V?? sao Trung c???ng c?????p ???????c ???i Nam Quan?

Thứ sáu - 21/06/2019 22:39
Chi???u ng??y 28.1.2002, ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng (l??c ???? l?? Th??? tr?????ng B??? Ngo???i giao) ???? d??nh cho n??? ph??ng vi??n Thu Uy??n c???a trang web VASC Orient[1] m???t cu???c ph???ng v???n v??? v???n ????? bi??n gi???i Vi???t-Trung. B??i tr??? l???i ph???ng v???n n??y xu???t hi???n tr??n Internet kh??ng ???????c bao l??u th?? b??? b??c g???, nh??ng nhi???u ng?????i ??? h???i ngo???i ???? k???p ch??p l???i ????? l??u tr??? v?? cho t???i nay v???n ???????c l??u truy???n tr??n Internet, kh??ng th???y ai ch??nh th???c l??n ti???ng ph??? nh???n.
V?? sao Trung c???ng  c?????p ???????c ???i Nam Quan?

MAI TH??I L??NH ??? ???I NAM QUAN TRONG HI???N T???I (2)

13/03/2010 | 11:30 s??ng | 6 ph???n h???i

T??c gi???: Mai Th??i L??nh

Chuy??n m???c: Ch??nh tr??? - X?? h???iQuan h??? Vi???t ??? Trung
Th???:  >  > 

(xem k??? 1)

2) T??? ???c???t Km s??? 0??? ?????n ?????i???m n???i ray???

C??c c???p c?? th???m quy???n c???a Vi???t Nam ???? n??i g?? v??? c??i-g???i-l?? ???c???t m???c s??? 0????

Chi???u ng??y 28.1.2002, ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng (l??c ???? l?? Th??? tr?????ng B??? Ngo???i giao) ???? d??nh cho n??? ph??ng vi??n Thu Uy??n c???a trang web VASC Orient[1]m???t cu???c ph???ng v???n v??? v???n ????? bi??n gi???i Vi???t-Trung. B??i tr??? l???i ph???ng v???n n??y xu???t hi???n tr??n Internet kh??ng ???????c bao l??u th?? b??? b??c g???, nh??ng nhi???u ng?????i ??? h???i ngo???i ???? k???p ch??p l???i ????? l??u tr??? v?? cho t???i nay v???n ???????c l??u truy???n tr??n Internet, kh??ng th???y ai ch??nh th???c l??n ti???ng ph??? nh???n.

L???p lu???n c??n b???n c???a ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng khi gi???i th??ch v??? ???????ng bi??n gi???i t???i ???i Nam Quan l?? l?? thuy???t v??? ???hai c???a kh???u???:

???Trong s??? s??ch, trong v??n th?? ?????u n??i ?????t c???a ch??ng ta k??o d??i t??? m???c Nam Quan ?????n m??i C?? Mau. M???c Nam Quan ??? ????y n???u n??i l?? c??i c???ng th?? c??ng l?? m???t c??ch, nh??ng n???u n??i l?? khu v???c th?? c??ng l?? m???t c??ch n??i. Gi???ng nh?? ?????i ??a s??? c??c c???a kh???u bi??n gi???i, ???c???a kh???u??? theo ngh??a r???ng th?????ng bao g???m hai c???a kh???u.???[2]

Nh?? t??i ???? ph??n t??ch trong b??i vi???t ??????i Nam Quan trong l???ch s??????, l?? thuy???t v??? ???hai c???a kh???u??? kh??ng xu???t ph??t t??? quan ni???m c???a ng?????i x??a m?? l?? ???s??ng t??c??? c???a ng?????i th???i nay, d???a tr??n th???c t??? l?? ??? c???a kh???u bi??n gi???i th?????ng c?? hai tr???m g??c. Nh??ng ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng l???i d???a v??o l?? thuy???t n??y ????? gi???i th??ch v??? ???????ng bi??n gi???i t???i M???c Nam Quan (t???c l?? t??n m???i c???a ???i Nam Quan ???????c ?????t sau n??m 1954):

???V?? d??? nh?? ??? B???c Lu??n th?? hai c???a kh???u c??ch nhau kho???ng 100m. C??n c??c khu v???c tr??n ?????t li???n, s??t v???i s??ng su???i, th?? t??y ?????a h??nh c???a t???ng b??n. Ch??ng ta c??ng bi???t l?? ???i Nam Quan l?? cu???i kh??c s??ng. N???u ch??ng ta b???t ?????u t??nh bi??n gi???i t??? ch??n t?????ng ho???c chia ????i c???a m???c Nam Quan th?? c??ng kh??ng ???????c. C??n c???t m???c s??? kh??ng ??? nh??n d??n L???ng S??n b??o c??o v???i Trung ????ng, Ch??nh ph??? v?? c??c nh?? ????m ph??n r???ng c???t m???c c?? t??? khi nh???ng ng?????i gi?? c??n ch??a ra ?????i. Ch??ng ta t??n tr???ng c?? s??? ph??p l?? ???? c??, t??n tr???ng th???c ti???n, nh???t l?? v?? l??u nay qu???n l?? ???? nh?? v???y. Cho n??n hi???n nay ch??ng ta c??ng nh???n m???c Nam Quan l?? c???a Trung Qu???c, c??ch c???t m???c s??? 0 tr??n 200m. T??nh c???t m???c s??? 0 tr??? v??? ph??a Nam l?? l??nh th??? c???a Vi???t Nam. T??? c???t m???c s??? 0 tr??? v??? ph??a B???c l?? c???a Trung Qu???c.???[3]

Nh?? v???y l?? theo ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng, ???c???t m???c s??? 0??? c??ch M???c Nam Quan (t???c H???u Ngh??? Quan ng??y nay) tr??n 200m. N??i c??ch kh??c, ?????i di???n c???a Ch??nh ph??? N?????c C???ng h??a X?? h???i ch??? ngh??a Vi???t Nam ch??nh th???c th???a nh???n Vi???t Nam m???t th??m h??n 100 m ngay ph??a tr?????c H???u Ngh??? Quan.

