Tri???n v???ng khai th??c chung Trung Qu???c ??? Philippines tr??n Bi???n ????ng

Chủ nhật - 18/08/2019 18:39
Truy???n th??ng th??? gi???i cho bi???t, trong chuy???n th??m c???a ch??? t???ch Trung Qu???c T???p C???n B??nh t???i Philippines g???n ????y, hai b??n ???? k?? k???t 29 th???a thu???n, trong ???? c?? m???t b???n ghi nh??? (MOU) v??? khai th??c chung tr??n khu v???c bi???n ????ng.[1] Bi???n ????ng v???n l?? khu v???c c?? nhi???u tranh ch???p ph???c t???p, ti???m ???n nhi???u nguy c?? xung ?????t
Tri???n v???ng khai th??c chung Trung Qu???c ??? Philippines tr??n Bi???n ????ng

Tri???n v???ng khai th??c chung Trung Qu???c ??? Philippines tr??n Bi???n ????ng

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T??c gi???: Ho??ng Vi???t

Gi???i thi???u

Truy???n th??ng th??? gi???i cho bi???t, trong chuy???n th??m c???a ch??? t???ch Trung Qu???c T???p C???n B??nh t???i Philippines g???n ????y, hai b??n ???? k?? k???t 29 th???a thu???n, trong ???? c?? m???t b???n ghi nh??? (MOU) v??? khai th??c chung tr??n khu v???c bi???n ????ng.[1] Bi???n ????ng v???n l?? khu v???c c?? nhi???u tranh ch???p ph???c t???p, ti???m ???n nhi???u nguy c?? xung ?????t. Ch??nh v?? v???y, khai th??c chung lu??n l?? v???n ????? m?? nhi???u qu???c gia trong khu v???c c??ng quan t??m, v?? c?? th??? d???n t???i nh???ng thay ?????i nh???t ?????nh tr??n khu v???c bi???n ????ng.

B??i b??o n??y nh???m gi???i thi???u nh???ng v???n ????? ph??p l?? v??? khai th??c chung v?? th??ng qua c??c quy ?????nh c???a lu???t ph??p li??n quan, nh???m t??m ki???m nh???ng ????nh gi?? v??? tri???n v???ng khai th??c chung gi???a Trung Qu???c ??? Philippines trong th???i gian s???p t???i.

Kh??i ni???m khai th??c chung

Cho t???i nay, ch??a c?? m???t kh??i ni???m th???ng nh???t v??? khai th??c chung, tuy nhi??n, m???t kh??i ni???m v??? khai th??c chung  ???????c nhi???u nh?? khoa h???c s??? d???ng, ???? l?? kh??i ni???m do Rainer Lagoni ????a ra. Theo ????, ???khai th??c chung l?? s??? h???p t??c gi???a hai qu???c gia v??? vi???c th??m d?? ho???c khai th??c c??c tr???m t??ch, c??c v??ng ho???c c??c khu v???c ch???a c??c t??i nguy??n kh??ng sinh v???t m?? c??c v??ng ho???c khu v???c ???? v???t ngang ???????ng bi??n gi???i ho???c n???m tr??n c??c khu v???c c?? nh???ng y??u s??ch ch???ng l???n.???[2] B??n c???nh ????, Thomas A. Mensah th?? cho r???ng: ???C??c khu v???c khai th??c chung ???????c x??c ?????nh ho???c b???i v?? c??c b??n r???t kh?? kh??n ho???c kh??ng th??? c??ng nh???t tr?? v???i nhau v??? m???t ???????ng bi??n gi???i chung gi???a h??? hay l?? b???i v?? c?? m???t ngu???n t??i nguy??n n???m v???t ngang ???????ng bi??n gi???i ???? ???????c th???ng nh???t, theo ????, m???i b??n kh??ng th??? t??? m??nh khai th??c hi???u qu??? v?? c??ng b???ng ngu???n t??i nguy??n ???? ???????c.???[3]

Nh?? v???y, d???a tr??n c??? ?????nh ngh??a c???a Rainer Lagoni v?? Thomas A. Mensah, ta th???y c?? hai tr?????ng h???p d???n ?????n c?? th??? ??p d???ng khai th??c chung. Th??? nh???t, khi c?? m???t ngu???n t??i nguy??n n???m v???t ngang bi??n gi???i bi???n c???a c??c qu???c gia li??n quan. Trong tr?????ng h???p n??y, do c??c qu???c gia li??n quan m???c d?? ???? ph??n ?????nh bi??n gi???i bi???n, nh??ng v???n c???n c??c b??n c??ng nhau th???a thu???n vi???c th??m d??, khai th??c c??c t??i nguy??n tr??n khu v???c ????. ?????c bi???t l?? c??c t??i nguy??n n??ng l?????ng, b???i v?? c??c tr???m t??ch c?? th??? ch???y c???t ngang ???????ng bi??n gi???i bi???n c???a c??c qu???c gia.

