. Ng??y 4/8/1955, ??ng nh???n ???????c th??ng b??o c???a C?? quan Nh???p c?? M??? cho ph??p v??? Trung Qu???c d?????i h??nh th???c tr???c xu???t.

Ng??y 17/9/1955, Ti???n H???c S??m c??ng v??? l?? b?? T?????ng Anh mang theo hai con nh??? ????p chi???c t??u thu??? ???T???ng th???ng Cleveland??? l??n ???????ng v??? t??? qu???c. T??u c???p b???n Hong Kong, Ti???n H???c S??m v?? gia ????nh ???????c chuy???n sang Th??m Quy???n; t???i ????y ??ng ???????c ????n ti???p nh?? m???t v??? anh h??ng.

Bi???t tin ???y, nh?? khoa h???c Von Karman x??c ?????ng n??i: ???N?????c M??? th??? l?? bi???u kh??ng cho Trung Qu???c ????? v??? chuy??n gia t??n l???a xu???t s???c nh???t th??? gi???i.???

Ngay t??? cu???i th???p ni??n 1950, Th??? t?????ng Chu ??n Lai t???ng n??i: ???Cu???c h???i ????m Trung-M??? c???p ?????i s??? tuy kh??ng c?? k???t qu??? th???c ch???t n??o nh??ng ch??ng ta ????i ???????c Ti???n H???c S??m. Ri??ng m???t vi???c n??y cho th???y cu???c h???i ????m ???y l?? c?? gi?? tr??????.

Th??? t?????ng Chu ??n Lai ???? s??ng su???t kh???i ?????ng cu???c ????m ph??n Trung Qu???c-M???, kh??o l??o d??ng bi???n ph??p ngo???i giao d???n s???ch c??c tr??? ng???i tr??n con ???????ng v??? n?????c c???a Ti???n H???c S??m, nh??? ???? Ti???n H???c S??m v?? sau n??y nhi???u ng?????i Trung Qu???c h???c ??? M??? ???????c v??? n?????c th???c hi???n nguy???n v???ng ph???c v??? t??? qu???c.

Sau khi v??? n?????c, Ti???n H???c S??m l???p t???c ???????c ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c tr???ng d???ng. M???i ki???n ngh??? c???a ??ng ?????u ???????c ch???p nh???n. ??ng ???????c c??? l??nh ?????o Vi???n nghi??n c???u s??? 5 c???a B??? Qu???c ph??ng, n??i chuy??n tr??ch nghi??n c???u ch??? t???o t??n l???a v?? m??y bay. Ti???n H???c S??m ???????c b???u l??m Vi???n s?? Vi???n Khoa h???c Trung Qu???c v?? Vi???n C??ng tr??nh Trung Qu???c, c??ng nh?? l??m ph?? Ch??? t???ch H???i ngh??? Ch??nh tr??? Hi???p th????ng to??n qu???c. C???ng hi???n to l???n c???a ??ng trong vi???c x??y d???ng ng??nh t??n l???a v?? du h??nh v?? tr??? ???????c ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c ghi nh???n b???ng m???t lo???t gi???i th?????ng v?? danh hi???u cao qu?? nh???t.

Nh??? s??? ????ng g??p c???a c??c nh?? khoa h???c l???i l???c t??? n?????c ngo??i tr??? v??? nh?? Ti???n H???c S??m, c??ng tr??nh ch??? t???o t??n l???a v?? bom nguy??n t??? c???a Trung Qu???c ho??n th??nh s???m tr?????c th???i h???n ??t nh???t 20 n??m.

