Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 21/08/2019

Thứ ba - 20/08/2019 21:18
Th??? t?????ng ?? Giuseppe Conte ???? t??? ch???c. ??ng Conte ch??? tr??ch Matteo Salvini, l??nh ?????o Li??n minh ph????ng B???c c???c h???u, v???n l?? th??nh vi??n li??n minh c???m quy???n nh??ng ???? ????? xu???t m???t cu???c b??? phi???u b???t t??n nhi???m ch???ng l???i ??ng Conte v?? k??u g???i ti???n h??nh b???u c??? m???i. T??? l??? ???ng h??? Li??n ??o??n ph????ng B???c hi???n ??ang t??ng m???nh trong c??c cu???c th??m d??. B???u c??? c?? th??? ???????c t??? ch???c n???u m???t ch??nh ph??? li??n minh m???i kh??ng th??? ???????c th??nh l???p.
Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 21/08/2019

Th??? gi???i h??m nay: 21/08/2019

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Ngu???n: The Economist | Bi??n d???ch: NCQT

TIN V???N

Th??? t?????ng ?? Giuseppe Conte ???? t??? ch???c. ??ng Conte ch??? tr??ch Matteo Salvini, l??nh ?????o Li??n minh ph????ng B???c c???c h???u, v???n l?? th??nh vi??n li??n minh c???m quy???n nh??ng ???? ????? xu???t m???t cu???c b??? phi???u b???t t??n nhi???m ch???ng l???i ??ng Conte v?? k??u g???i ti???n h??nh b???u c??? m???i. T??? l??? ???ng h??? Li??n ??o??n ph????ng B???c hi???n ??ang t??ng m???nh trong c??c cu???c th??m d??. B???u c??? c?? th??? ???????c t??? ch???c n???u m???t ch??nh ph??? li??n minh m???i kh??ng th??? ???????c th??nh l???p.

BHP, m???t c??ng ty Anh-??c v?? l?? m???t trong nh???ng c??ng ty khai th??c m??? l???n nh???t th??? gi???i, ???? tuy??n b??? l???i nhu???n h??ng n??m t??ng g???p ????i l??n 8,3 t??? ???? la trong n??m qua. Gi?? h??ng h??a c?? b???n cao h??n ???? gi??p t??ng l???i nhu???n, ?????c bi???t l?? qu???ng s???t, c?? gi?? t??ng g???n 50% trong n??m qua. M???t ????ng g??p l???n kh??c cho l???i nhu???n l?? thi???t h???i th???p h??n d??? ki???n ??????t??? v??? v??? ?????p n??m 2015.

Bayer, m???t ?????i gia h??a ch???t c???a ?????c, ???? ?????ng ?? b??n b??? ph???n thu???c th?? y cho Elanco, m???t ?????i th??? ?????n t??? M???, v???i gi?? 7,6 t??? ???? la. Bayer hy v???ng th????ng v??? n??y s??? gi??p kh??i ph???c ni???m tin c???a c??c nh?? ?????u t?? sau khi h??? mua l???i c??ng ty Monsanto v???i gi?? 66 t??? ???? la v??o n??m ngo??i. V??? mua l???i ???? ???? mang l???i nh???ng k???t qu??? chua ch??t; Bayer ???? b??? t???n c??ng b???i h??n 13.000 v??? ki???n t???i M??? v???i c??c c??o bu???c r???ng thu???c di???t c??? hi???u Roundup c???a Monsanto g??y ung th??.

C??c l???c l?????ng ch??nh ph??? Syria ti???n v??o Khan Sheikhoun, m???t th??? tr???n quan tr???ng v??? m???t chi???n l?????c ??? t???nh Idlib ??? ph??a b???c n?????c n??y. C??c phe n???i d???y v?? c??c chi???n binh H???i gi??o ??? ???? ???? r??t lui sau c??c ?????t giao tranh n???ng n???. Idlib l?? c??? ?????a l???n cu???i c??ng ch???ng l???i ch??? ????? c???a T???ng th???ng Bashar al-Assad trong cu???c n???i chi???n k??o d??i t??m n??m qua c???a Syria. V??ng n??y l?? n??i c?? 3 tri???u ng?????i t??? n???n.

Nga v?? Trung Qu???c ???? l??n ??n M??? v?? ???? th??? m???t t??n l???a h??nh tr??nh m???t ?????t t???m trung ch??? 16 ng??y sau khi r??t kh???i Hi???p ?????c L???c l?????ng H???t nh??n T???m trung (INF). INF c???m M??? v?? Nga ph??t tri???n c??c v?? kh?? nh?? v???y. T???ng th???ng Donald Trump ???? c??o bu???c Nga kh??ng tu??n th??? n??. Trong khi ????, M??? mu???n tri???n khai c??c t??n l???a t???m trung ??? ch??u ?? ????? ?????i ph?? v???i Trung Qu???c, n?????c ch??a bao gi??? tham gia k?? hi???p ?????c n??y.

H??ng ng??n ng?????i bi???u t??nh ??? v??ng vi???n ????ng Indonesia ???? ?????t ch??y t??a nh?? h???i ?????ng t???nh T??y Papua. B???t ???n b???t ?????u d?????i h??nh th???c m???t cu???c bi???u t??nh ch???ng l???i s??? ?????i x??? ph??n bi???t ch???ng t???c ?????i v???i c??c sinh vi??n ng?????i Papua s???ng ??? ?????o Java. Ng?????i Papua ??? ph??a t??y ?????o New Guinea ???? k??ch ?????ng ????i ?????c l???p k??? t??? nh???ng n??m 1960.

M???t ph??? n??? El Salvadora c?? thai nhi ch???t l??u ???????c ph??t hi???n trong m???t nh?? v??? sinh ???? ???????c x??a c??o tr???ng gi???t ng?????i sau m???t phi??n t??i th???m. C?? t???ng b??? k???t ??n 30 n??m t??. Evelyn Hern??ndez, l??c ???? c??n l?? m???t thi???u ni??n, cho bi???t c?? ???? b??? h??m hi???p, kh??ng h??? hay bi???t m??nh ??ang mang thai, v?? ?????a b?? ???? b??? ch???t l??u. C??c nh?? v???n ?????ng ca ng???i ???? l?? m???t chi???n th???ng ch???ng l???i lu???t ch???ng ph?? thai h?? kh???c c???a El Salvador.

TI??U ??I???M H??M NAY

Th??? t?????ng ?? t??? ch???c

S??? t??? ch???c c???a Giuseppe Conte, th??? t?????ng ??, ???? khi???n ?????t n?????c r??i v??o kh???ng ho???ng m?? d?????ng nh?? ch??a c?? l???i tho??t r?? r??ng. ??ng Conte b??? h??? b??? b???i Matteo Salvini, l??nh ?????o Li??n ??o??n ph????ng B???c c???c h???u, m???t th??nh vi??n c???a li??n minh c???m quy???n. Gi??? ????y, ??ng Salvini, ng?????i ho??i nghi EU, c?? th??? c?? ???????c to??n b??? quy???n l???c m?? ??ng t??m ki???m. Ho???c ??ng ta c?? th??? b??? lo???i ho??n to??n ra kh???i ch??nh ph???. ??i???u n??y t??y thu???c v??o t???ng th???ng Matt Mattarella, ng?????i s??? h???i c??c ?????ng xem m???t li??n minh ??a s??? m???i trong ngh??? vi???n c?? th??? ???????c th??nh l???p hay kh??ng. N???u kh??ng, ?????t n?????c ph???i ti???n h??nh b???u c??? m???i.

C??c h??? qu??? l?? r???t l???n. S??? ???ng h??? ?????i v???i Li??n ??o??n ph????ng B???c ???? t??ng l??n; ?? ph???i ?????i m???t v???i tri???n v???ng c?? m???t ch??nh ph??? c??nh h???u c???ng r???n nh???t trong th???i gian g???n ????y. M???t cu???c b???u c??? c??ng s??? khi???n ngh??? vi???n ??, th?????ng c???n ba th??ng cu???i n??m ????? d??? th???o ng??n s??ch, ch??? c??n v??i tu???n ????? ho??n th??nh nhi???m v??? n??y.

Brexit b??? t???c

Th??? t?????ng Anh Boris Johnson t???i Berlin h??m nay ????? g???p b?? Angela Merkel tr?????c khi t???i Paris ????? g???p ??ng Emmanuel Macron v??o ng??y mai. ??t ai mong ch??? c??c cu???c th???o lu???n s??? mang t??nh x??y d???ng. ??ng Johnson kh???ng ?????nh s??? kh??ng ????m ph??n v???i Li??n minh ch??u ??u tr??? khi h??? ?????ng ?? x??a b??? ch??nh s??ch bi??n gi???i c???ng ??? Ireland h???u Brexit v???n ?????t ???????c trong m???t th???a thu???n r??t kh???i EU do th??? t?????ng ti???n nhi???m Theresa May ????m ph??n. Tr?????c chuy???n ??i, Johnson kh??ng ch??? nh???c l???i r???ng ph???i g??? b??? bi??n gi???i c???ng m?? c??n n??i r???ng n???u kh??ng ?????t ???????c th???a thu???n m???i, Anh ????n gi???n s??? r???i EU v??o ng??y 31 th??ng 10 m?? kh??ng c???n th???a thu???n n??o.

EU ???? ph???n ???ng l???nh l??ng, c??o bu???c ??ng Johnson kh??ng ????a ra ???????c m???t s??? thay th??? ????ng tin c???y v??? m???t ph??p l?? v?? do ???? c?? nguy c?? ph???i ??p d???ng l???i c??c bi???n ph??p ki???m so??t bi??n gi???i ??? Ireland. Kh??? n??ng x???y ra Brexit m?? kh??ng c?? th???a thu???n n??o ??? g???n ?????y b??? r?? r??? qua m???t b??o c??o ch??nh ph??? ??? cho th???y c?? th??? x???y ra h???n lo???n t???i c??c b???n c???ng c??ng nh?? c??c tuy???n ???????ng, ??i k??m v???i t??nh tr???ng thi???u l????ng th???c, thu???c men v?? x??ng d???u.

Ch??u Phi kh??ng c??n b???nh b???i li???t

Kh??ng c?? c??ch ch???a b???nh b???i li???t. Virus ???????c truy???n t??? ng?????i n??y sang ng?????i kh??c. N?? nhi???m v??o n??o v?? t???y s???ng v?? l??m tay ch??n tr??? b??? co th???t gi???ng nh?? ch??n nh???n. Trong nhi???u n??m qua, b???nh ???? c?????p ??i sinh m???ng ho???c l??m b???i li???t h??ng tri???u ng?????i. Nh??? ???????c trang b??? m???t lo???i v???c-xin ????n gi???n, c??c nh??n vi??n y t??? ???? lo???i b??? ???????c vi-r??t b???i li???t kh???i c??c n?????c gi??u t??? nhi???u n??m tr?????c. N?????c M??? tuy??n b??? kh??ng c??n b???nh b???i li???t v??o n??m 1979 v?? ch??u ??u l?? v??o n??m 2002.

Nh??ng c??n b???nh n??y v???n t???n t???i ??? nh???ng v??ng ngh??o kh?? v?? h???o l??nh tr??n th??? gi???i. B??y gi??? sau nhi???u th???p ni??n chi???n ?????u, m???t chi???n th???ng to l???n c?? th??? n???m trong t???m tay. H??m nay ????nh d???u ba n??m k??? t??? khi Nigeria ghi nh???n tr?????ng h???p m???c b???nh b???i li???t cu???i c??ng. Nigeria l?? qu???c gia cu???i c??ng c??n b???nh b???i li???t ??? ch??u Phi. Nh??ng m???t ch????ng tr??nh ti??m ch???ng l???n nh???m v??o nh???ng ng?????i du m???c v?? nh???ng ng??i l??ng xa x??i h???o l??nh d?????ng nh?? ???? ch???ng t??? th??nh c??ng. C??c quan ch???c s??? ?????n ????? x??c minh k???t qu??? c???a Nigeria, nh??ng h??? s??? s???m c?? th??? tuy??n b??? r???ng b???nh b???i li???t ???? b??? lo???i b??? ho??n to??n ??? l???c ?????a n??y.