Tr?????ng h???p th??? hai l?? khi ngu???n t??i nguy??n n???m trong khu v???c ch???ng l???n c??c y??u s??ch gi???a c??c qu???c gia ven bi???n v?? ch??a th??? ph??n ?????nh ???????c. Trong tr?????ng h???p n??y, v?? nhi???u l?? do, c??c qu???c gia li??n quan mu???n c??ng nhau ph??t tri???n ngu???n t??i nguy??n t???i khu v???c ch???ng l???n c??c y??u s??ch ????. Khai th??c chung trong tr?????ng h???p n??y l?? m???t h??nh th???c c???a d??n x???p t???m th???i khi m?? khu v???c tranh ch???p v???n ch??a th??? ph??n ?????nh.

Th???c ti???n v??? khai th??c chung c??ng r???t phong ph??, c??c lo???i h??nh khai th??c chung c??ng r???t ??a d???ng. Ch??? t??nh ri??ng v??? ph???m vi ?????a l??, ???? c?? nhi???u c??ch x??y d???ng khai th??c chung kh??c nhau. C?? th??? l?? thi???t l???p m???t khu v???c chung,[4] ho???c m???t khu v???c khai th??c chung v???i ph??n khu nh???,[5] hay l?? m???t khu v???c ph???c h???p trong ???? g???m nhi???u khu v???c nh??? l?? c??c khu v???c h???p t??c khai th??c chung gi???a c??c qu???c gia li??n quan, c??c khu v???c h???p t??c n??y t??y thu???c v??o lo???i h??nh h???p t??c m?? c??c b??n th???a thu???n.[6] Nh??ng n??i chung, trong th???c ti???n qu???c t???, x??c ?????nh ph???m vi c???a khu v???c khai th??c chung trong m???i li??n quan v???i ngu???n t??i nguy??n ????.[7] Trong vi???c th??m d?? v?? khai th??c t??i nguy??n d???u m??? v?? kh?? ?????t, c?? r???t nhi???u h??nh th???c h???p t??c, t??? ????n gi???n ?????n ph???c t???p. Tuy nhi??n, c??c th???a thu???n khai th??c chung th?????ng t???n t???i d?????i c??c h??nh th???c: (1) M???t qu???c gia ?????ng ra th???c hi???n khai th??c chung; (2) M???t li??n doanh ?????ng ra khai th??c; (3) M???t c?? quan s??? ???????c c??c b??n trao th???m quy???n ????? ti???n h??nh khai th??c.

H??nh th???c m???t qu???c gia ?????ng ra khai th??c[8] ???? l?? m???c d?? c?? ??t nh???t hai qu???c gia li??n quan ?????n vi???c khai th??c chung nh??ng ch??? giao cho m???t qu???c gia ?????ng ra th???c hi???n vi???c n??y, qu???c gia c??n l???i s??? ???????c chia s??? l???i nhu???n t??? vi???c khai th??c t??i nguy??n ????, sau khi tr??? ??i chi ph?? khai th??c m?? qu???c gia th???c hi???n khai th??c ???? b??? ra. Nhi???u th???a thu???n khai th??c chung ban ?????u tr??n th??? gi???i ???? ???????c th???c hi???n theo h??nh th???c n??y.[9] Trong m?? h??nh n??y, c??c qu???c gia li??n quan ph???i t??? b??? m???t ph???n trong c??c quy???n c???a m??nh, ????? giao cho m???t qu???c gia duy nh???t qu???n l?? ngu???n t??i nguy??n ????. C??c th???a thu???n khai th??c chung theo m?? h??nh n??y ch??? y???u ???????c th???c hi???n ?????i v???i c??c v??ng ????y bi???n ch???ng l???n. ??? ASEAN, th???a thu???n gi???a Malaysia ??? Brunei n??m 2009 theo m?? h??nh n??y.[10]

H??nh th???c th??? hai l?? li??n doanh khai th??c chung. ????y l?? m?? h??nh ???????c ??a chu???ng nh???t hi???n nay. M?? h??nh n??y ????i h???i c??c b??n li??n quan th??nh l???p ra m???t li??n doanh khai th??c. Th??nh vi??n c???a li??n doanh c?? th??? l?? c??c c??ng ty d???u kh?? qu???c doanh c???a qu???c gia ????, ho???c c??c c??ng ty d???u kh?? ?????i di???n cho c??c qu???c gia tham gia khai th??c chung.

M?? h??nh li??n doanh khai th??c n??y l???i c?? hai d???ng th???c: d???ng th???c th??? nh???t l?? c??c b??n thi???t l???p m???t li??n doanh khai th??c tr??n ngu???n t??i nguy??n m?? c??c b??n c??ng chia s???. D???ng th???c th??? hai l?? c??c b??n thi???t l???p m???t th???a thu???n ????? cho m???t c??ng ty li??n doanh ??i???u h??nh vi???c khai th??c m???t ngu???n t??i nguy??n n???m v???t ngang bi??n gi???i bi???n ???? ???????c ph??n ?????nh tr?????c ????y c???a hai qu???c gia. D???ng th???c th??? hai n??y ???????c c??c qu???c gia khu v???c bi???n B???c th???c hi???n.[11]