Cu???i n??m 1960, Trung Qu???c ph??ng th??? th??nh c??ng qu??? t??n l???a ?????u ti??n. Hi???n nay Trung Qu???c ???? ch??? t???o ???????c c??c lo???i t??n l???a m???nh, c?? t???m b???n xa tr??n ch???c ngh??n km v?? c?? th??? mang ?????u ?????n h???t nh??n. D?????i s??? ch??? ?????o c???a Ti???n H???c S??m, ng??nh du h??nh v?? tr??? Trung Qu???c ra ?????i v?? c?? ti???n b??? nhanh ch??ng. N??m 1970 ph??ng th??nh c??ng v??? tinh nh??n t???o ?????u ti??n ????ng Ph????ng H???ng 1. N??m 2003 ph??ng th??nh c??ng t??u v?? tr??? ch??? ng?????i Th???n Ch??u 5 tr??? v??? tr??i ?????t an to??n. N??m 2008 Trung Qu???c l???i ph??ng ???????c v??? tinh H???ng Nga bay v??ng quanh m???t tr??ng, tr??? th??nh qu???c gia th??? 5 ????a ???????c v???t th??? l??n M???t Tr??ng (sau Nga, M???, Nh???t, ch??u ??u). N??m 2011 v?? 2016 l???i ph??ng th??nh c??ng 2 tr???m kh??ng gian Thi??n Cung. Ng??y 3/1/2019, Trung Qu???c l???i ph??ng t??u v?? tr??? h??? c??nh th??nh c??ng xu???ng b??? m???t kh??ng nh??n th???y c???a M???t tr??ng.
 

19/07/1956: Hoa K??? r??t vi???n tr??? cho Ai C???p

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Ngu???n: ???United States withdraws offer of aid for Aswan Dam,??? History.com (truy c???p ng??y 18/7/2015).

Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1956, Ngo???i tr?????ng Hoa K??? John Foster Dulles tuy??n b??? r???ng M??? ??ang r??t ????? ngh??? vi???n tr??? t??i ch??nh cho Ai C???p ????? gi??p ????? x??y d???ng ?????p Aswan tr??n s??ng Nile. ?????ng th??i n??y ???? khi???n Ai C???p ti???n xa h??n n???a t???i m???t li??n minh v???i Li??n X?? v?? l?? m???t nh??n t??? ????ng g??p v??o cu???c kh???ng ho???ng k??nh ????o Suez di???n ra cu???i n??m 1956.

Tr?????c ????, v??o th??ng 12 n??m 1955, Ngo???i tr?????ng Dulles tuy??n b??? r???ng Hoa K???, c??ng v???i V????ng qu???c Anh, ??ang cung c???p g???n 70 tri???u ???? la ti???n vi???n tr??? cho Ai C???p ????? gi??p ????? x??y d???ng ?????p Aswan. Tuy nhi??n, Dulles ch??? mi???n c?????ng ?????ng ?? cho kho???n h??? tr??? n??y. ??ng c?? m???i nghi ng??? s??u s???c v??? l??nh ?????o Ai C???p Gamal Abdel Nasser, ng?????i m?? theo Dulles l?? m???t nh?? d??n t???c ch??? ngh??a n??n n??ng v?? nguy hi???m. Nh???ng ng?????i kh??c trong ch??nh quy???n Eisenhower ???? thuy???t ph???c Dulles r???ng kho???n vi???n tr??? c???a M??? c?? th??? k??o Nasser ra kh???i m???i quan h??? v???i Li??n X?? v?? ng??n ch???n s??? gia t??ng quy???n l???c c???a Li??n X?? ??? Trung ????ng.

Nh??ng ch??? 7 th??ng sau khi c??ng b???, kho???n vi???n tr??? b??? thu h???i. Dulles vi???n d???n nh???ng kh?? kh??n trong vi???c s???p x???p h??? th???ng t??i ch??nh cho kho???n h??? tr??? c???a M??? v???i ch??nh ph??? Ai C???p, nh??ng ?????ng c?? th???c s??? c???a ??ng l???i l?? b???i nh???ng cu???c t???n c??ng kh??ng ng???ng c???a Nasser nh???m v??o ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n v?? ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c ph????ng T??y, c??ng s??? ve v??n li??n t???c c???a Ai C???p v???i Li??n X??.

