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03/08/1916: Roger Casement b??? treo c???

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1916, Sir Roger David Casement, m???t nh?? ngo???i giao g???c Ireland, ng?????i ???????c vua George V phong t?????c hi???p s?? v??o n??m 1911, ???? b??? x??? t??? v?? vai tr?? c???a ??ng trong cu???c N???i d???y Ph???c sinh (Easter Rising) c???a Ireland
03/08/1916: Roger Casement b??? treo c???
03/08/1916: Roger Casement b??? treo c???


Ngu???n: Sir Roger Casement hanged, History.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1916, Sir Roger David Casement, m???t nh?? ngo???i giao g???c Ireland, ng?????i ???????c vua George V phong t?????c hi???p s?? v??o n??m 1911, ???? b??? x??? t??? v?? vai tr?? c???a ??ng trong cu???c N???i d???y Ph???c sinh (Easter Rising) c???a Ireland
Casement l?? m???t ng?????i theo ?????o Tin l??nh Ireland, t???ng gi??? ch???c v??? trong b??? ngo???i giao Anh v??o kho???ng ?????u th??? k??? 20. ??ng ???? gi??nh ???????c s??? hoan ngh??nh qu???c t??? sau khi v???ch tr???n c??c h??nh vi s??? d???ng n?? l??? b???t h???p ph??p ??? Congo v?? m???t s??? n??i ??? Nam M???. M???c d?? c?? g???c g??c Tin L??nh Ulster, Casement ???? tr??? th??nh ng?????i ???ng h??? nhi???t t??nh cho phong tr??o gi??nh ?????c l???p cho Ireland, v?? sau khi Th??? chi???n I b??ng n???, ??ng ???? ?????n M???, r???i ?????n ?????c ????? t??m ki???m vi???n tr??? cho m???t cu???c n???i d???y c???a ng?????i d??n Ireland ch???ng l???i Anh.
?????c, n?????c ??ang c?? chi???n tranh v???i V????ng qu???c Anh, h???a s??? cung c???p m???t kho???n vi???n tr??? nh???t ?????nh v?? Casement ???????c ????a v??? Ireland trong m???t t??u ng???m ?????c. Ng??y 21/04/1916, ch??? v??i ng??y tr?????c khi cu???c N???i d???y Ph???c sinh b??ng n??? ??? Dublin, ??ng ???? ?????n Kerry v?? b??? ch??nh quy???n Anh b???t ngay l???p t???c. ?????n cu???i th??ng, cu???c n???i d???y ???? b??? ????n ??p v?? ph???n l???n c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a phong tr??o ???? b??? x??? t???. Casement ???? b??? x??t x??? ri??ng v?? qu?? kh??? l???ng l???y c???a m??nh, nh??ng ??ng v???n b??? k???t t???i ph???n qu???c v??o ng??y 29/06; sang ng??y 03/08, ??ng b??? treo c??? ??? London.
Th??? n??o m???i ???????c coi l?? di???t ch???ng?

Th??? n??o m???i ???????c coi l?? di???t ch???ng?



Ngu???n: ???The Economist explains: What counts as a genocide????, The Economist, 23/4/2015.
Bi??n d???ch: L?? Ho??ng Giang | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p
????ng m???t tr??m n??m tr?????c, v??o ng??y 24/4/1915, ch??nh quy???n ????? ch??? Ottoman ???? v??y b???t h??ng lo???t c??c nh?? tr?? th???c Armenia ??? Istanbul, ??a s??? h??? ?????u ???? b??? gi???t h???i ngay sau ????. Nh???ng g?? ???? di???n ra v??? sau v???n c??n l?? ch??? ????? tranh c??i gay g???t. Theo phi??n b???n (l???ch s???) ch??nh th???c do Th??? Nh?? K??? ????a ra, c?? kho???ng 500.000 ng?????i Armenia ???? ch???t, trong ???? m???t s??? ng?????i ch???t khi chi???n ?????u trong l???c l?????ng x??m l?????c c???a Nga ch???ng l???i ????? ch??? Ottoman, trong khi c??i ch???t c???a m???t s??? kh??c l???i l?? do h???u qu??? ph??? ????ng ti???c c???a vi???c tr???c xu???t [ng?????i Armenia] kh???i ????? ch??? Ottoman, ??i???u d??? hi???u n???u ?????t v??o b???i c???nh l???ch s??? c??? th??? l??c ????.
Nh??ng nhi???u h???c gi??? cho r???ng ???? c?? ?????n kho???ng 1 ??? 1,5 tri???u ng?????i Armenia b??? thi???t m???ng, v?? c??i ch???t c???a h??? l?? k???t qu??? c???a m???t chi???n d???ch c?? ch??? ????ch nh???m tr??? kh??? c???ng ?????ng t??n ????? C?? ?????c gi??o c?? s??? l?????ng ????ng k??? duy nh???t c???a ????? ch??? Ottoman. Nh???ng ng?????i Armenia ??? n?????c ngo??i mu???n v??? vi???c n??y ???????c c??ng nh???n l?? n???n di???t ch???ng. V???y c?? ??i???u g?? kh??c bi???t gi???a di???t ch???ng v?? c??c h??nh vi gi???t ng?????i h??ng lo???t kh??c, v?? v?? sao vi???c ch???n d??ng thu???t ng??? n??o l???i l?? quan tr???ng?
N??m 1948, Li??n H???p Qu???c ???? ????a ra m???t c??ng ?????c nh???m ng??n ch???n v?? tr???ng ph???t t???i di???t ch???ng, ???????c ?????nh ngh??a l?? ???s??? h???y di???t c?? ch??? ?? v?? c?? h??? th???ng, to??n b??? ho???c m???t ph???n, m???t nh??m s???c t???c, ch???ng t???c, t??n gi??o hay d??n t???c m???t qu???c gia???.[1] ????? ?????t ???????c s??? nh???t tr?? v??? c??u ch??? nh?? v???y ???? c???n ph???i c?? s??? th???a hi???p. Ch???ng h???n, nh???m v??o c??c n???n nh??n d???a tr??n c?? s??? giai c???p c???a h??? th?? kh??ng b??? coi l?? di???t ch???ng: Ch???c ch???n l?? Stalin ???? kh??ng ch???u k?? v??o c??ng ?????c n??y n???u ??i???u ???? ?????ng ngh??a v???i vi???c ??ng ta ph???i gi???i tr??nh v?? ???? th???m s??t h??ng lo???t c??c ???n??ng d??n trung l??u???[2]v?? nh???ng ng?????i t????ng t???.
C??c m???c th???i gian ??? d?????i ????y ch??? cho th???y m???t s??? cu???c th???m s??t h??ng lo???t trong th??? k??? tr?????c, bao g???m c??? nh???ng cu???c th???m s??t ???? ???????c c??ng nh???n l?? di???t ch???ng v?? nh???ng cu???c th???m s??t ch??a ph?? h???p v???i ?????nh ngh??a c???a Li??n H???p Qu???c. V?? d???, r?? r??ng cu???c th???m s??t ng?????i Tutsi thi???u s??? t???i Rwanda d?????i tay ng?????i Hutu ??a s??? l?? m???t v??? di???t ch???ng. Nh??ng nh???ng th???m k???ch ???????c th???c hi???n d?????i tay ch??? ????? Pol Pot t???i Campuchia l???i kh??ng theo s??t ?????nh ngh??a tr??n, b???i ch??nh quy???n Khmer ????? kh??ng nh???m v??o m???t nh??m ng?????i c??? th??? n??o.
  • 1915-16, Th??? Nh?? K???: Ch??nh quy???n ????? ch??? Ottoman ???tr???c xu???t??? t???t c??? ng?????i Armenia. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 500.000-1.500.000 ng?????i.
  • 1932-33, Holodomor, Ukraine: N???n ????i do Stalin g??y ra nh???m v??o ng?????i Ukraine. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 3-7 tri???u ng?????i.
  • 1933-45, Holocaust, Ch??u ??u: ?????c Qu???c x?? di???t tr??? ng?????i Do Th??i, Roma v?? c??c nh??m ng?????i kh??c. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 15 tri???u ng?????i.
  • 1936-38, ?????i Thanh tr???ng, Li??n X??: Stalin tr??? kh??? c??c ?????i th??? ch??nh tr???. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 681.692 ng?????i.
  • 1937-38, Nam Kinh, Trung Qu???c: Binh l??nh Nh???t B???n gi???t h???i c?? d??n th??nh ph??? Nam Kinh trong chi???n tranh Trung ??? Nh???t l???n 2. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 300.000 ng?????i.
  • 1941-45, Croatia: Phong tr??o kh???ng b??? Ustase gi???t h???i ng?????i Do Th??i, ng?????i Serbia v?? ng?????i Roma. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 350.000 ng?????i.
  • 1947-52, C???i c??ch Ru???ng ?????t, Trung Qu???c: D?????i th???i Mao Tr???ch ????ng, Trung Qu???c kh??ch ?????ng ng?????i d??n ?????u t??? ?????a ch??? v?? t??i ph??n b??? ru???ng ?????t. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 245.000-1.100.000 ng?????i.
  • 1950-53, Chi???n d???ch ????n ??p ph???n c??ch m???ng, Trung Qu???c: Trung Qu???c x??? t??? nh???ng ng?????i ???ph???n c??ch m???ng??? ????? ????n ??p c??c l???c l?????ng ch???ng ?????i. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 700.000 ng?????i.
  • 1975-79, Campuchia: Ch??nh quy???n Khmer ????? t??n s??t ch??nh ng?????i d??n c???a m??nh nh???m ???thanh t???y??? d??n c??. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 2 tri???u ng?????i.
  • 1986-89, Chi???n d???ch Al-Anfar (???Chi???n l???i ph???m???), Iraq. Ch??nh quy???n Saddam Hussein th???m s??t ng?????i Kurd ??? mi???n b???c Iraq. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 100.000 ng?????i.
  • 1994, Rwanda: Trong 100 ng??y, c??c binh s?? thu???c b??? t???c ng?????i ??a s??? Hutu gi???t h???i nh???ng ng?????i Tutsi v?? ng?????i Hutu ??n h??a. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 800.000 ng?????i.
  • 2003-10, Darfur, Sudan: D??n qu??n Janjaweed, v???i s??? ???ng h??? t??? ch??nh ph???, s??t h???i d??n th?????ng ??? mi???n t??y Sudan. ?????c t??nh th????ng vong 300.000 ng?????i.
Ngu???n: The Economist; Reiss Institute; ???China???s Bloody Century??? c???a R. Rummel; ???Life and Terror in Stalin???s Russia, 1934-1941??? c???a R. Thurston.
T??? ???di???t ch???ng??? c?? s???c m???nh r???t l???n. N???u vi???c th???m s??t h??ng lo???t ???????c c??ng nh???n l?? di???t ch???ng khi ??ang di???n ra, th?? c??c l???c l?????ng b??n ngo??i s??? kh?? c?? th??? ng???i y??n ???????c. C??n khi v??? vi???c ???? k???t th??c, th?? ch??nh th???c c??ng nh???n ???? l?? di???t ch???ng c?? th??? ??em l???i cho nh???ng ng?????i s???ng s??t ch??t ??t h??i l??ng nghi???t ng??. Nh??ng n???u v??? vi???c kh??ng ???????c c??ng nh???n l?? di???t ch???ng, d?? l?? v?? v???n ????? chuy??n m??n hay v?? m??u ????? ch??nh tr???, th?? ???? s??? gi???ng nh?? s??? s??? nh???c sau c??ng t???i c??c n???n nh??n. V?? m???t s??? nh?? ho???t ?????ng nh??n quy???n v?? lu???t gia c??ng th???y r???ng vi???c coi di???t ch???ng l?? ???t???i ??c c???a m???i t???i ??c??? ????i khi khi???n cho nh???ng t???i ??c kh???ng khi???p kh??c ch???ng l???i lo??i ng?????i b??? lu m???.
M???i g???n ????y, c??? Gi??o ho??ng Francis v?? Ngh??? vi???n Ch??u ??u ?????u ???? c??ng khai coi c??c cu???c th???m s??t ng?????i Armenia l?? di???t ch???ng: Gi??o ho??ng tuy??n b??? nh?? v???y trong m???t bu???i g???p g??? v??o ng??y 12/4 v???i s??? tham d??? c???a T???ng th???ng Armenia, c??n Ngh??? vi???n Ch??u ??u th?? c??ng nh???n trong m???t cu???c bi???u quy???t di???n ra sau ???? ba ng??y, khen ng???i tuy??n b??? c???a Gi??o ho??ng v?? k??u g???i Th??? Nh?? K??? c??ng nh???n nh???ng v??? s??t h???i n??y l?? di???t ch???ng. Ch??nh ph??? Th??? Nh?? K??? ???? ph???n ???ng m???t c??ch gi???n d???. T???ng th???ng Th??? Nh?? K??? Recep Tayyip Erdogan n??i r???ng ???Kh??ng th??? n??o c?? chuy???n Th??? Nh?? K??? ch???p nh???n m???t t???i ??c, m???t t???i l???i nh?? v???y???.
B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao c???a Erdogan cho r???ng Gi??o ho??ng ???? b??? l??i k??o b???i nh???ng l???i tuy??n truy???n do nh???ng ng?????i Armenia ??? ???????c cho l?? n???m gi??? quy???n ki???m so??t b??o gi???i t???i Argentina, qu?? h????ng c???a Gi??o ho??ng ??? truy???n b??. Tr??? tr??u l?? T???ng th???ng Erdogan l???i l?? v??? l??nh ?????o Th??? Nh?? K??? t??ch c???c nh???t trong vi???c th???a nh???n nh???ng ??au kh??? m?? ng?????i Armenia d?????i th???i ????? ch??? Ottoman ph???i ch???u ?????ng: ch??nh ??ng ???? b??y t??? l??ng th????ng ti???c [v???i nh???ng ng?????i Armenia] v??o ng??y 24/4 n??m ngo??i. Th??? nh??ng, s??? s???n l??ng c???a ch??nh ph??? Erdogan trong vi???c ?????i m???t v?? g???i t??n nh???ng t???i l???i qu?? kh??? v???n ch??? c?? gi???i h???n.
??????????????????-
[1] Nguy??n v??n: ???the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnical, racial, religious or national group???.
[2] Nguy??n v??n: ???Middle peasants???.
Bi???n ?????i trong quan h??? tam gi??c M??? ??? Trung ??? ????i d?????i th???i Trump


Ngu???n: Chris Horton, ???Taiwan???s Status is a Geopolitical Absurdity???,  The Atlantic, 09/07/2019.
Bi??n d???ch: Ng?? Vi???t Nguy??n
Sau 9 n??m x??y d???ng, h??n 400 nh?? ngo???i giao v?? nh??n vi??n M??? ???? d???n v??o c??c v??n ph??ng t???i ????i B???c, m???t khu??n vi??n tr??? gi?? 250 tri???u ???? la M??? ???????c x??y ch??m v??o m???t ng???n ?????i xanh t???t v?? ???????c b???o v??? b???i l??nh th???y ????nh b??? M???. C??c nh??n vi??n s??? cung c???p h??? tr??? l??nh s??? cho c??c c??ng d??n M??? ??? ????i Loan v?? gi??p ng?????i ????i Loan xin visa ????? th??m M???, nh?? b???t k??? n??i n??o kh??c tr??n th??? gi???i.
Nh??ng ????y kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t ?????i s??? qu??n hay l??nh s??? qu??n ??? ??t ra ch??nh th???c th?? kh??ng ph???i nh?? v???y. ????y l?? Vi???n Hoa K??? t???i ????i Loan, c??i t??n th?????ng l??m ng?????i kh??c ngh?? r???ng ????y l?? m???t vi???n nghi??n c???u ch??? kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t ph??i b??? ngo???i giao. ????y l?? k???t qu??? c???a m???t th???a hi???p ?????a ch??nh tr???, tuy kh??ng ph???i l?? v???n ????? l???n nh???t m?? ????i Loan ph???i ?????i m???t, nh??ng c??ng ????? ????? ph??c h???a t??nh c???nh tr??? tr??u m?? h??n ?????o n??y ph???i g??nh ch???u.
????i Loan kh??ng ???????c c??ng nh???n l?? m???t qu???c gia b???i ?????ng minh quan tr???ng nh???t c???a h???, n?????c M???. ????i Loan ph???i ?????i di???n v???i m???t m???i ??e d???a s???ng c??n t??? l??nh th??? m?? h??? tuy??n b??? ch??? quy???n, Trung Qu???c ?????i l???c. Ch??? quy???n c???a h??? d???n b??? x??a nh??a b???i c??c c??ng ty t??m c??ch duy tr?? kh??? n??ng ti???p c???n th??? tr?????ng Trung Qu???c. Khi c??ng th???ng gi???a M??? v?? Trung Qu???c gia t??ng, v?? v???i vi???c T???ng th???ng ????i Loan Th??i Anh V??n s??? ?????n th??m M??? v??o tu???n n??y, vi???c hi???u r?? ho??n c???nh tr??? tr??u n??y c???a ????i Loan ng??y c??ng quan tr???ng h??n bao gi??? h???t.
Ch??nh th???c c?? 17 qu???c gia c??ng nh???n ch??nh quy???n d??n ch??? c???a ????i Loan, n??i c??n ???????c g???i l?? Trung Hoa D??n Qu???c, nh??ng Li??n Hi???p Qu???c c??ng nh???n ch??nh quy???n C???ng h??a Nh??n D??n Trung Hoa ??? B???c Kinh, tuy kh??ng bao gi??? ki???m so??t ????i Loan, l?? ng?????i ?????i di???n cho h??n ?????o. ??i???u n??y d???n ?????n m???t trong nh???ng ??i???u tr??? tr??u ???nh h?????ng ?????n ????i Loan. Tuy 23 tri???u ng?????i ????i Loan c?? th??? ??i kh???p th??? gi???i v???i passport ????i Loan, v?? passport in d??ng ch??? Trung Hoa D??n Qu???c (????i Loan) l?? m???t trong nh???ng passport nhi???u quy???n l???c nh???t th??? gi???i, nh??ng h??? l???i kh??ng th??? v??o t??a nh?? Li??n Hi???p Qu???c. (??i???u n??y b???t ch???p th???c t??? l?? v??o n??m 1942, Trung Hoa D??n qu???c l?? m???t trong nh???ng n?????c ?????u ti??n k?? Tuy??n b??? Li??n Hi???p Qu???c.) Tuy Washington kh??ng c??ng nh???n Trung Hoa D??n qu???c, ????i Loan l?? ?????i t??c th????ng m???i l???n th??? 11 c???a M???, l?? n???n kinh t??? l???n th??? 22 th??? gi???i, v?? l?? m???t m???t x??ch quan tr???ng trong chu???i cung ???ng c???a Thung l??ng Silicon.
M???c cho s??? hi???n di???n qu???c t??? h???n ch???, t???m quan tr???ng chi???n l?????c c???a ????i Loan v???i M??? v?? m???t n?????c Trung Qu???c ng??y c??ng t??? tin l?? r???t l???n. V??? tr?? ?????a l??, n???n kinh t???, v?? an ninh c???a h??n ?????o t???t c??? ?????u mang t??nh thi???t y???u ?????i v???i l???i ??ch c???a M???, v?? n???u ????i Loan th??nh m???t ph???n c???a Trung Qu???c, nh?? B???c Kinh kh???ng ?????nh, th?? Trung Qu???c ngay l???p t???c s??? tr??? th??nh m???t c?????ng qu???c khu v???c Th??i B??nh D????ng, n???m quy???n ki???m so??t m???t ph???n nh???ng c??ng ngh??? ti??n ti???n nh???t th??? gi???i, v?? c?? kh??? n??ng b??p ngh???t ngu???n d???u th?? cho Nh???t v?? H??n Qu???c, nh???ng qu??n b??i Trung Qu???c c?? th??? d??ng ????? ????i M??? ph???i ????ng c???a c??c c??n c??? qu??n s??? t???i hai n?????c n??i tr??n. Nh??? v???y, B???c Kinh c?? th??? ?????t ???????c m???c ????ch ?????y M??? ra kh???i Ch??u ??. Kh??ng c?? g?? b???t ng??? khi ????i Loan l?? m???t trong s??? ??t nh???ng v???n ????? m?? Qu???c h???i M??? c?? s??? ?????ng thu???n. Qu???c h???i M??? ???? th?????ng xuy??n th??ng qua c??c ?????o lu???t c?? l???i cho ????i Loan v???i m???c ???ng h??? tuy???t ?????i xuy??n su???t nhi???m k??? c???a Donald Trump.
D?? v???y, ??i???u ???? kh??ng xoa d???u n???i lo c???a c??c quan ch???c ?????i v???i m???i ??e d???a ?????n t??? Trung Qu???c. B???c Kinh c?? kho???ng 1.600 t??n l???a ?????n ?????o nh???m v??o h??n ?????o, v?? h??? ng??y c??ng gia t??ng s???c ??p bu???c c??c doanh nghi???p n?????c ngo??i ph???i ????? t??n ????i Loan l?? m???t t???nh c???a Trung Qu???c. M??? l?? qu???c gia duy nh???t d?? kh??ng c??ng nh???n ????i Loan nh??ng ?????ng ?? ti???p ????n t???ng th???ng v?? ngo???i tr?????ng ????i Loan. Th???c t??? n??y h???n ch??? c??ch m?? c??c ch??nh tr??? gia ????i Loan c?? th??? l??n ti???ng tr??n tr?????ng qu???c t???.
???Ch??nh quy???n ????i Loan ???????c b???u m???t c??ch d??n ch??? ??? ch??ng t??i c?? t???ng th???ng, c?? qu???c h???i,??? Ngo???i tr?????ng Joseph Wu (Ng?? Chi??u Nhi???p) n??i m???t c??ch bu???n r???u trong m???t cu???c h???p b??o v???i b??o ch?? qu???c t??? ?????u n??m nay. Trong kho???ng th???i gian n??y, ch??nh quy???n ????i Loan ??ang t??m c??ch ???????c tham gia H???i ?????ng Y t??? Th??? gi???i (Nh??ng cu???i c??ng h??? b??? Trung Qu???c ng??n ch???n.) ???Ch??ng t??i c???p visa, ch??ng t??i c???p passport,??? ??ng n??i, g???n nh?? l?? van xin. ???Ch??ng t??i c?? qu??n ?????i v?? ti???n t??? ??? ????i Loan t??? t???n t???i, ????i Loan kh??ng l?? m???t ph???n c???a b???t k??? m???t n?????c n??o kh??c.???
Gi??? ch??ng ta n??n t??m hi???u th??m v??? b???i c???nh c???a ????i Loan: Trung Hoa D??n qu???c l?? ch??nh quy???n t???ng cai tr??? Trung Qu???c d?????i th???i Qu???c D??n ?????ng Trung Qu???c do T?????ng Gi???i Th???ch l??nh ?????o. T?????ng l?? m???t ?????ng minh ch??? ch???t c???a M??? trong Th??? chi???n II, ??ng ???? g??y ??p l???c l??n chu???i cung ???ng qu??n s??? c???a Nh???t trong khi ??ng d???n r??t qu??n v??? ph??a T??y Trung Qu???c giai ??o???n qu??n ?????ng minh ??ang t???p trung v??o Ch??u ??u. Sau khi phe ?????ng minh th???ng Nh???t n??m 1945, Tokyo th???c t??? ???? t??? b??? ????i Loan, n??i l?? thu???c ?????a c???a Nh???t trong 50 n??m. T???ng th???ng Harry Truman, v???i mong mu???n ????a qu??n M??? v??? n?????c, s???n l??ng giao ????i Loan cho T?????ng.
?????i v???i T?????ng, vi???c ???trao tr?????? ????i Loan cu???i c??ng tr??? th??nh m???t l???i tho??t v?? gi??. Cu???c c??ch m???ng C???ng s???n ?????m m??u c???a Mao l???t ????? ch??nh quy???n T?????ng, v?? h??? r??t v??? ????i Loan v??o n??m 1949, ch??? b???n n??m sau khi h??? b???t ?????u qu???n l?? ????i Loan nh?? m???t t???nh. Ngay khi ?????n ????i Loan, ch??? ????? ?????ng tr??? Qu???c D??n ?????ng n??i ti???ng Quan tho???i ???? ??p ?????t b???n s???c Trung Qu???c theo c??ch h??? ngh?? l??n nh???ng ng?????i d??n ????i Loan n??i ti???ng Nh???t, m???t s??? ng??n ng??? ?????a ph????ng c???a Trung Qu???c, v?? m???t s??? pha tr???n ??a d???ng c??c ng??n ng??? Austronesia b???n ?????a.
??? ????i B???c ng??y nay, di s???n c???a s??? ?????ng h??a d?????i tay T?????ng v?? con trai c???a ??ng l?? T?????ng Kinh Qu???c c?? th??? th???y kh???p n??i. Khi t??i ??i mua c?? ph?? ??? ti???m 7-Eleven ??? ????y, ng??y th??ng ???????c vi???t tr??n h??a ????n kh??ng ghi n??m 2019, m?? l?? n??m 108, v?? ????i Loan ????nh d???u n??m t??? khi Trung Hoa D??n qu???c th??nh l???p (n??m 1911), l??c ???? ????i Loan ???????c th??? gi???i b??n ngo??i bi???t ?????n v???i t??n l?? ????i Loan thu???c Nh???t (Japanese Formosa).
???????ng s??, qu???n huy???n, tr?????ng h???c, v?? c??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c ??? kh???p ????i Loan ???????c ?????t theo t??n c???a T?????ng, th?????ng v???i t??n h??y l?? Trung Ch??nh. Nhi???u con ???????ng ??? ????i B???c ???????c ?????t t??n theo c??c th??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c, nh???ng th??nh ph??? m?? m???t ng??y n??o ???? Trung Hoa D??n qu???c s??? l???y l???i t??? tay nh???ng ???k??? c?????p C???ng s???n,??? nh?? c??ch ch??nh quy???n c???a Mao b??? g???i trong th???i Chi???n tranh l???nh. (??i???u ????ng ch?? ?? l?? kh??ng c?? con ???????ng n??o ??? Trung Qu???c ???????c ?????t t??n theo Mao.)
Hi???n ph??p hi???n t???i c???a Trung Hoa D??n qu???c v???n tuy??n b??? r???ng ????i Loan, Trung Qu???c, M??ng C??? v?? to??n b??? Bi???n ????ng l?? l??nh th??? c???a h???, ph???n ??nh s??? mong mu???n c???a T?????ng v??? vi???c kh??i ph???c s??? ki???m so??t nh???ng khu v???c m?? nh?? Thanh cai tr??? hay tuy??n b??? ch??? quy???n trong th???i k??? ho??ng kim c???a h???, tr?????c khi ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n ch??u ??u, Nh???t v?? M??? b???t ?????u x??m ph???m. Di s???n c???a s??? ??m ???nh mu???n ???chi???m l???i Trung Qu???c??? c???a T?????ng c??ng ???????c ph???n ??nh trong s??? hi???n di???n qu???c t??? c???a ????i Loan. N??m 1971, ??ng r??t ????i Loan ra kh???i Li??n Hi???p Qu???c, ngay tr?????c khi h??? thua v??ng b??? phi???u v???n s??? giao gh??? H???i ?????ng B???o an c???a Trung Qu???c cho ch??nh quy???n B???c Kinh. Nhi???u n??m tr?????c ????, M??? ???? th??c ?????y T?????ng m???t c??ch v?? v???ng v??? vi???c t??? b??? gh??? H???i ?????ng B???o an ????? ?????i l???y m???t gh??? ?????i h???i ?????ng cho ????i Loan, khi m?? ??i???u hoang ???????ng v??? vi???c Trung Hoa D??n qu???c l?? ch??nh quy???n h???p ph??p duy nh???t c???a to??n b??? Trung Qu???c (v?? ????i Loan) b???t ?????u b??? ????? v???.
Sau khi T?????ng m???t v??o n??m 1975, con trai ??ng v???n duy tr?? ?????c v???ng h??o huy???n r???ng Trung Hoa D??n qu???c s??? v?????t eo bi???n ????i Loan trong vinh quang ????? l???y l???i ?????i l???c. V??o n??m 1981, ch??nh quy???n T?????ng Kinh Qu???c t??? ch???i ????? ngh??? c???a ???y ban Olympic Qu???c t??? v??? vi???c tham d??? Olympic d?????i t??n g???i ????i Loan, kh???ng ?????nh r???ng h??? ch??? tham gia d?????i m???t c??i t??n c?? li??n quan ?????n Trung Qu???c, v?? cu???i c??ng ch???p nh???n s??? d???ng t??n g???i m?? c??c v???n ?????ng vi??n ????i Loan v???n d??ng ????? tham d??? ?????n ng??y h??m nay: ????i B???c Trung Hoa.
Hai n??m tr?????c ????, Jimmy Carter quy???t ?????nh t??? b??? quan h??? ngo???i giao ch??nh th???c v???i ????i B???c ????? c??ng nh???n B???c Kinh, ch???m d???t qu?? tr??nh ???????c b???t ?????u v??o n??m 1972 b???i Richard Nixon v?? Henry Kissinger. Carter ???? kh??ng th??ng b??o v???i qu???c h???i, n??i c??c ???Chi???n binh Chi???n tranh L???nh??? ???ng h??? m???nh m??? ch??nh quy???n ?????c t??i c???a T?????ng ch???ng C???ng ??? b??n kia eo bi???n ??? v?? v?? th???, l??c ???? kh??ng c?? m???t b??? m??y n??o ????? ti???p t???c quan h??? v???i ????i Loan ??? c???p ????? phi ch??nh th???c.
M???t t??? ch???c ????ng vai tr?? ch??? ?????o b???t ng???, Ph??ng Th????ng m???i M???, ???? nh???y v??o gi??p Qu???c h???i ph??c th???o m???t h?????ng ??i cho quan h??? song ph????ng trong t????ng lai, ???ng h??? m???t b??? khung r?? r??ng ????? n??ng ????? nh???ng kho???n ?????u t?? kh???ng l??? c???a M??? v??o ????i Loan, c??ng nh?? l?? m???t h??? th???ng ????? gi??p ????i Loan c?? c??c ph????ng ti???n b???o v??? m??nh tr?????c Trung Qu???c. T??? ????y, ?????o lu???t Quan h??? v???i ????i Loan (Taiwan Relations Act) ra ?????i, ?????o lu???t ???????c h??ng ch???c quan ch???c M??? do c???u Ch??? t???ch H??? vi???n Paul Ryan d???n ?????u h??n hoan k??? ni???m 40 n??m ng??y ra ?????i v??o th??ng 4 v???a qua. ?????o lu???t ???????c th??ng qua v???i t??? l??? si??u ??a s??? kh??ng th??? ph??? quy???t ???????c (345 ??? 55 ??? h??? vi???n, 85 ??? 4 ??? th?????ng vi???n ??? ND).[1]
Ca ng???i ?????o lu???t Quan h??? v???i ????i Loan l?? ???n???n t???ng c???a quan h??? M???-????i,??? Th?????ng ngh??? s?? Marco Rubio, ng?????i kh??ng thu???c ph??i ??o??n, ???? ph???n ??nh quan ??i???m m???nh m??? c???a Qu???c h???i v??? t???m quan tr???ng c???a ????i Loan ?????i v???i nh???ng l???i ??ch c???a M???. ???Ch??ng ta ph???i ti???p t???c c???ng c??? li??n minh v???i ????i Loan, m???t n???n d??n ch???, khi ?????i m???t v???i s??? khi??u kh??ch ng??y c??ng gia t??ng t??? Trung Qu???c trong khu v???c,??? ??ng n??i v???i t??i. ???????i Loan l?? m???t ?????i t??c an ninh quan tr???ng trong vi???c ?????t ???????c m???c ti??u khu v???c ???n ????? D????ng ??? Th??i B??nh D????ng m??? v?? t??? do.???
Nh???ng ph???n quan tr???ng c???a ?????o lu???t Quan h??? v???i ????i Loan bao g???m th???a nh???n (acknowledge), nh??ng kh??ng c??ng nh???n (recognize), ch??? quy???n c???a Trung Qu???c v???i ????i Loan, coi th???c tr???ng c???a ????i Loan l?? ??i???u ch??a ???????c x??c ?????nh nh??ng ph???i ???????c gi???i quy???t m???t c??ch h??a b??nh, coi c??c n??? l???c c???a Trung Qu???c nh???m ??p bu???c ????i Loan th???ng nh???t l?? m???t m???i ??e d???a l???n ?????i v???i an ninh M???, cho ph??p b??n v?? kh?? ph??ng v??? cho ????i Loan nh???m r??n ??e Trung Qu???c, v?? th??nh l???p Vi???n Hoa K??? t???i ????i Loan.
Ba ??i???u kho???n ?????u ti??n ???? ???????c duy tr?? t????ng ?????i v???ng v??ng t??? th???i Carter ?????n Trump, nh??ng vi???c b??n v?? kh?? ???? ch???m l???i sau th???a thu???n v??o n??m 1992 khi T???ng th???ng Bush (cha) b??n 150 m??y bay chi???n ?????u F-16 cho ????i B???c. ?????i m???t v???i s??? tr???i d???y v??? kinh t??? v?? ch??nh tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c, Bill Clinton, Bush con, v?? Barack Obama ??a ph???n nh??n nh?????ng. H??? e d?? kh??ng mu???n ch???p thu???n nh???ng th???a thu???n b??n v?? kh?? l???n hay th?????ng xuy??n cho ????i Loan v?? s??? l??m B???c Kinh t???c gi???n. H??? th?????ng ch??? th??ng qua nh???ng th???a thu???n t???m trung nh???m g???i t??n hi???u cho Trung Qu???c th???y r???ng h??? kh??ng h??i l??ng v???i Trung Qu???c.
??i???u n??y thay ?????i d?????i nhi???m k??? Trump, ng?????i ti???n h??nh th????ng chi???n ch???ng Trung Qu???c v?? l?? ng?????i l??nh ?????o m???t Nh?? Tr???ng ???ng h??? ????i Loan m???nh m??? nh???t k??? t??? khi ?????o lu???t Quan h??? v???i ????i Loan c?? hi???u l???c. B??? Ngo???i giao M??? v?? L???u N??m G??c c?? nhi???u quan ch???c c?? t?? t?????ng ???di???u h??u??? v???i Trung Qu???c v?? l?? b???n c???a ????i Loan, v?? hi???n ??ang c?? nh???ng n??? l???c r?? r??ng nh???m th??c ?????y b??nh th?????ng h??a vi???c b??n c??c g??i v?? kh?? l???n nh??? cho ????i Loan. M???t g??i cung c???p hu???n luy???n v?? ph??? ki???n cho m??y bay F16 tr??? gi?? 500 tri???u ???? la M??? ???????c th??ng qua v??o th??ng 4, ??i???u cho th???y vi???c th??ng qua ????? ngh??? mua th??m 66 m??y bay F-16 t??? ????i Loan v??o cu???i th??ng 2 s??? g???n ?????n. V??o ?????u th??ng 6, Reuters ????a tin m???t g??i v?? kh?? tr??? gi?? 2 t??? ???? la s??? s???p ???????c b??n, bao g???m 108 xe t??ng M1A2 Abrams. Trung Qu???c ???? ph???n ?????i, v?? m???t ph??t ng??n vi??n ??? B???c Kinh h???i th??c M??? ???nh???n th???c ???????c s??? nh???y c???m v?? nh???ng t???n h???i nghi??m tr???ng g??y ra b???i th???a thu???n b??n v?? kh?? cho ????i Loan.???
Khi ????i Loan chu???n b??? cho b???u c??? t???ng th???ng v?? qu???c h???i v??o th??ng 1 t???i ??? gi???a nh???ng lo ??u v??? m???t chi???n d???ch g??y ???nh h?????ng quy???t li???t t??? Trung Qu???c ??? ch??ng ta c?? th??? tr??ng ?????i c??c th??nh vi??n qu???c h???i v?? quan ch???c ch??nh quy???n Trump, v???n coi b?? Th??i l?? m???t ????????i t??c an to??n??? v?? th???n tr???ng v???i m???t Qu???c D??n ?????ng th??n Trung Qu???c, s??? ??eo ??u???i m???t m???i quan h??? v???i ????i Loan ??? m???c gi???ng nh?? quan h??? gi???a hai ?????ng minh ngo???i giao ch??nh th???c. Hai ch???ng d???ng ???qu?? c???nh??? c???a b?? Th??i ??? M??? trong nh???ng ng??y s???p ?????n s??? k??o d??i hai ????m, trong khi c??c nghi th???c ngo???i giao tr?????c kia ch??? cho ph??p T???ng th???ng ????i Loan qu?? c???nh trong m???t ????m.
Chi???u h?????ng n??y s??? ti???p t???c trong th???i gian chu???n b??? di???n ra b???u c??? ????i Loan v??o th??ng 1. ??i k??m v???i ???? s??? l?? nh???ng ch??? tr??ch l???n h??n t??? B???c Kinh, c??c l???i ??e d???a qu??n s??? v?? vi???c ????nh c???p c??c ?????ng minh ngo???i giao c??n l???i c???a ????i Loan, khi m???i quan h??? gi???a Washington v?? ????i B???c d???n thay ?????i.
Chris Horton l?? m???t nh?? b??o l??m vi???c t???i ????i B???c.
??????????????????
[1] ?????o lu???t Taiwan Travel Act (t???m d???ch l?? ?????o lu???t Th??m vi???ng ????i Loan) ???????c l?????ng vi???n qu???c h???i M??? th??ng qua v???i t??? l??? t??n th??nh tuy???t ?????i v?? ???????c k?? th??nh lu???t v??o th??ng 3 n??m 2018. ?????o lu???t n??ng t???m quan h??? l??n m???c cho ph??p quan ch???c c??c c???p c???a hai b??n ???????c g???p nhau, tuy r???ng quan h??? v???n ??? m???c kh??ng ch??nh th???c ??? ND
29/07/1914: Ho??ng ????? ?????c v?? Sa ho??ng trao ?????i ??i???n t??n
gu???n: Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany and Czar Nicholas of Russia exchange telegramsHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan
V??o ?????u gi??? chi???u ng??y n??y n??m 1914, Sa ho??ng Nicholas II c???a Nga v?? ng?????i anh em h??? c???a ??ng, Ho??ng ????? Wilhelm II c???a ?????c, b???t ?????u m???t cu???c trao ?????i ??i???n t??n li??n t???c li??n quan ?????n cu???c chi???n v???a m???i n??? ra ??? v??ng Balkan v?? kh??? n??ng leo thang th??nh m???t cu???c chi???n tranh to??n ch??u ??u.
M???t ng??y tr?????c ????, ??o-Hung ???? tuy??n chi???n v???i Serbia, m???t th??ng sau v??? ??m s??t Th??i t??? ??o Franz Ferdinand v?? v??? ??ng t???i Sarajevo b???i m???t ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c Serbia. Tr?????c khi x???y ra v??? ??m s??t, ?????c ???? h???a v???i ??o-Hung s??? h??? tr??? v?? ??i???u ki???n trong b???t k??? h??nh ?????ng tr???ng ph???t n??o ?????i v???i Serbia, b???t k??? vi???c ?????ng minh h??ng m???nh c???a Serbia, t???c Nga, c?? b?????c v??o cu???c xung ?????t n??y hay kh??ng.
V??o th???i ??i???m t???i h???u th?? c???a ??o ??? Hung d??nh cho Serbia b??? t??? ch???i v??o ng??y 25 th??ng 07, Nga, b???t ch???p nh???ng k??? v???ng c???a ??o-?????c, ???? ra l???nh ?????ng vi??n qu??n ?????i, tin r???ng Berlin ??ang s??? d???ng cu???c kh???ng ho???ng do v??? ??m s??t nh?? m???t c??i c??? ????? ph??t ?????ng m???t cu???c chi???n tranh nh???m c???ng c??? quy???n l???c ??? Balkan.
M???i quan h??? gi???a Nicholas v?? Wilhelm, hai ng?????i ch??u c???a N??? ho??ng Anh Victoria, t??? l??u ???? tr??? n??n kh?? kh??n. M???c d?? Wilhelm t??? coi m??nh l?? ?????a ch??u ???????c y??u th??ch nh???t c???a Victoria, v??? n??? ho??ng v?? ?????i ???? c???nh b??o Nicholas h??y c???n th???n v???i ???nh???ng h??nh ?????ng tinh qu??i v?? kh??ng ngay th???ng??? c???a Wilhelm. Victoria ???? kh??ng cho m???i v??? ho??ng ????? ?????c, ng?????i m?? b?? m?? t??? v???i th??? t?????ng c???a m??nh l?? ???m???t g?? thanh ni??n n??ng n???y, t??? ph??? v?? ????ng ng???nh???, t???i ?????i l??? Kim c????ng (Diamond Jubilee) c???a b?? n??m 1897, c??ng nh?? sinh nh???t l???n th??? 80 c???a b?? hai n??m sau ????. B???n th??n Sa ho??ng Nicholas ???? b??nh lu???n v??o n??m 1902 sau cu???c g???p v???i Wilhelm r???ng: ???H???n l?? m???t g?? ??i??n cu???ng!??? Tuy nhi??n, v??o th???i ??i???m n??y n??m 1914, hai ng?????i anh em h??? ??ang ?????ng ??? trung t??m c???a cu???c kh???ng ho???ng s??? s???m leo thang th??nh Th??? chi???n I.
04/11/1979: Sinh vi??n Iran t????n c??ng ?????i s??? qu??n Hoa K???
Ngu???n: Iranian students storm U.S. embassy in Tehran, leading to oil embargo, History.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1979, h??ng tr??m sinh vi??n Iran ??a?? x??ng v??o ?????i s??? qu??n My?? t???i Tehran, b????t gi???? h??n 60 con tin ng??????i M???. Nho??m sinh vi??n na??y ???ng h??? gi??o s?? H???i gi??o b???o th??? Ayatollah Khomeini. Ho?? ????i tru??c xu????t nh?? l??nh ?????o b??? l???t ????? c???a Iran, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi, ng?????i ???? tr???n sang Ai C???p h????i tha??ng 1/1979, v?? t????i tha??ng 11 thi?? ????????c ??i???u tr??? ung th?? t???i My??. Sau cu????c t????n c??ng cu??a sinh vi??n, T???ng th???ng Jimmy Carter ??a?? ra l???nh c???m v???n ho??n to??n ?????i v???i d???u mo?? c???a Iran.
L???nh c???m v???n n??y ch??? l??m tr???m tr???ng th??m cu????c kh???ng ho???ng n??ng l?????ng ???? di????n ra t???? ??????u n??m 1979. M???t cu???c ????nh c??ng tr??n c??c gi???ng d???u Iran v?? cu???c c??ch m???ng va??o th??ng 1 ???? l??m gi??n ??o???n ngu???n cung d???u t???? n??????c na??y. T??? ch???c C??c N?????c Xu???t kh???u D???u m??? (OPEC) cu??ng t??ng gia?? d????u xu????t kh????u.
T????t ca?? ??????y gia?? d????u l??n m????c cao nh????t mo??i th????i ??a??i. Ti??nh ?????n th????i ??i????m sinh vi??n chi????m ?????i s??? qu??n va??o tha??ng 11, ng?????i M??? ???? pha??i ??????i m????t v???i h???u qu??? c???a cu???c kh???ng ho???ng n??y: r????t nhi????u ng??????i x????p ha??ng ??? tr???m b??m, tranh nhau vi?? x??ng d???u thi????u hu??t, v?? th???t v???ng v???i nh????ng chi????c xe hao x??ng do ca??c h??ng xe M??? s???n xu???t.
???C?? s???c d???u mo????? na??y nh???c nh??? ng?????i M??? v???? cu???c kh???ng ho???ng d???u 1973 ??? 1974, khi c???m v???n cu??a OPEC ???? ?????y gi?? x??ng d???u t??ng vo??t. Va??o th????i ??i????m c???m v???n k???t th??c, gi?? gas b??n l??? trung b??nh t??ng t??? 38 cent/gallon l??n ?????n 84 cent/gallon. K???t qu??? l?? vi????c cha??y xe h??i ha??ng n????ng c???a M??? tr???? n??n c????c ky?? ??????t ??o??, nhi???u chi???c t????n ca?? gallon x??ng ?????? cha??y ch??a t????i 10 d???m! Nhi???u ng?????i ??a?? ba??n chi????c xe h??i ???kh???ng l?????? cu??a mi??nh ????? mua nh????ng chi????c xe nh??? g???n, ti???t ki???m nhi??n li???u h??n. Ti??nh tra??ng na??y d????n ??????n m????t k????t thu??c ch????ng m????y t????t ??e??p ??????i v????i ca??c nha?? s???n xu???t ?? t?? M???, nh????ng ng?????i ???? v???i v?? ????a ra thi?? tr??????ng m???t s??? lo???i xe nh??? h??n nh??ng la??i kh??ng ki???m tra k??? l?????ng, khi????n ho?? bi?? mang ti????ng la?? kh??ng ????ng tin v?? ch???t l?????ng ch??? t???o ke??m. Khi cu???c kh???ng ho???ng l????ng xu???ng, h???u h???t c??c m????u xe cu??a ca??c nha?? sa??n xu????t trong n?????c ??a?? bi?? v????t xo?? ta??i ?????i l??.
Kh???ng ho???ng con tin n??m 1979 la??m ph???c ta??p th??m kh???ng ho???ng n??ng l?????ng. Th???c t???, co?? nhi???u nh?? s??? h???c tin r???ng s??? k???t h???p c???a hai s??? ki???n na??y ??a?? khi????n T???ng th???ng Carter m????t ch????c. Tuy nhi??n, v???n c?? m???t v??i ng?????i ????????c h??????ng l????i. Ch????ng ha??n, ca??c nha?? s???n xu???t ?? t?? Nh???t B???n ???? g????y d????ng danh ti???ng la?? ng??????i sa??n xu????t ca??c m????u xe gi?? r???, ????ng tin c???y, hoa??t ??????ng hi???u qu???, ?????c bi???t th??ch h???p v???i giai ??oa??n th???t l??ng bu???c b???ng. M????u sedan cu??a ca??c ha??ng Datsun, Subaru, Toyota v?? Honda l?? nh???ng chi???c xe th??nh c??ng nh???t n??m 1979. T???t c??? ??????u nh???? kh???ng ho???ng n??ng l?????ng ?????? gia??nh ????????c ch??? ?????ng l??u d??i trong th??? tr?????ng M???.
Th??ng 4/1980, T???ng th???ng Carter ???? c???t ?????t m???i quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i ch??nh ph??? Iran, nh??ng sau khi s??? m???nh gi???i c???u tuy???t m???t bi?? th???t b???i, ??ng bu????c pha??i ti???p t???c ????m ph??n v???i ch??? ????? Khomeini. B???t ch???p n??? l???c gia??i c????u con tin cu??a Carter, ??ng ??a?? kh??ng th???? giu??p ho?? ????????c t???? do khi co??n la?? T????ng th????ng. Phi??a Iran cu????i cu??ng ??a?? chi??u tha?? con tin v??o ng??y 20/01/1981, ch??? v??i ph??t sau khi t??n T???ng th???ng Ronald Reaganho??n th??nh pha??t bi????u nh???m ch???c.


 
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