H??nh th???c th??? ba trong th???a thu???n khai th??c chung ph???c t???p h??n v?? ????i h???i c??c b??n h???p t??c ??? m???c ????? cao h??n hai ph????ng th???c kia. C??c b??n li??n quan s??? ch???n m???t c?? quan c?? th???m quy???n chung ho???c l?? m???t ???y ban nh?? m???t ph??p nh??n ?????c l???p, ???y ban n??y s??? ?????i di???n cho c??c qu???c gia tham gia khai th??c chung, c?? c??c th???m quy???n ???y tr??? c???n thi???t ????? ph??t tri???n khu v???c khai th??c chung ???? ???????c x??c ?????nh r??.[12]Th???a thu???n n??m 1979 v?? th???a thu???n n??m 1990 gi???a Malaysia ??? Th??i lan thu???c h??nh th???c n??y.[13]

C?? s??? ph??p l?? cho vi???c khai th??c chung

Kho???n 3 ??i???u 74 v?? ??i???u 83 c???a UNCLOS quy ?????nh: ???Trong khi ch??? k?? k???t th???a thu???n ??? kho???n 1, c??c qu???c gia h???u quan, tr??n tinh th???n hi???u bi???t v?? h???p t??c, l??m h???t s???c m??nh ????? ??i ?????n c??c d??n x???p t???m th???i c?? t??nh ch???t th???c ti???n v?? ????? kh??ng ph????ng h???i hay c???n tr??? vi???c k?? k???t c??c th???a thu???n d???t kho??t trong giai ??o???n qu?? ????? n??y. C??c d??n x???p t???m th???i kh??ng ph????ng h???i ?????n vi???c ho???ch ?????nh cu???i c??ng?????? ????y ch??nh c?? s??? ph??p l?? c???a C??ng ?????c trong vi???c ti???n h??nh h???p t??c khai th??c chung trong khi ch??? ph??n ?????nh.

Theo quy ?????nh tr??n, c?? ba y???u t??? m?? c??c qu???c gia li??n quan ph???i th???c hi???n: Th??? nh???t, c??c qu???c gia ph???i l??m h???t s???c m??nh ????? ??i ?????n c??c d??n x???p t???m th???i c?? t??nh ch???t th???c ti???n. Quy ?????nh n??y mang h??m ??  c??c b??n c?? ngh??a v??? ???????m ph??n tr??n nguy??n t???c thi???n ch?????[14]. Th??? hai, c??c qu???c gia ph???i th???c hi???n ???th????ng l?????ng b???ng ph????ng c??ch h??a ho??n ????? sao cho c??c b??n c??ng ??i t???i c??c d??n x???p t???m th???i???.[15]

Y???u t??? th??? hai, ???? l?? trong su???t qu?? tr??nh ????m ph??n, th????ng l?????ng, c??c b??n c?? ngh??a v??? kh??ng ???????c ph?? ho???i hay c???n tr??? vi???c ??i ?????n m???t th???a thu???n cu???i c??ng v??? ph??n ?????nh bi???n. Ngh??a v??? n??y ???? ???????c c??c T??a ??n qu???c t??? gi???i th??ch l?? ngh??a v??? n??y ph???n ??nh t??nh trang c??n b???ng m???ng manh gi???a ng??n ng???a c??c h??nh vi ????n ph????ng c?? th??? x??m h???i t???i c??c quy???n c???a b??n kia, v?? trong th???i ??i???m ????, kh??ng ???????c ng??n tr??? b??n kia c?? nh???ng h??nh ?????ng ph??t tri???n kinh t??? t???i khu v???c bi???n tranh ch???p trong su???t th???i gian tranh ch???p. T??a ??n qu???c t??? ???? kh???ng ?????nh ???B???t k??? nh???ng h??nh ?????ng n??o c???a m???t b??n g??y ra nh???ng t???n h???i kh??ng th??? b?? ?????p cho b??n kia trong qu?? tr??nh th????ng l?????ng ????? ??i t???i m???t th???a thu???n ph??n ?????nh cu???i c??ng???[16] l?? vi ph???m t???i ngh??a v??? n??y, v?? s??? kh??c bi???t ???????c t???o ra b???i c??c h??nh ?????ng n??y ????? d???n t???i m???t s??? thay ?????i v???t l?? l??u d??i, v?? d??? nh?? vi???c khai th??c c??c m??? d???u ho???c kh?? ho???c c??c h??nh vi th??m d?? ?????a ch???n.???[17] Trong v??? Guyana v. Suriname, T??a ???? ph??n quy???t vi???c khoan th??m d?? tr??n v??ng bi???n ??ang tranh ch???p l?? ???? vi ph???m ?????n ngh??a v??? l??m h???t s???c m??nh kh??ng g??y ph????ng h???i hay c???n tr??? ?????n vi???c ho???ch ?????nh cu???i c??ng b???i v?? c??c h??nh ?????ng ???? c?? th??? t???o ra s??? thay ?????i v???t l?? ?????n m??i tr?????ng bi???n v?? l??m thay ?????i t??nh tr???ng ???? c?? s???n (status quo).[18]

Y???u t??? th??? ba, ???? l??  ???c??c d??n x???p t???m th???i c?? t??nh ch???t th???c ti???n n??y kh??ng ???nh h?????ng ?????n vi???c ph??n ?????nh bi???n cu???i c??ng.???[19]

Ch??nh s??ch ???G??c tranh ch???p, c??ng khai th??c??? c???a Trung Qu???c

Ch??nh s??ch ???g??c tranh ch???p, c??ng khai th??c??? c???a Trung Qu???c ???????c T???ng b?? th??  ?????ng Ti???u B??nh ????a ra l???n ?????u t???i Tokyo th??ng 10 n??m 1982.[20] ????y l?? m???t ph????ng ??n ???????c Trung Qu???c ????a ra v???i quan ??i???m c??ng h???p t??c khai th??c chung t???i khu v???c bi???n ????ng.