C?? th??? Dulles ???? tin r???ng n???u kh??ng c?? s??? tr??? gi??p c???a M??? th?? d??? ??n x??y d???ng ?????p Aswan s??? ph???i g??c l???i. V??? ??i???m n??y, ??ng ???? nh???m. Li??n X?? nhanh ch??ng b?? ?????p vi???n tr??? cho Ai C???p, v?? ?????p Aswan ???????c ch??nh th???c khai tr????ng t??? n??m 1964. D?? nhi??n nh?? l??nh ?????o Ai C???p Nasser r???t gi???n d??? tr?????c h??nh ?????ng c???a M???. Ngay c??? Anh c??ng kh??ng h??i l??ng v?? tin r???ng vi???c M??? r??t vi???n tr??? cho Ai C???p ???? m??? ???????ng cho s??? th??m nh???p c???a Li??n X?? v??o Ai C???p.

Th??ng 10 n??m 1956, c??c l???c l?????ng Anh, Ph??p, v?? Israel c??ng t???n c??ng Ai C???p v???i tuy??n b??? ????? b???o v??? k??nh ????o Suez. S??? vi???c n??y g???n nh?? ???? kh??i m??o cho m???t cu???c ?????i ?????u M???-X??, nh??ng T???ng th???ng Dwight D. Eisenhower ???? v???a nghi??m kh???c c???nh b??o b???t k??? h??nh ?????ng qu??n s??? n??o c???a Li??n X??, v???a t??? ch???i h??? tr??? cho Anh, Ph??p, v?? Israel. C??c l???c l?????ng t???n c??ng b???t ?????u r??t kh???i Ai C???p t??? n??m 1957. Tuy nhi??n, quan h??? gi???a M??? v?? Trung ????ng t??? ???? ???? s???t m???, khi???n Trung ????ng tr??? th??nh m???t ??i???m n??ng Chi???n tranh L???nh trong su???t 35 n??m sau ????.

???nh: L??nh ?????o Li??n X?? Nikita Khrushchev c???nh T???ng th???ng Ai C???p Gamal Abdal Nasser trong l??? c???t b??ng kh??nh th??nh ?????p Aswan th??ng 5 n??m 1964. Ngu???n: AP.
 

#186 ??? C??c ch??? th??? phi qu???c gia v?? th??ch th???c ?????i v???i qu???n tr??? to??n c???u

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Ngu???n: Charles W. Kegley, JR. & Gregory A. Raymond, The Global Future: A Brief Introduction to World Politics (Chapter 6), (Boston, MA: Wadsworth, 2010).

Bi??n d???ch: H??? H???i Y???n | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

B??i li??n quan: C??c ch????ng kh??c c???a cu???n The Global Future

C?? m???t s??? t??i ph??n b??? quy???n l???c m???i ??ang di???n ra gi???a c??c nh?? n?????c, th??? tr?????ng v?? x?? h???i d??n s???, k???t th??c s??? t??ch l??y quy???n l???c ?????u ?????n trong tay c???a c??c nh?? n?????c k??? t??? H??a ?????c Westphalia n??m 1648

Jessica T. Matthews ??? Ch??? t???ch Qu??? Carnegie v?? H??a b??nh Qu???c t???