T??nh h??nh b???nh b???i li???t tr??n th??? gi???i n??m 1988 v?? 2019.

N???n t??? s??t trong nh?? t?? M???

Hai ng??y sau khi Jeffrey Epstein, m???t nh?? t??i ch??nh v?? t???i ph???m t??nh d???c, treo c??? t??? t??? trong ph??ng giam nh?? t?? li??n bang, c??c th??nh vi??n h??ng ?????u c???a ???y ban T?? ph??p H??? vi???n ???? vi???t th?? cho Hugh Hurwitz, quy???n gi??m ?????c C?? quan Qu???n l?? Nh?? t?? li??n bang (BOP). H??? y??u c???u l??m r?? l??m th??? n??o Epstein ???? c?? th??? t??? t???? ??ng Hurwitz ph???i ????a ra c??u tr??? l???i v??o h??m nay, nh??ng c??c ngh??? s?? c?? l??? s??? ph???i ch??? th??m.

H??m th??? Hai, T???ng ch?????ng l?? William Barr ???? thay th??? ??ng Hurwitz b???ng b?? Kathleen Hawk Sawyer, m???t nh?? t??m l?? h???c nh?? t?? t???ng l??nh ?????o BOP t??? n??m 1992 ?????n n??m 2003. ??ng c??ng tuy??n b??? c??c cu???c ??i???u tra c???a FBI v?? T???ng Thanh tra v??? c??i ch???t c???a Epstein c??ng nh?? nh?? t?? n??i x???y ra v??? vi???c. M???t phi??n ??i???u tr???n c???a Qu???c h???i c??ng c?? kh??? n??ng di???n ra. V??? t??? t??? ???? t?????c ??i c?? h???i c???a c??c n???n nh??n trong vi???c l???t m???t th??? ph???m tr?????c t??a, nh??ng ??i???u ???? kh??ng ph???i l?? b???t th?????ng. Kho???ng 300 ng?????i trong c??c tr???i t???m giam M??? (jail ??? n??i c??c b??? c??o ch??? x??t x???, kh??c v???i nh?? t?? ??? prison ??? n??i nh???ng ng?????i b??? k???t ??n thi h??nh ??n t??) t??? s??t m???i n??m, khi???n t??? t??? tr??? th??nh nguy??n nh??n h??ng ?????u g??y ra c??i ch???t c???a c??c t?? nh??n.

K???t qu??? kinh doanh c???a c??c nh?? b??n l??? M???

C??c nh?? b??n l??? truy???n th???ng c???a M??? ??ang ??? th??? kh?? kh??n. M???t m???t, c??c cu???c chi???n th????ng m???i c???a T???ng th???ng Donald Trump ??ang l??m gi??n ??o???n chu???i cung ???ng v?? t??ng chi ph??. M???t kh??c, c??c c???i ti???n c???a g?? kh???ng l??? th????ng m???i ??i???n t??? Amazon trong vi???c t??ng t???c ????? giao h??ng v?? c??c l???a ch???n s???n ph???m ??ang ????nh c???p m???t kh??ch h??ng c???a h???. Trong b???i c???nh n??y, Nordstrom, m???t chu???i c???a h??ng b??ch h??a cao c???p, v?? Target, m???t ?????i gia b??n l??? tr??n th??? tr?????ng ?????i ch??ng, s??? c??ng b??? k???t qu??? Qu?? II ng??y h??m nay.

Nordstrom, c??ng nh?? Macy???s v?? c??c nh?? b??n l??? qu???n ??o kh??c, ???? ph???i v???t l???n ????? t??m ch??? ?????ng tr??n m???ng v?? bu???c ph???i ????ng c???a m???t s??? c???a h??ng. Gi?? c??? phi???u c???a h??? ???? gi???m kho???ng m???t n???a trong n??m qua. Ng?????c l???i, c??c nh?? b??n l??? tr??n th??? tr?????ng ?????i ch??ng nh?? Walmart v?? Target g???n ????y ???? th??ng hoa. ??a d???ng h??a c??c s???n ph???m m???i ???? gi??p ??ch cho h???. T????ng t??? l?? c??c chi???n l?????c th????ng m???i ??i???n t??? th??ng minh, ch???ng h???n nh?? cho ph??p ng?????i mua ?????t h??ng tr???c tuy???n v?? nh???n h??ng t???i c???a h??ng truy???n th???ng. Doanh s??? b??n h??ng qua m???ng c???a Target ???? t??ng ??t nh???t 25% m???i n??m k??? t??? n??m 2014. V?? v???y k???t qu??? kinh doanh c???a c??c h??ng s??? kh??c nhau
 

#46 ??? ???Ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? ??? Vi???t Nam DCCH: B???ng ch???ng m???i t??? kho t?? li???u ????ng ?????c

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Ngu???n: Martin Grossheim (2005). ???Revisionism??? in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam: New Evidence from the East German Archives???, Cold War History, 5:4, 451-477.

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Th???m | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

B??i li??n quan: #65 ??? S??? ki???n Nh??n V??n ??? Giai Ph???m, cu???c thanh tr???ng n??m 1967, v?? di s???n c???a s??? b???t ?????ng ch??nh ki???n

T??i li???u n??y ph??n t??ch c??c cu???c tranh lu???n n???i b??? trong ban l??nh ?????o Vi???t Nam D??n ch??? C???ng h??a (Vi???t Nam DCCH) v???n l??n ?????n ?????nh ??i???m trong su???t th???i gian di???n ra H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng l???n th??? 9 g??y nhi???u tranh c??i c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng. Chi???n d???ch sau ???? ch???ng l???i ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? ???????c xem l?? m???t b?????c ??i quy???t ?????nh c???a phe L?? Du???n nh???m lo???i b??? nh???ng th??nh ph???n b??? coi l?? ch???ng ?????ng v?? chu???n b??? k??? ho???ch t??ng c?????ng ?????u tranh v?? trang ??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam. T??i li???u c??ng ????a ra nh???ng th???o lu???n v??? ???nh h?????ng m?? chi???n d???ch ch???ng ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i g??y ra cho m???i quan h??? (c???a B???c Vi???t Nam) v???i C???ng h??a D??n ch??? ?????c (CHDC ?????c). T??i li???u ???????c ho??n th??nh d???a v??o c??c ngu???n ch??a ???????c khai th??c nh?? c??c b???n b??o c??o c???a ?????i s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c tr?????c ????y t???i H?? N???i, c???a c??c nh?? b??o ?????c ??? mi???n B???c, hay c??c h??? s?? t??? kho l??u tr??? c???a B??? An ninh Nh?? n?????c (Stasi).

Gi???i thi???u

Cu???i n??m 1961, Klaus Pommerening, ph??ng vi??n c???a Th??ng t???n x?? ????ng ?????c ??? Vi???t Nam DCCH ???? g???i m???t b???n b??o c??o v??? Berlin, ph??n t??ch quan ??i???m c???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Vi???t Nam ?????i v???i m??u thu???n X?? ??? Trung.[1] ??ng cho r???ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng v???n gi??? v??? tr?? trung l???p gi???a Li??n X?? v?? Trung Qu???c v?? kh??ng mu???n ph?? ph??n c??? ch??? ngh??a s??ng b??i c?? nh??n l???n ch??? ngh??a gi??o ??i???u. Theo Pommerening, c?? ??i???u n??y l?? b???i b???n th??n ?????ng Lao ?????ng c??ng ???? ch???u ???nh h?????ng m???nh m??? b???i ch??? ngh??a gi??o ??i???u v?? vi???c s??ng b??i c?? nh??n. D????ng B???ch Mai, m???t trong nh???ng ng?????i cung c???p tin t???c ch??nh cho ??ng, ???? x??c nh???n lu???n ??i???m n??y.[2]  Trong m???t cu???c n??i chuy???n v???i v??? nh?? b??o ng?????i ????ng ?????c, ??ng Mai, m???t ???y vi??n Trung ????ng ?????ng v?? l?? th??nh vi??n c???a Ch??? t???ch ??o??n M???t tr???n T??? qu???c c??ng nh?? ???y ban Th?????ng v??? Qu???c h???i, ki??m Ph?? Ch??? t???ch H???i h???u ngh??? Vi???t- X??, ???? ph??n n??n v??? t??nh tr???ng thi???u d??n ch??? trong ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam. ??ng n??i v???i Pommerening r???ng n???u c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ?????ng quy???t ?????nh ??i theo ???????ng l???i ???ch???ng Li??n X????? th?? ch??nh ??ng s??? l?? ng?????i b???o v??? c??c nguy??n t???c c???a ch??? ngh??a L??nin ?????n c??ng.[3]

Nh???ng kh???ng ?????nh n??m 1961 c???a D????ng B???ch Mai c??ng tr??? n??n ????ng lo ng???i khi ch??ng ta theo d??i di???n bi???n c???a c??c s??? ki???n v??o n??m 1963, 1964. T???i H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng l???n th??? 9 c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng v??o th??ng 12 n??m 1963, ??ng ???? ????a ra c???nh b??o m???nh m??? ch???ng l???i quan ??i???m ng??y c??ng ???th??n Trung Qu???c???, v?? tr??? n??n b???t ?????ng v???i L?? Du???n, L?? ?????c Th??? v?? m???t s??? ng?????i kh??c v???n c??ng c?? ?? ?????nh kh???i x?????ng m???t chi???n d???ch ch???ng ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i??? ??? Vi???t Nam DCCH. M???t v??i th??ng sau ????, D????ng B???ch Mai qua ?????i. ??ng tr??? th??nh th??nh vi??n c???a m???t li??n minh ch???t ch??? c??ng v???i c??c ?????ng vi??n kh??c nh?? Ho??ng Minh Ch??nh v?? B??i C??ng Tr???ng ???  nh???ng nh??n v???t sau n??y b??? v?????ng v??o m???t v??? ??n v???i t??n g???i ???v??? ??n x??t l???i ch???ng ?????ng???. S??? qu??n ????ng ?????c n???m r?? nh???ng t??nh ti???t trong vi???c D????ng B???ch Mai v?? m???t s??? c??n b??? c???p trung kh??c gi??? nh???ng quan ??i???m ?????i ngh???ch (v???i ?????ng).

Khi xem x??t c??c t??i li???u c?? c???a CHDC ?????c ???????c gi??? trong c??c kho l??u tr??? ?????c,[4] m???t ??i???u r???t ????ng ch?? ?? ch??nh l?? vi???c c??c nh?? ngo???i giao v?? c??c th??ng t??n vi??n ????ng ?????c ??? H?? N???i v?? B??? Ngo???i giao ??? Berlin ???? theo r???t s??t nh???ng di???n ti???n ch??nh tr??? trong n???i b??? Vi???t Nam DCCH. V???i v??? tr?? l?? ?????ng minh th??n thi???t c???a Li??n X??, m???t trong nh???ng nhi???m v??? quan tr???ng c???a s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c t???i H?? N???i trong nh???ng n??m ???? ch??nh l?? quan s??t ph???n ???ng c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng tr?????c m??u thu???n Trung Qu???c ??? Li??n X??, ?????ng th???i h??? tr??? l???c l?????ng thi??n v??? khuynh h?????ng ???th??n Kremlin??? ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam. M???t s??? nh?? ch??nh tr??? nh?? D????ng B???ch Mai ???? g???p g??? th?????ng xuy??n v???i c??c nh?? ngo???i giao CHDC ?????c v?? Pommerening, m???t th??ng t??n vi??n ????ng ?????c t???i H?? N???i, th??ng b??o v???i h??? v??? nh???ng b???t ?????ng t?? t?????ng c??ng nh?? nh???ng tranh ch???p b?? ph??i ngay trong n???i b??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng.

M??u thu???n gi???a nh??m do L?? Du???n ?????ng ?????u v?? nh??m ?????i ngh???ch l??n ?????n ?????nh ??i???m t???i H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng 9 v?? sau ???? d???n t???i m???t cu???c thanh tr???ng trong n???i b??? ?????ng, th?????ng ???????c bi???t ?????n nh?? l?? ???v??? ??n x??t l???i ??? ch???ng ?????ng???. C??c nghi??n c???u tr?????c ????y v??? v??? ??n n??y ch??? y???u d???a v??o c??c t??? truy???n c???a c??c nh??n v???t c?? li??n quan.[5] Do ????, b???ng ch???ng m???i t??? kho l??u tr??? ????ng ?????c c?? th??? ????ng g??p v??o vi???c hi???u r?? h??n to??n b??? v??? ??n c??ng nh?? kh??i d???y c??c tranh lu???n v??? ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i c??ng nh?? b???t ?????ng ch??nh ki???n ??? Vi???t Nam.

T??i li???u n??y t???p trung v??o nh???ng di???n bi???n ??? Vi???t Nam nh???ng n??m 1963 v?? 1964. Nh???ng bi???n ?????ng ???? ph???i ???????c ?????t trong b???i c???nh trong n?????c c???a Vi???t Nam DCCH v??o ?????u nh???ng n??m 1960 khi m?? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng ??ang t??ng c?????ng c??ng t??c chu???n b??? cho m???t cu???c chi???n tranh ??? mi???n Nam, t??? ???? d???n t???i vi???c nh??n nh???n ch??? tr????ng ???chung s???ng h??a b??nh??? theo t?? t?????ng c???a Khrushchev tr??? n??n ng??y c??ng k??m h???p d???n h??n.[6]

Sau H???i ngh??? l???n th??? 15 c???a ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng v??o th??ng 1 n??m 1959 v?? s??? th??nh l???p c???a M???t tr???n D??n t???c Gi???i ph??ng Mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam v??o th??ng 12 n??m 1960, cu???c chi???n ??? mi???n Nam ng??y c??ng quy???t li???t. Quy???t ?????nh c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng quay l???i ch??nh s??ch chi???n tranh c??ch m???ng nh???m t??i th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c ???? d???n ?????n m???i b???t h??a l??n cao gi???a H?? N???i v?? Matxc??va. D???a tr??n h???c thuy???t ???chung s???ng h??a b??nh???, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? ???? kh??ng ???ng h??? vi???c t??ng c?????ng ?????u tranh v?? trang ??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam ?????ng th???i th??c gi???c H?? N???i ph???i ki???m ch??? h??n.[7] ?????c bi???t, sau cu???c kh???ng ho???ng t??n l???a Cuba, Li??n X?? n??? l???c tr??nh m???i t??nh hu???ng c?? th??? d???n ?????n ?????i ?????u tr???c ti???p v???i M???. Trong b???i c???nh ????, Li??n X?? ??i theo ch??nh s??ch d???n gi???m can d??? v??o Vi???t Nam trong khi ???nh h?????ng c???a Trung Qu???c l???i t??ng theo m???t c??ch t????ng ???ng.

B??i nghi??n c???u c??ng ch??? ra nh???ng ph????ng c??ch m?? t???p th??? l??nh ?????o ?????ng Lao ?????ng, trong ???? c?? B?? th?? th??? nh???t L?? Du???n, ???? t???ng b?????c m???t ti???n g???n h??n ?????n l???p tr?????ng ???th??n Trung Qu???c??? v?? cu???i c??ng ???? tri???n khai m???t chi???n d???ch ch???ng ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i??? c??ng nh?? ???nh h?????ng c???a ch??? ngh??a n??y trong n???i b??? ?????ng. Nghi??n c???u s??? ch???ng minh r???ng t??m l?? ch???ng ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? m???nh m??? c???a ban l??nh ?????o ?????ng Lao ?????ng kh??ng ch??? s???n sinh ra nh???ng h??? qu??? ti??u c???c v??? nh??n s??? trong h??ng ng?? c???a ?????ng m?? c??n ???nh h?????ng kh??ng t???t t???i m???i quan h??? v???i C???ng h??a D??n ch??? ?????c. Minh ch???ng ??i???n h??nh cho nh???ng h??? qu??? n??y ch??nh l?? s??? gia t??ng gi??m s??t ?????i v???i s??? qu??n ?????c t???i H?? N???i v?? s??? ph???n c???a nh???ng sinh vi??n Vi???t Nam h???c t???p t???i ????ng ?????c.

Nh???ng di???n ti???n n???i b??? ??? Vi???t Nam DCCH n??m 1963: B???t ?????ng ?? th???c h??? t???i H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng 9 c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng

Th??ng 1 n??m 1963, Ch??? t???ch Ti???p Kh???c Novotny sang th??m ch??nh th???c Vi???t Nam DCCH. Tuy??n b??? chung cu???i c??ng ???????c ????a ra trong chuy???n th??m nh??n chung ???? th??? hi???n quan ??i???m c???a Li??n X??, ca ng???i chung s???ng h??a b??nh l?? ???ch??nh s??ch ????ng ?????n nh???t??? t???i th???i ??i???m ????.[8] Tuy nhi??n, ??ng Herold, ?????i s??? Ti???p Kh???c t???i H?? N???i l???i c???nh b??o v??? ?????i bi???n c???a CHDC ?????c t???i Vi???t Nam kh??ng n??n ?????t nhi???u hy v???ng v??o k???t qu??? c???a chuy???n th??m.[9] Pommerening, ph??ng vi??n th??ng t???n x?? ?????c ADN t???i Vi???t Nam ???? cho r???ng b???n tuy??n b??? ch??nh l?? m???t d???u hi???u cho vi???c ?????ng Lao ?????ng ???? ch???p thu???n h???c thuy???t chung s???ng h??a b??nh m???t c??ch r???ng r??i. Tuy nhi??n, c??ng trong b???n b??o c??o ????, Pommerening ???? nh???n m???nh ?????n t??nh tr???ng c??ng th???ng trong n???i b??? c??c ?????ng vi??n, h??? kh??ng ???????c ph??p th???o lu???n ???c??c v???n ????? trong phong tr??o c??ng nh??n qu???c t??????, v???n l?? nh???ng v???n ????? ?????ng sau m??u thu???n X?? ??? Trung. Theo nh???ng ng?????i Vi???t Nam cung c???p tin t???c cho ??ng, T??? H???u, Tr?????ng Ban Tuy??n gi??o Trung ????ng, gi??? quan ??i???m r???ng n???u ?????ng Lao ?????ng mu???n b???o v??? s??? ???trong s??ng c???a ch??? ngh??a M??c- L??nin???  th?? c???n ph???i t???n c??ng tr???c di???n v??o c??c khuynh h?????ng ???x??t l???i???.[10]

Sau chuy???n th??m c???a Novotny, m??u thu???n gi???a c??c th??nh ph???n ???th??n Trung Qu???c??? v?? ???th??n Li??n X????? trong n???i b??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng ng??y c??ng d??ng l??n m???nh m???:[11] Ung V??n Khi??m b??? quy tr??ch nhi???m v??? b???n tuy??n b??? chung ???th??n Li??n X????? trong chuy???n th??m c???a Novotny v?? b??? thay th??? b???i Xu??n Th???y.[12] Pommerening c??ng b??o c??o r???ng nhi???u c??n b??? c?? l???p tr?????ng ???th??n Li??n X?????, ?????c bi???t l?? nh???ng c??n b??? c??ng t??c trong ng??nh b??o ch?? v?? c?? vi???t v??? c??c v???n ????? v??? ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i, c??ng ?????u b??? thay th???.[13] ?????i s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c c??ng thu th???p ???????c nhi???u th??ng tin kh???ng ?????nh r???ng t???t c??? c??c v??? tr?? ch??? ch???t ph??? tr??ch b??o ch?? c???a ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng v?? B??? Ngo???i giao, Th??ng t???n x?? Vi???t Nam, ????i Ti???ng n??i Vi???t Nam vv??? ?????u n???m trong tay c??c c??n b??? ???theo s??t ???????ng l???i c???a Trung Qu???c???.[14]

R?? r??ng Vi???t Nam ???? c?? m???t b?????c chu???n b??? c?? t??nh to??n cho chuy???n th??m c???a Ch??? t???ch n?????c Trung Qu???c L??u Thi???u K??? di???n ra v??o th??ng 5 n??m 1963.[15] Chuy???n th??m n??y ???? g??p ph???n ????a Vi???t Nam ?????n g???n h??n v???i Trung Qu???c. ??i???m m???u ch???t chung g???n k???t H?? N???i v???i B???c Kinh ch??nh l?? s??? ?????ng ph???n ?????i t?? t?????ng chung s???ng h??a b??nh. B???n tuy??n b??? chung l??n ??n ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? v?? ???ch??? ngh??a c?? h???i h???u khuynh??? l?? nh???ng nh??n t??? ch??nh ??e d???a s??? ph??t tri???n c???a phong tr??o c???ng s???n qu???c t???, ?????ng th???i nh???n m???nh r???ng Vi???t Nam DCCH n??n d???a v??o s???c m???nh c???a m??nh trong qu?? tr??nh x??y d???ng ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i v?? ti???n h??nh c??ch m???ng ??? mi???n Nam.[16]

?????ng Lao ?????ng ng??y c??ng tuy??n truy???n r???ng r??i m?? h??nh kinh t??? t??? cung t??? c???p ??? mi???n B???c, ?????ng th???i h??? th???p vai tr?? c???a vi???n tr??? n?????c ngo??i m?? ch??? y???u ?????n t??? Li??n X?? v?? c??c n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a kh??c. ????y ch??nh l?? v???n ????? n??ng g??y tranh c??i gi???a m???t b??n l?? L?? Du???n c??ng c??c nh??n v???t c?? xu h?????ng th??n Trung Qu???c v?? b??n c??n l???i l?? nh???ng c??n b??? c???p trung, nh???ng ng?????i sau n??y b??? g??n cho l?? ???b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i???. M???t minh ch???ng c??? th??? l?? v??o th??ng 5 n??m 1963, trong b??i ph??t bi???u tr?????c Qu???c h???i c???a m??nh, D????ng B???ch Mai ???? ????? xu???t Vi???t Nam DCCH n??n tham gia v??o H???i ?????ng T????ng tr??? Kinh t??? (COMECON). Trong khi kh??ng ??t ?????i bi???u ???ng h??? ?? ki???n ???? th?? Tr?????ng Chinh v?? ch??? t???ch H??? Ch?? Minh l???i ch??? tr??ch ??ng m???t c??ch gay g???t.[17]

M??a h?? n??m 1963, kh??ng kh?? ch??nh tr??? ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam ng??y c??ng tr??? n??n c??ng th???ng. Ngay sau chuy???n th??m c???a L??u Thi???u K???, L?? ?????c Th???, ???y vi??n B??? Ch??nh tr??? v?? l?? Tr?????ng Ban T??? ch???c Trung ????ng ?????ng ?????y quy???n l???c ???? l??n ??n Nam T?? ch??nh l?? m???t ?????i???n h??nh t???p trung v?? x???u xa nh???t nh??ng kh??ng ph???i l?? duy nh???t c???a ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i???, ??i???u n??y t???o n??n m???t s??? c??ng k??ch t????ng ?????i tr???c ti???p v??o Li??n X??.[18]

??p l???c ph???i ho??n to??n ch???p nh???n l???p tr?????ng ???th??n Trung Qu???c??? ng??y c??ng ???? n???ng l??n vai c???a c??c ?????ng vi??n ?????ng Lao ?????ng. Th??ng 6 n??m 1963, m???t ph??ng vi??n Vi???t Nam ???? th??ng b??o v???i s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c r???ng ?????c bi???t l?? c??c c??n b???, ?????ng vi??n c???p trung kh??ng c??n d??m b??y t??? ch??nh ki???n c???a b???n th??n n???a.[19] ??i???u n??y ho??n to??n tr??ng kh???p v???i nh???ng th??ng tin ???????c cung c???p b???i v??? ?????i bi???n ????ng ?????c c??ng c??c v??? ?????i s??? c???a Li??n X??, Hungari v?? Ti???p Kh???c t???i Vi???t Nam. ??ng Tovmasyan, ?????i s??? Li??n X??, ????? c???p r???ng b??o ch?? Vi???t Nam ng??y c??ng ph???n ??nh t?? t?????ng ???th??n Trung Qu???c???, v?? r???ng c??c t??i li???u tuy??n truy???n b???ng ti???ng Vi???t t??? Trung Qu???c c??n ???????c b??y b??n ??? H?? N???i. C??c ???ph???n t??? th??n Trung Qu???c??? trong ?????i ng?? ?????ng Lao ?????ng c??ng g??y ??p l???c r???t l???n l??n ???nh???ng ?????ng ch?? b??c b??? l???p tr?????ng c???a Trung Qu???c???.[20]Tovmasyan c??ng b??? sung r???ng m???t l?????ng l???n c??c c??n b??? b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i c??c d?? lu???n ???ch???ng Li??n X????? v?? ???ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c???, v?? do ???? h??nh ?????ng theo h?????ng ???ch???ng ch??u ??u???.[21]

C??ng th???i ??i???m ????, Pommergening c??ng b??o c??o r???ng ???m???t nh??m c??c nh?? v??n ???? vi???t th?? cho ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng l??n ti???ng ph???n ?????i nh???ng ph??t ng??n ng??y c??ng mang t??nh ch???t ch???ng Li??n X?????.[22]

Th??ng 7 n??m 1963, Vi???t Nam DCCH ???? c?? th??m m???t b?????c ??i t??ch xa kh???i Li??n X??. ?????ng quan ??i???m v???i B???c Kinh, b??o ch?? H?? N???i ??ua nhau l??n ??n Hi???p ?????c c???m th??? nghi???m v?? kh?? h???t nh??n ???????c k?? b???i Li??n X??, Anh, M???, cho r???ng ???? ch??? l?? m???t ???tr?? x???o quy???t nh???m chia r??? th??? gi???i c???ng s???n???.[23] Kh??ng nh???ng ch??? tr??ch hi???p ?????c n??y, b??o ch?? mi???n B???c c??n t??ng c?????ng t???n c??ng v??o ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i Nam T?????.[24] M???t b??i b??o tr??n t??? H???c T???p s??? ra th??ng 7 ???? k??u g???i m???i ng?????i c???ng s???n ph???i m???nh m??? ?????u tranh ch???ng l???i ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i???. B??i b??o c??ng th???ng th???n ph???n ?????i c??c t?? t?????ng t??? b??? s??? d???ng b???o l???c v?? gi??nh ?????c l???p d??n t???c b???ng con ???????ng h??a b??nh.[25]

Th??ng 8 n??m 1963, ???c??c ph???n t??? th??n Trung Qu???c??? trong n???i b??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng ng??y c??ng t??? r?? th??? c??ng k??ch. Trong m???t b???n b??o c??o d??i, s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c k???t lu???n ???c??c ph???n t??? th??n Li??n X????? trong ?????ng Lao ?????ng ???? b??? c?? l???p m???t c??ch c?? h??? th???ng.[26] ??i???u n??y ???????c ?????c bi???t ??p d???ng v???i V?? Nguy??n Gi??p, th???m ch?? theo m???t v??i ngu???n tin, ??ng c??n ph???i ch???u qu???n th??c t???i gia t??? kho???ng gi???a n??m 1963.[27] S??? qu??n ????ng ?????c c??ng ph??ng vi??n Pommerening c???a ADN c??ng ????? c???p ?????n m???t tin ?????n lan truy???n trong n???i b??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng r???ng th?? k?? ri??ng c???a Ph???m V??n ?????ng b??? b???t gi??? v?? ???? chuy???n c??c th??ng tin m???t cho s??? qu??n Li??n X?? v?? vi???c c???u Ngo???i tr?????ng Ung V??n Khi??m s??? s???m m???t gh??? trong ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng. Nh???ng ngu???n tin t????ng t??? c??ng ????? c???p ?????n vi???c L?? Du???n bu???c H??? Ch?? Minh ph???i l???a ch???n ???ho???c theo B??? Ch??nh tr??? ho???c ?????ng ngo??i???.[28] Theo ??ng Bibow, ?????i bi???n c???a ?????i s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c, c??i g???i l?? ???thuy???t hai sai l???m??? ???? ???????c lan truy???n m???nh m??? trong n???i b??? ?????ng vi??n ?????ng Lao ?????ng. Theo thuy???t n??y, H??? Ch?? Minh ???? ph???m ph???i hai sai l???m ch???t ng?????i. N??m 1945, ??ng ???? th???a hi???p v???i Ph??p, ????? ng?????i Ph??p tr??? l???i ????ng D????ng. N??m 1954, t???i h???i ngh??? Gi??-ne-v??, ??ng l???i m???t l???n n???a th???a hi???p, bu???c ?????t n?????c l??m v??o c???nh chia c???t, chuy???n giao mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam cho M???.[29] Trong khi thuy???t n??y m???t ph???n n??o ???? c?? v??? kh?? tin v?? c?????ng ??i???u th?? L?? Du???n v?? ???c??c th??nh ph???n ??i theo ???????ng l???i c???ng r???n??? l???i s??? d???ng n?? l??m c??ng c??? truy???n b?? ti???n d???ng nh???m l??n ??n t???t c??? c??c chi???n l?????c mang t??nh ch???t ph??ng th??? v???i ph????ng T??y nh?? l?? m???t s??? t??? b??? c??ch m???ng, ?????ng th???i lo???i b??? b???t c??? n??? l???c n??o nh???m gi??nh ?????c l???p b???ng con ???????ng ????m ph??n ho???c b???ng c??ch v?????t qua mi???n Nam v??? kinh t???. B??n c???nh l??m suy y???u uy t??n c???a H??? Ch?? Minh, thuy???t n??y c??n nh???m v??o nh???ng ???c???ng s??? th??n c???n nh???t??? c???a ??ng trong su???t cu???c kh??ng chi???n ch???ng Ph??p, nh???ng ng?????i gi??? ????y ??a ph???n ?????u ph???n ?????i vi???c x??ch l???i g???n Trung Qu???c.

Nh???ng ?????ng vi??n l??o th??nh nh?? D????ng B???ch Mai, B??i C??ng Tr???ng hay V?? ????nh Hu???nh, v???n gi??? quan ??i???m r???ng v???n c??n nhi???u con ???????ng kh??c ????? gi??nh ?????c l???p d??n t???c ch??? kh??ng ch??? c?? b???o l???c c??ch m???ng, gi??? ng??y c??ng ph???i lui v??o th??? ph??ng th??? v?? ?????ng tr?????c nguy c?? b??? t??? c??o l?? nh???ng k??? theo t?? t?????ng ch??? b???i.[30]

Ng??y 2 th??ng 9 n??m 1963, m???t b??i b??o c?? ch??? ????ch c???a L?? ?????c Th??? ???????c ????ng tr??n b??o Nh??n D??n, c?? quan ng??n lu???n c???a ?????ng.[31] Trong ????, ??ng l???p lu???n r???ng to??n b??? ?????ng vi??n ph???i ?????ng l??ng nh???t tr?? ??i theo ???????ng l???i c???a ?????ng. ??ng cho r???ng, nh??n chung, c??c c??n b???, ?????ng vi??n ?????u gi??? m???t l???p tr?????ng v???ng ch???c v??? m???t ?? th???c h???. Tuy nhi??n, ???? c?? m???t s??? ?????ng vi??n b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i ???t?? t?????ng h???u khuynh??? v?? ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i???, t??? ???? c?? nh???ng ho??i nghi v??? chi???n l?????c c???a ?????ng trong c??ng cu???c t??i th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c. Nh???ng ?????i t?????ng ???l???m ???????ng l???c l???i??? n??y c??ng ph???n ?????i ti???n ????? chi???n d???ch t???p th??? h??a trong n??ng nghi???p, ?????ng th???i truy???n b?? m?? h??nh h???p t??c kinh t??? qu???c t??? thay v?? n???n kinh t??? t??? cung t??? c???p m?? ban l??nh ?????o ?????ng ??u ??i ??? mi???n B???c. Theo L?? ?????c Th???, trong n???i b??? ?????ng ??ang t???n t???i m???t s??? ?????ng vi??n thi???u t??nh k??? lu???t, tuy??n truy???n nh???ng quan ??i???m kh??ng ph?? h???p v???i c??c ngh??? quy???t c???a ?????ng l??m h???y ho???i s???c m???nh v?? t??nh th???ng nh???t c???a ?????ng. ??ng c??ng nh???n m???nh r???ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng ph???i ki??n quy???t ch???ng l???i ???nh h?????ng c???a c??c khuynh h?????ng phi v?? s???n, t?? t?????ng h???u khuynh, ch??? ngh??a t??? do v?? ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i trong n???i b??? ?????ng vi??n v?? ????? xu???t r???ng nh???ng ?????ng vi??n kh??ng theo ????ng ???????ng l???i c???a ?????ng c???n ph???i ch???u s??? ph?? b??nh, gi??o d???c, ho???c ch???u thi h??nh k??? lu???t th??ch ????ng t??y thu???c v??o m???c ????? ph?? ho???i ?????i v???i nh???ng c??ng t??c c???a ?????ng v?? s??? nghi???p c??ch m???ng.[32] Nh???ng l???i l??? c???a ng?????i gi??m s??t v??? t?? t?????ng c???a ?????ng v?? c??ng l?? c???ng s??? th??n thi???t c???a L?? Du???n n??y d?????ng nh?? ???? d???y l??n m???t ??i???m b??o kh??ng m???y t???t ?????p.

???? c??ng l?? c??ch nh??n nh???n c???a s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c, B??? Ngo???i giao ??? Berlin v?? nh?? b??o Th??ng t???n x?? ?????c Pommerening. H??? c??ng k???t lu???n r???ng b??i b??o c???a L?? ?????c Th??? ???? t???o n??n m???t ???cu???c c??ng k??ch m??? v??o nh???ng ?????ng ch?? chia s??? l???p tr?????ng th??n Li??n X?????.[33] N?? m???t l???n n???a ph???n ??nh t??nh tr???ng c??ng th???ng leo thang gi???a nh???ng b?? ph??i kh??c nhau trong n???i b??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng, ?????ng th???i c??ng l?? m???t b?????c c?? b???n chu???n b??? v??? t?? t?????ng cho h???i ngh??? ti???p theo c???a ???y ban Trung ????ng v?? cho c??? m???t chi???n d???ch ch???nh hu???n ch???ng ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i v?? nh???ng th??nh ph???n x??t l???i??? v???n ???? t???n t???i trong m???t th???i gian d??i.

C??ng th???i ??i???m ????, ???c??c th??? l???c gi??o ??i???u th??n Trung Qu???c??? ???? m??? ra m???t m???t tr???n th??? hai tr??n l??nh v???c v??n ch????ng v?? kh???i ?????ng cu???c c??ng k??ch tr???c di???n c???a h??? v??o ???nh???ng ???nh h?????ng t?? s???n??? l??n gi???i v??n ??? ngh??? s?? ??? Vi???t Nam DCCH.[34]Tr??n s??? ra th??ng 8 c???a t??? H???c T???p ??? di???n ????n t?? t?????ng c???a ?????ng ??? H???ng Ch????ng ???? ch??a ng??i b??t v??o ti???u thuy???t ???V??o ?????i??? c???a nh?? v??n H?? Minh Tu???n. ??ng k???t t???i t??c gi??? l?? ??i theo ch??? ngh??a ???bi quan???, ch??? t???p trung mi??u t??? m???ng ???m ?????m, ??en t???i c???a x?? h???i mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam, ch??? nh???o nguy??n t???c c???a n???n chuy??n ch??nh v?? s???n v?? c??? v?? l???i s???ng h?????ng l???c. H???ng Ch????ng c??ng cho r???ng H?? Minh Tu???n ???? kh??ng theo ????ng khu??n m???u b???t bu???c c???a ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a m?? thay v??o ???? l???i ch???u ???nh h?????ng n???ng n??? t??? t?? t?????ng c???a giai c???p ?????a ch??? v?? t?? s???n ph???n ?????ng.[35]

Tr??i ng?????c v???i nh???ng b??i vi???t kh??c ???????c ????ng tr??n t??? H???c T???p sau ???? v??o n??m 1964, b??i b??o n??y c???a H???ng Ch????ng l???i kh??ng li??n h??? nh???ng khuy???t ??i???m c???a H?? Minh Tu???n v???i ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i. M???c d?? v???y, k???t lu???n m???nh m??? c???a ??ng ???? ph???n ??nh ???????c t??nh h??nh c??ng th???ng d??ng cao trong n???i b??? VNDCCH: kh??ng ch??? c??c th??nh ph???n c???a t???ng l???p s??? h???u ru???ng ?????t c?? ch??a ???????c c???i t???o, m?? nh??n d??n thu???c t???ng l???p lao ?????ng, th???m ch?? nhi???u ?????ng vi??n c??ng b??? ????????u ?????c??? b???i ???l???i suy ngh?? t?? s???n???.[36]

Trong m???t cu???c g???p g??? v???i t??y vi??n v??n h??a CHDC ?????c Klaus Matzke v??o th??ng 8 n??m 1963, c??c c??n b??? c???p cao c???a B??? V??n h??a Vi???t Nam ???? tr??nh b??y t??? m??? v??? ngu???n g???c c???a ???nh???ng ???nh h?????ng t?? s???n??? l??n gi???i v??n ngh??? s?? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam. Khi ???????c h???i b???i Matzke l?? li???u r???ng Th??i Lan hay Mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam l?? n??i b???t ngu???n c???a ???l???i suy ngh?? t?? s???n nguy hi???m n??y???, h??? ???? l???c ?????u v?? n??i v???i v??? kh??ch ????ng ?????c ??ang kinh ng???c r???ng Li??n X?? m???i l?? ch??nh l?? th??? ph???m ch??nh v?? r???ng trong t????ng lai vi???c nh???p kh???u phim ???nh hay v??n ch????ng X?? Vi???t s??? b??? h???n ch???.[37]

Th??ng 9 n??m 1963, th??ng t??n vi??n ????ng ?????c Pommerening ???? t?????ng thu???t v??? b???u kh??ng kh?? s??? h??i m???i ??? th??? ???? H?? N???i: m???t c??n b??? l??m vi???c trong m???t nh?? xu???t b???n nh?? n?????c m?? ??ng g???p ???? tr??ch l???i c???a m???t th??nh vi??n trong b??? m??y an ninh nh?? n?????c c???a Vi???t Nam DCCH, ng?????i ???? n??i v??? v???n ????? ????? cao c???nh gi??c r???ng: v???i s??? gi??p s???c c???a nh??n d??n, ch??ng ta s??? t??m ra nh???ng nh??n v???t cu???i c??ng ???l??m vi???c??? cho Li??n X??. [38] M???t minh ch???ng c??? th??? h??n n???a l?? khi Pommerening tr??ch l???i m???t cu???c tr?? chuy???n k??? l??? v???i D????ng B???ch Mai v?? T??n Th???t T??ng, gi??m ?????c B???nh vi???n Vi???t ?????c t???i H?? N???i: khi ????? c???p ?????n ch??? ????? bia, ??ng T??ng ?????t nhi??n l??n gi???ng: ???V??ng, bia c???a ?????c r???t ngon, nh??ng ch??nh s??ch c???a c??c b???n l???i r???t t???i???.[39] R?? r??ng, ngay ?????n m???t ng?????i nh?? T??n Th???t T??ng v???n n???i ti???ng l?? ???m???t ng?????i b???n th??n thi???t c???a ????ng ?????c???, c??ng bu???c ph???i th??? hi???n ???th??i ????? ????ng ?????n??? c???a m??nh n??i c??ng c???ng. S??? giao ti???p, li??n l???c gi???a ng?????i Vi???t Nam v???i ng?????i n?????c ngo??i c??ng b??? h???n ch???. N???u kh??ng c?? s??? cho ph??p c???a ch??nh quy???n, ph???n l???n ng?????i d??n Vi???t Nam kh??ng ???????c ?????n th??m c??c c?? quan, ?????i s??? qu??n n?????c ngo??i vv???[40]

Trong khi ho??n to??n c??ng nh???n r???ng t??nh h??nh ch??nh tr??? ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam ??ang tr??? n??n c??ng th???ng h??n, v?? r???ng c??c th??nh ph???n ???th??n Trung Qu???c??? ??ang chi???m th??? th?????ng phong, th?? c??c nh?? ngo???i giao ????ng ?????c v???n tin r???ng nh???ng l???c l?????ng ???ng h??? ???ch??? ngh??a M??c- L??nin ch??n ch??nh??? v???n chi???m gi??? nh???ng v??? tr?? quan tr???ng trong ?????ng Lao ?????ng. S??? qu??n ????ng ?????c v???n bi???t r?? s???c m???nh c???a c??c phe ph??i kh??c nhau trong n???i b??? ?????ng nh??? v??o ngu???n th??ng tin m???t t??? D????ng B???ch Mai v??? nh???ng ng?????i v???n c??ng ??ng c??? tuy???t ???????ng l???i ???th??n Trung Qu???c??? m???i.[41]

Danh s??ch bao g???m 19 ng?????i. M???t s??? nh??n v???t trong ???? sau n??y tr??? th??nh nh???ng ng?????i tr???c ti???p ho???c gi??n ti???p c?? li??n quan t???i ???v??? ??n x??t l???i ??? ch???ng ?????ng???: Ung V??n Khi??m, B??? tr?????ng B??? N???i v???, nguy??n B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao; V?? ????nh Hu???nh, nguy??n l?? th?? k?? ri??ng c???a ch??? t???ch H??? Ch?? Minh v?? l?? V??? tr?????ng V??? L??? t??n B??? Ngo???i giao; B??i C??ng Tr???ng, ???y vi??n Trung ????ng ?????ng, Ph?? Ch??? nhi???m ???y ban Khoa h???c K??? thu???t Nh?? n?????c, Gi??m ?????c Vi???n Kinh t??? h???c; L?? Li??m, ???y vi??n Trung ????ng ?????ng, Th??? tr?????ng B??? V??n h??a, nguy??n Ch??nh ???y trong tr???n ??i???n Bi??n Ph???, v?? V?? Nguy??n Gi??p, B??? tr?????ng B??? Qu???c ph??ng.[42] ??i???u ????ng l??u ?? ??? ????y l?? danh s??ch l???i v???ng m???t Ho??ng Minh Ch??nh, ng?????i ????ng m???t vai tr?? quan tr???ng trong to??n b??? v??? ??n.

Trong th???i gian chu???n b??? cho h???i ngh??? trung ????ng s???p t???i, ?????ng Lao ?????ng ???? kh??ng ng???ng ?????y m???nh chi???n d???ch t?? t?????ng. Tr??n s??? ra th??ng 10 c???a t??? H???c T???p, ???y vi??n B??? Ch??nh tr??? Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh ???? xu???t b???n m???t b??i b??o t??? c??o tr???c ti???p nh???ng ???nh h?????ng c???a ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i??? trong n???i b??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng. ??ng nh???n m???nh r???ng h???u h???t c??c ?????ng vi??n ???? theo s??t ???????ng l???i c???a ?????ng, nh??ng v???n c??n m???t s??? ??t th??nh ph???n ???ng h??? t?? t?????ng ???h???u khuynh???. Nh???ng l???i t??? c??o c???a ??ng nh???m c??? th??? v??o nh???ng ?????ng vi??n ph???n ?????i m?? h??nh kinh t??? t??? cung t??? c???p ??? mi???n B???c v?? thay v??o ???? mong mu???n h???p t??c g???n g??i h??n v???i c??c n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a kh??c.[43] ??ng c??ng ?????c bi???t ph?? ph??n nh???ng ?????ng vi??n theo ???ch??? ngh??a c?? nh??n???, ???bi quan y???m th??????, c?? ???l???i s???ng h?????ng th?????? m?? thi???u ??i nh???ng hi???u bi???t s??u s???c v??? s??? c???n thi???t c???a ?????u tranh giai c???p ??? Vi???t Nam DCCH, nh???ng ng?????i s??? nh???ng hy sinh, gian kh??? m?? m???t cu???c ?????u tranh v?? trang nh???m t??i th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c ????i h???i. C??ng theo ??ng Thanh, nh???ng t?? t?????ng t?? s???n nh?? tr??n ?????u ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i???, ch??ng kh??ng ch??? c?? nh???ng t??c ?????ng x???u t???i x?? h???i mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam n??i chung, m?? c??n h???y ho???i tinh th???n chi???n ?????u c???a nh??n d??n. ??ng k???t lu???n r???ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng ph???i ki??n quy???t ?????u tranh ch???ng ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? v?? ???t?? t?????ng h???u khuynh??? trong n???i b???. ????? ????nh b???i nh???ng ???quan ??i???m sai tr??i???, ?????u tranh t?? t?????ng trong n???i b??? ?????ng c???n ph???i ???????c t??ng c?????ng, to??n b??? ?????ng vi??n n??n th???c hi???n ???ph?? v?? t??? ph?????.[44]

Ch???ng bao l??u sau, c?? h???i cho vi???c t??? ph?? b??nh v?? ph??i b??y c??c khuynh h?????ng ???x??t l???i??? trong n???i b??? ?????ng vi??n ???? xu???t hi???n. Cu???i n??m 1963, ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng t??? ch???c h???i ngh??? l???n th??? 9, m???t s??? ki???n c?? t???m quan tr???ng quy???t ?????nh. Ban ?????u, h???i ngh??? d??? ki???n t??? ch???c tr?????c ???? 2 th??ng. Nh??ng sau c??ng, h???i ngh??? ???? b???t ?????u v??o ng??y 22 th??ng 11 v?? k???t th??c v??o ?????u th??ng 1 n??m 1964 sau nhi???u l???n gi??n ??o???n.[45] H???i ngh??? ???? ????nh d???u m???t c???t m???c quan tr???ng trong qu?? tr??nh ti???n g???n h??n v???i B???c Kinh v?? ????a ?????n m???t cu???c tranh lu???n n???y l???a gi???a hai nh??m ???th??n Trung Qu???c??? v?? ???th??n Li??n X?????. Cu???i c??ng, nh??m do B?? th?? th??? nh???t L?? Du???n ?????ng ?????u ???? chi???m ??u th??? v?? tri???n khai ngay m???t chi???n d???ch ch???nh ?????n trong n???i b??? ?????ng nh???m ?????u tranh ch???ng l???i nh???ng ???nh h?????ng c???a ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i.[46]

Th??ng t??n vi??n Th??ng t???n x?? ?????c Pommerening cho r???ng h???i ngh??? ch??nh l?? m???t ???minh ch???ng r?? r??ng nh???t cho s??? b???t ?????ng trong n???i b??? ?????ng ???.[47] Kho???ng 50 c??n b??? ?????ng vi??n c???p trung ???? g???i th?? l??n ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng, y??u c???u ?????ng n??n gi??? v??? tr?? trung l???p gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? Li??n X??, kh??ng n??n ng??? v??? ph??a Trung Qu???c. Theo th??ng tin m?? s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c v?? Pommerening thu nh???n ???????c, nh???ng y??u c???u tr??n b???t ngu???n t??? c??c c??n b??? nh?? ?????ng Thai Mai, Ch??? t???ch H???i Li??n hi???p V??n h???c Ngh??? thu???t Vi???t Nam, T??? Quang B???u v?? B??i C??ng Tr???ng, hai Ph?? Ch??? nhi???m ???y ban Khoa h???c v?? C??ng ngh??? Nh?? n?????c, Ho??ng Minh Ch??nh, Vi???n tr?????ng Vi???n Tri???t h???c M??c- L??nin, nguy??n B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao Ung V??n Khi??m v?? m???t tr??? l?? ch??a r?? t??n c???a Ph???m V??n ?????ng.[48]

Trong b??i di???n v??n c???a m??nh t???i h???i ngh???, chuy??n gia kinh t??? B??i C??ng Tr???ng ???? gi???i th??ch r???ng t??nh h??nh kinh t??? Vi???t Nam DCCH l?? c???c k??? c??ng th???ng. ??ng ????? xu???t m???t m???i quan h??? h???p t??c ch???t ch??? h??n v???i Li??n X?? v?? b??c b??? quan ??i???m phi th???c t??? nh???m t???o l???p m?? h??nh kinh t??? t??? cung t??? c???p ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam. T??? Quang B???u c??ng c???nh b??o r???ng ??ng s??? t??? b??? m???i ch???c v??? c???a m??nh v?? l??m vi???c nh?? m???t gi???ng vi??n ?????i h???c b??nh th?????ng n???u l??nh ?????o ?????ng quy???t ?????nh nghi??ng h???n v??? ph??a Trung Qu???c v?? c???t ?????t quan h??? v???i Li??n X??. L?? Li??m v?? Ung V??n Khi??m d?????ng nh?? l?? nh???ng ng?????i ph???n ?????i th???ng th???n v?? gay g???t nh???t ???????ng l???i ???th??n Trung Qu???c??? m???i trong ???y ban Trung ????ng. Ung V??n Khi??m ???? ph??t bi???u trong ba gi??? li???n v?? L?? Li??m ???? n??i su???t b???n gi??? t???i h???i ngh???.[49]

H??? Ch?? Minh, ng?????i v???n lu??n ???ng h??? vi???c c??n b???ng m???i quan h??? v???i Trung Qu???c v?? Li??n X??, c??ng t???ng khuy???n kh??ch L?? Li??m ph??t bi???u ch???ng l???i chi???u h?????ng ???th??n Trung Qu???c???, th??? nh??ng khi h???i ngh??? bi???n th??nh m???t cu???c tranh c??i n???y l???a th?? ??ng l???i kh??ng l??n ti???ng ???ng h??? L?? Li??m. Li???u r???ng ???ch??? t???ch H??? Ch?? Minh c?? ph???i ???? ch???u s??? ??e d???a t??? ban l??nh ?????o m???i hay kh??ng??? [50] v???n ch??? l?? m???t s??? ph???ng ??o??n. Theo m???t ngu???n tin kh??c, H??? Ch?? Minh ???? nhi???u l???n c??? g???ng can thi???p v??o cu???c tranh lu???n nh??ng ?????u g???p ph???i s??? c???n tr??? t??? L?? ?????c Th???.[51] T??m l???i, r?? r??ng trong th???i k??? n??y m???t nh??m xoay quanh l??nh ?????o ?????ng L?? Du???n v?? ng?????i tr??? th??? th??n c???n nh???t c???a ??ng l?? L?? ?????c Th??? l?? nh???ng ng?????i ???? l??o l??i ???????ng l???i c???a ?????ng.

Th???t ????ng ti???c l?? kh??ng c?? b???t c??? m???t v??n b???n ghi ch??p n??o ghi l???i nh???ng tranh lu???n t???i h???i ngh???. Tuy nhi??n, hai t??i li???u quan tr???ng v???n c??n t???n t???i, m???t trong s??? ???? l?? ngh??? quy???t c???a H???i ngh??? b??n v??? b???i c???nh qu???c t???.[52] T??i li???u n??y ch??? ra m???t c??ch r?? r??ng r???ng v??o th???i ??i???m ????, v??? m???t t?? t?????ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng ???? ch??? y???u ??i theo ???????ng l???i ???th??n Trung Qu???c???. Ngh??? quy???t cho r???ng t?? t?????ng ???x??t l???i??? ???? ph???n b???i ch??? ngh??a M??c ??? L??nin, truy???n b?? ch??? tr????ng chung s???ng h??a b??nh thay v?? ???ng h??? ?????u tranh c??ch m???ng ch???ng ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c v?? ?????c l???p d??n t???c c???a ng?????i d??n c??c x??? thu???c ?????a v?? qu???c gia l??? thu???c.[53] T??i li???u c??ng qu??? quy???t r???ng ????????u tranh ch???ng ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c kh??ng  th??? t??ch r???i kh???i ?????u tranh ch???ng ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i v?? ch??? ngh??a c?? h???i h???u khuynh???.[54]

H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng l???n th??? 9 ???? ch??nh th???c x??c nh???n ?????u tranh v?? trang ????ng vai tr?? c???t y???u trong qu?? tr??nh c??ch m???ng. ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng ???? c??? g???ng h???n ch??? vi???c g???i qu??n chi???n ?????u t??? B???c v??o Nam nh??ng v???n quy???t ?????nh t??ng tr??? gi??p v??? v?? trang t??? mi???n B???c v?? ???ng h??? phong tr??o c??ch m???ng ??? mi???n Nam.

Ngh??? quy???t ???????c th??ng qua t???i h???i ngh??? c??ng ph???n ??nh nh???ng tranh c??i ch??a d???ng l???i trong n???i b??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng. ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng ch??? tr??ch nh???ng ?????ng vi??n ??i theo ???????ng l???i c???a ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i???.[55] ??????y ban nh???n th???y r???ng ch??nh nh???ng quan ??i???m ???? ???? khi???n c??c c??n b??? ?????ng vi??n kh??ng ???ng h??? c??c ph????ng ph??p nh???m x?? h???i h??a ??? Mi???n B???c c??ng nh?? c??c n??? l???c c???n thi???t ????? t??i th???ng nh???t hai mi???n???[56]v?? khuy???n ngh??? c???n ???theo ??u???i vi???c gi??o d???c m???t c??ch c?? h??? th???ng v??? ch??? ngh??a M??c ??? L??nin cho c??c c??n b??? ?????ng vi??n ????? h??? c?? th??? hi???u m???t c??ch ?????y ????? l???p tr?????ng c???a ?????ng???.[57]

Chi???n d???ch ch???ng ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i??? v?? ???c??c ph???n t??? x??t l???i??? trong n???i b??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng n??m 1964

V??o th??ng 1 n??m 1964, Bergold, ?????i s??? CHDC ?????c t???i B???c Vi???t Nam ???? vi???t m???t b???n b??o c??o t????ng ?????i t??ch c???c v??? k???t q???a c???a H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng l???n th??? 9. Theo ph??n t??ch c???a ??ng, c??c ph???n t??? ???th??n Trung Qu???c??? ???? ????nh gi?? qu?? cao ???nh h?????ng c???a h??? v?? v???n ch??a t??m c??ch ????? lo???i b??? c??c ?????i th??? c???a m??nh.[58] Th??ng t??n vi??n ????ng ?????c Pommerening c??ng ?????ng t??nh, chia s??? quan ??i???m n??y: ban ?????u, nh??m c???a L?? Du???n ???? l??n m???t k??? ho???ch thanh tr???ng v?? th???c hi???n vi???c chuy???n h?????ng ho??n to??n sang l???p tr?????ng ???th??n Trung Qu???c???, nh??ng ???? kh??ng l??m ???????c nh?? v???y.[59] B??? Ngo???i giao t???i Berlin ???? ca ng???i s??? ???kh??ng c??? d??ng c???m c???a c??c l???c l?????ng t??ch c???c??? trong su???t h???i ngh???, ??i???u bu???c nh??m L?? Du???n ph???i nh?????ng b???.[60] ?????ng th???i, B??? c??ng th???a nh???n r???ng ngh??? quy???t ???????c th??ng qua t???i H???i ngh??? c??ng l?? m???t b??? ph??ng ????? tri???n khai m???t chi???n d???ch ch???ng ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i v?? c?? l???p ???c??c l???c l?????ng M??cx??t ??? L??ninn??t??? trong n???i b??? ?????ng. B???n b??o c??o k???t lu???n r???ng CHDC ?????c n??n ti???p t???c ph??t tri???n m???i quan h??? hai chi???u nh???m ???h??? tr??? c??c l???c l?????ng ti???n b??? trong ?????ng Lao ?????ng v?? h???n ch??? nh???ng t??c ?????ng kh??ng t???t t??? b??? m??y l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c t???i ?????ng Lao ?????ng Vi???t Nam???.[61]

Tuy nhi??n, m???c ti??u ???? ng??y c??ng tr??? n??n kh?? kh??n. Ngay sau H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng 9, l??nh ?????o ?????ng Lao ?????ng ???? kh???i ?????ng m???t ???cu???c c??ng k??ch v??? t?? t?????ng nh???m ??e d???a l???c l?????ng M??cx??t ??? L??ninn??t v?? ????n ??p s??? kh??ng c??? c???a h??????.[62]L???i ch??nh l?? L?? ?????c Th???, ng?????i ?????ng ?????u Ban T??? ch???c Trung ????ng ?????ng, ???? gia t??ng s???c ??p t?? t?????ng l??n nh???ng th??nh ph???n ?????i l???p trong n???i b??? ?????ng. Trong m???t lo???t b??i tr??n b??o Nh??n D??n, ??ng ???? tuy??n b??? m???t chi???n d???ch ch???nh hu???n ?????ng.[63] ??ng cho r???ng trong khi Vi???t Nam DCCH ??ang ph???i ?????i m???t v???i nh???ng nhi???m v??? kh?? kh??n trong x??y d???ng ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i l???n ?????u tranh t??i th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c th?? tinh th???n t??? gi??c tu??n theo k??? lu???t ?????ng l?? th???c s??? c???n thi???t ??? t???t c??? c??c ?????ng vi??n. L?? ?????c Th??? ???? t???n c??ng nh???ng ?????ng vi??n b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? v?? ???l???i suy ngh?? t?? s???n???. ??ng ch??? tr??ch h??? c?? t?? t?????ng ???bi quan???, thi???u c???nh gi??c c??ch m???ng v?? kh??ng hi???u ????ng nguy??n t???c c???a chuy??n ch??nh v?? s???n, c?? xu h?????ng qu?? ph??? thu???c v??o c??c ngu???n vi???n tr??? n?????c ngo??i thay v?? ???ng h??? quan ??i???m m?? h??nh kinh t??? t??? cung t??? c???p, v?? gi??? th??i ????? th??? ??, kh??ng ?? th???c ???????c tr??ch nhi???m c???a b???n th??n trong cu???c ?????u tranh t??i th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c. ???? l?? nh???ng l?? l??? m?? L?? ?????c Th??? v?? nh???ng nh??n v???t kh??c nh?? Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh ???? t???ng s??? d???ng tr?????c ????, th??? nh??ng gi???ng ??i???u c???a b??i b??o n??y th???m ch?? c??n m???nh m??? h??n nhi???u, cho th???y s??? c?? nh???ng bi???n ph??p c??? th??? nh???m ch???ng l???i ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? v?? ???khuynh h?????ng h???u khuynh??? trong n???i b??? ?????ng. Tuy nhi??n, quan tr???ng nh???t, L?? ?????c Th??? ???? tr???c ti???p kh???ng ?????nh s??? t???n t???i c???a m???t nh??m nh??? trong ?????ng Lao ?????ng ???? kh??ng theo ????ng ???????ng l???i c???a ?????ng. Tuy kh??ng ????? c???p ?????n t??n tu???i c??? th??? nh??ng r?? r??ng ??ng ???? nh???m t???i nh???ng ?????ng vi??n nh??: B??i C??ng Tr???ng, D????ng B???ch Mai, Ho??ng Minh Ch??nh, L?? Li??m, Ung V??n Khi??m v?? nh???ng nh??n v???t kh??c v???n ???? l??n ti???ng ph???n ?????i L?? Du???n v?? b?? ph??i c???a m??nh trong H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng 9.

Theo L?? ?????c Th???, ???m???t s??? c??n b???, ?????ng vi??n ???? t??? t??ch r???i t??? ch???c ?????ng. Li??n quan t???i c??c ch??nh s??ch v?? ???????ng l???i c???a ?????ng, h??? ???? kh??ng tr???c ti???p b??y t??? ?? ki???n t???i c??c h???i ngh???, nh??ng sau khi c??c h???i ngh??? k???t th??c, h??? l???i t??? t???p th??nh c??c nh??m nh??? v?? ph??t bi???u theo h?????ng ph???n ?????i ngh??? quy???t ???? ???????c th??ng qua???.[64] ??ng c??ng b??? sung r???ng ???nh???ng h??nh ?????ng b?? ph??i, chia r??? ph???i ???????c ng??n ch???n c??ng s???m c??ng t???t???.[65]

L?? ?????c Th??? ???? ra m???t th??ng b??o y??u c???u to??n th??? c??n b???, ?????ng vi??n ph???i tham gia l???p h???c ????? h???c t???p v?? ch???nh hu???n theo c??c ngh??? quy???t ???? ???????c th??ng qua t???i H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng l???n th??? 9 v?? tri???n khai c??ng t??c t??? ph?? b??nh.[66] C??? s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c v?? th??ng t??n vi??n Th??ng t???n x?? ?????c Pommerening ?????u ???????c th??ng b??o v??? n???i dung c???a c??c kh??a h???c ch???nh hu???n n??y. S??? qu??n ?????c th???m ch?? c??n t??m c??ch ????? gi??? ???????c m???t b???n sao ????? c????ng kh??a h???c m???c d?? ?????ng Lao ?????ng ???? ph??n lo???i t??i li???u n??y v??o m???c tuy???t m???t, ?????ng th???i nghi??m c???m t???t c??? c??c c??n b??? ?????ng vi??n ti???t l??? v???i ng?????i kh??c v??? n???i dung kh??a h???c.[67] Theo ????? c????ng kh??a h???c n??y, t???t c??? ?????ng vi??n ph???i ???th???m nhu???n??? c??c ngh??? quy???t c???a H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng l???n th??? 9 ????? hi???u m???t c??ch to??n di???n ??i???m kh??c nhau gi???a ???????ng l???i ch??nh tr??? theo ???ch??? ngh??a M??c- L??nin ch??n ch??nh??? v?? ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i??? li??n quan ?????n b???i c???nh qu???c t??? v?? chi???n l?????c c??ch m???ng trong n?????c. Cu???i kh??a h???c, t???t c??? ?????ng vi??n ?????u ph???i n???p m???t b???n thu ho???ch c?? nh??n vi???t tay v?? gi???i th??ch t???t c??? nh???ng g?? ???? h???c ???????c.

S??? qu??n ????ng ?????c cho r???ng chi???n d???ch h???c t???p, ch???nh hu???n ???? g???t ra l??? nh???ng ph???n t??? ???ch???ng ?????i??? trong n???i b??? ?????ng Lao ?????ng. Th??ng 5 n??m 1964, Bibow, b?? th?? th??? 2 (s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c) ????  tuy??n b??? r???ng m???t s??? ????????ng ch?? ???? ph??t bi???u th???ng th???n t???i H???i ngh??? Trung ????ng 9 ???? ?????t nhi??n bi???n m???t???.[68] ??ng b??o c??o r???ng c??c nh?? ch??nh tr??? h??ng ?????u nh?? Ung V??n Khi??m hay T??? Quang B???u v???n ???? l??n ti???ng ph?? ph??n t?? t?????ng ch???ng Li??n X?? c???a phe L?? Du???n r???t hi???m khi ???????c xu???t hi???n c??ng khai.

??????.

Du h???c sinh Vi???t Nam t???i CHDC ?????c v?? chi???n d???ch ch???ng ???ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i hi???n ?????i???

K???t lu???n

T??i li???u tham kh???o

Xem to??n b??? n???i dung v??n b???n t???i ????y: Chu nghia xet lai o Viet Nam DCCH.pdf


[1] T??i li???u n??y l?? m???t ph???n n???m trong m???t m???t d??? ??n nghi??n c???u l???n h??n v???  ???nh???ng di???n bi???n trong n?????c c???a Vi???t Nam DCCH li??n quan t???i quan h??? v???i CHDC ?????c: B???t ?????ng ch??nh ki???n ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam???. T??i mu???n g???i l???i c???m ??n t???i ng?????i c???ng s??? c???a m??nh, Heinz Schutte, ??? Paris, v?? ???? chia s??? v???i t??i m???t s??? ngu???n t??i li???u l??u tr???.

[2] SAMPO, BArch, DC 900/54, AND- Auslandsstelle Hanoi, Betrifft: Information ??ber die vietnamesische Haltung zu Albanien, H?? N???i, th??ng 12 n??m 1961.

[3] Nh?? tr??n, 2.

[4] C??c t??i li???u li??n quan ???????c gi??? t???i C???c l??u tr??? Li??n bang (Bundesarchiv: http://www.bundesarchiv.de/index.html?lang ?? en) v?? kho l??u tr??? c???a B??? Ngo???i giao (Politisches Archiv: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/www/en/infoservice/politik/ index_html), c??? hai ?????u n???m t???i Berlin, ?????c.

[5] Nghi??n c???u t???t nh???t hi???n c?? l?? Stowe, ???Revisionnisme au Vietnam???. Heng, ???Of the State, for the State, Yet Against the State??? c??ng mang ?????n nh???ng c??i nh??n to??n di???n v??? v??? ??n v?? nh???ng t??c ?????ng c???a n?? l??n Vi???t Nam DCCH. T??i mu???n c???m ??n t??c gi??? ???? cung c???p b???n lu???n v??n ch??a ???????c xu???t b???n. Hai trong s??? nh???ng t??? truy???n ???????c tr??ch d???n nhi???u nh???t l?? T??? t?? t??? x??? l?? n???i b??? c???a Tr???n Th?? v?? ????m gi???a ban ng??y c???a V?? Th?? Hi??n. C??ng xem th??m B??i T??n v???i Theo ch??n H??? Ch?? Minh v?? Duiker, H??? Ch?? Minh: A Life, 534-539, Brocheux H??? Ch?? Minh,245-246 v?? Boudarel v?? Nguy???n V??n K?? H?? N???i 1936-1996, 144-148.

[6] V??? b???i c???nh t?? t?????ng trong n?????c xem Heng ???Of the State, for the State, Yet Against the State??? , 117-120.

[7] V??? nh???ng di???n bi???n trong m???i quan h??? Vi???t Nam- Li??n X?? ?????u nh???ng n??m 1960 ?????c Gaiduk, Confronting Vietnam  181-204

[8] Smyser, The Independent Vietnamese, 61.

[9] MfAA/A 8705, 179???180, 1. AEA, 23 th??ng 2 1963, Schneidewind, Information u??ber die Haltung der PWV anla????lich der Besuche einer Delegation des Obersten Sowjets der UdSSR und des Pra??sidenten der CSSR, Genossen A. Novotny in der DRV.

[10] SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, 2, ADN Hanoi, Zum VI. Parteitag der SED, 21 th??ng 2 n??m 1963, Pommerening.

[11] SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, Situation nach Politbu??roerkla??rung, th??ng 3 n??m 1963, Pommerening. C??ng tham kh???o th??m Smyser, The Independent Vietnamese, 61???63.

[12] ????? xu???t c???a D????ng B???ch Mai t???i Qu???c h???i nh???m ho??n vi???c thay th??? Ung V??n Khi??m cho t???i th??ng 9 n??m 1963 ???? b??? b??c b???. Xem SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, 1, AND Hanoi, Zum Besuch von Liou Chao chi, Pommerening, 28 th??ng 5 n??m 1963.

[13] SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, 1, Informationsbericht des ADN-Korrespondenten in Hanoi, 24 Th??ng 4 n??m 1963.

[14] MfAA/A 8705, 68, 1. AEA, 3 May 1963, Information u??ber die Auswertung des VI. Parteitages der SED in der DRV, Schneidewind.

[15] MfAA/G-A 324, 2, Botschaft der DDR Hanoi, 28 May 1963, Bibow, Einscha??tzung des Besuches der chinesischen Partei- und Regierungsdelegation unter der Leitung des Pra??sidenten der VR China Liu Schao Tschi und des stellv. Ministerpra??sidenten Tschen-Yu, vom 10. bis 15.05.1963 in der DRV.

[16]Xem Nh?? tr??n., 8???9, SAPMO, BArch, DY 30/IVA2/20/441, ADN Hanoi, Gemeinsame Erkla??rung des Pra??sidenten HCM und des Pra??sidenten Liou Chao Chi, 16 May 1963, MfAA/A 8749, 8???9, 1. AEA, Entwurf, Ein???u??nahme der KP Chinas auf die Partei der Wertkta??tigen Vietnams, Berlin, 4 June 1963. V??? b???n ph??n t??ch chuy???n th??m c???a L??u Thi???u K??? xem Smyser, The Independent Vietnamese, 63???65, v?? Qiang Zhai, China and the Vietnam Wars 1950???1975, 124.

[17] Xem SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, 1, ADN Hanoi, Zum Besuch von Liou Chao chi, Pommerening, 28 th??ng 5 n??m 1963, 4.

[18]Ti???n Phong, 19 th??ng 6 n??m 1963, tr??ch trong Smyser,The Independent Vietnamese, 65.

[19] MfAA/A 8749, 10.

[20] MfAA/G-A 324, 20, Botschaft der DDR Hanoi, Mehlig, 17 June 1963, Aktenvermerk u??ber ein Gespra??ch mit den Botschaftern der Sowjetunion, der CSSR und Ungarn anla????lich eines Filmabends der Botschaft am 14.6.1963 von 21.30 ??? 02.00 Uhr.

[21] Nh?? tr??n, 20.

[22] SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/296, 3, ADN Auslandsstelle Hanoi/Vietnam, Pommerening, 24 June 1963.

[23] Smyser, The Independent Vietnamese, 66. v??? b???n ph??n t??ch v??? l???p tr?????ng c???a Vi???t Nam xem: SAPMO,BArch, DC 900/54, 1, Zur politischen Situation in der DRV, 31 August 1963, Pommerening, V?? SAPMO, BArch, DY 30/IV A2/20/441, 1. AEA, Sektion Vietnam, 21 th??ng 8 n??m 1963, Strauss, Die Haltung der DRV zum Abkommen u??ber teilweisen Kernteststopp.

[24] Xem MfAA/A 8705, 198???206, Botschaft der DDR, Guhl, Bericht u??ber die Berichterstattung der Presse der DRV zu den Meinungsverschiedenheiten zwischen der internationalen kommunistischen Arbeiterbewegung und der KP Chinas sowie den damit zusammenha??ngenden Problemen, 7 th??ng 8 n??m 1963.

[25] T??n ph???n b???i Ti-T?? l???i phun ra n???c ?????c c???a ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i??? (The Traitor Tito again Spreads the Poison of Revisionism), Hoc Tap, no. 7 (July 1963): 9???17. V??? b???n ph??n t??ch xem t???i  MfAA/G-A 324, 31, Botschaft der DDR Hanoi, Bibow, 19 th??ng 8 n??m 1963. Einscha??tzung der derzeitigen Haltung der Partei werktatigen Vietnams in den ideologish- politischen Meinungs-verschiedenheiten.

[26] Nh?? tr??n, MfAA/G-A 324, 28???44.

[27] Vi???c ??ng Gi??p b??? qu???n th??c t???i gia ???????c ????? c???p l???n ?????u ti??n b???i ?????i s??? Li??n X?? v??o th??ng 6 n??m 1963. MfAA/G-A 324, 19. ????? c?? nhi???u ngu???n th??ng tin h??n xem MfAA/G-A 324, 32, SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, 2, Zur politischen Situation in der DRV, 31 August 1963, Pommerening.

[28] Xem MfAA/G-A 324, 32-33, and SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, 2, Zur politischen Situation in der DRV, 31 th??ng 8 n??m 1963, Pommerening.

[29] MfAA/G-A 324, 37???38, and MfAA/A G-A 331, 61???62, 1. AEA, Information u??ber die derzeitige Haltung der Partei der Werkta??tigen Vietnams (PWV) zu den ideologischpolitischen Meinungsverschiedenheiten, 11 October 1963, Lo??bel, Sektionsleiter.

[30]Xem MfAA/A G-A 331, 61. V??? cu???c tranh lu???n gi???a nh???ng ?????ng vi??n l??o th??nh ???th??n Li??n X????? nh?? ???? ???????c ????? c???p ??? tr??n v?? ???th??? h??? m???i??? c???a L?? Du???n v?? L?? ?????c Th???, xem V?? Th?? Hi??n, ????m gi???a ban ng??y, 225???226.

[31] L?? ?????c Th???, ???Ph??t huy truy???n th???ng c??ch m???ng???, trang 2, 4.

[32] Nh?? tr??n, 2.

[33] SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, 1???2, ADN Au??enstelle Hanoi/Vietnam, Zur politischen Situation in der DRV, Pommerening, 18 September 1963. C??ng xem t???: MfAA/A G-A 331, 56???57, and MfAA/G-A 326, 45, 71???72, Botschaft der DDR Hanoi, Einscha??tzung der Haltung der Fu??hrung der PWV und der Regierung der DRV zu den ideologischen Meinungsverschiedenheiten in der internationalen kommunistischen Arbeiterbewegung sowie zu innen- und au??enpolitischen Problemen, 14 November 1963, Bibow, 2. Sekr.

[34] Xem Heng, ???Of the State, for the State, Yet Against the State???,126???135.

[35] H???ng Ch????ng, ??????? l?? v???n ????? t?? t?????ng ho???c l?? v???n ????? ngh??? thu???t????, trang 50. ????? c?? nhi???u chi ti???t c??? th??? h??n v??? v??? H?? Minh Tu???n, ?????c Tr???n Th??, T??? t?? t??? x??? l?? n???i b??? (h???i k??), trang 120???124, v?? Heng, ???Of the State, for the State, Yet Against the State???, trang 131???132. ????? bi???t m???t nghi??n c???u c?? nhi???u th??ng  tin m???i v??? chi???n d???ch ch???ng l???i H?? Minh Tu???n v?? nh???ng nh?? v??n kh??c mang t?? t?????ng ???x??t l???i??? ???????c xu???t b???n trong th???i gian ?????u ???th???i k??? ?????i m???i???, xem Mai Ng???, ???V??? m???t th???i k??? ???? qua???, trang 106???107. C??ng xem th??m b???n b??o c??o c???a t??y vi??n v??n h??a ????ng ?????c trong  MfAA/A 8701, Botschaft DDR Hanoi, 3 th??ng 8 n??m 1963, Mehlig, 115???123. Bericht u??ber den 3. Schriftstellerkongre?? der DRV (10.???12.1.1963) und einige Fragen der Entwicklung der vietnamesischen Literatur.

[36] H???ng Ch????ng, ??????? l?? v???n ????? t?? t?????ng ho???c l?? v???n ????? ngh??? thu???tt????, trang 50.

[37] SAPMO, BArch, DY 30/ IV 2/907/100, 1, Botschaft der DDR, 7 September 1963, Matzke Aktenvermerk Nr. 117/63, Vermerk u??ber eine gegenseitige Information im Min. fu??r Kulturder DRV, 23 th??ng 8 n??m 1963.

[38] SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, 2, ADN Au??enstelle Hanoi/Vietnam, Zur politischen Situation in der DRV, Pommerening, 18 th??ng 9 n??m 1963.

[39] Xem V?? Th?? Hi??n, ????m gi???a ban ng??y, trang 260???261, tr?????c H???i ngh??? l???n th??? 9, T??n Th???t T??ng ???? vi???t m???t l?? th?? cho ???y ban Trung ????ng v?? c???nh b??o ?????ng v??? vi???c q??a theo s??t ???????ng l???i ???th??n Trung Qu???c???. T??n Th???t T??ng l?? m???t nh??n v???t n??ng c???t, c?? v??? tr?? quan tr???ng trong l??nh v???c h???p t??c y h???c v???i ????ng ?????c.

[40] SAPMO, BArch, DC 900/54, 2, ADN Au??enstelle Hanoi/Vietnam, Zur politischen Situation in der DRV, Pommerening, 18 September 1963. ????? c?? nh???ng v?? d??? c??? th??? h??n, ?????c b???n b??o c??o c???a HansIsrael, gi???ng vi??n ng?????i ?????c t???i H?? N???i n??m 1963, 1964: SAPMO, BArch, DR 3, 1. Schicht, 2843,Berichte u??ber die Lektorenta??tigkeit in der VR China und in der DRV, Hans Israel, Hanoi/Vietnam an das Staatssekretariat fu??r das Hoch- und Fachschulwesen, Sektor Sozialistisches Ausland, Hanoi, 15 October 1963, 3; and Hans Israel, Leipzig, an das Staatssekretariat fu??r das Hoch- und Fachschulwesen, Bericht u??ber meine Ta??tigkeit in Vietnam im Studienjahr 1962/63, 6.

[41] MfAA/G-A 326, 15.

[42] V??? nh???ng th??ng tin l?? l???ch c???a c??c nh??n v???t n??y , xem ph??? l???c ti???u s??? trong Ho Chi Minh c???a Quinn-Judge, trang 308???345. Th?? v??? h??n, cu???n T??? ??i???n c??c nh??n v???t l???ch s??? Vi???t Nam ???????c xu???t b???n t???i Vi???t Nam c??ng bao g???m l?? l???ch ng???n g???n c???a B??i C??ng Tr???ng, D????ng B???ch Mai v?? Ung V??n Khi??m nh??ng g???n nh?? kh??ng c?? m???t chi ti???t n??o v??? giai ??o???n ???nh???y c???m??? sau n??m 1954 n??y ???????c ????? c???p. Xem  Nguy???n Q. Th???ng v?? Nguy???n B?? Th???, T??? ??i???n nh??n v???t l???ch s??? Vi???t Nam, 95???96, 1101???1102,v?? 1358???1359.

[43] Nguy???n Ch?? Thanh, ???N??ng cao l???p tr?????ng, t?? t?????ng v?? s???n???, 6-7.

[44] Nh?? tr??n, 12.

[45] MfAA/G-A 324, 060, Botschaft der DDR Hanoi, Bergold, Information Nr. 2 u??ber das Novemberplenum der PWV und die Entwicklung innerhalb der Partei (Nach Informationen

aus Gespra??chen mit Botschaftern und vietnamesischen Genossen), 15 th??ng 1 n??m 1964.

[46] V??? b???n ph??n t??ch c???a H???i ngh??? l???n 9, xem Smyser, The Independent Vietnamese, trang67-70, Duiker, Ho Chi Minh: A Life, trang 534???538, Boudarel & Nguy???n V??n K??, Hanoi1936???1996, 144???146, Boudarel, Cent Fleurs Ecloses dans la Nui du Vietnam, 256???259. ????? xem d???ng h???i k??, ?????c V?? Th?? Hi??n, ????m gi???a ban ng??y, trang 273???275.

[47] MfAA/A 8749, 065, Informationsbericht des ADN-Korrespondenten in Hanoi, Information u??ber das 9. Plenum des ZK der PWV, Eingang 1. AEA, th??ng 1 (?)n??m 1964.

[48] ?????c MfAA/A 8749, 065, MfAA/G-A 324, 060-61, MfAA/G-A 324, 0126, Botschaft der DDR Hanoi, 10 December 1963, Vermerk vom 10.12.1963 u??ber das Novemberplenum der PWV und die Entwicklung innerhalb der Partei. Duong Bach Mai l?? ng?????i cung c???p tin t???c ch??nh.

[49] MfAA/G-A 324, 126.

[50] Xem Duiker, Ho Chi Minh. A Life, trang  537, v?? nh???ng nh??n v???t xu???t hi???n trong ???????m gi???a ban ng??y??? c???a V?? Th?? Hi??n, trang 359???360.

[51] Xem ??? Vi???t cho m??? v?? qu???c h???i???, Nguyen Van Tran, trang 326-328, v?? Brocheux, Ho Chi Minh, trang 246.

[52]T??i li???u thu ???????c b???i qu??n ?????i M??? ??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam n??m 1967. ?????c The Central Committee 9th Plenum Resolution Discussing the International Situation, th??ng12 n??m 1963, VVA, Record 104141 (Item Number: 2320109006).

[53] Nh?? tr??n, 36. V??? b???n ph??n t??ch ngh??? quy???t ?????c  Smyser, The Independent Vietnamese, trang 68???69.

[54] Xem ngh??? quy???t, trang 39.

[55] Xem ngh??? quy???t , 47- 49.

[56]Smyser, The Independent Vietnamese, 69.

[57] Xem ngh??? quy???t, trang 59.

[58] MfAA/G-A 324, 061???064. Trong m???t h???i ngh??? t???i ?????i s??? qu??n Li??n X?? v??o th??ng 1 n??m 1964, ?????i s??? Li??n X?? ???? t??n th??nh b???n ph??n t??ch c???a ng?????i ?????ng nghi???p  ????ng ?????c, ?????c MfAA/G-A 324, 070, Botschaft der DDR Hanoi, Bergold, 15 th??ng 1 n??m  1964, Aktenvermerk u??ber Aussprachen des Genossen Bergold mit dem sowjetischen Botschafter in der DRV, Gen. Tovmassian [Tovmasyan], am 11 January 1964 in der sowjetischen Botschaft.

[59] MfAA/A 8749, 065.

[60] SAPMO, BArch, DY 30/IV A2/20/439, 1???2, 1. AEA, Sektion Vietnam, 13 February 1964, Schneidewind, Jahresplan fu??r die Entwicklung der Beziehungen zwischen der DDR und der DRV im Jahre 1964

[61] SAPMO, BArch, DY 30/IV A2/20/439, 2.

[62] MfAA/G-A 324, 073, Botschaft der DDR Hanoi, Bibow, Einscha??tzung der Entwicklung der politischen Situation in der DRV nach dem 9. Plenum des ZK der PWV im Dez. 1963/Januar 1964, 27 May 1964.

[63] L?? ?????c Th???, ???T??ng C?????ng m???t tr???n t?? t?????ng ????? c???ng c??? ?????ng???, 2. Bibow, b?? th?? th??? 2 c???a ?????i s??? qu??n ????ng ?????c t???i H?? N???i ???? nh???n m???nh ?? ngh??a quy???t ?????nh c???a lo???t b??i n??y. ?????c b??i ph??n t??ch c???a ??ng t???i  MfAA/G-A 324, 073???074. ?????c th??m Latimer, Hanoi???s Leaders and the Policies of War, 20, VVA, ghi ch??p 69694 (tin m???c s???: 0720118002), v?? Smyser, The Independent Vietnamese, trang 72, c?? tr??ch d???n t??? m???t b??i b??o t????ng t??? c???a L?? ?????c Th??? ???????c xu???t b???n tr??n s??? b??o th??ng 3 t???p ch?? Tuy??n Hu???n.

[64] L?? ?????c Th???, ??? T??ng c?????ng???, 5/ 2/1964, trang 2.

[65] Nh?? tr??n, 2.

[66] Chi ti??t v??? l???p h???c ch???nh hu???n, xem MfAA/G-A 324, 073, v?? ?????c bi???t MfAA/A8749, 089???090, Abschrift, Informationsbericht des ADN-Korrespondenten. in HN u??ber eine ideologische Kampagne der Partei der Werkta??tigen Vietnams, Pommerening, Eingang Abt. Information, 23 th??ng 4 n??m 1964.

[67] MfAA/A 8725, 074???076, Botschaft Hanoi, Studium der Resolution des IX. Plenums des Zentralkomitees der Partei der Werkta??tigen Vietnams u??ber die internationalen Probleme, 27 April 1964, Bibow. C??ng xem t??? MfAA/A 8749, 089???090, Abschrift, Informationsbericht des ADN-K. in HN u??ber eine ideologische Kampagne der Partei der Werkta??tigen Vietnams, Eingang Abt. Information, 23 April 1964, and MfAA/G-A 324, 073???075. V??? s?? y???u l?? l???ch c???a nh???ng th??nh ph???n tham gia kh??a h???c ch???nh hu???n v?? kh??ng kh?? c??ng th???ng t???i H?? N???i, ?????c V?? Th?? Hi??n, ????m gi???a ban ng??y, trang 129???132, v?? L?? Xu??n T???, H???i ???c v??? cu???c kh???ng b??? ch???ng ch??? ngh??a x??t l???i ??? Vi???t Nam???, 288.

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