Ch??nh s??ch n??y ???????c ph??a Trung Qu???c di???n gi???i: ??? Kh??i ni???m ???g??c tranh ch???p c??ng khai th??c??? bao g???m 4 n???i dung: 1. Ch??? quy???n l??nh th??? l?? thu???c Trung Qu???c. 2. Khi ??i???u ki???n c???n thi???t kh??ng xu???t hi???n ????? gi???i quy???t to??n di???n tranh ch???p l??nh th???, vi???c th???o lu???n v???n ????? ch??? quy???n l??nh th??? s??? t???m g??c sang b??n c???nh. Vi???c g??c l???i tranh ch???p ch??? quy???n l??nh th??? kh??ng c?? ngh??a l?? t??? b??? ch??? quy???n. ???? ch??? l?? t???m g??c tranh ch???p trong m???t th???i gian. 3. L??nh th??? tranh ch???p c?? th??? ???????c c??ng khai th??c. 4. M???c ????ch c???a c??ng khai th??c l?? duy tr?? s??? hi???u bi???t l???n nhau th??ng qua s??? h???p t??c v?? t???o ra c??c ??i???u ki???n cho vi???c gi???i quy???t quy???n s??? h???u l??nh th??????.[21]

Ph??n t??ch ch??nh s??ch n??y c???a Trung Qu???c, ta th???y, m???c d?? Trung Qu???c ????? ngh??? khai th??c chung, nh??ng m???t kh??c Trung Qu???c v???n duy tr?? y??u s??ch ??????????ng l?????i b????? chi???m g???n 80 % bi???n ????ng v?? ch??? quy???n ?????i v???i hai qu???n ?????o Ho??ng Sa v?? Tr?????ng Sa c??ng v???i hai khu v???c kh??c l?? Pratas v?? Macclesfield m?? Trung Qu???c g???i l?? qu???n ?????o ????ng Sa v?? qu???n ?????o Trung Sa.[22]

Quan tr???ng h??n, ph???n l???n c??c khu v???c m?? Trung Qu???c ????? ngh??? khai th??c chung ?????u n???m tr??n khu v???c thu???c v??ng ?????c quy???n kinh t??? ho???c th???m l???c ?????a hi???n nhi??n thu???c quy???n ch??? quy???n c???a n?????c kh??c.

Th???i gian g???n ????y, Trung Qu???c ???? lu??n g??y s???c ??p ????? th???c hi???n ???g??c tranh ch???p, c??ng khai th??c???, ?????c bi???t l?? ?????i v???i Vi???t Nam v?? Philippines. Ch??? c???n m???t trong hai n?????c ho???c Vi???t Nam ho???c Philippines ch???p nh???n ???g??c tranh ch???p, c??ng khai th??c??? l?? Trung Qu???c s??? ?????t ???????c th??nh c??ng b?????c ?????u. D???a tr??n th??nh c??ng b?????c ?????u ????, Trung Qu???c s??? d??ng s???c m???nh ????? ??p c??c qu???c gia c??n l???i ph???i th???c hi???n theo.[23] V?? nh?? v???y, nguy c?? c??c qu???c gia tranh ch???p tr???c ti???p v???i Trung Qu???c t???i khu v???c bi???n ????ng s??? ph???i ???khai th??c chung??? v???i c??c ngu???n t??i nguy??n n???m trong v??ng ?????c quy???n kinh t??? ho???c th???m l???c ?????a c???a ch??nh m??nh, m?? t???i c??c khu v???c ????, theo UNCLOS, c??c qu???c gia ???? s??? c?? ?????c quy???n th??m d??, khai th??c c??c ngu???n t??i nguy??n m?? kh??ng ph???i chia s??? cho b???t c??? ai.

Quy ?????nh v??? khai th??c chung trong lu???t ph??p c???a Philippines

V???n ????? khai th??c chung ???????c quy ?????nh trong Hi???n ph??p n??m 1987 c???a Philippines v?? m???t s??? v??n b???n lu???t kh??c. ??i???u XII, kho???n 2 c???a Hi???n ph??p n??m 1987 quy ?????nh:

??? T???t c??? ?????t ??ai, t??i nguy??n n?????c, kho??ng s???n, m??? than, d???u m??? v?? kh?? ?????t???v?? c??c t??i nguy??n thi??n nhi??n kh??c thu???c s??? h???u c???a Nh?? n?????c??? Vi???c th??m d??, ph??t tri???n v?? s??? d???ng c??c ngu???n t??i nguy??n thi??n nhi??n n??y ph???i ???????c d?????i s??? ki???m so??t ho??n to??n v?? s??? gi??m s??t ?????y ????? c???a Nh?? n?????c. Nh?? n?????c c?? th??? ?????m nh???n tr???c ti???p vi???c th???c hi???n c??c h??nh ?????ng n??y ho???c c?? th??? ????a v??o c??c s???n ph???m h???p t??c chung, li??n doanh ho???c th???a thu???n chia s??? s???n ph???m v???i c??c c??ng d??n Philippines, ho???c h???p t??c, li??n k???t v???i ??t nh???t 60% s??? v???n thu???c s??? h???u c???a c??c c??ng d??n???