??i???u khi???n nhi???u nh?? nghi??n c???u th???c m???c l?? t???i sao ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng ch??? n??i ?????n ???c???t m???c s??? 0??? m?? kh??ng n??i ?????n ???c???t m???c s??? 18???? B???i v?? ???c???t m???c s??? 18??? m???i l?? c???t m???c bi??n gi???i ??? ???i Nam Quan, c??n ???c???t m???c s??? 0??? th???t ra ch??? l?? ???c???t Km 0???, m???t tr??? xi-m??ng c???a ng??nh giao th??ng d???ng b??n l??? ???????ng ????? ????nh d???u ??i???m kh???i ?????u c???a con ???????ng b??? xuy??n-Vi???t. Tr??? Km c???a ng??nh giao th??ng kh??ng th??? thay th??? cho c???t m???c bi??n gi???i, v?? tr??? Km c?? th??? thay ?????i v??? tr?? khi ng?????i ta thay ?????i ???????ng giao th??ng, trong khi tr??? ?????a ch??nh l???i c?? t???a ????? ?????a l?? ch??nh x??c tr??n b???n ?????.

B???y n??m sau, ng?????i k??? nhi???m ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng l?? ??ng V?? D??ng (l??c ???? l?? Th??? tr?????ng B??? Ngo???i giao) m???i ????? c???p ?????n ???c???t m???c s??? 18???, ?????ng th???i c??ng nh???c ?????n ???c???t m???c Km 0???, nh??ng kh??ng n??i r?? m???i quan h??? gi???a hai lo???i m???c n??y. Trong cu???c h???p b??o chi???u ng??y 24.2.2009, ??ng tuy??n b??? nh?? sau:

???V??? c??c m???c Ph??p ??? Thanh, m???c 19 v???n c??n t???n t???i v?? n???m ????ng v??? tr?? c??. M???c 18 ?????i di???n v???i m???c 19, do y???u t??? th???i gian, hai b??n ?????u kh??ng th??? x??c ?????nh ???????c. V??? ??i???m n???i ray, do b??? l???ch v??? ph??a Vi???t Nam so v???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i l???ch s???, hai b??n ?????ng ?? ??i???u ch???nh. K???t qu??? gi???i quy???t: ???????ng bi??n gi???i ??i qua Km0 r???i ?????n m???c 19 c?? v?? ?????n ??i???m c??ch ??i???m n???i ray 148 m??t v??? ph??a B???c.???[4]

Nh?? v???y l?? theo ??ng V?? D??ng, m???c 18 ???do y???u t??? th???i gian??? cho n??n hai b??n kh??ng th??? x??c ?????nh ???????c, ????nh ph???i d???a v??o m???c 19 v?? c???t Km s??? 0 ????? x??c ?????nh ???????ng bi??n gi???i. Th??? nh??ng m???t c???t m???c b???ng ???? l??m sao c?? th??? b??? b???c h??i qua th???i gian? H??n n???a, l??m th??? n??o m?? c???t m???c 18 d???ng gi???a thanh thi??n b???ch nh???t l???i b???c h??i trong khi c??ng theo l???i v??ng ng???c c???a ??ng Th??? tr?????ng, c???t m???c 19 ???v???n c??n t???n t???i v?? n???m ????ng v??? tr?? c?????? ??ng Th??? tr?????ng c??ng l??? ??i, kh??ng gi???i th??ch t???i sao c???t Km 0 l???i c?? th??? thay th??? cho c???t m???c bi??n gi???i s??? 18?

????? c?? th??? gi???i th??ch ???????c ??i???u b?? ???n n??y, ch??ng ta ph???i tr??? l???i v???i nh???ng n??m th??ng ???c??m kh??ng l??nh, canh kh??ng ng???t???, khi m?? quan h??? Vi???t Nam ??? Trung Qu???c tr??? th??nh t???i t??? v?? ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam bu???c l??ng ph???i n??i l??n s??? th???t. V??o n??m 1979, ?????ng C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam ???? ????a ra l???i t??? c??o r???ng t???i khu v???c H???u Ngh??? Quan ?????? ph??a Trung Qu???c ???? ???i n??t m???c bi??n gi???i s??? 18 n???m c??ch c???a Nam Quan 100 m tr??n ???????ng qu???c l??? ????? x??a v???t t??ch ???????ng bi??n gi???i l???ch s???, r???i ?????t c???t ki-l??-m??t 0 ???????ng b??? s??u v??o l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam tr??n 100m, coi ???? l?? v??? tr?? ???????ng qu???c gi???i gi???a hai n?????c ??? khu v???c n??y.???[5]

??o???n v??n m?? t??i v???a tr??ch d???n kh??ng ph???i l?? l???i vu c??o c???a b???n ph???n ?????ngm?? n???m ngay trong b???n ???b??? vong l???c???[6] do B??? Ngo???i giao n?????c CHXHCVN Vi???t Nam c??ng b??? ng??y 15.3.1979 t???i H?? N???i (a??nh 9). D???a v??o v??n b???n n??y, ch??ng ta c?? th??? hi????u ????????c ph????n na??o s??? th???t ???? di???n ra tr?????c H???u Ngh??? Quan.