V??o th??ng 7 n??m 2006, c??c chi???n binh du k??ch c???a phong tr??o H???i gi??o Hezbollah c???a Lib??ng ???? ph???c k??ch m???t ?????i tu???n tra ng?????i Israel d???c bi??n gi???i, gi???t m???t s??? binh s?? v?? gi??? 2 con tin. Khi nh???ng ng?????i Israel l???n theo nh??m n??y nh??ng n??? l???c gi???i c???u kh??ng th??nh, h??? c??n m???t th??m m???t v??i binh s?? n???a. Vi???c b???t c??c m???t h??? s?? Israel c???a nh??m Hamas, nh??m H???i gi??o ch??nh y???u trong c??c v??ng l??nh th??? c???a Palestine, ???? th??c ?????y th??? t?????ng Israel Ehud ra l???nh t???n c??ng d??? d???i b???ng ph??o k??ch v?? kh??ng k??ch v??o c??c ????n v??? ?????n tr?? nghi ng??? l?? c???a Hezbollah ??? Beirut v?? mi???n Nam Lib??ng, v???n l?? h??nh ?????ng m?? nh???ng c??? v???n qu??n s??? c???a ??ng ???? t??? l??u ???ng h???. Theo B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng Israel Amir Peretz, m???c ????ch c???a vi???c n??y l?? l??m cho Hezbollah b??? ???????nh b???i m???t c??ch ho??n to??n sao cho kh??ng m???t ng?????i n??o trong nh??m n??y kh??ng h???i ti???c v?? ???? th???c hi???n h??nh ?????ng tr??n??? (Time, 24/7/2006, trang 28).

V?? Israel phong t???a Lib??ng v?? t???n c??ng li??n t???c v??o h??? t???ng giao th??ng v???i m???c ????ch c??ch ly binh l??nh Hezbollah, Hezbollah tr??? ????a b???ng c??ch b???n m???t lo???t t??n l???a Katyusha v??o B???c Israel, l??m t?? li???t Haifa, th??nh ph??? l???n th??? 3 c???a n?????c n??y v?? c??ng l?? m???t trong nh???ng h???i c???ng ????ng ????c nh???t. ???Nh?? c???a ch??ng t??i kh??ng ph???i l?? nh???ng th??? duy nh???t b??? ph?? h???y???, l??nh ?????o Hezbolla Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah tuy??n b???. ???C??c ng?????i kh??ng bi???t l?? c??c ng?????i ??ang ch???ng l???i ai??? (Newsweek, 24/7/2006, trang 24).

Hezbollah (ho???c ????????ng c???a ch??a tr???i???) ???????c th??nh l???p v??o n??m 1982 sau khi Israel x??m l?????c Lib??ng ????? lo???i tr??? T??? ch???c Gi???i ph??ng Palestine (PLO), t??? ch???c v???n ???? s??? d???ng Lib??ng l??m c??n c??? ????? qu???y r???i nh???ng khu ?????nh c?? ??? mi???n B???c Israel v???i c??c v?? kh?? h???ng nh??? v?? s??ng c???i. L?? m???t t??? ch???c H???i gi??o c???c ??oan d??ng Shiite c?? m???i quan h??? m???t thi???t v???i Iran, c??c th??nh vi??n c???a Hezbollah ???? ???????c cho l?? ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m ?????i v???i v??? t???n c??ng b???ng bom v??o c??n c??? th???y qu??n l???c chi???n M??? t???i Beirut n??m 1983, v??? c?????p m??y bay TWA 847 n??m 1985 v?? nhi???u v??? b???t c??c kh??c. Ho???t ?????ng trong m???t qu???c gia ??? d??n t???c y???u v?? ????ng ng???nh, Hezbollah g???n nh?? ho??n to??n t??? do ki???m so??t m???t s??? v??ng c???a Lib??ng.

Trong nh???ng n??m 1990, Hezbollah ???? m??? r???ng v?????t kh???i h??nh th??i c???a m???t t??? ch???c b??n qu??n s??? ????n thu???n, ph??t tri???n c??c ch????ng tr??nh ph??c l???i x?? h???i r???ng kh???p, bao g???m vi???c v???n h??nh c??c tr?????ng h???c v?? c??c trung t??m y t??? ??? m???t s??? v??ng c???a ng?????i Shiite c???a Lib??ng. T??? ch???c n??y c??ng b???t ?????u tham gia v??o c??c cu???c b???u c??? c???a ng?????i Lib??ng, gi??nh ???????c 14 gh??? trong s??? 128 gh??? qu???c h???i n??m 2005. M???c d?? c?? nh???ng thay ?????i nh?? tr??n, Hezbollah v???n ti???p t???c xem Israel nh?? m???t th???c th??? b???t h???p ph??p v?? th??? g??y ??p l???c ????? Iseael th??? t??? do cho nh???ng ng?????i Lib??ng ??ang b??? b???t gi??? v?? r??t lui kh???i v??ng tranh ch???p Shebaa.