T???ng th???ng c?? th??? ??i ?????n c??c th???a thu???n v???i c??c t???p ??o??n n?????c ngo??i li??n quan ?????n c??c v???n ????? v??? c??ng ngh??? ho???c tr??? gi??p v??? t??i ch??nh cho c??c d??? ??n th??m d??, ph??t tri???n v?? s??? d???ng quy m?? l???n ?????i v???i c??c t??i nguy??n kho??ng s???n, d???u m??? v?? kh?? ?????t tu??n theo c??c quy ?????nh c???a lu???t ph??p.???[24]

Theo quy ?????nh n??y c???a Hi???n ph??p n??m 1987, Ch??nh ph??? Philippines c?? th??? th???c hi???n vi???c th??m d??, ph??t tri???n, s??? d???ng t??i nguy??n d???u kh?? theo s??u h??nh th???c sau:

(1) T??? m??nh tr???c ti???p th???c hi???n;

(2) B???ng c??c c??ch: (i) s???n ph???m chung; (ii) li??n doanh; (iii) th???a thu???n ph??n chia s???n ph???m v???i c??c c??ng d??n Philippines ho???c c??c t???p ??o??n, v???i t???i thi???u 60% s??? v???n thu???c s??? h???u c???a c??c c??ng d??n ????;

(3) Ch???p nh???n vi???c khai th??c t??i nguy??n thi??n nhi??n ??? quy m?? nh??? s??? ??u ti??n cho c??c c??ng d??n Philippines n???u lu???t ph??p cho ph??p;

(4) ?????i v???i vi???c th??m d??, ph??t tri???n v?? s??? d???ng kho??ng s???n, d???u m??? v?? kh?? ?????t ??? quy m?? l???n, T???ng th???ng c?? th??? ??i ?????n c??c th???a thu???n v???i c??c t???p ??o??n n?????c ngo??i ????? h??? tr??? v??? c??ng ngh??? ho???c t??i ch??nh theo c??c quy ?????nh c??? th??? c???a lu???t ph??p li??n quan.[25]

D???a tr??n quy ?????nh c???a Hi???n ph??p, Ngh??? vi???n Philippines ???? ban h??nh ?????o lu???t C???ng h??a s??? 7492 hay c??n g???i l?? ?????o lu???t khai th??c c???a Philippines n??m 1995,[26] trong ???? quy ?????nh v??? vi???c th??m d??, ph??t tri???n, s??? d???ng v?? th???c hi???n qu?? tr??nh khai th??c c??c t??i nguy??n kho??ng s???n. Tr?????c khi Hi???n ph??p 1987 ???????c ban h??nh, T???ng th???ng Marcos ???? ban h??nh S???c l???nh s??? 87 k??m theo ????????o lu???t th??m d?? v?? ph??t tri???n d???u m??? n??m 1972???. Ngo??i ra, n???i dung n??y c??n ???????c gi???i th??ch b???i T??a ??n t???i cao th??ng qua m???t s??? ??n l??? li??n quan, ??i???n h??nh l?? ??n l??? La Bugal B???laan.[27] Theo ??n l??? n??y, quy???t ?????nh khai th??c d???u m???, kh?? ?????t v?? c??c kho??ng s???n ph???i tu??n th??? c??c y??u c???u sau:

(1) H???p ?????ng d???ch v??? (khai th??c d???u kh??) ph???i ???????c so???n th???o tu??n th??? c??c lu???t chung, thi???t l???p c??c ti??u chu???n hay ??i???u kho???n m???u, c??c ??i???u ki???n v?? c??c y??u c???u, c?? th??? ??i t???i s??? th???ng nh???t c??c ??i???u kho???n, tr??nh vi???c ????a c??c ??i???u kho???n b???t l???i cho ?????t n?????c.

(2) T???ng th???ng s??? ?????i di???n cho ch??nh ph??? k?? k???t c??c th???a thu???n, nh??ng tr?????c khi tr??nh T???ng th???ng k??, c??c v??n b???n ???? c???n ph???i ???????c r?? so??t nhi???u l???n ??? nh???ng c???p kh??c nhau ????? ?????m b???o tu??n th??? ph??p lu???t v?? v?????t qua ???????c s??? th???m tra c???a c??ng ch??ng.

(3) Trong th???i h???n 30 ng??y, k??? t??? ng??y th???a thu???n c?? hi???u l???c, T???ng th???ng ph???i c?? tr??ch nhi???m tr??nh l??n Ngh??? vi???n, ????? c?? quan n??y c?? th??? ki???m tra l???i th???a thu???n v?? can thi???p v??o b???ng s??? kh??ng ngh???, n???u th???y c???n thi???t.[28]

Tri???n v???ng khai th??c chung gi???a Philippines ??? Trung Qu???c tr??n bi???n ????ng

Truy???n th??ng Philippines cho bi???t h???i ?????u n??m 2018 l?? Manila v?? B???c Kinh s??? d??? ?????nh khai th??c chung t???i hai khu v???c, l?? SC 57 v?? SC 72.[29] Theo l???i B??? tr?????ng n??ng l?????ng c???a Philippines, l?? SC 57 n???m ho??n to??n trong l??nh th??? c???a Philippines v?? kh??ng c?? tranh ch???p v???i ph??a Trung Qu???c t???i khu v???c n??y.[30]

Theo quy ?????nh trong ph??p lu???t Philippines v??? khai th??c d???u m???, l?? SC 57 kh??ng th??? l?? ?????i t?????ng ????? th???c hi???n vi???c khai th??c chung, v?? ho??n to??n n???m trong v??ng ?????c quy???n kinh t??? c???a Philippines v?? kh??ng c?? tranh ch???p v???i b???t c??? qu???c gia n??o.

C??n l?? SC 72 hay c??n g???i l?? L?? GSEC101, Philippines kh???ng ?????nh ???L?? GSEC 101 n???m ho??n to??n trong v??ng ?????c quy???n kinh t??? 200 h???i l?? c???a Philippines???,[31] tuy nhi??n, Trung Qu???c cho r???ng ???Trung Qu???c c?? to??n b??? ch??? quy???n, quy???n ch??? quy???n v?? quy???n t??i ph??n ?????i v???i Tr?????ng Sa v?? c??c v??ng n?????c k??? c???n. C??i g???i l?? L?? GSEC101 thu???c v??? v??ng bi???n c???a qu???n ?????o Nam Sa c???a Trung Qu???c.???[32]. Trong Ph??n quy???t v??? Philippines ki???n Trung Qu???c, T??a tr???ng t??i ???? kh???ng ?????nh l?? SC 72 v?? m???t s??? l?? kh??c: ????????u n???m trong khu v???c m?? ch??? Philippines m???i c?? quy???n s??? h???u c??c quy???n l???i bi???n t???i c??c v??ng bi???n ???????c quy ?????nh b???i UNCLOS. C??c khu v???c li??n quan n??y ch??? t???o th??nh v??ng ?????c quy???n kinh t??? v?? th???m l???c ?????a cho Philippines.???[33]

Nh?? v???y, n???u Philippines quy???t ?????nh s??? khai th??c chung t???i L?? SC 72, Philippines s??? t??? t?????c b??? l???i ??ch c???a m??nh m?? T??a tr???ng t??i ???? x??c ?????nh. Th??m n???a, vi???c khai th??c chung t???i L?? SC 72 s??? c?? th??? vi ph???m Hi???n ph??p 1987. Philippines l?? m???t qu???c gia ??p d???ng ???tam quy???n ph??n l???p??? trong c???u tr??c nh?? n?????c. Ch??nh v?? v???y, vi???c ????nh gi?? quy???t ?????nh khai th??c chung t???i L?? SC 72 c?? vi hi???n hay kh??ng s??? thu???c th???m quy???n c???a T??a ??n T???i cao Philippines. Quy???n Ch??nh ??n T??a ??n T???i Cao Philippines Antonio Carpio ???? tuy??n b??? tr??n b??o ch?? r???ng khai th??c chung t???i khu v???c n??y l?? vi hi???n.[34] V?? v???y, kh??? n??ng th???c hi???n ???????c khai th??c chung gi???a Philippines v?? Trung Qu???c t???i khu v???c n??y v???n c??n l?? xa v???i.

K???t lu???n

Khai th??c chung t???i c??c v??ng bi???n tranh ch???p ho???c t???i c??c ngu???n t??i nguy??n n???m tr??n v??ng bi???n thu???c hai qu???c gia ???? ???????c th???c hi???n t??? kh?? l??u tr??n th??? gi???i. Th???c ti???n qu???c t??? g???n ????y ch???ng minh r???ng, bi???n ph??p khai th??c chung c?? th??? ??em l???i nh???ng l???i ??ch to l???n trong vi???c khai th??c v?? ph??n chia ngu???n t??i nguy??n gi???a c??c qu???c gia li??n quan v???i nhau. Tuy nhi??n, vi???c khai th??c chung ph???i ????p ???ng ???????c c??c y??u c???u sau:

    • Khai th??c chung ph???i ???????c th???c hi???n trong m???t khu v???c ch???ng l???n ho???c khi m???t ngu???n t??i nguy??n n???m t???i v??ng bi???n thu???c hai qu???c gia kh??c nhau, ???????c x??c ?????nh r?? r??ng, ph?? h???p v???i lu???t ph??p qu???c t???.
    • C?? ch???, ph????ng th???c h???p t??c khai th??c chung ph???i d???a tr??n tr??n c?? s??? lu???t ph??p qu???c t???. Tranh ch???p bi???n ????ng l?? m???t trong nh???ng tranh ch???p ph???c t???p nh???t th??? gi???i, v?? th??? kh??ng c?? m???t m?? h??nh n??o hay ph????ng th???c h???p t??c chung duy nh???t n??o c?? th??? ??p d???ng th??nh c??ng ??? bi???n ????ng. Trong ????, ??i???u quan tr???ng l?? h???p t??c khai th??c chung ph???i ?????m b???o ph??n chia l???i ??ch c???a c??c b??n m???t c??ch b??nh ?????ng.
    • Vi???c khai th??c chung n??y kh??ng l??m ???nh h?????ng ?????n qu?? tr??nh ????m ph??n c??ng nh?? y??u s??ch ch??? quy???n c???a m???i b??n. C??c b??n li??n quan c?? th??? ??i t???i m???t th???a thu???n v??? khai th??c chung v?? th???a thu???n n??y kh??ng ph????ng h???i ?????n l???p tr?????ng, qu?? tr??nh ????m ph??n c??ng nh?? gi???i ph??p cu???i c??ng l?? ph??n ?????nh v??ng bi???n ch???ng l???n gi???a c??c b??n.

Khai th??c chung ???? ???????c quy ?????nh c??? th??? trong h??? th???ng lu???t ph??p c???a Philippines. Philippines l?? m???t qu???c gia ??p d???ng ch???t ch??? nguy??n t???c ???rule of law??? cho n??n m???i ho???t ?????ng khai th??c chung ph???i tu??n th??? Hi???n ph??p v?? ph??p lu???t Philippines. Nh???ng ho???t ?????ng n??o vi ph???m c??c quy ?????nh v??? khai th??c chung trong lu???t ph??p Philippines s??? b??? nghi??m c???m. Vi???c x??c ?????nh c??c ho???t ?????ng khai th??c chung c?? vi ph???m Hi???n ph??p v?? ph??p lu???t Philippines hay kh??ng l?? thu???c th???m quy???n c???a T??a ??n Philippines, ?????c bi???t vi???c x??c ?????nh ho???t ?????ng ???? c?? vi hi???n hay kh??ng thu???c th???m quy???n c???a T??a ??n T???i cao Philippines.

D???a tr??n c??c quy ?????nh v??? khai th??c chung c??ng nh?? th???c ti???n khai th??c chung tr??n th??? gi???i c??ng v???i c??c quy ?????nh v??? khai th??c chung c???a ph??p lu???t Philippines, ta th???y, vi???c ????? xu???t khai th??c chung t???i L?? SC 72 gi???a ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c v?? ch??nh ph??? Philippines kh?? c?? th??? th???c hi???n ???????c trong th???i gian s???p t???i, b???i v?? n?? ??i ng?????c l???i quy ?????nh c???a lu???t ph??p qu???c t??? v?? Hi???n ph??p Philippines.

C?? l??? ???? ch??? l?? m???t ???c??i b???y??? c???a ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c nh???m th???c hi???n ch??nh s??ch ???G??c tranh ch???p, c??ng khai th??c??? v???n ch??? ??em l???i l???i ??ch cho Trung Qu???c m?? th??i.

B??i vi???t ???????c ????ng l???n ?????u tr??n t???p ch?? Nghi??n c???u L???p ph??p.
????????????????????????

[1]https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2018/11/21/1870458/philippines-china-sign-mou-joint-gas-oil-developement

[2] Rainer Lagoni, Report on Joint Development of Non-living Resources in the Exclusive Economic Zone, I.L.A. Report of the Sixty-Third Conference, p. 509, at pp. 511???512 (1988), quoted in Mensah, Joint Development Zones as an Alternative Dispute Settlement Approach in Maritime Boundary Delimitation, in Rainer Lagoni and Daniel Vignes, Maritime Delimitation, p. 143, at p. 146 (Nijhoff, 2006).

[3] Thomas A. Mensah, ???Joint Development Zones as an Alternative Dispute Settlement Approach in Maritime Boundary Delimitation???, in Maritime Delimitation, ed. Rainer Lagoni and Daniel Vignes (Leiden/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2006), p. 147

[4] Examples are Iran-Sharjah and Saudi Arabia and Sudan. See Vicuna, ???Regional cooperation in nonliving resources.???

[5] The Ems-Dollard 1960 Treaty between Germany and Netherlands where a joint development zone in Ems Estuary is divided by a provisional line into two subzones for each country. See Vicuna, ???Regional cooperation in nonliving resources.???

[6] Australia and Indonesia have zone of cooperation divided into three areas depending on the type of arrangement/activity. See Vicuna, ???Regional cooperation in nonliving resources.???

[7] Ibid.

[8] David Ong, ???Implications of recent Southeast Asian State practice for the international law on offshore joint development???, in Beckman, et al, eds, Beyond Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea: Legal Framework for the Joint Development of Hydrocarbon Resources (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013), at 192-193.

[9] Robert Beckman and Leonardo Bernard, Framework For The Joint Development Of Hydrocarbon Resources, Center for International Law, National University of Singapore, p. 20, at https://cil.nus.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/BECKMAN-AND-BERNARD-FRAMEWORK-FOR-THE-JOINT-DEVELOPMENT-OF-HYDROCARBON-RESOURCES.pdf

[10] https://www.kln.gov.my/archive/content.php?t=7&articleId=735675; https://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/ebooks/files/353834688.pdf

[11] Robert Beckman and Leonardo Bernard, Ibid, p. 21

[12] Robert Beckman and Leonardo Bernard, Ibid, p. 21

[13] Robert Beckman and Leonardo Bernard, Ibid, p. 21

[14] Guyana/Suriname Arbitration, UN Law of the Sea Annex VII Arb Trib, award on 17 September 2007, at para 461, online: Permanent Court of Arbitration <http://www.pca-cpa.org/upload/files/Guyana-Suriname%20Award.pdf>;

[15] Guyana/Suriname, Ibid, at paras 471-478.

[16] Ranier Lagoni, Interim Measures Pending Maritime Delimitation Agreements??? (1984) 78 AJIL 345, at 366.

[17] Guyana/Suriname Arbitration, para. 467.

[18] Guyana/Suriname Arbitration, para. 480

[19] Guyana/Suriname Arbitration, para. 461

[20] ???Set Aside Dispute and Pursue Joint Development???, 17 November 2000, online: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People???s Republic of China https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/ziliao_665539/3602_665543/3604_665547/t18023.shtml

[21] ???Set Aside Dispute and Pursue Joint Development???, 17 November 2000, online: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People???s Republic of China

[22] M???c d?? Trung Qu???c g???i Macclesfield Bank l?? qu???n ?????o Trung Sa, nh??ng b??i n??y lu??n ch??m d?????i m???c n?????c bi???n, n??n theo lu???t bi???n qu???c t???, n?? kh??ng th??? ???????c coi l?? qu???n ?????o.

[23] https://www.voanews.com/a/if-brunei-takes-china-energy-deal-neighbors-may-follow/4690627.html

[24]http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/Philippines/PHILIPPINE%20CONSTITUTION.pdf

[25] La Bugal B???laan Tribal Association, 445 SCRA at 100-01

[26] http://www.mgb.gov.ph/images/stories/RA_7942.pdf

[27] La Bugal B???laan Tribal Association, at http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/jurisprudence/2004/jan2004/127882.htm

[28] La Bugal B???laan Tribal Association, 445 SCRA at 125

[29] https://www.rappler.com/nation/197258-malacanang-areas-joint-exploration-china

[30] https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/09/27/17/ph-china-set-bilateral-meeting-for-joint-development-in-west-ph-sea

[31] Note Verbale from the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines to the Embassy of the People???s Republic of China in Manila, No. 110885 (4 Apr. 2011), p. 2.

[32] Note Verbale from the Embassy of the People???s Republic of China in Manila to the Department of Foreign

Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines, No. (10)PG-047 (22 Feb. 2010), p. 1.

[33] Award of Arbitral Tribunal under Annex VII to UNCLOS between The Philippines and China, 2016, para. 697
 

28/04/1995: ???????ng ???ng d???n kh?? ph??t n??? ??? H??n Qu???c

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Ngu???n: Gas pipe explodes in South Korea, History.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1995, m???t v??? n??? ???????ng d???n kh?? ?????t b??n d?????i m???t ???????ng ph??? ????ng ????c ??? Daegu, H??n Qu???c ???? gi???t ch???t h??n 100 ng?????i. S??u m????i tr??? em, m???t s??? ??ang tr??n ???????ng ?????n tr?????ng, n???m trong s??? c??c n???n nh??n c???a v??? n???.

Daegu l?? m???t th??nh ph??? v???i 2,2 tri???u c?? d??n, n???m kho???ng 150 d???m v??? ph??a nam Seoul. V??o th???i ??i???m x???y ra v??? n???, m???t ???????ng ray xe ??i???n ng???m ??ang ???????c x??y d???ng b??n d?????i ???????ng ph??? c???a th??nh ph???. C??c t???m kim lo???i ???? ???????c s??? d???ng thay cho nh???a ???????ng ????? che ph??? l??? h???ng ??? m???t s??? ??o???n ???????ng trung t??m trong su???t qu?? tr??nh x??y d???ng.

Kho???ng 7 gi??? 30 ph??t s??ng, gi??? cao ??i???m b???n r???n, m???t v??? n??? c???c l???n x???y ra d?????i nh???ng con ???????ng, th???i bay c??c t???m kim lo???i v??o kh??ng kh??. L???a b???n ra t??? d?????i l??ng ?????t, cao kho???ng 45m, bao ph??? to??n b??? m???t khu v???c d??i 275m. Nhi???u xe h??i bi???n th??nh nh???ng qu??? c???u l???a v?? m???t ng?????i ???????c b??o c??o l?? ???? b??? h???t tung l??n 9m trong kh??ng trung. M???t s??? kh??ch b??? h??nh trong khu v???c b??? l???a bao ph??? kh???p ng?????i; nh???ng ng?????i kh??c ??? xa h??n th?? b??? h???t ng?? xu???ng ?????t. C??c m???nh v???n b???n v??o c??? nh???ng ng?????i d??n ?????ng c??ch xa kho???ng 800m. Con s??? n???n nh??n thi???t m???ng cu???i c??ng l?? 110, ngo??i ra c??n c?? h??ng tr??m ng?????i b??? th????ng. C??c n??? l???c c???u h??? ???? b??? c???n tr??? b???i ???????ng ???ng n?????c b??? v??? ???? g??y ng???p khu v???c sau th???m h???a.

Nguy??n nh??n ch??nh x??c c???a v??? n??? v???n c??n l?? m???t b?? ???n. M???t s??? ng?????i tin r???ng ???ng d???n kh?? ???? v?? t??nh b??? v??? khi thi c??ng ???????ng t??u ??i???n ng???m, trong khi nh???ng ng?????i kh??c cho r???ng m???t s??? c??? g?? ???? ???? khi???n kh?? b??? r?? t??? tr?????c b???t l???a v?? ph??t n???.

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