S??? th???t ???? l??: c??n c??? v??o Hi???p ?????c Ph??p-Thanh, ???m???c bi??n gi???i s??? 18 n???m c??ch c???a Nam Quan 100 m???; nh??ng ph??a Trung Qu???c ??????? ???i n??t c???t m???c s??? 18 ????? x??a v???t t??ch ???????ng bi??n gi???i l???ch s???, ?????ng th???i d???i c???t m???c ki-l??-m??t 0 c???a ???????ng b??? s??u v??o l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam tr??n 100m???. N??i c??ch kh??c, kho???ng c??ch t??? c???t m???c km s??? 0 (b??? d???i ??i) ?????n ???i Nam Quan l?? tr??n 200 m. ??i???u n??y ho??n to??n ph?? h???p v???i l???i tuy??n b??? c???a ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng v??o n??m 2002. Nh??ng ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng th?? m???t m???c cho r???ng d?? lu???n v??? vi???c m???t ?????t t???i ???i Nam Quan l?? do ???b?? con thi???u th??ng tin???, c??n ??ng V?? D??ng th?? m???t m???c kh???ng ?????nh ???kh??ng c?? chuy???n m???t ?????t!???.

???nh 9: N???i dung ???b??? vong l???c??? ng??y 15.3.1979 li??n quan ?????n ???i Nam Quan

??i???u c???n l??u ?? l?? trong c??c cu???c tranh c??i v??? ???i Nam Quan, d?? lu???n th?????ng ch??? ch?? ?? ?????n kho???ng c??ch ph??a tr?????c H???u Ngh??? Quan, nh??ng l???i ??t ch?? ?? ?????n m???t kho???ng c??ch kh??c t???i ph??a ????ng, t???c l?? ??i???m n???i ray tr??n ???????ng s???t ?????ng ????ng ??? B???ng T?????ng. ????y c??ng l?? m???t chi ti???t cho th???y c?? chuy???n ???m???t ?????t???.

Trong cu???c h???p b??o ng??y 24.2.2009, Th??? tr?????ng V?? D??ng cho bi???t: ???V??? ??i???m n???i ray, do c?? b??? l???ch v??? ph??a Vi???t Nam so v???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i l???ch s???, hai b??n ?????ng ?? ??i???u ch???nh. K???t qu??? gi???i quy???t: ???????ng bi??n gi???i ??i qua Km0 r???i ?????n m???c 19 c?? v?? ?????n ??i???m c??ch ??i???m n???i ray 148 m v??? ph??a B???c.???[7]

??ng V?? D??ng n??i m???t c??ch ??p m??? r???ng ???????ng bi??n gi???i ???b??? l???ch??? ??? ??i???m n???i ray, nh??ng kh??ng th???y ph??ng vi??n n??o th???c m???c v??? nguy??n nh??n l??m ???????ng bi??n gi???i ???b??? l???ch??? ??? ch??? n??y. Kh??ng l??? m???t ??i???m n???i ray t??? nhi??n l???i b??? l???ch so v???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i? Tr??? l???i v???i b???n ???b??? vong l???c??? n??m 1979 c???a B??? Ngo???i giao Vi???t Nam, ch??ng ta th???y nguy??n nh??n ???b??? l???ch??? l?? nh?? sau:

???N??m 1955, t???i khu v???c H???u Ngh??? Quan, khi gi??p Vi???t Nam kh??i ph???c ??o???n ???????ng s???t t??? bi??n gi???i Vi???t-Trung ?????n Y??n Vi??n, g???n H?? N???i, l???i d???ng l??ng tin c???a Vi???t Nam, ph??a Trung Qu???c ???? ?????t ??i???m n???i ray ???????ng s???t Vi???t-Trung s??u trong l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam tr??n 300 m so v???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i l???ch s???, coi ??i???m n???i ray l?? ??i???m m?? ???????ng bi??n gi???i gi???a hai n?????c ??i qua. Ng??y 31 th??ng 12 n??m 1974, Ch??nh ph??? Vi???t Nam D??n ch??? C???ng ho?? ???? ????? ngh??? Ch??nh ph??? hai n?????c giao cho ng??nh ???????ng s???t hai b??n ??i???u ch???nh l???i ??i???m n???i ray cho ph?? h???p v???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i l???ch s??? nh??ng h??? m???t m???c kh?????c t??? b???ng c??ch h???n ?????n khi hai b??n b??n to??n b??? v???n ????? bi??n gi???i th?? s??? xem x??t. Cho ?????n nay, h??? v???n tr???ng tr???n ngu??? bi???n r???ng khu v???c h??n 300 m??t ???????ng s???t ???? l?? ?????t Trung Qu???c v???i l???p lu???n r???ng kh??ng th??? c?? ???????ng s???t c???a n?????c n??y ?????t tr??n l??nh th??? n?????c kh??c???.[8]

C?? l??? c???n ph???i n??i th??m ????i ch??t v??? ?????i???m n???i ray???. V??o th???i ????, ???????ng s???t ??? Vi???t Nam do ng?????i Ph??p l?? ???????ng s???t kh??? h???p (narrow gauge) ??? kho???ng c??ch gi???a hai ???????ng ray ch??? r???ng c?? 1m, trong khi ???????ng s???t ??? Trung Qu???c l?? ???????ng s???t ti??u chu???n (standard gauge), r???ng ?????n 1,435 m. C?? l??? do ph??a Trung Qu???c h???a h???n gi??p ?????? Vi???t Nam n??ng c???p ???????ng s???t l??n th??nh ???????ng s???t ti??u chu???n cho n??n ph??a Vi???t Nam m???i ph?? th??c to??n b??? tuy???n bi??n gi???i ??? ???i Nam Quan cho n?????c b???n. Ch??nh s??? s?? h??? do ???tr??i tim ????? l???m ch??????[9] ???? ???? cho ph??p Trung Qu???c ???l???i d???ng l??ng tin???, ????a ??i???m n???i ray v??o s??u ???tr??n 300 m??t so v???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i l???ch s??????. V??? nguy??n t???c, ??i???m n???i ray l?? n??i ph??n chia tuy???n ???????ng s???t v??? m???t qu???n l??, v??? sau ???? ???????c ph??a Trung Qu???c coi nh?? ??i???m x??c ?????nh l??nh th???.

C??n c??? v??o l???i c???a ??ng V?? D??ng, qua vi???c th???c hi???n hi???p ?????nh bi??n gi???i, sau khi ???hai b??n ?????ng ?? ??i???u ch???nh???, ???????ng bi??n gi???i ch???y qua m???t ??i???m c??ch ??i???m n???i ray 148 m v??? ph??a B???c. Nh??ng ??ng Th??? tr?????ng l???i c??? t??nh l??? ??i, kh??ng ch???u n??i r??: so v???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i quy ?????nh theo Hi???p ?????c Ph??p-Thanh th?? ??? ??i???m n??y, Vi???t Nam m???t ??i bao nhi??u m??t? Ch??ng ta h??y nh??n v??o t???m ???nh sau ????y (???nh 10) ??? ???????c c??ng b??? ch??nh th???c nh??n cu???c h???p b??o. Tuy???n ???????ng s???t n??y l?? ???????ng s???t ????i (double gauge) d??ng cho c??? hai lo???i kh??? ???????ng 1 m v?? 1,453 m (ng??nh ???????ng s???t n?????c ta g???i l?? ???????ng l???ng). Theo b???n b??? vong l???c, ??i???m n???i ray n???m c??ch ???tr??n 300 m??? so v???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i c??. Nay ??ng V?? D??ng cho bi???t ???????ng bi??n gi???i m???i ??i ????????n ??i???m c??ch ??i???m n???i ray 148 m v??? ph??a B???c???. ??i???u n??y c?? ngh??a l?? tr??n tuy???n ???????ng s???t ??? ph??a ????ng-nam c???a ???i Nam Quan, ph??a Vi???t Nam v???n c??n m???t ???tr??n 152 m??? so v???i ???????ng bi??n gi???i c??.

 

???nh 10: ???????ng bi??n gi???i m???i c??ch ??i???m n???i ray 148m v??? ph??a b???c

 

3. Vi????t Nam m????t bao nhi??u ??????t ??ai ??? khu v???c H???u Ngh??? Quan?

Trong b???n b??? vong l???c, ngay ??? ??o???n k??? ti???p, sau khi ???? t??? c??o vi???c Trung Qu???c ph?? h???y ???m???c bi??n gi???i s??? 18???, d???i ???c???t ki-l??-m??t 0??? v?? ????a ?????i???m n???i ray??? v??o s??u trong l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam, c??n c?? m???t ??o???n ti???p theo: ???Nh?? v???y h??? ???? l???n chi???m m???t khu v???c li??n ho??n t??? ???????ng s???t sang ???????ng b??? thu???c x?? B???o L??m, huy???n  V??n L??ng, t???nh L???ng S??n c???a Vi???t Nam d??i 3,1 km v?? v??o s??u ?????t Vi???t Nam 0,5 km.???[10]

???nh 11: B???n ????? khu v???c 249 C (H???u Ngh??? Quan)

??o???n n??y l?? m???t ??o???n v??n c???c k??? kh?? hi???u, v?? trong b???n b??? vong l???c kh??ng in k??m t???m b???n ????? n??o. Ng?????i ta c?? th??? ?????t c??u h???i: t???i sao khu v???c l???n chi???m l???i d??i ?????n 3,1 km v?? l???n s??u ?????n 0,5 km (t???c 500 m) trong khi ??? ??o???n tr??n, ch??? n??i ?????n con s??? cao nh???t l?? h??n 300 m? ????? c?? th??? hi???u ???????c ?? ngh??a c???a ??o???n v??n n??y, c?? l??? ph???i nh??? ?????n m???t t???m b???n ????? ???? ???????c l??u truy???n t??? nhi???u n??m qua tr??n m???ng Internet nh??ng kh??ng ai c?? th??? hi???u r?? ???????c n???i dung (a??nh 11). ???? l?? t???m b???n ????? c???a khu v???c ???????c g???i t??n l?? khu v???c 249 C (H???u Ngh??? Quan). C l?? k?? hi???u m?? hai b??n ????m ph??n (Vi???t Nam v?? Trung Qu???c) d??ng ????? ch??? c??c khu v???c c?? s??? tranh ch???p.

Khi c??ng b??? t???m b???n ????? n??y, trang m???ng Di???n ????n ??? Ph??p ???? cho bi???t t???m b???n ????? ???????c ????nh k??m v???i m???t b???n th??ng b??o ???m???t??? ????? ng??y 31.3.2002, c?? ch??? k?? c???a ??ng Phan Di???n, l??c ???? l?? ???y vi??n B??? Ch??nh tr???, Th?????ng tr???c Ban b?? th?? Trung ????ng c???a ??CSVN[11]. Ch??ng ta c?? th??? tin r???ng ????y l?? m???t t???m b???n ????? do Trung Qu???c v??? nh??ng ???? ???????c d??ng m???t c??ch ch??nh th???c trong c??ng t??c ph??n ?????nh ranh gi???i nh???m th???c hi???n hi???p ?????c bi??n gi???i ???????c k?? v??o n??m 1999.

Tr??n t???m b???n ????? n??y, v???ch m??u xanh l?? d??ng ????? ch??? ???????ng bi??n gi???i m?? ph??a Trung Qu???c ????i h???i, v???ch m??u ????? cam l?? ???????ng bi??n gi???i m?? Vi???t Nam y??u c???u (c?? th??? ????y ch??nh l?? ???????ng bi??n gi???i c?? theo Hi???p ?????nh Ph??p-Thanh?); c??n v???ch m??u t??m d??ng ????? ch??? ???????ng bi??n gi???i hai b??n ???? th???a thu???n d???a tr??n hi???p ?????nh n??m 1999. N???u t??nh kho???ng c??ch t??? H???u Ngh??? Quan ?????n c???t Km 0 tr??n b???n ????? t????ng ??????ng v????i 200 m th?? kho???ng c??ch l???n chi???m tr??n tuy???n ???????ng s???t l?? tr??n 300 m, v?? v??ng l???n chi???m c???a Trung Qu???c (v???ch m??u xanh l??) t??nh t??? ????ng sang t??y theo chi???u ngang x???p x??? 3,1 Km. ??? khu v???c ph??a t??y-nam c???a H???u Ngh??? Quan, chi???u r???ng c???a khu v???c b??? l???n chi???m ??? ph??a t??y-nam H???u Ngh??? Quan c?? n??i l??n ?????n 700 ho???c 800 m, ngh??a l?? l???n h??n con s??? 0,5 Km.

????? c?? th??? nh??n r?? h??n khu v???c tr?????c H???u Ngh??? Quan, t??i ???? tr??ch m???t ph???n c???a t???m b???n ????? n??i tr??n v?? ph??ng l???n h??n (???nh 12). ????? gi??p ?????c gi??? d??? theo d??i, c??c v??ng m?? ph??a Trung Qu???c v???n c??n l???n chi???m ???????c ????nh d???u b???ng s???c m??u t??m tr??n b???n ?????.

???nh 12: C??c v??ng ?????t b??? m???t tr?????c H???u Ngh??? Quan

Nh??n v??o ph???n tr??ch b???n ????? n??y, ch??ng ta th???y ???????ng bi??n gi???i m???i ?????i qua Km0 r???i ?????n m???c 19 c?? v?? ?????n ??i???m c??ch ??i???m n???i ray 148 m??t v??? ph??a B???c???, ????ng nh?? l???i ??ng V?? D??ng thuy???t minh. Tuy nhi??n, ch??ng ta kh??ng th??? tin v??o l???i ??ng Th??? tr?????ng khi ??ng n??y qu??? quy???t r???ng ??????????ng bi??n gi???i l???ch s??? t???i khu v???c n??y kh??ng nh???ng ???? ???????c t??n tr???ng m?? c??n ???????c c??? th??? ho?? b???ng m???t h??? th???ng c???t m???c m???i hi???n ?????i.??? B???i v?? c??n c??? v??o t???m b???n ????? n??y, ch??ng ta th???y tr??n tuy???n ???????ng b???, c???t Km s??? 0 ????ng l??? n???m c??ch H???u Ngh??? Quan 100 m (??i???m A) ???? b??? d???i ?????n m???t ??i???m c??ch H???u Ngh??? Quan h??n 200 m (??i???m B) v?? cho ?????n nay, Trung Qu???c v???n kh??ng ch???u tr??? l???i di???n t??ch ?????t ???? l???n chi???m. Tr??n tuy???n ???????ng s???t, ???????ng bi??n gi???i ????ng l??? n???m ??? ??i???m C ???? b??? d???i ?????n ??i???m E ??? c??ch bi??n gi???i c?? h??n 300 m. Sau ????m ph??n, v?? ph??a Trung Qu???c ch??? tr??? l???i 148 m, ???????ng bi??n gi???i kh??ng th??? tr??? v??? ??i???m C m?? ??i ngang ??i???m D, ngh??a l?? v???n c??n c??ch ???????ng bi??n gi???i c?? h??n 152 m.

???nh 13: Hai ???????ng h???m cao t???c c???nh H???u Ngh??? Quan

Qu??? ?????i m?? ch??ng ta th???y trong t???m ???nh 13 t????ng ???ng v???i khu ?????t ??? ph??a ????ng-nam H???u Ngh??? Quan, n???m gi???a c??c ??i???m A, B v?? C, D. ???????ng bi??n gi???i ????ng l??? ch???y tr??n ?????nh ho???c sau l??ng qu??? ?????i b??y gi??? l???i ch???y ph??a tr?????c, d?????i ch??n ?????i. V??o n??m 2005, ph??a Trung Qu???c ???? cho ????o hai ???????ng h???m d?????i ch??n qu??? ?????i ???? ????? l??m ???????ng d???n t??? H???u Ngh??? Quan ?????n ???????ng cao t???c ??i Nam Ninh ??? th??? ph??? c???a t???nh Qu???ng T??y. Phi???n ???? nh??n th???y tr??n ???nh c?? ghi d??ng ch??? ???Nam c????ng qu???c m??n ????? nh???t l?????? (Con ???????ng ?????u ti??n ??i qua c??nh c???a c???a ?????t n?????c ??? bi??n c????ng ph??a nam); ???? l?? m???t t??n g???i m??? mi???u c???a con ???????ng cao t???c m???i x??y d???ng: ???????ng cao t???c Nam Ninh ??? H???u Ngh??? Quan (Nanning-Youyiguan Expressway.[12]

???nh 14: C??c c???t m???c m???i tr?????c H???u Ngh??? Quan

Nh??n v??o t???m ???nh ???????c B??? Ngo???i giao du??ng ?????? gia??i thi??ch ca??c c????t m????c m????i (???nh 14), ch??ng ta th???y c???t Km s??? 0 ???????c thay b???ng hai c???t m???c m???i 1116 v?? 1117 n???m ?????i x???ng nhau qua qu???c l??? 1A. Sau ????, ???????ng bi??n gi???i ???????c n???i li???n v???i c???t m???c 1118 ??? v??? tr?? m?? ??ng V?? D??ng kh???ng ?????nh l?? v??? tr?? c???a ???m???c 19 c?????. T??? c???t 1118 ????, ???????ng bi??n gi???i s??? ch???y ?????n m???t ??i???m c??ch ??i???m n???i ray 148 m??t v??? ph??a B???c (t???c ??i???m m?? t??i ghi l?? ??i???m D tr??n b???n ?????). Trong t????m a??nh sau ????y (a??nh 15), chu??ng ta nh??n th????y c????t m????c m????i mang s???? 1116 ??? ???v????t thay th?????? cho c????t Km s??? 0 th????i Pha??p thu????c:

???nh 15: C???t m???c 1116 ??? ???v???t thay th?????? c???a c???t Km s??? 0

Ng?????i ta c??? t??nh t???o ra v??? h??o nho??ng b??n ngo??i c???a c???t m???c b???ng ???? hoa c????ng n??y nh???m m???c ????ch che ?????y cho vi???c Trung Qu???c chi???m tr???n ng???n ?????i m?? ch??ng ta nh??n th???y ??? ph??a sau (t???c ng???n ?????i c?? hai ???????ng h???m cao t???c ch???y d?????i ch??n).

???nh 16: Di t??ch c???a c???t m???c Km s??? 0

?????n l??c n??y th?? chi???c c???t m???c m?? ??ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng ???? t???ng g???i l?? ???c???t m???c s??? 0??? v?? sau ???? ??ng V?? D??ng ????nh ch??nh l???i b???ng c??ch g???i l?? c???t ???Km 0???, ???? ho??n th??nh nhi???m v??? l???ch s??? b???c b???o c???a n??. T??? ch??? l?? tr??? Km s??? 0 c???a ng??nh giao th??ng, n?? ???? t???ng ???????c d??ng l??m ???v???t thay th?????? cho c???t m???c bi??n gi???i s??? 18 ??? do ch??? n?????c l??ng gi???ng v?? ?????i ???? ???l?????? cho xe ???i n??t c??i c???t m???c ???kh?? th????ng??? n??y. ????? chu???n b??? x??a ??i d???u t??ch, ng?????i ta ????? th??m m???t l???p nh???a ???????ng, bi???n n?? th??nh m???t v???t v???a x???u x?? v???a th???a th??i! (xem ???nh 16). R???i ????y, tr??? Km n???i ti???ng n??y (th???t ra l?? ???v???t thay th??????, v?? n?? kh??ng ph???i l?? c???t m???c bi??n gi???i, c??ng kh??ng gi???ng v???i tr??? Km m?? ng?????i ta nh??n th???y v??o n??m 2002, v?? c??ng kh??ng th??? gi???ng v???i tr??? Km c???a th???i Ph??p thu???c) s??? ???????c ???phi tang??? ????? ng?????i ?????i sau kh??ng c??n nh??n th???y c??i tang v???t c?? li??n quan ?????n m???t v??? c?????p ?????t di???n ra ngay tr?????c H???u Ngh??? Quan trong th??? k??? 20.

Th???t ra, kh??ng c?? g?? b???o ?????m r???ng c???t m???c s??? 19 ???v???n c??n t???n t???i v?? n???m ????ng v??? tr?? c????? ??? nh?? l???i ??ng V?? D??ng ???? kh???ng ?????nh. H??n th??? n???a, c??n c??? v??o t???m b???n ????? 249 C, ch??ng ta th???y ph??a Trung Qu???c v???n c??n chi???m gi??? nhi???u v??ng ?????t ??? ph??a t??y, t??y-nam v?? ????ng-b???c c???a c???a quan n??y. Do ch??? ch??a ????? t??i li???u ????? ?????i ch???ng, ch??ng ta ch??a th??? x??c ?????nh m???t c??ch ch???c ch???n ?? ????? c???a vi???c l???n chi???m n??y l?? g??, nh??ng c??n c??? v??o nh???ng g?? ???? di???n ra ??? ph??a ????ng-nam c???a H???u Ngh??? Quan, ch??ng ta c?? th??? ph???ng ??o??n m???c ????ch c???a ph??a Trung Qu???c khi chi???m c??c d???i ?????t n??y l??: chi???m c??c cao ??i???m c?? th??? kh???ng ch??? khu v???c ???i Nam Quan.

Nh?? v???y, th???c ch???t c???a c??u chuy???n l???n chi???m bi??n gi???i ??? khu v???c H???u Ngh??? Quan kh??ng ch??? l?? v???n ????? di???n t??ch ?????t ??ai b??? m???t, m?? l?? t???m quan tr???ng c???a ???v??? tr?? hi???m y???u??? c?? ?? ngh??a v??? m???t qu??n s???.

Nh??ng ?????n ????y th?? c??u chuy???n l???i chuy???n sang m???t h?????ng kh??c. Qua vi???c t??m hi???u di???n m???o v?? l???ch s??? c???a ???i Nam Quan, ch??ng ta ph???i ?????t l???i v???n ????? m???t c??ch r???t r??o h??n: H???u Ngh??? Quan ng??y nay c?? ????ng l?? ???i Nam Quan ng??y x??a hay kh??ng?

(C??n n???a)

?? 2010 Mai Th??i L??nh

?? 2010 talawas


[1] Trang m???ng n??y (c?? ?????a ch??? http://www.vnn.vn) do C??ng ty ph??t tri???n ph???n m???m VASC ??? m???t th??nh vi??n c???a T???ng C??ng ty B??u Ch??nh Vi???n th??ng VNPT kh???i x?????ng, c??ng ch??nh l?? ti???n th??n c???a trang m???ng VietNamNet hi???n nay (?????a ch???: http://vietnamnet.vn).

[2] B??i ph???ng v???n ??ng nguy??n Th??? tr?????ng L?? C??ng Ph???ng do ph??ng vi??n Thu Uy??n c???a VASC Orient th???c hi???n v??o ng??y 28.1.2002. T??i li???u tr??ch t??? M???ng ?? ki???n: http://www.ykien.net??. M???c d?? trang web ?? ki???n b??? ph?? ho???i, v???n c?? th??? ?????c b??i n??y t???i ?????a ch???: http://home.scarlet.be/mykvn/bnpvhiepdinh.html

[3] B??d.

[4] Vi???t-Trung ???? ph??n gi???i nh???ng khu v???c nh???y c???m nh?? th??? n??o?, VietNamNet, th??? T?? 25/02/2009???: http://vietnamnet.vn/chinhtri/2009/02/831965/

[5] V???n ????? bi??n gi???i gi???a Vi???t Nam v?? Trung Qu???c, Nxb S??? Th???t, H?? N???i, 1979, tr. 10.

[6] Memorandum: c??n ???????c d???ch l?? gi??c th??, m???t v??n b???n ngo???i giao kh??ng c?? ch??? k?? th?????ng ???????c c??ng b??? ????? n??i r?? l???p tr?????ng ch??nh th???c c???a b??? ngo???i giao c???a m???t qu???c gia v??? m???t v???n ????? n??o ????.

[7] ???Vi???t-Trung ???? ph??n gi???i nh???ng khu v???c nh???y c???m nh?? th??? n??o????, b??d.

[8] V???n ????? bi??n gi???i gi???a Vi???t Nam v?? Trung Qu???c, s??d, tr. 10.

[9] T??i k??? ng??y x??a chuy???n M??? Ch??u, 
Tr??i tim l???m ch??? ????? tr??n ?????u???

(Th?? T??? H???u)

[10] V???n ????? bi??n gi???i gi???a Vi???t Nam v?? Trung Qu???c, s??d, tr. 10.

[11] T???m b???n ????? n??y ???????c c??ng b??? trong b??i vi???t c???a t??c gi??? Nguy???n Ng???c Giao: ???Nam Quan: ???i, c???a ???i v?? bi??n gi???i???, Di????n ??a??ns???? 128, th??ng 4 ??? 2003). B??i n??y v?? b??i ???T??? Nam Quan ?????n B???n Gi???c???, Di???n ????n, s??? 129 (th??ng 5 ??? 2003) c???a c??ng t??c gi??? hi???n nay kh??ng c??n ???????c l??u gi??? tr??n trang m???ng n??i tr??n. Nh??ng t???m b???n ????? s??? 249 C ????  ???????c nhi???u t??c gi??? kh??c s??? d???ng. C?? th??? xem trong b??i: Tr????ng Nh??n Tu???n, ???V???n ????? b??o Du L???ch t???m ????nh b???n hay l?? m???i nh???c Nam Quan???, Th??ng Lu???n, 19.4.2009: http://www.thongluan.org/vn/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=3699

[12] ???????ng cao t???c n??y, kh??nh th??nh v??o cu???i n??m 2005, ???????c coi l?? ??????????ng cao t???c ?????u ti??n n???i li???n Trung Qu???c v???i c??c n?????c ASEAN???. Th?????ng ???????c c??c h??ng du l???ch c???a n?????c ta g???i t??n l?? ??????????ng cao t???c Trung Qu???c ??? ASEAN???.

 

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Ph???n h???i

6 ph???n h???i (b??i ???Mai Th??i L??nh ??? ???i Nam Quan trong hi???n t???i (2)???)

  1. Tr????ng Nh??n Tu???n says:
    14/03/2010 l??c 5:18 chi???u

    B??i vi???t c???a ??ng Nguy???n Ng???c Giao v??? Nam Quan (v?? B???n Gi???c) tr??n c??c s??? Di???n ????n 128 v?? 129 ???? kh??ng c??n th???y l??u tr??? tr??n trang nh?? Di???n ????n n???a. T??i c?? gi??? hai b??i vi???t n??y ??? ????y, g???i l??n ????? r???ng ???????ng tham kh???o :
    http://truongnhantuan.ifrance.com/bien%20gioi%20viet%20nam%20-%20trung%20quoc.htm
    http://truongnhantuan.ifrance.com/bangioc-nn-giao.htm

  2. Tr????ng Nh??n Tu???n says:
    14/03/2010 l??c 4:56 chi???u

    V??? lai l???ch t???m b???n ????? 249C m?? anh MTL d???n ??? ????y, xin n??i l???i cho r?? :
    Trong b??i ?? V???n ????? b??o Du L???ch t???m ????nh b???n, hay l?? m???i nh???c Nam Quan ?? c???a t??i vi???t, ????ng ??? ????y http://www.thongluan.org/vn/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=3699 , t??i c?? vi???t th??? n??y : ?? Theo b???n ????? ph??n gi???i khu v???c 249 C d?????i ????y, do ??ng Nguy???n Ng???c Giao ????a l??n internet t??? nhi???u n??m tr?????c, so s??nh n?? v???i b???n ????? SGI, ta th???y: to??n b??? khu n??i ???? ph??a b???c ?????ng ????ng ???? thu???c v??? TQ. ???i Nam Quan c???a VN nh?? th??? ???? m???t ho??n to??n. ??
    Th???c ra t???m b???n ????? m?? ??ng Nguy???n Ng???c Giao ????a l??n internet kh??ng ph???i l?? t???m b???n ????? n??y. ??ng Giao ch??? ????a l??n trong b??i vi???t m???t h??nh 249C thu nh???.
    Nguy??n nh??n l?? sau khi ??ng Giao vi???t b??i v??? bi??n gi???i ????ng tr??n Di???n ????n c??c s??? 128 v?? 129, trong c??c b??i ???? c?? ????? c???p ?????n Nam Quan v???i t???m h??nh 249C (thu nh???), t??i c?? vi???t th?? tr???c ti???p ?????n ??ng Giao ????? h???i v??? hai t???m b???n ????? 249C v?? 186C (v??ng th??c B???n Gi???c). ??ng Giao ???? g???i cho t??i hai t???m b???n ????? n??y (v???i ????? l???n ch??nh th???c) ????? t??i tham kh???o. T??? ????, m???i l???n ????ng c??c b??i vi???t c?? k??m t???m h??nh 249C (v???i ????? l???n) t??i ?????u n??i l?? c???a ??ng Giao ????a l??n internet. ????y l?? m???t c??ch n??i ????? cho m???i ng?????i bi???t n??i xu???t x??? c???a t??i li???u, ch??? th???c ra n?? c??ng v??ng vo tam qu???c.
    Ti???n ????y, ????? m??? r???ng cu???c tranh lu???n (n???u c??) v??? Nam Quan, t??i xin g???i b??i t??i vi???t (t??? nhi???u n??m tr?????c) nh???m g??p ?? v???i ??ng Nguy???n Ng???c Giao, may sao c??n gi??? l???i ???????c tr??n m???ng ?? Ki???n :http://home.scarlet.be/mykvn/tnhantuan04.html
    V??? lai l???ch c??c trang photocopies, anh MTL g???i l?? B??? Vong L???c, t??i g???i l?? t??i li???u V???n ????? Bi??n Gi???i Gi???a Vi???t Nam v?? Trung Qu???c do nh?? XB S??? Th???t ???n h??nh n??m 1979, th???c ra ???????c tham kh???o t??? ngu???n ?? Th?? Vi???n Qu???c Gia Hoa K??? ?? t???i Washington. Ng?????i ??i tham kh???o l?? ??ng Th??i V??n C???u, ??ng n??y ???? g???i to??n b??? b???n sao t??i li???u cho t??i t??? kho???ng n??m 2003, t??i c?? ????ng l???i trong s??ch c???a t??i (n??m 2005). Trong s??ch t??i c?? ghi l???i c??m ??n ??ng C???u, nh??ng ??? ch??? d?????i trang m?? kh??ng ????a v??o m???c l???c t??i li???u tham kh???o. ????y l?? m???t s?? s??t c???a c?? nh??n t??i. L???n t??i b???n sau n??y t??i s??? ??i???u ch???nh l???i. D?? nhi??n, sau n??y, c?? nhi???u ng?????i kh??c ch???p to??n b??? t??i li???u n??y t??? th?? vi???n trong n?????c v?? g???i l??n tr??n net, m???i ng?????i do ???? tham kh???o r???ng r??i.
    T??i kh??ng bi???t t??i li???u n??y anh MTL d???n t??? ngu???n n??o, ??i???u n??y kh??ng quan tr???ng, nh??ng t??i nh???n m???nh l?? ngu???n d???n v??? t??i li???u n??y c???a t??i l?? Th?? Vi???n Qu???c Gia Hoa K???, do ??ng Th??i V??n C???u g???i cho.

  3. Tri Ng??? says:
    14/03/2010 l??c 2:33 chi???u

    (1) Xin c??m ??n ??ng Mai Th??i L??nh ???? b??? c??ng s???c vi???t l??n m???t b??i c?? nhi???u h??nh ???nh v?? gi???i t??ch (analyse) c??ng phu.
    (2) B???n Trung Nu Hoang n??i r???t hay. Ph??a VN c?? th??? ki???m so??t xem kho???ng c??ch t??? m???c 0 Km ?????n m???c Km 1 (ho???c m???c Km 2) c?? c??n ????ng 1000 m (ho???c 2000 m) kh??ng. N???u kh??ng ????ng th?? ch???c ch???n ch??ng ta (VN) b??? TQ ??n gian v?? l???n ??p. N???u ch??ng ta kh??n ngoan th?? n??n b???o v??? c??c M???c Km 1 v?? Km 2 th???t k??? v?? ???? l?? nh???ng m???c ???l??m ch???ng??? h??ng h???n nh???t. C??n n???u kho???ng c??ch ???? ????ng th?? c??n m???t c??u tr??? l???i s??? 2 : t???c l?? c??? n?????c VN ??ang l??i l???i 100m v?? m??i C?? Mau, n???u v??? ????ng, s??? r??i t??m xu???ng bi???n ! (??i???u kh??ng th??? x???y ra).
    (3) m???t c??ch n???a ????? ki???m so??t ?????t m???t ?????t c??n l?? ch???p h??nh (v?? l??m l???i topologie) t???t c??? bi??n gi???i v???a b???ng m??y bay v???a tr??n b???, sau ???? v??? l???i ho??n to??n c??i b???n ????? bi??n gi???i Vi???t Trung hi???n nay. ??em b???n ????? m???i so s??nh v???i b???n ????? c?? (bi??n gi???i Vi???t Trung ???? ???????c nh?? Thanh v?? Ph??p ?????ng k??) ch???c s??? l??i ra s??? kh??c bi???t (tr??? phi b???n ????? c?? kh??ng ch??nh x??c). M?? ch??nh ra vi???c n??y ph???i l??m tr?????c khi ??i ?????n th???o lu???n v?? th????ng thuy???t bi??n gi???i Vi???t Trung.
    (4) C??c ??ng LCPh???ng v?? V?? D??ng, c??ng nh?? nh?? c???m quy???n VN hi???n nay, c?? t???i r???t l???n ???? ????? vi???c l???n ?????t n??y x???y ra (c??ch l??m vi???c c???a ph??a VN t??i e kh??ng ????? nghi??m t??c v?? thi???u kh??? n??ng). Ch??? ch???ng ???? nh???ng s??? ki???n th??i c??ng ????? ????? nh?? c???m quy???n VN hi???n nay n??n tho??i v??? v?? t??? gi???i th??? ??CSVN, cho tr??ng c???u d??n ?? ????? ??i ?????n ??a ?????ng ??a nguy??n v?? b???u m???t ch??nh ph??? Vi???t nam m???i. C??c ??ng (c???a ??CSVN) kh??ng ????? t??i v?? ?????c ????? l??nh ?????o n?????c VN.

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