M???i quan t??m h??ng ?????u c???a Israel v??? Hezbollah t???p trung v??o c??c kho v?? kh?? do Iran t??i tr??? ng??y c??ng ph??t tri???n. Trong khi t??n l???a Katyusha kh??ng ???????c ch??nh x??c l???m v?? c?? t???m ho???t ?????ng t??? 10 ?????n 20 d???m, th?? ng?????i Israel lo r???ng Iran ???? cung c???p cho Hezbollah m???t l?????ng ch??a bi???t c??c t??n l???a tinh vi c?? th??? nh???m v??o t???t c??? m???i trung t??m d??n c?? Israel v???i ?????u ?????n c?? th??? ch???a c??c t??c nh??n h??a h???c ho???c sinh h???c. M???i lo ng???i n??y c??ng t??ng trong v??i ng??y v?? tr??? th??nh xung ?????t khi m???t t??n l???a C-802 c?? radar d???n ???????ng ph?? h???ng m???t t??u chi???n Israel ??? ngo??i kh??i b??? bi???n Lib??ng. S??? r???ng Hezbollah c??ng c?? th??? s??? h???u nh???ng t??n l???a t???m xa Zelzal-2, Israel ???? li??n t???c b???n ph?? Lib??ng b???t ch???p nh???ng l???i k??u g???i ng???ng b???n t??? T???ng th?? k?? Li??n Hi???p Qu???c Kofi Annan. T???i l?????t m??nh,  Hezbollah duy tr?? t???n c??ng li??n t???c ch???ng l???i mi???n b???c Israel. Th????ng vong d??n s??? h???t s???c ????ng lo ng???i c???a c??? hai b??n ???? khi???n Th??? t?????ng Lib??ng Fouad Siniora than v??n r???ng ?????t n?????c ??ng ??ang b??? x?? tan ra t???ng m???nh.

Trong nh???ng tu???n sau ????, c?? ba c??ch gi???i th??ch l?? do t???i sao Hezbollah b???t ?????u c??c ho???t ?????ng th?? ?????ch ???????c l??u truy???n trong gi???i nh?? b??o, ngo???i giao, v?? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o th??? gi???i. L?? gi???i ?????u ti??n tuy??n b??? r???ng cu???c t???n c??ng ng??y 12 th??ng 7 l?? m???t t??nh to??n sai l???m: Hezbollah ???? ti???n h??nh c??c cu???c t???n c??ng xuy??n bi??n gi???i t????ng t??? trong nh???ng n??m g???n ????y m?? kh??ng g??y ra m???t ph???n ???ng l???n n??o t??? Israel, v?? v???y th??? l??nh Hezbollah c?? l??? ngh?? r???ng c?? th??? l??m ??i???u ???? m???t l???n n???a m?? kh??ng b??? tr???ng ph???t. Gi???i th??ch th??? hai cho r???ng ???? l?? tr?? ????nh l???c h?????ng: Iran, qu???c gia ???? ????o t???o v?? cung c???p v?? kh?? cho Hezbollah, ???????c cho l?? khuy???n kh??ch c??c cu???c t???n c??ng ????? thu h??t s??? ch?? ?? c???a qu???c t??? ra kh???i ch????ng tr??nh v?? kh?? h???t nh??n v???a manh nha c???a m??nh. Cu???i c??ng, gi???i th??ch th??? ba ????? xu???t r???ng v??? t???n c??ng l?? m???t s??? khi??u kh??ch: Sau khi Israel ch???m d???t chi???m ????ng ??? mi???n Nam Lib??ng v??o n??m 2000, Hezbollah ???? c???ng c??? khu v???c v?? c?? ???????c h??ng ng??n t??n l???a t???m ng???n v?? t???m trung. V???i vi???c Hoa K??? sa l???y ??? Iraq v?? Israel b???n t??m v???i t??nh tr???ng b???t ???n trong c??c v??ng l??nh th??? Palestine, l??nh ?????o c???a Hezbollah c?? th??? k???t lu???n r???ng Israel d??? b??? t???n th????ng; h??nh ?????ng t??o b???o s??? cho ph??p Hezbollah ch???ng minh s???c m???nh qu??n s??? c???a m??nh v???i th??? gi???i ??? R???p khi gi??ng cho Israel m???t ????n t?? li???t.

M???c d?? c??c nh?? quan s??t l??u n??m c???a Trung ????ng b???t ?????ng v??? tr???ng l?????ng c???a t???ng gi???i th??ch n??i tr??n, h??? ?????ng t??nh r???ng ?????ng l???c ch??nh tr??? c???a khu v???c bao g???m kh??ng ch??? s??? t????ng t??c gi???a c??c qu???c gia ??? d??n t???c. B???t k??? ph??n t??ch n??o t???p trung v??o Israel, Lib??ng, Iran, v?? c??c qu???c gia kh??c m?? b??? qua Hezbollah, Hamas, PLO, v?? c??c ch??? th??? phi qu???c gia kh??c ?????u th???t ????ng ti???c l?? s??? kh??ng ?????y ?????. C??c th???c th??? phi qu???c gia c?? nhi???u d???ng kh??c nhau, c?? th??? t??? c??c t??? ch???c li??n ch??nh ph??? to??n c???u v?? khu v???c (IGO) cho ?????n c??c t??? ch???c phi ch??nh ph??? d??n t???c v?? t??n gi??o (NGO), ????y l?? nh???ng ch??? th??? quan tr???ng c???n ph???i ???????c ch?? ?? khi xem x??t n???n ch??nh tr??? th??? gi???i. Th???t v???y, nh?? cu???c xung ?????t Lib??ng ???? ch???ng minh, kh??ng th??? n??i ?????n c??c v???n ????? quan h??? qu???c t??? ??????ng ?????i m?? kh??ng d??nh s??? ch?? ?? cho nh???ng ch??? th??? nh?? v???y. Do m???c ????? quan tr???ng c???a nh???ng ch??? th??? n??y, m???c ti??u c???a ch????ng n??y l?? m?? t??? c??c lo???i ch??? th??? phi qu???c gia kh??c nhau v?? gi???i th??ch khi n??o v?? l??m th??? n??o h??? s??? d???ng ???nh h?????ng c???a h???.

C??c ki???u ch??? th??? phi qu???c gia

Ph???n l???n l???ch s??? ch??nh tr??? th??? gi???i 350 n??m qua l?? m???t bi??n ni??n s??? c???a s??? t????ng t??c gi???a c??c qu???c gia ch??? quy???n c?? l??nh th???. Tuy nhi??n, ng??y nay, c??c v???n ????? th??? gi???i c??ng ??ang ???????c h??nh th??nh b???i c??c t??? ch???c v?????t kh???i bi??n gi???i qu???c gia. Ngo??i Li??n Hi???p Qu???c v?? c??c th???c th??? khu v???c nh?? Li??n minh ch??u ??u, c??c v???n ????? th??? gi???i c??ng ??ang b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i c??c nh??m ng?????i h???p nh???t v???i nhau tr??n c?? s??? d??n t???c, t??n gi??o chung ho???c c??c l?? do kh??c. ??a d???ng v??? quy m?? v?? m???c ????ch, c??c ch??? th??? phi qu???c gia ???? th??c ?????y nh???ng ch????ng tr??nh ngh??? s??? c???a ri??ng m??nh v?? ng??y c??ng ph??t huy ???nh h?????ng qu???c t??? .

C?? hai lo???i ch??? th??? phi qu???c gia ch??nh:  c??c t??? ch???c li??n ch??nh ph??? (IGO),[1] v???i th??nh vi??n l?? c??c qu???c gia v?? c??c t??? ch???c phi ch??nh ph??? (NGO),[2] v???i th??nh vi??n l?? c?? nh??n ri??ng bi???t ho???c c??c nh??m. Li??n minh c??c T??? ch???c Qu???c t??? (UIO), n??i duy tr?? v?? c???p nh???t to??n di???n th??ng tin v??? c??c t??? ch???c, ghi nh???n l???i r???ng s??? l?????ng c???a c??c t??? ch???c n??y t??ng m???nh trong th??? k??? 19 b???i s??? ph??t tri???n c???a th????ng m???i qu???c t??? v?? th??ng tin li??n l???c c??ng v???i c??ng nghi???p h??a. V??o n??m 1909, ???? c?? 37 IGO v?? 176 NGO. V??o n??m 1960 , ???? c?? 154 IGO v?? 1.255 NGO, v?? ?????n n??m 2007, nh???ng con s??? n??y ???? t??ng l??n t????ng ???ng th??nh 246 v?? 27.723 (xem H??nh 6.1).

C??c IGO ???????c t???o ra b???i c??c qu???c gia ????? gi???i quy???t c??c v???n ????? chung. Nh?? ???????c th??? hi???n trong H??nh 6.1, ch??ng kh??c nhau v??? k??ch th?????c v?? m???c ????ch.  V?? d??? nh?? T??? ch???c Hi???p ?????c B???c ?????i T??y D????ng (NATO) ch??? y???u l?? m???t li??n minh qu??n s???, trong khi nh???ng t??? ch???c kh??c, v?? d??? nh?? T??? ch???c c??c qu???c gia Ch??u M??? (OAS) l???i th??c ?????y ph??t tri???n kinh t???. H???u h???t c??c IGO t???p trung ho???t ?????ng v??o c??c v???n ????? kinh t???, x?? h???i ch??ng quan t??m ?????c bi???t, ch???ng h???n nh?? vi???c qu???n l?? th????ng m???i, ho???c qu???n l?? giao th??ng v???n t???i.

C??c t??? ch???c phi ch??nh ph??? c??ng kh??c nhau r???t nhi???u. Ch??ng bao ph??? h???u nh?? m???i kh??a c???nh c???a ho???t ?????ng ch??nh tr???, x?? h???i v?? kinh t???, trong ???? c?? khoa h???c, y t???, v??n h??a, th???n h???c, ph??p lu???t, an ninh, qu???c ph??ng. V?? l?? c??c t??? ch???c ?????c l???p kh???i ch??nh ph???, NGO li??n k???t m???i ng?????i t??? c??c x?? h???i kh??c nhau trong m???ng l?????i xuy??n qu???c gia ????? v???n ?????ng cho c??c ch??nh s??ch c??? th???. V?? m???c ????ch n??y, nhi???u NGO t????ng t??c m???t c??ch ch??nh th???c v???i c??c IGO. H??n 1.000 NGO t??ch c???c tham v???n v???i c??c c?? quan kh??c nhau c???a h??? th???ng Li??n Hi???p Qu???c, duy tr?? v??n ph??ng t???i h??ng tr??m th??nh ph??? v?? t??? ch???c h???i ngh??? song song v???i c??c cu???c h???p c???a IGO m?? c??c qu???c gia g???i ?????i di???n ?????n tham d???. Quan h??? ?????i t??c nh?? v???y gi???a c??c t??? ch???c NGO v?? IGO cho ph??p c??? hai lo???i h??nh t??? ch???c n??y l??m vi???c (v?? v???n ?????ng h??nh lang) v???i nhau trong vi???c theo ??u???i c??c ch??nh s??ch v?? ch????ng tr??nh chung.

B???ng 6.1 B???ng ph??n lo???i ????n gi???n c??c IGO

Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây